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QUELLEN UND FORSCHUNGEN

AUS DEM GEBIETE DER GESCHICHTE


XXIV. BAND

LUDWIG MOHLER

KARDINAL BESSARION
,
ALS

THEOLOGE, HUMANIST UND STAATSMANN

FUNDE UND
FORSCHUNGEN

1II.
IU. BAND

AUS BESSARIONS GELEHRTENKREIS

NEUDRUCK DER AUSGABE PADERBORN 1942

1967

SCIENTIA
SC IENTIA VERLAG AALEN

FERDINAND SCHONINGH
SCHNINGH PADERBORN

AUS BESSARIONS
GELEHRTENKREIS
G ELEHRTENKREIS
ABHANDLUNGEN, REDEN.
REDEN, BRIEFE
ABHANDLUNGEN.
VON

BESSARION, THEODORQS GAZES,


MICHAEL APOSTOLIOS,
APOSTOLlOS, ANDRONIKOS KALLISTOS,

GEORGIOS TRAPEZUNTIOS, NICCOLD


NICCOLO PEROTTI,
CCOL
NICCOL CAPRANICA

HERAUSGEGEBEN
HERAU5GI!GEBEN
VON

L. MOHLER

NEUDRUCK DER A USGABE PADERBORN 1942

1967

SCIENTIA VERLAG AALEN


FERDINAND SCHONINGH
SCHNINGH PADERBO
PADERB

Li~nuusgabe
Li~nuusgaJ:,,

m!!
mit fm.ndlicher
fm.ndlimer Gendtmigung
Gendmigung der
<!er

Verbgsbu,hhand!ung
Verhgsbu,hhand!ung Ferdinand &hningh,
&hningh, Padetbom
Paktbom
TiteInummer 2OY03393
2}/3393
Titelnummer
Gesamtherseellung: fotokop,
GesamthersceIl\lng:
fo., Reprograliseher
Reprogafscher Betrieb GmbH
Hilperuene
HIperncraBe 8, Dmnstade
Dmnsadc
PRINTED IN
GERMANY

VORWORT.
Mjt vor1iegendem
Mit
vorliegendem Band gebe ich eine Reihe
ReiIle der versclUedenartigsten
verschiedenartigsten
Schriften aus Bessarions GeIehrtenkreis
Gelehrtenkreis hcraus.
heraus. Zlll1chst
ZlU1achst jst es
Bessarion selber, der hier mit mehreren Abhandlungen als Theologe,
Philologe und Humanist Geltung beansprucht. Die ibrigen
brigen sind durchweg Persnlichkeiten,
Persnlichkeiten, die in
n der Geistesgeschichte ihrer Zeit eine
Rolle
gespielt haben. So
50 vor allem
allern Theodoros Gazes, der als
a1s Philologe
und aristotelisierender Philosoph des XV. ]ahrhunderts
Jahrhunderts ein Mann von

selbstii.ndigem
selbstndigem Denken gewesen ist
jst und nach dieser Hinsicht im
damaligen lta1ien
Italien kaum seinesgleichen gehabt hat. Die philosophischen
Schriften, die ich von
ihm hier vorlege, sind bisher in
der Hauptsache
nur
dem Titel nach bekannt
bckannt gewesen, ein
Umstand, der in
mehrfachen
iber diesen Gelehrten 2'U hchst
hOclst unzutreffenden Urteilen geArbeiten ber
fiihrt
fhrt hat.
Gazes' Reden, die
d er als Profes5Or
Professor an der Umversitit
Universitt Ferrara
interessanten Einblick
Einblck in den Studienbetrieb
geha1ten
gehalten hat, geben einen
$je durften, wenn seine
se.ne Geltung erfaJ3t
erlat werden soll,
5011, hier
seiner Zeit. Sie
ebensowenig fehlen, wie die kleine Nachscbrift
Nachschrift eines seiner Katheder
vortrige, der ihn
uns bei seinen VorJesungen
HJ3 In
Gazes'
vortrge,
Vorlesungen sehen lt.
Gares'
schftsteesches Arbeiten ragen ein
paar andere Schriften von

schriftstellerisches
Mi chae l A
postoli os und Androni kos Kalli stos. die mit
nit eben50viel
ebensoviel
Verst1indnis
MiBverstindnis nach Humanistenart einen hellen
Verstndnis wie Miverstndnis
seiner Reise zuriickkom
zurckkom
Streit vom Zaun brachen, bis Bessarion, von
mend. selber Einhalt
EnhaJt gebot. Auch hierber
Neriiher ist allerlei in
literargeschicht.
lterargeschicht.
gescheben worden, ohne da
daJ3 die fraglichen Inlichen Darstellungen geschrieben
zuginglch waren. Ein
Antipode zu Gazes ist Georgios
vektiven selber zugnglich
Trapez untios, ein Streber, der in
jiingeren
jngeren Jahren von
Bessarion
gefrdert. spater
spter jedoch wegen seines
se.nes Halbwissens und seiner nicht
gefrdert.
einwandfreien Lebensfhrung
Lebensfiih.rung bei dem Kardinal verlernt
verfemt war. Die hier
erstmals verffentlichte
vertIffentlichte umfagreiche
gehssigen
umfangreiche Invektive zeigt ihn als geha.ssigen
Gazes, aber auch als verbissenen Auenseiter
Auenseiter gegenber
gegeniber
Gegner von
Bessarion und seinem Kreis, zu dem er ursptiinglich
ursprnglich h.atte
hatte zii.hlen
zhlen diirfen.
drfen.
Die Schrift des Niccolb Perotti, die sich hier seiner
sener Invektive an
schIieBt. trifft ihn fast zwei Jahrzehnte spater
spter in einer anderen Sa.che,
Sache,
schliet.
nimlich
Kampf gegen Bessarions In
Ca1umniatorem
Calumniatorem Platorus. Auch
nmlich im
sie zeigt
zgt Trapezuntios als einen wenig zuverlssigen
zuver]assigen Menschen. geradeso
wie einige Briefe aus dieser Zeit seine
se.n trben
trben Machensch.aften
Machenschaften ans Tages-licht stellen.

VI

VORWORT.

Im
ln Unterschied zu
d.iesen
diesen literarischen Stcken
Sttcken handelt es sich bei
den weiter angereihten Reden Bessarions
BessarioDs um Ergebnisse
Ergebnsse seiner
staatsm.innischen
Tatigke.t als
a1s apostolischer Legat in
Deutschland. Ich
staatsm..nnischen Ttigkeit
wei,
weB, da8
da sie eigentlich nicht in
den hier gespannten Rahmen gehren,
gehren,
aber sie sind wichtig zur
Vervollstndigung
Verollstii.ndigung des Bildes, das wir uns von
Bessarions uberragender
berragender Persnlichkeit
PerSnlichkeit und umfassender Ttigkeit
Titigkeit zu

machen haben. Auch


machenhaben.
Auchde
die Trauerred(",
Traueed(", die NiccoJbCapranica bei BessarionsLeichenbegngnis gehalten
rionsLeichenbegangnis
geha1ten hat,
, gehrt
gehrt aus diesem Grunde hierher.
Schlielich die Brjefe.
Schl.ieBlich
Briefe. Es war einmal
einma1 notwendig, alle
a11e erreichbaren
Briefe Bessariom.
Bessarion~ . gedluckte und ungedruckte.
einem Korpus zu
verull8cdruckte. in
llieJ3t
met a1les
alles Mgliche
giche zusammen: Privatbriefe, bald pereinigen. Hier
snlichen,
Snlichen, bald literarischen und philosophischen Inhalts,
Inha1ts, auch amtliche
Schriftstticke und Berichte. Sie bilden einen wichtigen Beitrag in
erster
Schriftstcke
linic
I.lnie zur
Lebensgeschichte Bessarions und weiter zur Zeitgeschichte.
Zeitgeschchte.
Ich wnsche,
winsche, da
daB andere Forscher noch mebr von
ibnen
ihnen zutage frdern.
fOrdern.
Weitere Briefe reihen sicb an, hauptsichlich
hauptschlich von
Gazes, dann
aber auch
von
anderen, die in
geIehrten
gelehrten Fragen mit dem Hwnanistenkardlnal
Hurnanistenkardinal in

Beziehung gestanden h.aben.


haben.
Die
De Hauptmasse des hier veroffentlichten
verffentlichten Schriftturru; war bisher
ungedruckt. Einige Stcke,
Stficke, die bereits gedruckt
ged.ruckt zuganglich
zugnglich waren, eferforderten eine neue Bearbeitung nach den Handschriften. Da.s
Das gilt besonders von
den vorgelegten Briefen, unter die ich der VolIst1indigkeit
Vollstndigkeit
halber
einwadfrei herausgegebcnc
herausgegebene aufnehmen
ha1bcr auch einzelne bereits einwandfrei
mute. Gesammelt
muJ3te.
Gesamm.elt habe ich das Material auf wnfangreichen
umfangreichen BibliotheksBibliothek!;reisen, zum Teil schon im Zusammenhang mit der Vorarbeit fr
r den
1.
. Band, anderes erst in
d<,n
d<ln letzten ]ahren.
Jahren. Den Vorstnden
Vorstiind.en und Beamten der na.mhaft
namhaft gemachten Bibliotheken spreche ich an dieser
deser Stelle
fr
{.r Auskiinfte
Ausknfte und Mithilfe meinen besonderen Dank aus. Meinen Dank
auch S. E.
. Herrn KardinaJ
Kardinal F. Ehrle (t 1934), der mir
mr im We1tkrieg
Weltkrieg
:I914:94- IS
8 zahlreiche
za.h.lreiche Photographien von
Handschriften der Vaticana und
Ambrosiana besorgte, und neuerdings den Herren Msgre Dr. Stoeckl
AmbrOIiiana
Stoeckle,
e,
Rektor des Deutschen Campo santo in
Rom und Dr. J. Marx, Scriptor
am Vatikanischen Archiv, die mir mit
m.t Ausknften
Auskinften und Beschaffung
von
on H
Hss-Photographien
ss-Photographien aus italienischen
ita1iel1ischen Bibliotheken mit grter
grJ3ter Bereitwilligkeit geholfen haben, als mir unter den gegenwirtigen
gegenwrtigen VerhltVerha.t
nissen Bibliotheksreisen nicht
ncht mehr moglich
mglich gewesen sind. Ein weber
weher
Punkt bei so1chen
solchen Verffentlichungen
Verffel1tlichungen sind jederzeit die DruckkOIiten.
Druckkosten.
Namhafte Beitrage
Narohafte
Beitrge dazu gewabrte
gewhrte u.a. in hochherziger
hochherzigerWese
Weise die Freiburger Wissenschaftliche GeseJlschaft.
Gesellschaft. Ich spreche hierfiir
hierfr meinen tiefgefhlten Dank aus. Im
geftihlten
1 ilbrigen
brigen wurde die DruckIegungdurch ein anderes
eintrglicheres
eintr1iglicheres literarisches
Iitera.risches Untemehmen
Unternehmen meinerseits
meinersets gewhrleistet.
gew1ihrleistet.
In
einer
ener liebenswrdigen
liebensw.rdigen Besprechung des I.
. Bandes (Byz.
(. Zschr.
XXIX.
. 67)
67") hat Seba s tian Me:rkle gesagt.
gesagt, es wre
wire zu wUnscben
wnschen ge-

VII

VORWORT.

wesen, da
! die Quellenbnde
Quellenba.nde dem darstellenden Bande vorangegangen
chtg; aber dann wa.rc
wre ich jetzt erst mit einer Darwren. Das ist richtig;
waren.
gekomnen, was aus begreiflichen Grnden
Griinden fr
r mich zu
spt
spat
stellung gekommen,
gewoden wre.
wue. - Aus dem vorliegenden
vorlegenden Band hitte
htte sich auch eine
geworden
ganzeReihe vonBanden
vonBnden schaffen lassen, wenn ich jeweils Obersetzungen
bersetzungen
und weiter ausholende Einfiihrungen
Einfhrungen beigegeben hitte.
htte. Sicher ware
wre
frchte aber, da
! ich dann zu keinem
kenem Ende gesolches erwiinscht.
erwnscht. Ich frchte
soiches
iclt gentigt,
gentgt, die Herausgabe weiterer
kommen wre.
berdies war ich
ware. Oberdies
denen ich nur Bessarions ]ugenschriften
jugenschriften oder die kleine
Stiicke, von
Stcke,
Rhodos (vgl. Bd. I.
126, n. 6) nennen
will,
Schrift des Andreas von
auf
aU eine spii.tere
sptere Gelegenheit zurckzustellen.
zuri.ckzustellen.
Ich fge
ffige dem Band eine Reihe von
Nachtriigen
Nachtrgen und Berichtigungen
friheren Banden
Laufe der Jahre
bei mir
r angeBnden bei, die sich im
zu den frheren
sammelt haben. F\ir
Fr manche Bereicherung bin ich anderen Dank schulsch
dg, in besondererWeise einem franzsischen
franzsischen Gelehrten, HerrnM.
HenM. Vi1ler,
Viller,
dig,
Professor am Pont. Institutum Orientalium Studiorum
Studorum in
Rom, der mir
wertvolle Einzelheiten
Einze1heiten zur VerfUgung
Verfgung stellte. - Unter den Nachtrgen
Nachtriigen
Bessarions
findet sich zu I 361 ff. eine Darlegung der Textgeschichte von
In
Calumniatorem Platorus, die wesentlich von meiner ursprnglichen
urspriinglchen
AUfassung abweicht und schon in
der Einleitung zu
dem Text des
Auffassung
II.
. Band begriindet
begrndet ist. An sich
s.ich bedarf ja wohl die nderung
nderung
Werkes im
friiheren Ansicht keiner anderen Rechtfertigung als die erneute
eneute
einer frheren
Darlegung der magebenden
maBgebenden wissenschaftlichen Voraussetzungen.
Voaussetzungen. Auf
AU
einem Rezensenten des TI.
. Bandes deswegen geuerte
geau13erte Verwundie von
derung
denng wn
run sei bemerkt, da
daD die in
Frage kommenden Codices Marciani,
ich erstmals i. J. 1914 einsah, mir erst mehrere Jahre nach dem
die
Weltkrieg wieder zur Verfiigung
daB deren Bearbeitung
Verfgung standen, und da
erst nach Herausgabe des I.
. Bandes mglich
mglich war.
Freiburg i.
. Br.,
., im Frhjahr
Frihjahr 1941.
L. Mohler.

INHALT.

~~

I.
.
2.
3.
4.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8.
9.
10.
11 .

. .
Bu.arionis
B .. a.arioni s De
D~ s.cramento
s.cranenro E~
Eu~
Be.a.rioni.
lI]ud
., .. I,: Sie
51.. eum
vo]o ma.nere, quid
qud a.d te
.. 1
Be
... rion" In
Iilud Evan,elii:
turn volo
Ben.rion's
Bes r io ni s Libellu.:
Lbellu.: Qu.od Natllta
NatIIta COl15ulto &pt

88

. . .
Be
., .... rionl.
. De
Oe .".
Nat".,. et. Arte
.. . . . . . . . .
Bunflo
Be.a.rionia
tti. AdVet'$U8
AdveT$uS Pietbonell1
Pietbonen De
Oe Substa.nm
Theodori
Tb.eodor Gaue
Garae Advers
Adversu.
... Plethooem
Plethouem ptO
pro Amtot
$to""
..l.. De
Oe Sut>.tantia
sutanm
Mi
Ni c haelis
haela Apostolii
ApostoIi Ad Theodori Cazae
pro Ariltotel
Aritotel.. De
Oe Substantia
5ubtanta Ad
vera
vers .....& PlethOl1elD.
Plethow Obiectiooes.
Obie::tiones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Androllici
AIdroIIici Ca
C.. llisti
IIisti DeJemio
DeJeuio Tllcodori
Tlcodo Gaza.eAdvenu5 Joficbad'IIUI
Joficbad'I! ApodoliulD
lilD
Theodori Gar,.
Theodorl
Ga~&<!
.. AntiO'hetico1l.
Antinhetico
.
Theodori
Tbeod ori Cau.e
Car&e De
Oe Fato
.
Theodortli Gaue
Theodo
Gar ... Solutione5
Solutone5
.

Theodorl
Theod orl
Theodori
The odor
odorii
Theodori
beodori

Caza
Caz& ..
G.n .. ,
Caza,
Gaue
Caza ..
Gane
Cazae

9J

14.
14'

!51
1051 ,

159
I5Q
170

2042J(I
23

247

'"
'"
'"
""
264

Theodori
Tb,e odo ri Caz
C a z ... Oratlon
Oratloo ...

12.
13.
14.
1.5.
15.

7.

Otatio d
de.. Litteris
Littes Grau
Graecis .
Oe Rectoratu Euch&ristic&
De
Euch&rtic. Oratio
Ontio .

10
l .m,,,,, Rectoratn.
111 DeponBDdo
Depondo l.wgne
Rectotns Onr.tlo
Ontlo
In
Recto,..,m
Recto.... :a Novum Onr.tio
Onto . . , . . .

23

264

16. Theodori
Theod ori Gaue
Gaza e Praefa.tio in
ir lloanne
oannem ChrysostoIDUID
Chrysostomum Ad AlpbonsluP
lpbonsulD Recem
Ree . 269
17. Georgii
Georgi T
rapuuntii
. Adveraus 'IbeodoTum
'IbeodorulD Gaum
Ga:r&m in
Petven.ionelIl
Peveraone Probt
ProbI ...
lnatum
naI Aristotw. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 274
2'74
18. Nicolai
NicoI.i Pe
Perotti
r o tti Rdutatio
Refutatio DeliramBl1torulll
Deliranentoum Georg:ii
Geog:ii Trape~uutii
Trape~uot
. 343
Busadoniss Ca.-dioali.
BelIarioui
CardiuaIi. Apostolicae
Aposto1icae Sedi8
Sedi Legati Ontionu
l .
.
.

376
. 377

19. Benarion;.
Be ri o n is On.tio
On.to b&bita
babita in
ir Conventu
Cooventu NurmbgeoI
Nurimbetgeaa .. . . . .
20. Bnu.Tioni.
II. Repli<;a.tio
Repli;a.tio Iod
ad Respoosionem
Rosponsione Lega.torum
Legatonm G-ennaniae
Genania..
.
21.
2 ]. B
Beu.ado
rloui
n; . Eorum,
:Eorun, q
qae
.....e post pm:r;m.m
pm:r;mmm MIU
Bu Replica.tiouem
Replica.tonen ae<:uta
ec lunt.
l un\.
brevs
bTevis et
:t lut:cincta
luccincta Naa.tio
Narn.tio . .
.... . .... .
........
ioll.;.
IoDi Or.tio
r.o b&bita
babita pm fine
> et
:t so[utione
lI01utiooe Coovent
Convent u.
u! Viellnenas
Vi"nnenIs
..
22. Be ....
23. Epistola
:I. Legator
Legatorum
u m omnium
nniutD Germaniae
Gernanjae Principum
P1'incipum ad
a.d Be5sa.rioDcm
Be5sa.ocm ApoItolic&e
lic.e Sed;'
Sedi Legatum . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .
.
24. Bettafionil
l. ResPOOIIo
Responso ad
Iod eoedetn
eoden Legatos
Lepto . . . . . . .
Ni co Iai Epileopi
Episcopi Firrn.ui
Finn a.ni Olatio
latio in
Funue
F\!! B
I"onJ
..iools
25. N;cola.i
Be
na
.
fi o i.
l. Epi.t
, olae
.,

..

4. Ti+>
+> "YJl.6qj
";,,6q -nj> ~
n~I"f"Wli",
I"f"WI",
:I.
:. Tij>
..~
6. :
~ -nj> Ul
~ ,\t\lij>
wvij>

399
399
401
401
403

...

4]3
41 3

I.
Aw .. t11''''P'''
tll''''P'''
. 'Aw
2. Tij>
..:n
et~ . .

3. T';;
.;; .)
A~ll

384

414
418

<22
."
4ZI
4

'"

'"

INHA LT.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

1lo'1""'l"'pOq.
'1""'1"' ...q. I1<mr.Tl"
I1<m .........
N,~ ...q. Xo:<>4
Xo:Ioj. .

Ilo.........,u.,
.........,u.,

.~X'<'.
,~X'<'.

Noou).
No~

...q. EI'tyn<>jJ
Eyn<..

M",b..,. MOl!
", 'I
o,1tq>
.; Iepo...,...oX.ow;
Mot..-bu..
.. ,1l4pq> .... t.;
...,...oX.ow;
BT
B....... (v
p.w 'I<.><hvn
h .Mmo:otpt
.Mmo:otp. T<j>
<j> ~
~pl<.;v Kop8,...o-;
B-ot(v
<8,&. K..,....,.,...m
K~..... xot~
n.w.~

. . .

Beo
Cardina.U. Capit"lo,
Capitulo, Can"oici.
Cano~ici . et CapeUaois
CapeUa~; . eccl
... iae Dllooecim
Dllodedm
Be ...rion
o Cardina.li.
eccl""ae

Apostolorum de Urbe . . .
. . . . .
449
1.5. B
..!.<, Patr;
15.
B ......
..;on CardinaliA
CadinaIiA Beat;"'i
BMMno
.,.; Eogenlo IV
. . . . . . . . .
4!iO
16. B''1arion
Bs on CardinaIis
CardinaliA Th,,~e
Tho~e de Sarzana
452
17. B
B.. ..-ion
rion CardinaIis
Cardinalia in
nOva'"
nOvan Metaphysicol"llm
Metaphysconm Ari.ioieI;.
Ad.toteli. Trans1atione:m.
Trans!ationem. ad
Alphonsum Regem.
AIph"nsllm
Rege:m. Pra.efatio
.. . .

18. IlTptIotpt..w
Bpt.ot... Kp&...o."
&'-">." rUIIFrl<t>
( ...q. r
r ...
.....m;.
19. c-y.o;;
r~",," 6
I><; B".,.....
rein
l" ..
"",
,..... pU,,"",
. . . . .
20. DTpo""fcDpn""f-. K<&.~
ey( ...q. .umj">
K..,.&.~ r""Prl<t>
rl~
21. c-y.o;;
r

.,u,1><;
.,,", O,l"o~
..... . . .
2\.
r~"" 6
B,I""~'"

."
.....
'"

22. IlTptIotpl<.;v
D.:ot(v ot&~
Kotp&~ '1"~..,
1lo'1"~~ ><otI
otI 'A~

KpIk~ N,xo)+,.,
23. Bpnpl..,..
O~oI..,.. ..&~
,,.. ...q. :&rxo.......atoc,>
ro.......t'C'
24. B
r
., arion
ari<>n Cardi
Cadit>.Ii
... lis. LaunntiQ
Laurenti V.iJen'"
V.llensi

2:1. Franciacu.
.. rion; Cardinali
Francac". Barbaru.
Barb&ru. BM
B""'ro
CardinaJ
26. B
: I .. ri"n
non Cardh"di.
Cadi_li. Fr.ncisco
Fr.ncsco Barbar"
Barbaro
ZT.
. Be7"arlon
no,'.rlon Cardinali.
CadinaJi. Francisco Barba.... .
28. Fn.nciacua
Fn.n<:acu. Barbarul
Barbar ... Deo
nes..ri",,;
riOD; Cardinali
CadinaJ
29. Bessarion
BessariOD CardinaH.
CadinaH . Fn.nciaeo
Fn.nci""", Foscari Dlld
Dllci Venetiarum
30. n.,-o.pc-. M,x.+,>.v
,.+,>. '~
'A~
31. ~ M.x."'<,N.>
,.,,",.> nocrro>.U>
'A~
32. Bij<ltlQptc.w
Bij<ltlQ..w M.x.ot+,N.>
,.+,.> ~
'A~
33. ~.. M,x:~ 'A~

34. O~
B~ M,x:~ 'A
'"
.. w ,o)...~
,o)(,~
3.5. n,.,a<JotpIc.nt
q'
35.
.< M,X~
M,x~ 'A"w,,,,
'A"w,..H
Hq'

',u<!.. K~'-">."
.. oii

36. B"ou"l'>w."
K~...o." "f1j>
~ c~
e.:~
3 7. B"!')O<fotf>tc.w
37.
B....-..>..w Kp&,...o."
<&,'-">." e.:...a.:'fKt>
c..Jt'f' .. . .
38. B
'arion
'2ro CardinaliI
Cardinali. Ludovico M.rchioni Mo.ntu
Mantu ...

39. Bessarion
Besoaron CardiDaliS
Cardi"a1s Fn.tri ]acobo dc Marchia
March ..
. . ,.,''.-on
...;00 Cardinali. Na.d"
Nardo Palmeri"
Palmerio
... .
41 . Bessarion
Bsa.ro Cardinali.
c-rgo Regi Bohemia.e
41.
CardinaU. c-rgio
Boberniae .
ulon Cardinali.
Aug.,. tae
42. B
"'
,,"""
Cadi_Ii. eon..,llhus
c.:...."Uhu. e t Communitati
Communita.ti etvitJ.t1a
CiVtJot1a A"8"".
43. B
... rion Cardi_li.
CardinaUs Nicol&o SagllDdino
'
Sagll"duo
44. :a...
:8es..
.. rion
ron Cardlnalis
Cardlnals Jacobo
ja.cobo Amm2_ti
Ammanati
45 . Be.Urion.
45.
Bo"ion. CardinaIis
Cardin.lis Pio
Il
r Pontijicl
Pontilici Mnim
o

46.
4. Beaoarion
neaoarion Cardinalil
CadnaJis Pio
II Pontifici
P ontifici M&ximo
M&xmo

47. Ileu,,!o"
E.,srIoD CardinaliA ]acobo
Jacobo Amm .... ti . . .
48. Br
'"erion
Cardlnali.
CadloaH . ]acobo
]a::obo Ammanati
Ammenati . .
49. ~ <&..&.;
~...o...; M,X+,>.v
,+,>. T<j>
<j> 'A,ooo
''LW.6ll
.6).:n
50. B"",,,,~
B,)O,OI~ K<&,~
Kp&,~ 'A~...q. KO!ll1a.ou
Ko1a.ou
.51
5 1.. P ....
.. .,.l
rion
On Cardiualis
Cardinalis Chriatophoro
Chri.tophor<> Mauro Duc.
DucI VCDetor"",
V CDetorurn
52. Benarion
BesHrion Cardinali8
Cardi .... li. Pio
11 Pontifici
Pontifcl Mnimo
Maximo
~. Bessa.rion Ca.di"aJis
Ca.diDalis Pio
Pontifici Maximo
11 Po"tifki
.54.
54. B

arion
", CardinaJis
Cardinalis Jacobo A_anati
A:nmanati .
~. B
..
. Canlinalis
Calh!.aJis ]acobo Amm .... ti . . .
' ' 'arion

..,
""

....

",,'

.70
'70
,

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58.
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60.
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50..
66.
67.
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68.
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U Pontific:i
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PM'
BM"rII
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C&d""l$
.... li$ Principi Christllp
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Mall..., . .
...
b;: Wo
w. Ib.&c;o>-&:.&"&- ...... ",,aa,. _:
n.u..wWSyou
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; ~~.;;
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ione Spiritlls
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'5
'!'OO
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s..ucti ad PauIum
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ProeMIIl
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B
....
rioll
er Soo"atui
&ooatui Yenetorum
Venetorum
..

C&rdinalis Cbriotopbo...,
Cbri.tobo..., Mauro Duci et
rion Cud
....ilio Ficino
B"
,,"" ";on
Cad inalis
; .. "ti. M
M"nitio
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iciuus P
..
. C&t"d.in.li
C&f"<1in"Ii
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Dop"
..... K..,.a.....u.,.
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I......... n -n;.
.. 'AyumU).
'~
..
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P .... ,.;OIl
riOIl ,'..ardina.lQ
.... Mna.q Ad PauI
Paul .. ", Pootif
Po"tficem
icem Maximum
Dtt Errore
EITore Paochat"
Pachati
8'onr;on
P... r;on C&rd'oali.
C&rdillal. lUuSlrilosimio
lIIu s trisimi. et IlIclyt"
In clyti ltau
It.II."
... Principib.u
P n cipbtl.
B

'rion
' Cardina!i.
Cadi"a!i . Chriatophoro
Chri8topboro Mauro
ro Venetorum
Venetrum Dtlc;
Duci
BeuU"ion
B MtArion Caroinali.
C.<1;_I. BNs,rlolli
BMserlOlli MomLCho "ett Abbati
Abbat
Pruuioll
B.r Card.inalis
Card.;nals CuiIIeImo
Gllillelmo F
Fichet
icheti
B"
B ' '''rion
..lnn Ca.rdina!i.
C:.roina!i. CnilleI..,o
GniIJehDo Fichsti
Fi chet
Fi:b.,t;
8 .... rion CardinaJ"
C.<1ne.$ Guillelmn
Gnille1mo Fieh.,ti
BE.Hio
Br 'S'rion
.. C&nlinalis
C&rdinals GuiUelmo
Gtli!1elmo Fichd
Fch~t i
B
B,,=ro
' s,vion
.. Cardin.a.lis
C.rdin.a.lis CuiIJeltno
Guilleltnn Fieh.ti
Hcl.t
Bss.rinni. C&roin.!j,
B".nonia
C&rdill8!is Ncae
Ni<:aeni .
BMurion
BM.. rion Carojno
Cardin d lis
is Guillelmo
Cuillelno l-"icheti
Jo' icheti
BF5sario"
B " "rio" Cardinal.is
Card.inal.i. C.loatio
G_loatio Mariae
M.n.." SfoTCiae
5forclae DooniDo
Dom"o MuI;"'"i
Med;o.,,;
p",oo"
Priobus et CoIDm"Di
Cmu,,; Ci ... itatiA Senenau.
Senenu.
P
.... rioR C&nliualis
C&nlioalis Prioribus
B

" " nioD


Cardi".lis
C.rdi".n. Fratribu.
Fratribus Domus
Domu. C&ritati$
C&tat$
Re3i
B .... rion Canlinalis
B""rion
C.nlinalia Ludov;eo
Ludov;::o Franeorum
Fran::orum R"3i
B
..
....
,,.;,,
rio" C&ro;na!i.
C&ro;nalis Duci Pritano;""
Pritanlliae . . . .
B,,,
BF5"rion
..io" C&rdin.lis
C&rdinals Sixto I V
Pon
Pontilici
l iIici Ma.ximo
B
P"nrion
.. nrion Cardinali.
C.roillali. FTatribus
Fatribus Domu. Ceritau.
Caritatie .
Dessarion C&rdin.lia
Bessarion
C&rdinoJi. Sixto
5; IV
Pont;!;c;
Pontifici Mu:imo
Ma.ximo

n",.aa..

.1&'
'1&'1

2. 8rl.lo'P"(
s~ 4'p"'.t><kncct>
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3 . ~ 'A~
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44.. g
&,.pc.;
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J<.q:&-..iM,
6.
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I<"",a....u..:,
7. 8
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P'H,OO
Goo' giu.
Jiu. Trape>!untius
rioni Caroi_1i
Cardinali
16.
16 . Nicola.u.
Nioolau. Perottus
Perott\t$ B.e"8rioQ!
,". C&rdill.1i
C&rdin.1i . .

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on
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. 8
a
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INHALT.

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Omuibonus
OaboD.us Leonice:Dsis
Leice: ... 8
BET"'oni
" " 'ioni CaroirIaU
Cadiali
FraneiOCUl
Fr&DG;ocus Philelphus
Philelphul Bmnrioni
Bnnoni CatdiD&li
Catdial
Fanciscu.

';ooi Cardioali
Cardioal
FAnd
...". Phildphu.
Phildphua B
Antornu.
"onIII PauornUta
Paooa JlessarioDi Card;nali
C&rd;nal .
JohaD.oea
lohao. ArgyropalOll
Argyropalo B
BE"on
E"lI'ioni Catdinali

!WI

...
'"
....'"

00'

Loci ScriptotulD
Scritotm
Vol\Ullinis
own. JI
:: B!75,rioll
! "ois I"
" Calulluuatou:m
Calumniato,. Platooi. Ubri Iv
IV .
VolumiDis HI
VoIulDiDis

611

Nomina
Nomn& Gruca . . . . . . .

617

Nomina Latin& . . . . . . .

622

""

Nam.e"regist~ ~ den
Naneoregiste
der deutacheD
d""tache Anmerkungen
Aumekuo8en

629
29

NachtAge
NachtrAge

.......

uod
Bcrichtiaung_ . . . . . . . .
uud Boriehtiaunl_

<43. B.,.,..'"'Pu",y
""".( Kcop&(o)."
Kc&.." NtltO~ .. iji
j l:.Jxouvlll
Jxonll.....
86. BeMarioo eardinaHs
eadinaHs N>caeuus
Nkaeous BoDcoliti
BocoIItl Sallitlllll
Sailltlllll
87. B

Can!inaU
Cardina!j .' Ncola.o
Card,nali Cu.....o
.non
NKoIa.o Cardi,nali
Cu......, .

632

.64'
64'

BESSARIONIS
S. R. E.
. Cardinalis. Constantinopolitani
Patriarchae
DE SACRAMENTO EUCHARISTlAE.

Die Handschriften des griechischen Textes wie der lateinischen


1.
bersetzung habe ich frher
frilhe schon namhaft gemacht
gemachtl.
Als weiterer
Vberset.zung
noch eine Ausgabe .zu
zu nennen: Argentorati.
lateinischer Druck ist nocb
Ex
aedibus Schurerii 15131.
1513'. Den griechiscben
griechischen Text verffentlichte
verffentlicbte
ich erstmals in der Festschrift -M.
-. Grabmann:
Grabma.nn: Geisteswelt
GeSteswelt des Mittelalters. Studien und Texte. Mnster
Minster i. W. 1933. S. 1373-14Il.
1373-1411. Ich
lege ibn
ihn hier nochmals vor mit mehrfacben
mehrfachen Verbesserungen
Verbesseungen nebst Bechtigungen, die sich aus emeuter
erneuter Vergleichung mit den Handschriften
richtigungen,
ergaben.
gebotener. griechischen Textes ist der Cod. Marc.
Mare.
Vorlage des hier gebotenen
gr. 527, foI.
l. 106 I42"
42" (= M),
), ein Sammelband, in dem
de Bessarion selber
seine Schriften in chronologischer
chronologSCher Reihenfolge vereinigt hatl.
hat'.
mehrere seiner
Der hier berlieferte
berliefefte Text ist eine Reinschrift,
Reinschrift. in der eine zweite Hand
(= M')
) .zuweilen
Verbessetungen vorgenommen und Nachtrige
2uweilen Verbesserungen
Nachtrge am
Rande gegeben hat. Auf
Grund von
Beobachtungen in anderen Handschriften Bessarions, wie Cod.
COO. Marc. gr. 199 und Cod. Vat. gr. I43.5.
435.
"':iJlute icb hierdes
Verfassersegene
Hand~ . Verglichen
Verglcben habeichdiesen
habe ich diesen
"llilllute
hier des Verfassers
eigene Hand'.
Text mit dem Cod. Vindobon. Theol. gr. 257. fol. 77-II9
77-9 (= B)
) und
dem Cod. C 136 der Bibliotheca Vallicel1ana
Vallicellana (= V)
) .. Hierbei ergab sich,
aus einer Vorlage stammt, die einzelne Verbesserungen von
vo MI,
,
daB B
da
aber nicht alle Nachtrge
Nachtrii.ge von
M'
' aufwies.
B
ist im
gan.zen
ganzen eine
sorgfiltige
sorgfltige Nachschrift, .zeigt
zeigt aber auch einige Lesefehler und Ausenthlt aber schon M
Flchtigkeiten.
Flichtigkeiten. V kommt, als
a1s
lassungen. Zuweilen enthilt
eine spitere
sptere Abschrift aus anderer
andereT Vorlage mit recht vielen WillkurWillkrVerdeTbnissen, fur
fr die Textgestalt nicht weiter
weter in Frage.
lichkeiten und Verderbnissen,
1 L. MohIer,
Mohler, Kardin.al
ardin.al Be"l
B"
a rion
ro I,
, Paderborn 1923,
'923, 243 n.
. I.
.
I Die
D Ang.be
ngabe toinQ
tonQ Drucw
Dn" v. J. J4/n
J41n bei S "c heebton_At2berg ...
.. r,, Handbuch der
Kl.th.
ath. DogDlati.k
Dognatk IV,
, Fteibu.rg
Fteibur"g i.. B.
. 1898, S . 610. IIC.heint
c.hent ein
en Venehtn zu leiD
e" .
darl.lber L. MohIe.
Vgl.
!. dartlber
Mohler a.
. a.
. O.
. I 52 P.
. J
Vgl.
!. B
B"Iario
.. "ar;o nis In
CaIumniatorem
Calumniatorem PJatoniI
Platooil libri
Jibri IV
ed. L. MohI
Mohlet
.. r (Pada-.
(Pade.
bom J927)
J027) .
p. VII.
.

Mabl
Mobl L\td1I>aI
L\td1al BI<
":I0I0.
elo . 111.
II.

",
MI'"
KuOU Boocpo

877
77

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1.

mt

Bessarlonls
Episcopi Tusculani,
Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalis, Constantinopolitar,i
Constantinopulitar,i
Patriarchae

Oe
De Saeramento Eucharlstfae
Eucharlltfae
et quibus verbis
erbis Christi corpus conficiatur.
Sacrum
Sacnm divinumque est euchaI'istiae
euchatistiae mysterium,
mysteum , per quod filii
li Dei t.
et haeredes
baeredes et cohaeredes
cobaeredes et eiusdem cum
cun Domino
Domno corporis efficimur,
curn digne eo participamus. Sed quaeri inter Christianos
cum
ChStianos solet, quibus
10 potissimum verbis intra
n solemnes mi.ssarum
missarum ritus
tus sacrosanctum
sacr05anctum Domini
corpus et sanguis conficiatur. Alii
A1i enim hoc facere alia existimantes,
eDstinantes,
Latini Ambrosium, Augustinum,
Augustinum , Gregorium a1iosque
aliosque doctores
suos secuti, eum
m doctrina, tum
turn vitae sanctitate paestantes,
pTaestantes, illa Domini
verba
erba id facere manifestissime asseverant: Hl
Hoc e5t corpus meum,
_m, et:
16
,
Hic est sanguis _S,
_s. vanamque prorsus sine iis
! esse orationem sacer
dotis opinantur. Graeci vero,
VeTO, praesertim recentiores, eum
Iaco
Iacobo
bo
fratre
tratre Domini, Basilio et Chrysostomo sentientes, singularis
singulaS exempli
et sanctimoniae viris,
s, non illis Sa1vatoris
Salvatoris nostri verbis Christi corpus
et sanguinem confici putant,
puiant, sed quibnsd.am quae sequuntur precibus
20 saeerdotum.
sacerdotun. Quibus in missarum
mssarum officiis,
offieils, quae singuli
sing quique eorom
eorem
eomposuere,
composuere, diu post recitationem verborum Domini, quae supra
memoravimus, adhuc panem et vinum
n oblata Deo munera appellant
appeUant
et Spiritum sanctum,
sanetum, ut super ea descendat, benedicat, sanctificet. ac
effCiat, invocant
nvocant et precantur. Cum talis
corpus et sanguinem Domini efficiat.
25
2 itaque tantaque sit de re maxima
maxma inter Latinos Graecosque dissensio,
dissensio.
siquidem inter
nter praesentes tantum
tanturn ac
ae nostrae aetatis viros con~
versia
ersia foret,
loret, facilius de iis
s posset quivis
quiis pro sua opinione disserere.
Cum vero inter eonununes
conununes ecclesia.e
ecclesiae doctores.
doctores, veteresque et sanctissimos
sanctSSimos
patres nostros contentio agitetur
agtetur ii
sunt enim, qui et dissentire
30invieem
30nvicem et, ut alii quoque dissentiant. facere videntur - ipse me inter
eos arbitrium constituere haud
baud temere
ternere praesumpsissem, nisi
S me et iuste
precantium petitiones ac cupido utilitatis nostrorum
nostronm hominum, quorum
salutis
sa.luts et gloriae semper avidissimus fui, ad id mei ipsius
! oblitum
oblitun
compulissent, et illos inter
nter se concordes reddere divino
do fretus auxilio
eompulissent.
35 sperarem. Ut igitur recte nostra procedat
proced.at oratio, et ventas
veritas rei, quam
.. MaTe.
Mac. gr.
g. j27.
-_ Vindoboll. Theo!.
TheoI. gr. 2$1 . vV -_ ValIicel]an.
36.
M
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wlcPadou; COU. ~ 20 TljiiXpLGTO
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"".1 6

120

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10 Joh 8, 6J.
63.

DE SACRAM1!:NTO EUCHARI$TlAE.
EUCHARISTIAE.

quaerimus, facilius elucescat, a1iqua.


aliqua. altius repetenda sunt,
,, a.ntequam.
antequam.
institutae quaestionis seriem aggrediamur.
a.ggrediarnur.
Ante omnia igitur
igitUT sciendum est tam
tarn hoc a(:Tosanctum
sa::rosa.nctum communionis, 2de quo agimus,
agmus, quam
quarn caetera
caetea ecclesia.e
ecclesiae sacramenta
sa.cramenta ideo sa<:ramenta
sa<:amenta
11 vocitari, quoniam
quoniarn aliud in
se habent quod
od videtur,
videtuT, aliud quod
od non

eorporis
corporis oculis, sed irolo
iroto intel1ectu
intellectu comprehenditur. Quae videntur,
sensibilia
sensibila sunt, quae vero intellectu percipiuntur,
pereipiuntur, spiritalia. Unde
Und.e
spiritus et vita dicuntur. V ~,.ba aIItclll,
at/tc"" qua~ dixi oobis,
x:bis, inquit Dominus,
spntus
spiritus sunt et vita. Horum praeteea.
praeterea sacramentorum singula quaeque
10duobus accipiuntur modis. Aut
enim sacrameotum
sacramentum signum
sgnum est, aut id
quod
od significatur.
signifieatur. Primum
Primn quidem signum tantwnmodo
tantnmod.o et est et
dicitur. Secundum
Secundnn vero res est, quae eo siino
s\ino significatur.
signifieatur. Onmis
, enim
theologica doctrina
doctrna teste Augustino signis constat et rebus. Et
res
quidem suot,
sunt, quae ut significatae accipiuntur,
aecipiuntur, signa vero, quorum
111
1 1) onmis in
significando est usus. Etsi enim omne signum res sit narn
nam
quod
od non
est res,
ut idem Augustinus inquit, nihil
nihI onmino
est, et sic
sie
signum esse non
otest

potest -- ,, hoc tamen
tarnen hoc loco signum accipitur
aeeipituT non
ut
res significata,
signieata, sed ut signum rem ipsam significans,
signifieans, quatenus scilicet
seiHeet
signum est, et non
quatenus res aliqua est.
Quemadmodum ec um
20 ascendentem ceIUimus
cenus fumum,
quatenus substantia aliqua sive res
famum, non
est, sed quatenus solum
selum est signum
sgnum ignis, signum
signn esse dicimus, quia
substantia
substanta et res aIiqua
aliqua est.
est . Nam omne quidem signum res aliqua
est, non
tarnen onmis
omnis res alterius rei est signum. Sunt enim res aliquae
dumtaxat
ut significatae,
signficatae, non
autem ut signa aliquid aliud
allud signifisgnifi25 cantia.
Quod in aliis
alis saeramentis
sacraments faeile
facJe comprehendi otest.
potest. Etenim in
n 3, I
sacramento baptismatis ablutio
abluto carnis per aquam ita est sacramentum,
ut dumtaxat
durntaxat signum sit abiutionis
ablutionis pe<:catornm.
pe<:catorum. Ipsa
Ipsa. enim peccato:rum
peccatorum
remissio
renisso res est significata,
signfica.ta, nihil ultra significans.
5ignificans. Hoc idem in reliquis
30 sacramentis.
sacramentS. Ergo et in sacramen,to
saeramen,to eucharistiae alterum
altenm est solum
soll1m
signum ut panis et vini
vini. visibilis
visibils species, alterum
a1teum res sign.ificata
sign,ificata
ut
ipsum verum.
verum Domini corpus et sanguis.
sanguS . quod ex inunaculatis
innaculatis beatae
virginis
vrginis sa.nguinibus
sanguinibus assumpsit.
assumpsit. Ven.nn
en.n hoc proprium habet raeter
praeter
alia divinum hoc sacramentum
a1ia
sacraentum eucharistiae, quod
od in
eo res significata
signifieata
$alterius etiam rei signum est. Ipsum
Ipsun enim verum Domini
Domni corpus et
sanguis,
sangus, eum
m res sit signo
signa panis et vini
significata , ut mox astendemus,
ostendemus,
est ta:men
ta:rnen alterhl$
alterw; rei signum,
signn , euro
cum significetmysticumChristicorpuset
significet mystieum Christi corpuset
eeclesiae
e:lesiae in Spiritu sancto
saneto unitaten.
unitatem. Hoc vero non
amplius aliam rem
significat,
sgnificat , sed tantum signifieatur.
sgnificatur. Ita
Ha fit,
, ut visibilis
visibiIS sirnui
sirnul ac sensibilis
sensibils
40 specks
species panis
pa.nis et vini
duplicis Tei
rei signilicatrix sit.
5. Signifi.cat
5gnificat enim et
verum corpus Domini, et Tes
res significata et signum sacrum est et mysti~
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w-

sumUlVssm
S/ol'vssm;:

DE SACRAMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHARISTIAE .

cum e<:clesiae
e<:clesae corpus. Quare panis et vinum signum
sgnum est dumtaxat.
Ipsum autem verum Christi corpus et sanguis, quod sub umbta
umbra tegitur
tegtur
pani5
panis et vini, significatum
signficatum quidem a pane et vino, sipilicans
sgnilicans autem
mysticum
mysticnn ecclesiae corpus,
c:orpus, et tel>
res est et signum.
signnn . Mysticum
Mysticnn vero el:
e~
significatum I"eS
res tantum est nec lta
ultra alteriussignum. Praeterea
PraeteI"ea
5 uttoque signific:atum
quod taJltum
tantun signum est, duarwn
duarum rerum est signwn,
signun, veri sc:ilicet
scilicet et
mystici corporis. Quod autem teS
res est et non
amplius signum. Duorwn
sacrorum
sacron.m signorum
signonm res est, hoc est visibilis
isibilis speciei panis et vini. et veri
in eis contenti corporis
corpos Domini.
Donni. Verum autem
autern corpus et sanguis,
sangus, si
10 ad alterwn
altetWD aspicias invisibile
inviSbile sacramentum, res est, si ad mysticum
corpus, est signum. Rursus primum quidem, quod signum tantummodo
est, oculis subest
subest;; secundum, quod res
::es est
est et signum, animo exceditur;
exced.itur;
tertium, quod TeS
res sola
50!? est, corde percipitur. Ad haec primum quidem
non
no modo
od significat, sed etiam continet
contmet secundum. In
specie enim
enm
15 panis et vini
vin veritas eOlporis
coporS et sanguinis eontinetur,
continetut, ewn
cun in illa
,. substantia panis vinique mutetur. Tertium vero quamquam significet,
sgnifcet , non

tarnen continet.
tamen
Haec eum
cum verissima
erissima sint
sint,, illud
etiam sequitur ex iis, qui divini.
vi:i.
corporis participes fiunt,
{, alios
os quidem sacramentaliter
sacramenta liter spiritaliterque
sprita1iterque
20 participes fieri, quales sunt qui digne conununionem accipiunt, alios
vero
VeTO sacramentaliter et non
no spirita1iter,
spiritaliter, ii
sunt, qui indigne
indgne commurucomnunl
cant. Sumunt
5umunt enim verwn corpus Christi, non
tamen sacramenti effectum
accipiunt nec Christo
ChSto uniuntur. De iis
s inquit apostolus, quod.
iudicium sibi manducant et bibunt.
bibunt .
Non enim iudicium et condem2tinationem manducarel1t
manducarent et biberent, si spiritalitet
spiritaliter communicassent,
immo
iuno iam
iarn Christo unirentur. Sunt
5 alii qui, etsi non
fiunt
sacramentaliter
participes, spiritaliter tamen
tarnen communicant,
communcant, quemadmodum si vel infans
post baptismn
baptismwn vel aetate provectus nondwn
nondun ob
o b aliquam inevitabilem
necessitatem recepto Christi corpore repentina motte
necessitatem
norte deficiant. Nibil
30 enim minus
nnI:> sacramenti participes fiunt, quam si communionem cepiss ent
nt;;
fiunt
f enim membra Christi et regni caelestis haeredes. Haec igitur
gtur
cum omnibus manifesta smt
sint - quis enim neget ex his, qu i communionem sumunt, alios quidem nulJ.am
nullam gratia
gratiam,
m, immo vero ro
pro gratia
iudicium et poenam,
poenarn, alios vero
veTO gratiam 1argissime
largissime eonsequi,
consequi, quosdam
35 etiam sine communione,
conununione, dummodo id non
contemptu vel negligentia,
fiat , divinam
divinan mereri gratiam
gratam cum,
curn, inquam, haec
sed necessitate fiat,
adeo clara et perspicua sint, ttIpartitam
tripartitam hanc
hane divinorum sacramentorum
distributionem veram et necessariam esse probant.
15 i!W Ux1i
~1i . ..
..
..&.
p&y!'4 M'
...
.. "'.. ~,.. B
i .. tut
# JrI"
.. I 19 lcUnf'O'l'
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~6. 26--23. 1
13 Eph $, ~3 . 1
15 Cor
Co 12,
.~, 27. 1
I Cor
Co 10,
'0, '7.
'7 1
18 Cor
Co
10,
'0, '7123 Cf.
. ChrYBo
ChrYBOOt.,
. t., Horn.
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in Cor
Co: (PG 6
6 1,
., 2498Q.)
249oq.) . 124
I24 D iony
ionys.
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3 f'3
f 13 (PG 3, H4
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o eccl. bie.
bin". 111
III 3 i 12
'2
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3, 4# B).
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31 J oh. D
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e ortb . IV
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9i. "19
"49 A).
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I 32 Cf. Augll .
otinnt, Se
otinn.,
Sern.o
..no 227 (PL 38, '099 8qq)
oqq) . In
1 Joh.
JOh. ev.
". trac~. ~6. 1$-'8
'5-.8 (PL3$, ,6
'6'4)
)..

C). I

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHARISTlE.

Ex
his sequi videtuT
videtur Christi quoque corpus duplex esse: verum4.,
verum4,.
alterum, alterum
alteTUm mysticum. Et vernm
verum quidem est, quod in
hoc divino
eucharistiae
eucharistae sacramento consecratur atque conficitur sub visibili specie
panis et vini.
. Hoc
oc idem est eurn
cum eo corpore, quod fuit
! ex beata virgine
Ii
5 Spiritus
Spritus saneti
sanct obumbratione eoncepturn.
conceptum. De quo ipse Dominus in

exhibitione sacramenti, eurn


cum nobis sensibilem
sensibilern panem
panern vinumque osten*
dsset , ait: c
Hoc es w

rpus meum et Hu
Hie est sanguis meus; deinde addidit:
disset,
qucd pro oobis
oob! tradetur, et qui pro oobis el/um/dur
el/umldur in
" remissionem
remissimem peCC4*
jJeCC4*
tMum.
tum. Mysticum autem
autern eius corpus est ecclesia et congregatio fidelium .
10 Hanc
Hane eniIn
enim negare corpus Christi
Chrsti nemo ausit, praesertim audiens apostolum dicentem ecclesiae caput Christum
Chrstum esse. Caput enim sine membris
non
esset caput.
Quapropter membra Christi nos sumus.
sumus, et eaput
caput
nostrum est Christus. Unde clamat apostolus: Vos es/is
ess corpus Christi
Chrsti
d membra ex
:; parte. Et
! rursus: Panis,
Panis. quem trangimus, nonne communi*
15ciUio corporis Domini esO Et
iterum: Unus panis,
panis. ait, d 14num
unum Cf)t"pus
mul#
red.dens eius rationem addit : Omnes enim
:: 14110
mulli sumU$.
sumus. Et
mim e:c:
uno
pane paniCpamus
parlicipamus.. Quae verba dum exponere nititur Chrysostomus
noster, ita
ita. inquit:
nquit: .Quid dico communionem?
conmunionem? Ipsum illud corpus
sumus. Quid eniIn
enim est pans
panis nisi corpus Christi?
Non corpora mu1ta.,
multa,
20sed corpus unum. Quemadmodum enim pans
panis ex mu1tis
multis oonstans
granis, ita compositus est.
est, ut nusquam grana videantur, et sunt quidem
grana, sed propter ooniunctionem nullo discriInine
grana.
ds::riInine discern.untur, ita nos
os
quoque et in,vicem et Christo coniungimur., Damascenus quoque ubi
de sacrosanctis
sacrosancts mysteriis tractat: . H onoremus, ait, Christi corpus omni
25animi
2lianmi corporisque puritate; duplex eteniIn
etenim est.' Augustinus etiam
occidentalis ecclesiae
eeelesiae lumen: Quemadmodum.
Quemadmodurn, inquit.
inquit, et multis
mults granis
grans
unus conficitur
confieitur panis, et ex racem.is
cern.s multis
ms unus calix
calix: exprimitur, sic
sie
ex multis fidelibus unum corpus mysticum integratur. Enimvero sicut
ex multis membris et partibus unumquodque
unurnquodque corpus oonstat, ita ecc1esiae
ecclesiae
30unitas ex divenis
diveBis penonis
personls eonficitUT.
cnfct1, videlicet
idelicet ex praescitis, praed.esi*
praed.esti*
natis.
nath, vocatis,
vocatis. iustificatis et glorificatis.
glrificatis. Qucs enim praesciVt
praescivit Deus,
110$
IIos et
praedestituvit.
praedestitulvit, et qucs
qUC$ praeestinaVt,
praedestinavit, ho$
MS vocavit,
vocavil. et quos vocavit,
av.
MS
1, et iustificavit;
iustificaVI; et quos i14s#fNVt,
fflstificavit, nos
Jos et glf)t"ijicavit,
glf)t"ijiNvU. inquit apos.tolus.
apostolus.
Efficiens vero huius mystici eotpOris
copos est ipsum verum Christi COtpus
corpus
35et
3liet eius
eins eorrununicatio.
coununicatio, si digne fiat. Quod significant
sgnificant verba illorum.
illorum,
qui dicunt: tOramus.
tOramus, ut hoc
hot corpus tuum praestet participantibus
peccatorum, communionem tecum .
sobrietatem animae, remissionem peccatorum.
Quid enim
eni.m. aliud est communio
conmunio quam unitas cum Christo, annexio

111

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SINOlmSS9.a
SINOIllVSS9.a

.
0'

DE
SACRAMENTO
SCRM:ENTO EUCHAR1STIAE.
EUCHR1STIAE.

11

metnbron.un ad caput, convenientia partium ad totum?


membronun
totum ? Unde et
communio
commun.o vocatur propie
proprie hoc sacramentwn. Et synaxis apud Dionysium dicitur, hoc es col1ectio.
nysiuD1
collectio. Colligit
Col1git enim, quae apud se distant.
distant,
et multa unum fadt
facit et dissimilia aequat et in unum spat!>a.
sparsa. reducit.
6t Qnamoblem
QlJamobIeb' idem Darnascenus
Damascenus eo,
co, quo supra memoravixnus,
memoravinus, loco:
Ioco:
Comm.m.o, inquit, dicitur et est ideo.
ideo, quia per eam
earn communicamus
conmuni.camus
tComm.tm.io,
cwn Christo
Chsto et carnis divinitatisque
divinitatsque eius participes sumus et invicem
coniungimur atque unimur. Cum enim ex
coniung:imur
uno pane participamus,
omnes
unwn Christi
ChrSti cotpus
corpus et unus sanguis et membra alter
a1ter a1terius
toeiusdem
10eusdern cwn Christo corporis
carporis efficimur.t
effcimur. t Et IUr8US
rursus ibidern:
ibidem: .Per Christi
corpus et sanguinem purgati unirnur
unimur carpori
corpori Dornini
Domini et spiritui eius
et corpus
corpU$ Christi efficimur.
efficrn.ur. Unde et Messias
Messas sen
seu mediator et lapis
lapS
angularis dicitur
dCitur Dominus, quasi coniUJl8enS
coniUJl8ellS extrema et uniens divisa.
diVSa.
M ediatcr unius non est
est,, sed duorum.
duorum, inquit Paulus, et lapis

lapS angularis
15 duorum
duoIUm parietum vinculurn et coniunctio est .
Post haec il1ud
iIlud quoque tertio loco addendum est, quod verum5,
run5,
Domini corpus et veritas est et figura . Siquidem ostensum est, quemadmodum panis et vini visibilisspedes
VSibilisspecies figura seu signum est veri
et in eis
contenti Dominici corporis et etiam mystici corporis, ita ipsum corpus
20 verum
run figuram mystici
mystiei et ecclesiastici eorporis
corporis esse. Ad haec verum
Domini corpus, quod in altari
a1tari consecratur, futuronnn
futurorum figuram did
dici
Damascenus eo.
co, quo supra memoravimus
rnemoravimus loco,
loco. testatur: .Significativa,
.Sgnificativa,
inquit, futurorum
quia verwn sint corpus sanguisque
futUTOrum dicuntur.
dicuntur, non
Christi verus, sed quia nunc
nune quidem
quidern per illa divinitatis participes
2lieflicimur,
21iefICmur, tWie
twc vero per intellectum
inteIJectum sola visione
VSione fruemur divinitatis.t
d.ivinitatis.t
dieit, quod nunc
nune quidem participamus
Quod apertius et Gregorius dicit.
corpus et sanguinem sub
5ub speciebu$
, tunc
speciebus panis et vini,
tune autem clara
visione,
VSione, et sicut
sieut vere est, videbimus
Vdebimus illud.
iIlud.
Cavendurn
autern, ne quis propterea, quod. euchwtiae mysterium
mysterin t
Cavend.urn autem,
30 figura esse dicitur, dicere aut omnino
om.nino suspicari
suspieari audeat non
esse verum
run
Domini corpus. Absit tanta blasphernia
blasphemia a fidelium mentibus. Hoc
modo et pretiosa mors eius non esset vera mors,
rnors, quod partm
partim ablutionis
delietorum
delctorum nostrorum, partirn
partim iustificationis nostrae figura sit. Vas
dcit: tChristus
.christus mortuus esJ pcatis nostris
nam.que electionis est, qui dicit:
3&
3 el rtsf4rrex#
rUf4rrex# propter iusti/icatitmem
iustilicationem nostram.t Et Petrus: tChristus
.christus
PSStls
pl'f)
ncbs, relinq_s
nobs exemplum.c
passus est
pro nobis,
relinquens nobis
exemplum.t Mors igitur Christi
mortis
rnortis Dostrae
nostne secundum peccatwn et resurrectio eius vitae
Vtae nostrae per
iustificationem iuxta rimaorum
primariorum apostolonun sententiam exemplum
1 .... t 060;:
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RRSSA;R.IONIS

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13

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHRlSTIAE.

et figura fuit. Nec tamen


tarnen adeo mors
rnors et resurrectio eius non
on fuit vera
ea
mors
rnors et resurrectio.
resuectio. Est igitur eucbaristiae sacramentum
sa.cramentum et veritas
et figura. Ex
quo nihil
hl absurdi sequi videtur. Etenim ipsum quoque
sacramenti
sacra.menti nomen nihil
si8nificat allud
aliud quam figuram
figuam alicuius
allcuius et sigI)
num alterius. Siquidem
Siquidern sacramentum tectum mysteriis secretumque
esse decet et aliud extrinsecusprae sefene,aliud
seferre,aliud babere quod
quOll intellegatur
intrin.se<:us.
Neminem autem
autern conturbare debet nomen istud figurae, ne
~ id,
quod ait Damascenus: .Panis
,Panis et vinum non
est nisi
is figura corporis
10et
loet sanguinis Christi
Chrst.
. Absit,
, sed ipswn corpus Domini deificatum ipso
Domino dicente : c
H QC est corjJus
corpus meum, et non : figura corporis
COTpOris mei, et:
:
m~, et non:
: figura sanguinis
sanguinS mei.
me. Primo
Pimo enim panis
Hit: e$l sangf4is meus,
et vini nornine
nomine non
ipsam visibilem speciem panis et vini, sed sub5Ubstantialiter
stantialite transmuta tam in corpus
copus et sanguinem intellegit.
inteUegit. Deinde
15 figuram hoc loco intellegit umbram illam, quae nihil
nibi! aliud
allud praeterqu.am
praeterquam
figura. e.st,
figura
est, simpliciter
simplciter aliud
alud significaru,
significa, nullam omnino faciendi vim
m
et potestatem habens. Quemadmodum sacn.:menta
saca:m.en ... veteris
eteris legis
legs Novi
Testamenti
Testarnenti sacramentorum figura
gu ... fuerunt, ut circumcisio
circumcsio baptsmatS,
baptismatis,
sanguis hiTCorum
hicorum et vitulorum Dominici sanguinis
sanguinS in arca crucis
crucS effusi,
20 et serperu
sepe pendens in
eremo
eemo corporis
corpois Domini in
cruce
cruee pendentS.
pendentis. Verum
eum
illa quidem figurae tantum erant et aliorum significativa, non e{fectiva,
et sacrorum quidem significativa, non ipsa
'" sacril.. Nosa
Nostra vero non
modo signicativa
mod.o
signficativa et figurae salutis
salutS sunt, verum etiam salutifera,
sa1utifea, hoc
est effectiva salutis,
salut S, ipsaque sacra
sac ... et sacrae sacrarum rerum figurae.
fgura.e.
25
m mterest
nterest inter
e veteris et novae legis
legS sacramenta,
sa.cramenta, quod iIla
illa
2$ Hoc enim
quidem
qudem dumtaxat significabant sa.lutem,
salutern, haec etia.m
etiam praebent, et iIla
illa
quidem non sacra, sed. sacrarum
sacraum tantwnmodo
tantummodo :rerum significativa, haec
autem
autern et significativa
signifcativa sacrarum
sacraum rerum
reum atque effectiva sunt. Hinc
Hine
sanctus Hilarius ait : tCorpus Christi,
ChrSti, quo in
altari participa.mus,
participamus,
30 figura quidem est, quatenus panis et vinwn
exterioribus
exteioribus apparet
appaet sensibus, veritas
eritas autem est, quatenus corpus et sansuis
sanuis in
jn veritate corde
creditur.'
credtur . Et Augustinus:
Augustnus: tChristi corpus, inquit, et veritas
veitas et figura
figua
est : veritas quidem, in quantum virtute
itute spiritus .ex $ubstantia
substantia panS
panis
et vini corpus efficitur; figura vero
ero est
e.st illud, quod exterioribus
exteioribus sensibus
35 subiacet.. os
Nos itaque figuram
figuam hoc loco ita accipimus,
acciprnus, quae seiHeet
sclicet
quoad sensibiles species panis et vini
in aliud dumtaxat significet, quoad.

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BHonr
SINOOlYSSllU

ft

DE SACR.\MENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHRISTlAE.

15

verum COI"pw> Christi et aJiud


aliud significet,
signilicet, et tamen
tarnen veritas est. Quema.d.
modum Damascenus
Damaseenus quoque, sieuti
scuti paulo
pau!o ante
aote memoravimus,
memoraimus, veteres
eteres
secutus doctores
doctoes verum
erum corpus et sanguinem
sanguioem Christi fi.gurativa
figurativa futuro-nun
run nominavit. Ubi enim figurativa
fgIrativa dixit, et figuram sine di..scrimine
Ii dicere
dcere potoisset.
potllisset.
Sed de Hs
satis,
, ut arbitror, disseruimus. Nnc,
Nune, quod reliquum6.
est, aggrediamur.
aggrediamur. Erit autem nostrae omnis
omnS oratio tripartita. Primum
enim eonabimur
conabimur ostendere divinissimum
dvnSsimum corpus Christi
Christ et sanguinem
nullS aliis
verbis
verbS aut sacerdotum precibus conlici
confici quam iis, quae supra
nullis
10memoravimus,
lomemoravimus, Domini verbis:
verbS: oc
Hoc esI
esl co,.p~ mtum,
meunl, et Hie
Hic esI
esl S""luis
s"nguis
meus. Post haec sanctorum
sanetorum ecclesiae doctorum ac patrum nostrorum
unam et eandem esse sententiam
seotentiam declarabimus.
declarabnus. Postremo quae huic
hUc
opinioni
adversari videntur, duce Domino, euius
cuius res agitur, disso!
vemus.
lli

Quod
od igitur
g impossibile sit allis quam Dominicis
Dorninicis verbis
verb;' eucharistiae
eucharistae 7. I
sacramentum confici
conlici evid.entissime
eid.entissime et luce c1arius
clarius apparet. Enimvero
lateat, quemadmodum panis
pans et vini
in corpus et
nemo est, quem 1ateat,
sanguinem Christi in instanti facta transubstantiaJitas humanam omnem
faeultatem excedit ingensque
facultatem
ngensque opus
est et certe divinum, ita etiam
etian
20 huius sacrarnenti
sacrarnent efficientia verba instar ipsius sacramenti eximiae
eximae
cuiusdam
Cusdam virtutis esse debere. Christi vero divinis verbis
verbS nihil
nibil esse
hl effica.cius
efica.cius esse posse manifestum est. Quamobrem fateri
lateri
potentius, nihil
llecesse
Domin.cis illis
llis verbis et nullis aJs
aJis divinum hoc sacrarnentwn
sacrarnentn
necesse est Dominicis
conlici posse. Nec enim divinissima
confici
divinSSna per divinam
diinam potentiam confici
Unegaverit
unegaerit quispiam, nec verbis
verbS Christi
ChrSti nibi!
omomo
efficacius esse,
eurn non
cum
modo
rnodo homo, verum
venm etiam Deus sit
creatorque omnium, qui
qU
solo
3010 nutu cuncta
cuneta od,
produxit, qui verbo aegros curavit, mortuos suscitavit,
eaeteraque
caeteraque mira.cu1a
miracula fecit,
lecit, quae in evangeliis
evangeJi.s recitantuT.
Praeterea humanae preces
pr&es tunc,
tune, quod orant, facillime eoru;equuntur,I
coru;equuntur,
30 eurn
cum id meritae sint, et a bene meritis
meritS effunduntur. Atqui pa.nis
panis et
vini in
n eorpus
corpus et sanguinem transrnutatio non
petentium meritis,
meritS, sed

eius otentia,
potentia, qui ex nihilo
hIo euneta
cuncta produxit, per sacerdotem tarnquatn
tamqua:n
per instrumentwn quoddam efficitur. Unde non
minus
mnus ab indignis
ndgns
saeerdotibus
sacedotibus atque perverss
perversis quam a bonis sanctisque eonsecratur.
consecratur. Ex

36
3 quo manifestum
manifesturn est non
orantis
oants sanctitatem, sed ipswn
ipsum Dominum
poprii.s
propriis sui.s
suis verbis
vebi.s a sacerdote prolatis panem et vinum in proprium
propriwn
corpus transmutarc. Nam si
humanae preces hoc possent, otius
potius virorum bonorm
bonorum preces, etsi non
sacerdotum, quam pravorum sa.cerdotum
sa.cedotum
hoc
efficeent. Atqui indecens esset atque ab hwnana
boc divinum opus efficerent.
40salute alienmn
4Qsalute
a1enmn existimare
exi.stnare tantum
tantun sacramentwn
sacramentum a Te
re dubia dependere,

9 .....
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-n; B
OM.
_ .
M"',.

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1.

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&:nu;, i)..)4
iM Ta
xuplou
XUo Py)",TIX
::
~ dXtlpl(M'(a.1I
c:('!411

~o(j"w.
~O;:;ll.

17

DE SACRAMENTO
SCRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHARISTIE.

quippe
q uippe dubium atque ambiguum est, an pec,
preces ac
ae supplicationes nosh:ae
Deo acceptae
aeceptae sint
sot futura.e,
tua.e, ex
quo fieret,
ut et sa1us
salus nobis virtute
huius
bUlus mysterii exspectata
exsectata dubia foret.
faret. Quod ne
accidat, immo salus
nostTa,
nosta, quam digne participantibus hoc sacrameotum
sacramentum praebet, certa
6atque indubia sit,
5, nece5$e
necesse est Dominicis
DOmniCi5 verbis
vebis dumtaxat et
nullis
"His tantom
"liis
tantum confici
conici ~camentum
~cramentum . Ad haec precibus quidem
quidem. nostris
non
on perficmus,
perfieimus, sed tantummodo rogarnus,
rogamus,
ut perficatur
perficiatUT sacramentwn.
Verba vero, quae hoc divinum
divil)um corpus operantur,
opeantur, efficientia sacramenti
sacr.unenti
esse debent, non
on ut conficiatur
confciatur deprecantia.
depreeantia.
10
JO
Ergo non
nostris verbis, quae non
conficiunt, .sed
ut conficiatuu
conficiatuT
orant, tantum
tanturn opus tribuendum,
tTibuendum, sed ve-rbis
vebis Dominicis
Dominics vere
ee conficientibus
eo modo, quo
Dominus
Doninus ipse per eadem
ead.em verba, ut legitur in evangelio,
eva.ngelo,
consewavit.
consecaVt. Praeterea
Praeteea verha
Yerba Domini
Domni poferuntur
pToferuntur a sacerdote.
s.acedote, tarnquam
tamquam
potestatem habente ea
e3. perficiendi,
perliciendi, quae ipsa verba significant. PTecibus
Pecibus
16 vero suis
su.s otestatem.
potestatem petit
peut idem.
idem sacerdos tamquarn
tamquam nondum habens.
Etenim me1ius certiu!iCJ.ue
certiu!lCJ.ue res ab potestatem
potes.tatem habente quam a nondum
nondn
habente, sed ut eam
ea.m habeat rogante pericitur.
perlicitur. Faciliusque id agit,
qui
iam otest,
potest, quam qui
posse se sperat.
speat .
Non 19itur
igitur supplicibus sacer~
dotum, sed enuntiativis Domini verbis
vebis effici eredendum
eedendum est haec sacta
saca.
9Omysteria. 1tem
9IOmysteria.
Item dum rogat sacerdos, aut petit obtinere
obtnee potestatem
conficiendi
non. Si petit,
conficiend mysterii aut
" oon.
petit. non
igitur incrat
inerat sac:erdotis
sacerdot.s
piecibus ca
potentia. Quis
Piecibus
" otentia.
S enim
m peteret, quod
od iam tend?
tenet? Quod si
5
non
petit, fmstra
fn.5" rogat.
Quapropter
Quaropter non
ipsas sacerdotum peces,
preces,
sed Domini verha
verba eucharistiam
eucharstiam conficere manifestum est.
Adde, quod verborum, quae haec mysteria conficiunt, nuUa diversi.
diversi-.
2ti
Addc.
tas, nuUa
& mutatio esse debet. Una enim
enm cuiusque et inunutabilis
inunutabils fonna
fmna
est, qua mutata totum
t otum etiam mutatur. Unde Matthaeus
Matthaeu5 et Marcu$
Mareus
et Lucas
Lu cas et euro
cum i.is
.s apostolus Paulus, eum
curn huius eonsenationis
consecIations
mentionem faciunt, quae a Salvatore
ea)
Salvatare ( in
ea) nocte, qua tradebatur
perlecta est.
est, eadem verba omnes eodem modo
30 perfecta
od. pronuntiant, quamvis
et
in
n superioribus
5uperiorbus et
in
sequentibus
sequentbus diversi
dive;l diverso modo sunt
5unt locuti.
Hic
c pa.titer
patiter omnes dixerunt: Hoc est co,pus
corpus meum, et H~ tst sanguis
mtUs.
Preces vero et
supplicationes
5upplicationes sacerdotum,
sacedotum, quibus nonnuIli
nonnulli
existimant hoc mysterium confici, alias
existirnant
a1ias apud alios et
longe quidem
SII diversas es..<>e
e5..<>e v:idem.us.
videmus. Alii enim optando, alH
i imperando
mperardo id
d agunt.
Siquidem Clemeos
Clemens et
Iacobus; t Rogamu5,
Rogamus, inquiunt.
inquUnt, ut mitta5Spiri
mittasSpiritum
sanctum
sauetum tuum super hoc sacrificium, qui
efficiat bunc panen
panem
corpus Cbri5ti
Christi tui et,
, quod in boc calice est, sanguinem Christi tui
..
Iacobus vero: .Rogamus,
.Rogarnu8. inquit,
,
ut Spiritus sanctus adveniens sancta,
saueta,
.l(l
. bona.
bona atque gloriosa eius
praesentia sanctificet
sanctficet et faciat hunc quidem
2 ~I<t&,
~I<t&a, M
-&.,
/Iix-h, B
I 19 ~ +r
M
~ ;,..
um B n</W.
nW. ,.os
,.u..... I 36 lxOTod
lxo..od B

U.
ffIU.

i......n.r.
lt......n....

011'1
MolLI ,

~f1Iloa.l B
~f1IIoa.l

er""'.
"..

111
11 .

18

BESSAIUONIS
BESSAI10NIS

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916 q.
<;).

l'"

DE SAC!tAMENTO
SA CRMENTO EQCHAl{ISTIAE.
Et)CHAl{ISTlE .

pretiosum sanguinem
panem corpus
corpUS sancti Christi tui, et calicem
caJcem hunc pretosum
Christi tui..
tu. At magnus doctor Basiliu-s: ,tRogamus, inquit,
inqUt, ut veniat
Spiritus sanctus tuus super nos et supcr
super haec proposita munera et
benedicat ea, sanctificet
sancti1icet et faciat hunc quidem pa.nem
pa.netn ipsum
ipsUI pretisum
pretiosum
I>
> corpus et vinwn
inI pretiosum sanguinem
sangunem Domini et Dei "et
et Salvatoris
Sa1atori
nostri Jesu Christi, qui effusus est pro mundi vita
ita . Divinus
Diinus autem
autenl
Chrysostomus: tEmitte, ait, Spiritum
SpirituIn tuwn et fac hone
buc panem
pretiosum corpus Christi tui, quod vero in
i hoc
boc calice est, pretiosum
sanguinem Christi tui
tUt transmutans
transnutans ea Spiritu
Spritu tuo sancto. Cum igitur
10 tanta sit in
i iis
s differentia
dilferentia atque 'varietas, ver,b a autem
autern sacramenti
efficientia
effic entia immutabilia
immutablia esse debeant, profecto non il1a,
illa, quae a1ia
alia apud
alios sunt, sed haec Domini verba, quae apud omnes eadem.
ead~ SUDt
sunt et
ab omnibus eodem.
eod~ modo proferuntur, tanti mysterii iormam esse, et
iis
s trfbuendumesse
trlbuendumesse perficiendi potentiam manifestum est. Per ea
ca ""im
enim
16
1Ii fit, ut sit
, quod est .
Illud quoque considerandum est ea esse alicuius rei efficientia,
efficienta, per.
quae res illa
lla ad esse producitur, ab aliisque distinguitur. Huius
autem
autern
divini
ini mysterii
mysteri nulla alia quam verba Domini efficientia esse videntur.
identur.
Ergo ipsa dwntaxat, et non
on sacerdota1es
confcere
sacerdotales preces tantum opus conficere
20dicenda SUDt.
sunt. Huius
rationis prima quidem pars per se ipsa nota est,
quare ea omissa minorem probabimus. Ipsum certe consecrationis
opus et per consecrationem efficitur sacrum mysterium
mysteum in extrema
prolatione verborum conficientium,
confcientium, quaecumque illa sit,
St, et in
insta.nti
instaJ1ti
fit . Siquidem
Siqudem. panis et vini
ini substantia in
sua peil1.anet
pelillanet natura,
atura, donec
2li
2 omnia illa,
il1a, quaecumque sW\t,
sWlt, quae sacramentum perficiunt, verba
dicantur. Quibus dictis mox collSeC1atio
consewatio fit,
, transsubstantialitas
transsubstantialtas perficitur
ci , eonsummatUT
COnsum.matu sacramentum. Quod et de baptsmate
baptismate beatus
Angustinus ait: tAufer, inquit, verba, et quid
qud aqua Risi
nisi aqua ? Accedat
vet'bum
ve-bum e1emento, et efficitur sacramentum.. Unde tanta potentia
3Oaquae,
ut ewn
cwn tetigerit OOlptrS,
OOttrS, purget cor, nisi ex eo, qui verbo hoc
facit ?
manfestum sit per verba hoc sacramentum confici,.
Cum igitur manifestum
confici,'
decet quae ad hanc
hane ex substantia in substantiam
substantam transrnutationem
similitudinem aliquam
simi1itudinem
a1iquam habeant eique confonnia sint.
sinto Unde quoniam
35 in hac transmutatione tria
tra haec esse necesse est : tenninum a quo, et
tenninum ad quem ipsa transmutatio fit, et xnodum
terminum
modum ipsius ~
rnutationis,
ntatonis, quae omnia illa
il1a significant, talia
ta1ia vero
ero esse verba Domini
Domiri
facile
faci1e probatur. In
iis
s enim continetur tenninus a quo per verbum
hoc;
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21, 19. I 41 Cf.,
Cf. f <Ar
<: n,
, 26.

DE SACR.AMENTO
SACR.MENO EUCHARI$TlAE.
EUCHARISTIAE.

21

at in
ea de substantia
substanta in suhstantiam
suhstantian transmutatio fit
. Hunc igitur
terminum
teninum significat
Sgnificat illud hoc.
boc. Simili modo terminus
teninus ad quem iisdem
sdem
potios
verbis inest; nam sine
'n: eo termino non
esset transmutatio,
transmutato, sed potius
corruptio, si
, non in ens, sed in
non ens mutaretur. Hunc vero ter5minum. dupliciter considerare
qudem ipswn corCOT5minum
cosiderare possumus;
possumus: aliquando quidem
pos et sanguinem intelIegentes,
pus
intellegentes, in
quae substantialitas fit,
!, et hoc
signifieatur,
sgnificatur, cum dicitur
dicituT corpus et sanguis, aliqualldo
aliquando vero
veTO id considerantes, ut haec transsubstantialitas
ttanssubstantialitas detenninata et particularis
sit et una. Quemadmodwn iis etiam,
etam, quae per artem fiunt
, [sunt]
[sout]
10una
tOuna cuiusque forma et species est, ita etiam unius opera.tionis
oeationis
unus effectus est. Propter quod additur meum. Tertium vero atque
postremum, per quod modus transsubstantialitatis exprimitur, satis
MS
apte exprimitur per verbum est. Quod enim
enm in
instanti fit,
f, iam

tarn non
futurum,
futunm, se quasi factum et iam
am plane existens, non
imperativo, non
on
150ptativo,
150ptatvo, non
on cuiusvis alterius
ateus modi verbo
verba nec futuro quidern
quiden ternten
pore, quae dubia sunt, nec id quod est, sed quod futurum est,
e5t,
quod etiam
eiam non
fieri posset, signilicat,
significat, sed ipso verbo es t temporis
tenporis
pTaesentis et modi indicativi, quod ipsum iam
pra.esentis
iarn esse significat, $Uflisuflicienter exprimitur, immo
mmo vero dumtaxat hoc modo exprimi
exprmi potest et
2Onon
2on aliter.
Haec igitur ornnia adeo in hac naturali transsubstantialit.ate
transsubstantialitate 1
ll, aliis paetequam
praeterquarn Dominicis verbis contineantur,
nece!'saria cum nullis
skuH
lateri illa ipsa
'CUH ostensum est, profecto existimare
existmare cogimur atque fateri
efficientia esse tam
tarn sacri mysterii, quibus nihil de!icit,
deCicit, nihi!
hl superest,
21> et non
peces
preces humanas,
bumanas, quibus
qubus aliqua
a1iqua desunt,
desWlt, quae magis necessaria.
forent.
lorent. Praeter
PraeteT haec ornnia, cum hoc inunaculatmn
inunaculatn sacrificium in sui
memoriam
mernorian fieri insserit
j"ssmt Dominus - Hot enim, inquit,
nquit, Jaek
Jarik in
i1$ m_
meam
tommemwaIimem certe expressior eius memoria fit,
l, cum illius
illins ve'rba
tommemorati""em
ex sa.cratissimo
sacratissimo illo ore
or: prolat3.
prolata repetimus, quam
quarn si
, alia
ala quaecumque
3Oreferamus. Quod confinnat
3Orefera.mus.
confnn.at apostolus Paulus, dum
dum. dicit
dcit Domini
Doi
mortern in hoc sacrificio annuntiari. Qua
mortem
Quo enim modo annuntiari
a.nnuntiari expressius potest, quam
quarn dum
dum. corpus et san,guis
sa.n.gus eius propriis eius
eins verbis
verbs
quam quibusvis
quibusis aliis
a1iis tantwn conficitur sacramenrum?
sacramentum?
Verumtarnen concurreTe
Verumtam.en
concuere Patrem
Patrern et Spiritum
Spiritun sanctum Filio
Flio in hoc 8, I
35 divino opere franssubstantialitatis
tnmssubstantialitatis panis et vini in corpus et sanguinem
Christi
Chst fas est a fidelibus credi. Ornnia enim. opera
opea in CTea.turis
creaturis. Trinitati
eonununia
coununia sunt, nihilque
nhilque fit
{ omnino,
omnno, nisi
nsi creante
crea.nte Filio, beneplacito
Patm
Patris et Spiritus sancti voluntate.
votuntate.
Ex ipso enim et per ipst4m et in
,.
ipso omnia iuxta apostolum.
apostolum Paulum.
rursus: Per quem
Paulum.. Et
! rursus;
''"'" et saettda
40 fecit.
fetit. Et iterwn:
iterum: Portans omnia verbo pOkstatis s_e. Et [ohannes
[ohann.es
evangelista, Omnia
Om1$ia per ipsum facta
jacta sunt.
sum. Et idem: Spirit.us
Spirif,u$ 'ut,
ut, qui
9hrdM_lmlB
9..d .... m

I "(', '!.or

Joh ,), 16 Joh 6, 64.


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" ~H in I "gE 'Ir m<>H 01

10 Rom >1, )6, r 12 Hebr . 2. 13 Heb ,).


16 Rom 8, 11. 117 Cor 12. 11. 119 " 10). )0.
"0(

'(Ot "d 61
CI I "~

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BEBS:fl.IONIB

SINonlVSSRS

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHAIUSTIAE.
EUCHRISTlE.

rnvitiall.
rnvi!iIl. Et PauIus
Paulus : Si enim SPiritNs
Sp'riA4s ei1lS,
dflS, 'Iui
'l resusciu",;'
rUflScitvil leSf4m
ChrisJvm
qui $t4$Cavil
ChrisUm Q.
. mqrlui.,
mqrti" IIabilaI
1abila in
" nobU, 'l"i
SI4$CUIIil luum
lum Christum Q.
.
m:n~fIi., vivificabil
mn~fIi"
VHficb el
morudia
morU.ia corporQ.
oorfXwa. 1JO,tra
no.tra per in/aQ.biJQ.nkm
inJ.biJ.nkm in
nobU
SPirt_ et"fIS.
ei1lS. Et iterum: Omnia
Omni Q.tlltll.
.,4: .. ,",ec
haec operalur
, idem
id_ aJque
Uqe u_
_
S1>irit_
6 Stnritu.
Spirtus divilkns
divikns ""iCfli'l"t
uniCflique prOfll~.
proullJflU. Et David: EmiUe
EmUe Spirnum
Sprnum lIwm,
lwm,
et creabuntu.,..
creaJntu.,.. Illud
sane simpliciter ten.endum
tenendum et pro generali
gen.erali quadarn
quadan

regula
reguIa ol:Jsa
ol:JSdt vandwn divinae
d.vinae Trinitatis
TrinitatS operationes, si quis
qu.is intrinsecus
eam ipsam spectet, distinctas
<listinctas omnino
onnino ac separatas ( ~e , aliquando
etia m nWlo
illo modo
nodo invicem commwticare,
commwicare, quemadmodum se habent
10generare .e t generari, spirare et spira.ri,
spirari, et alia quaedam similia. Extrinsecus vero, et quatenus ad Cleatunm
C1eatuam spectat, una est operatio
operato et
idern
dem opus Patris et Filii et Spiritus sancti,
saneti, nihilque est eon.nn,
eon.m, quae
in nobis
nobS fiunt, quod. non.
no ex tota Trinitate
Trintate eman.et, una tarnen
ta.men operatione,
una potentia~ una voluntate.
ua
oluntate . Quare unus etiam dicituT creatOT
ceato et n
unum
16 principium
princ.ipium eorum. omnium,
nniM, quae sunt, quae fiWlt,
fiwt, Trinitatis
TrinitatS esse cledi~
tur.
. Quibus autem
autern verbis
verbS potius consentire decet Patrem et Spiritum
Spiritn
sanctum quam Fil,
Flii , qui eiusdem
eiusdern est natUTae,
natuae, eiusdemque cum eo
substantiae ? Manifestum hoc omnibus
nnibus est contendere nolentibus.
Est autem
autern ad haec necessarius et idoneus et sufficiens min;ster
minister.
20 Suffu:iens
Sufficiens autern
en est, qui potestatem per coo.sectationem
con.seClationem habuit
habUt et
sacerdos factus est. Nec enirn
enrn a quocumque prolata eiusmodi
eiusm.odi verb<\
erb<\
efficere possunt, quod. quaerituT, immo
im,mo vero nibi! omnino
nnno possunt,
nisi a sacerdote
sacedote proferantuT. Eius
rei ratio est, quod
quOll ita Deo placitun
placituIn
est, ita ordinavit.
cdinavit . hanc tulit
tutit legern
legen . .Transguuori
Transgussoi igitur legis et volun!.Ir;
!!: tatis
tatS eius disnum
di&num paratum est meritum, ne quid
qud facere possit.
passit. Oportet
autem
autern sacerdotem
sacedotem cum debita intentione ad ea, quae Dominus manda_
vit accedere. Siquidem mand.avit
mandavit nobis,
nobs , ut in eius conu:nemoratioDem
conu:nemorationem
haec .ageremus,
.agerenus , ut sciamus corpus eius et sanguinem
sa.nguinem - instrumentainsttumentaliter ipsi
S fa.dentes,
fa.cientes, cwn haec operamur
operarn.ur - mortem
m ortem eius annuntiare.
30 Si quis enim vel verba.
verba Domini
Dnin vel alia quaelibet,
quae1ibet, quibus
qUbus existirnet
existrnet
huius modi
od sacramentum confici, pronuntiet non ad ea, quae dicta
sunt, intend.ens
ntend.ens seque id agere. quod. ille
iUe iu ssit
ssit.. arbitretur, nihil omnino
agit, sed suo lrustratus
rustratus desiderio fallitur.
Materiam
necessel
Ma teriam praeterea ad haec aptam et convenientem esse necesseI
35 est. Oportet enirn
enrn panem ex frumento, vinum ex vite fieri.
fien. Nisi enim
mim
gr4n"m
granum trumemi,
trummi, dicit
d icit Dominus, cadens in
" terTam
ter1'Q.m mortsf1fm
morlsfm fflMil,
fuerit,
ntdlum tNIClum
t1'fl<.Um Q.tteret.
atferet. Et rursus: Ego Sf4m
$Um vi#s
V#s ver4
. Quod. si
s aliter
sacerdos, etiam cum debita attentione, ve1
vel ipsa verba D omini ve1 alia
quaecumque pronmtiet,
prommtiet, vanus
vanusest
est omnis laoor.
labor. Nec enim
eIn umquam
umquam. ex
~ hotdeo

hordeo miliove aut aUo


! seminum
seminun genere panis factus
factus,, n eque sicera.
siera. aut
Jac aut mel
me1 in corpus et sanguinem Domini transmutaretur. Hoc
oc

24

BESSAlUONIS
BESSA1UONIS

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er, IV
'4 (PL 16,
' 6, 4lll
4)11 B
HO
440 A)
) .

DE SACRAllENTO
SCRJ4ENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHRISIE.

canones apostolorum. hoc posteriot


posteriotes doctores affinnant. Quamobrern
Qnamobren
hoc::? Quoniam
Quonian ille opex
opifex rerum
rerurn ita voluit,
, ita constituit. Tran.sgudi
Tnn.sgudi
autem
autern et vitare
itare quidquam eorum, quae ille ordinavit, nefas est. Hk<;
Hae;
eigo
ad sacri mysteri.i
mysteri. consum:mationem necessaria
necessaa plOiSUS sunt,
sut. et
!
5 sine quibus
<! Rihil
hil omnino fieri
lieri potest.
quae, etsi ad esse rei minime necessariat.
Sunt auteIn
auten aUa
Ma quaedam quae.
sint, multurn tamen con(erunt
sint.
conferunt ad deCOl"eIn
decren perfectonemque
perfectionemque mysterii.
mysteru.
Ex
quibus.
quibus, si
5 quid a1iquando
aliquando iusta ne<:essitate
neeessitate praetemittatur.
praetennittatur. nulla
iactura fit. Huiusmodi sunt mysterium
mysteriu super altari con.ficere.
conficere, sacer10 dotalibus vestibU5
vestibus indui sa.cerdotem, multa et ante verba
erba Domini et
post in
laudem
Iaudem Dei, in narrationem
naationem operum suorum, in impetrationem
mpetrationem
yitae aeternae pa.rtim
partim a sacerdotibus, partm
partim a popu1o dici.
dci. Unde et
alia apud alios dicuntur, et
apud quosdam plu:ta,
plura, apud alios
alias pauciora.
paueiora.
Hine est quod Basilius lacobi,
Hinc
Iacobi, Chrysostomus vero
veTO Basilii missa s
15 breiores
breviores {ecerunt, quod non
necessaria forent ornnia, quae
qua.e dicebantur.
Nemo enjm
enim neeessarium
ne<:essariun quidquam detrahere praesumpssset.
praesumpsisset. Quod
si quis
<US Rune
nuc non
per contempturn
contenpturn ecclesiae, quae ita ordinavit,
ordinait, Re<:
nec
tamquam. novam
noam introduce.ndo haeresim, sed inevitabili
ineitabili aliqua neceSsineceSs
tate coactus sola
soIa. Dominica
Dominca. verba
erba eum
cum debita intentione protulerit.
20 ipsa
psa dumtaxat, quae ille
il dixit
dXit et
(e<:it,
feeit, dicens et faciens,
faeiens, dummodo
dunnodo
sa.cerdos sit, convenientemque
convenientenque materiam habeat, profecto verum
erum Christi
corpus
CotpUS sanguinemque
sanguinenque perfecit. Contra vero,
, si quis eaetera
caetera omnj. et
alia. pa.ene
paene infinita
infin proferens verba
erba Domini omiserit, lusit
Jusit operam,
opera.n, ut
aiunt,
aiut, nihilque peregit.
25
Quod si forte
torte quispiam
quSpiam is
s minime eontentus
contentus auctoritatem
auetoritatern quaerat,.,
quaerat, I, I
et quid
<ud doctores ecclesiae sen,sennt.
seserint. audire desideret, imprimis
impmi.s videat
ideat
Ambrosium, aetate
aeta.te quidem paecedentem
praecedentem eaeteres,
ca.eteros, sapientia
sapentia vero

ac::
a:: vitae
vtae sanctitate nulli veI orientalium vel
occidentaliwn
occidentaliun cedentem.
cedenten.
Hic in
n sennone,
sermone, quem
quern de sacramentis scripsit, ita inquit : .Quornodo
30 enim pans
panis potest esse corpus Christi? Quibus verbis aut quorum
quorun verbis
erbS
haec sacramenta perficiWltur
perfieiWltur ? Et
addit
add.t : .Tpsis
tlpsis Domi.ni
Domini nostri Iesu
Christi.t Et infra : tCum autem
autern hoc sacramenturn perficit,
perlicit, non
proprili
propriis
verbis
ebis sacerdos,
sa.cerdos, sed ipsius Christi utitur. Verba enim Christi hoc sacrame:nt"lDll eonfieiWlt.t
post pauca: . Ante eonsecrationem
me:ntum
conficiWlt.t Et ost
consecra.tonem panis
35est. Verbis autem
autern CIW-sti
Christi dictis
dietis mox
corpus Christi est: AccipiU
/mim, inquit, comediU ex eo omnes. Hoc est crwpus
mim,
cwpus meum.
Similiter
in calice
ca1iee ante verba.
erba Domini
Donini vinum
inum est aqua mixtum.
mXtum.. Christi verba
verbis
operantibus sanguis
sangus eIfieitUI.t
efcituI .t Rursus idem Ambrosius
Anbrosius C\UR
cum multa
signa. et mira.cu1a
signa
mira.cula comm.emora.sset,
eommemora.sset, qaae
quae solo Domini verbo
verba facta fuere,
40 unierswnque
universwnque mundum
mmdum verbo
verba eodem ex
nihilo esse productn,
productwn, multa-

11 lo b; "".&IkJ
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8 Amb~.,
Amb~ . Oeacr.
Deacr. IV 2,3
2j (PL 16,
'6, 4H
444 A).
) . 1 13 Amb~. , De
Oe aacr. IV
14_
'4_
(PL 16,
.6,
HD--.f42)
De
e trill.
trll. IV
19 (PL42 . \101 B).! 22Cf. A ll
lI g.,
I . Setmo 227
u7 (PLj8.
(PL,38,
..
-40--442) . 118Cf.
1 18Cf. Au . D
'''99
'<>99 D) . 1 25 Aug.
AUI. SOlm.
S. 2 1 De
Do verbIs
vbl Dom.
. (PL 38) 1 I
29 Cf.
. Aug ., 111
.. Joh. ov.
.
lract.
Iract. 26,
26. '3 (PL ]5
35 6."
61'1 D).

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTJAE .

que alia orationibus et benedictionibus


benedietionibus humanis facta
faeta ostendjsset.
haee addit : .Si
potu;t humana benedictio ad
postlemo ha.ec
.5 igituT
igtur tantum
dam
m rerum naturam, quid de hae
transmutanda
transmutan
c divina consecratione dicemus, ubi ipsa vetba
verba Salvatoris
5alvatoris opeiantur
oeIantur ? Hoc eniJn
en sa.cramentum,
5quod aocipis. verbo Christi conficitUT.f
conficitu . Aliis quidem
quiden Iods
locS idem
iden doctor
multo plura
p1ura in hane sententiam
seD.tentiam manifestissirne dicit.
dieit. Augustinus
Augustnus
vero sanctissjmus et ipse doctor: .Divini eorporis
corporis eonseuatio,
cODseLiatio, inquit,
catholea ecclesia creditur non
n magis abono,
a , non
on minus a malo
nalo
a catholiea
sacerdote eonfici.
confici. Neque enimmerito eonSOCiantis,
conSCCiantis, red
sed u
U 2atoris
_atoris effieitw:
efficitu:
10 verbo.. Et
alibi: tCredendum Christi verbis
verbS sacramentwn , coalici.
colici.
Cuius enim llQtentia
tentia prius creata
ce"" sunt e a, quae sunt, .huius eerte
certe verbo
ad tnelius
tnelus mutan,tuf.f
Idem in sccundo
Dnin.: .Ante verba
mutan,tu1'" ldem
socundo de verbis Domini:
Dom.in.i.
Donin.i. inquit, quae Hoc est
co~ _
dicunt, pa.
panis dicitur, quod
offertur ; verbis autem illis dictis
dicts non
amplius ,
panis, sed corpns vocatur.t .
HiEt
UiEt ruTSUS in exp6sitione
expSitione 8Uper
super Iohannem.
Iohannem : .Vocatur corpus
copus et caro
Christi, quoo caro continere non
Cbristi,
on potest. Conficiunt autem
en illud earnis
cam.is .
verba, quae ipsius
eamis
camis Christi
ChSt; verba fuerunt.
fueront.
Ait enim.
enn : Hoc at
t
~
Quid
QUd elarius
c1arius his testimonils,
testimons, quid manifestius .es.se
esse
potest ? Neque enim
enilD hos doctores quisquam mentis C01'Dp05
conpos et Chri20 stianus esse desiderans
desdeans respueret, quos sacrae
sacae omnes synodi et connnunes
ecclesiae doctores a.cceptarunt, quos
os
ut sanctos ae
: Deo acceptissimos
magois praeconii.!i
magnis
praeconiis extulerunt,
extu1erunt, quorum
qurum memoriam
memoram cum smnma laude
non modo oecidentalis,
occidental S, venun
vern etiarn
etian orientalis ecclesia
ecclesa eelebrat.
ce1ebnt . Manifestum est igitur hos n
on obscure neque 8ub
sub dubio.
dubio, sed
red palaJn
palam et mani~5 feste sensisse
smsisse sacratissimis
sacratissiJnis illius Domini
Domin. verbis h oc sacramentum
saeramentum CODHOt:. eu
lIU C01'pus
corpus _m
_m,, et Hic ut S41ff
sa1fguis
Uis meus.
mllUS.
fici: Hot:.
Quid igitur
igitur?? Hi
quidem hoc modo dicunt, orientales vero aliters
alter.
sentiunt. At hoc modo non idem in eis
eS locutus
Iocutus fuisset
misset spiritus, nec
sancti
rancti Spiritus,
5piritus. sed ventris sui
su eructationes essent
ess~t sermones eo.um.
eom.
30 Nmc
Ntmc veTO
veo unus atque idem
dem spiritus locutus est er
per os
Utfrumque
utrorumque..
At quemadmodwn
quenadmodwn in caeteris omnibus, ita
. etiam
eta:n in hoc sacramento
saca:nento
coneordes SUDt
concordes
sunt occidentalibus
occidentalbus orientales. Audi enim, quid aurea illa
Tohannis lingua in LXXXIl.
LXXXII. super
suer Matthaeum homilia
hnilia dicat : "Non
"
SUDt,
sunt. inquit, humanae
hunanae potentiae opeia,
oela , quae proposita santo
sunt. Qui tune:
tunc
36 ea fecit in coena. ipse nunc
nune ea quoque operatur. os
Nos ministrorum
locum
locm tenem.us.
tenemus. Qui
vero sanct
sanc t ificat
i icat et ea mutat, ipse est.c Rursus
idem in
XXVII. super
supe I.
. ad Corinthios
Corinthio homilia
homlia ita inquit
nquit : . Quomodo
Paulus a Domino a.ccepit ?
ea ex
N on enim aderat
adeTat tunc,
tune, sed
red unus erat
pelsc<--utoribus. Ut
petsc<--utoribus.
intellegas, a it, nibil
ih plus illam mensam habuisse.
habuisse,
~ quam habeant hae posteiores.

posteriores. Nam et hodie ipse est, qui operatu,


operatUJ

_m..

11 ...l.d_ MV
V .....
.,d

d ... B

BESSARIONIS
BE$SRJONIS

28

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,,{no,.

8 Joh. Chry
Chy . ..
. Hom.
Horn. 8a
8'0 in
" M'Otth.
M..tth. (PG S8, 744 B).
). 12 10h.
Joh. Chry . , Hom. 21
in rCo.-.
lCo-. (PG 6 1,
. , 229C).
U9C).

Dll: SACRAMENTO
DP:
SACRMENTO EUCHAIUSTIAE.
EUCHRIS"AE.

29

et tradit, quemadmodum et tunc.


jgitur, ut nos
os minjstrorum
tune. Vjdesne
Videsne igitur,
ministrorum
10cum tenemus. Qui vere
ere ea
ea. sanctificat
sanetificat et mutat, ipse est. Vides,
dM,
ut ipse est, qui omnia
omn.a operatur et tradit,
tracHt, quemadmodum et tunc.
tune.
Persuade igitur tibi, ipsum esse, qui ea mutat. Nec rationi
ratiom tuae, quae
5 dubia
duba est, sed infinitae illius potentae
potentiae hoc tribue.t
tbue.
Dices fortasse
haud
baud tibi
tbi CQntradicere
contradicere hunc
hune doctorem. Etenim te quoque et sentire
et profteri
profiten illum esse, qui
baec
baee operatur, sed per oraliones,
orationes, !Ied
sed per
peces
pteces sacerd.oti:s.
sacerd.otis. Atqui multum interest operari aliquid
aliqud et omnia
omma
operari. Tu
namque Spiritum
Sum sanetum
sanctun eis
cis descendentem
descenc1ntem tuis
Ns preci10 bus sanctificare
sanetificare haec munera,
munern, quamvis etiam verba Domini aliquid
operentur. Hic
vero doctor sanetissimus
sa.nctSSimus ipsum inquit
nqut SalvatotetD
SalvatoletD
haec perficere, ipsum omnia operari. Ne<:
Nec addit pucibus
predbus sacerdotum
sacerdoturn
id lieri,
e, quod
od certe addidisset, si
, scivisset
scivsset necessarium fore.
lare. Subticuit
autem tamquam non necessarium. Qui enim omnia
ornnia facit,
faeit, nulle
1l0 in16diget
1 6dget operatore.
Verum ex illis
ills Chrysostomi, quae supra memoravimus, verbiss
dscitur quaedam
qua.eda.m haud eontemnenda
contemnenda CQnsideratio.

discitur
coruideratio. Ait
Ai! enim non
accepisse Paulum a Christo hanc
bane traditionem,
traditionern, eum
cum tamen ipse se
accepisse
accepsse asserat. Et
recte quidem Chrysostomus. Erat enim
enin tum
20 Paulus
Pamos ersecuo
persecutor et hostis
hostS nominis Christi et mu!to
multo post ascensionem Salvatoris
SalvatoS in eoelos
coelos sacram fidem ab eo, qui
sibi in via fuerat
obvius, didicerat.
didieerat. Quibus igitur
gtur tradentibus accepit? Nempe apostolis,
apostols,
et iis
s quidem non v
verbo
erbo tantum docentibus, sed demonstrantibus opere.
Paulus vero tradidit
traddit nobis,
nobs , quae acceperat.
aeceperat. Cum autem ea sola
50la tradide26, quae in epistula ad Corinth.ios scribit
scribit. certe illa
, sola
50Ia accepit et
25rit,
illa sola
50la apostoIos
apostolos facere vidit. Nam si
' plura facere vidisset, ea quoque
tradidisget.
tradidsget. Nhl
Nihil autem
autern in ea epistula dicit amplius, nisi Christum
ChStum
accepisse panem in manus suas, benedXisse,
benedixisse, dedisse discipulis
dSCipulis atque
dixisse:
dix.sse: Auipte
Auipite et
d conlfdite, hot
hot e$t corpws
corfr$ mfln.
mem. Idem igitur
jgjtur omni
ornni
3Oex. parte apostoli, quibus tradentibus Paulus id accepit, Iaciebant.
Iaeiebant. Hoc
oc
tantum accepit ab illis
s Paulus, hoc tradidit
traddit nobis. Postea Ve1"O
VeTO sive
Clemens, sive IaCQbus,
Iacobus, sive alius quicumque alias
,as orationes et hymnos
et eantica
cantica non
ad necessitatem, sed ad omatwn addiderunt. Quae
eum
cum ita sint, satis eonstat
constat beati Chrysostomi testimonium
testimonin adeo clarum
c1arum
3li atque apertum e.sse,
esse, ut nulla excusatio, nullum subterfugium eahnnnicalnnni
antibus re1inquatur.
re1nquatur.
Audiamus nunc
nune eundem doctorem seipsum exponentem et ita rem 10,
halle declarantem,
hanc
declaranten, ut nu1lus,
nullus, quamvis audax et CQntentiosus,
contentiosus, contradieere ausit. Hie
dicere
Hc in
n ea homilia,
hom!a, quam de prod.itione
proditione traditoris
traditos et sacra40 mentorum traditione conscripsit,
conscripst, ita inquit:
: Adest nunc
nune quoque Ch~
Chri~
stus, qui iIlam
jllam mensa.m
mensam fecit;
feeit; ille ipse nune
nUDC etiam
etam ornat.
ornat.
Non est enim
homo, qui haec mnnera
mIInea facit corpus
CQtpUS et sanguinem
sangunem Christi, sed qui

crucifixus est pro Dobis


nobis Christus. Figuram quidem adiInplens
adinplens astat

3.

BESSARlONIS
BESSR.10NIS

B
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2 cf.
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Oe e,npo..-e
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e 0JriJti
Qnit (PG
.60, .079
'079 go.

DE
SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHARISTlE.

3L

sacerdos, verba illa pronunta.ns;


pronuntians ; potestas vero
eo et gtatia
gata tota Christi
Christ
est. Hr
H~ est un'p.s
un'/J$ ",eum,
meuHJ, ait. Hoc verbum res propositas transmutat.
Nam quemadmodum vox illa, qua dicturn
dictum est: C"escite eS
e ",ultiplicami"j
multiplicamirsi
et "eplete
t4am, semel quidem dicta est, semper &utem
operae
"lop!.ete Urr""',
autern fit
Ii naturae nost:rae
nosttae vim
vUn praebens ad generandurn.
generandum. ita. haec quoque vox
semel dicta in
n singulis
ngulis aris
ars ex eo tempore
tempoTe u.sque
usque in
n praesente:n
praesenteIn diem
et usque ad Christi
Christ ad~tn
ad~twn hoc sacramentum. integre
ntegre perficit. Verum
ad haec dicere soletis:
so1etis: Quemadmodurn
Quemadmodum verbwn,
verbum, quo CTeata
ceata sunt omnia.
non ipsw:n
ipsum solurn
so sufficere
sufficee ad productionem eorurn,
eon, quae fiunt, sed
10maris et feminae coniunctionem
coniunctonem requiri. ut animaliutn
an.imalin genus propagetur.
culturnque terrarum
tearum et agricolarum opera necessaria esse, ut quae na5n,ascuntur. e terra
tea producantur et coa1escant,
coalescant, eodem modo solum
solurn Salvatoris verbwn haud sufficere, sed et preces sacerdotis et benedicbenedietione et alia pleraque
tionen
plenque necessaria esse ad hoc mysterium peCiendwn.
perliciendurn.
1Ii
:; Haec enim Marcus.
Mareus. Epbesinus
Epbesnus antistes, ex dictis
Nicolai
icolai Cabasilae
swnpta obicere solebat. Etsi longe impar ingenio,
ngenio, acutius sane
saue multo
ille disputavit.
disputait. quamquam
quanquam nec ipse
pse quidem
qUdem dignum aliquid diueruit.
dine:uit.
Enimvero admirandos simul atque deflendos illos censeo, qui sponte
sua ad clarissimas res et ipsam veritatem oculos
ocuIos claudunt, et ita ut
20tam clara atque aperta sanctissimi doctoris verba pervertere conentur,
et ita
contTa
conta propriam salutem
saluten exponere, ut omnibus contemptui
contenptui sint
atque derisui.
Quid enim ait sanctus doctor? .Figuram
tFguram adimplens astat seoer-.
secer-
das,
dos, verba
veTba illa pronuntians; potentia veto
ero et gratia
gata tota Christi
Christ
uest. Hoc en
lon corpus
corpU$ tfIe_,
meum, ait. Hoc verbum
ve<rbum res popositas
propositas tta.nstans
JDutat..
mutat.. Quid hoc certius
oertius desideras?
desideras ? lila,
lUa, inquit, verba a sacerdote
pronuntiata. Quae autem illa sint, subiungit: Hoc est ,c()J'p&
,cOJ'/'US ",,",m.
m,eum.
lUa,
Illa, inquam,
inquan, teS
res propositas transxnutant.
transnutant.
F-it ergo tTansmutatio
transmutato
per illa verba,
veTba, non a .sacerdote,
sacerdote, sed a Christo, cuius
cuins tota
tot& gratia et
30 potestas est. Sacerdos enim
enirn figura.
figura, Christus vero
veto veritate haec traJu.traJs.
mutat, sacerdote verba eius,
eins, quemadmodum
quemadrn.odum ille statuerat,
statuera.t, pronuntiante. Et rursns;
nrsus; .Hoc
tHoc verbum sacramentum
sacramentn integre
ntegre perficit.,
perfidt., Considera, homo, quid integra
ntegra haec peectio
perlectio significet. Attende. quid velit.
vetit.
Hoc verbum
veTbum res propoStas
propositas transmutat. Noli pervcaciter
pervicaciter contra
co.nta pro3IS priam salutem contendere et huius
hUus sententiae magis praecipuis ac
manifestis partibus
partibns reiectis
eiectis erertere
pervertere reUquas.
rellquas. Nec enim
enim. Ephesinus
Eph.esinus
ille nec Cabasilas integram
ntegra.m istam sententiam
sen.tentiam adducunt, sed quib1Isdam
quib1l!;dam
eins partibus recitatis transiliunt, fragmenta eius ql'aeclam
eius
qnaeclam velut
ve1ut indocti
iuxta Platonem
Platone:n coqui, qui nesciunt, volun.tve per ,artus dividere,
dvidere, nonolODulla.
.onuIJa. proferentes. caetera
ca.etera vero, quae ma.gis
rna.gis ad reJ1:l
e: fa.rerent,
fa.cerent, silentio
raetereuntes
praetereuntes et hoc modo obtenebrantes
obtenebantes veritatem. Imprimis
IMprins itaque,
hic,
sicut supra dictum est, ex huiusmodi verbis sancti doctoris non hic.
quem vos
os dicitis,
licitis, sensus
sesus colligitur. Deinde, 0 hone
bone vif,
ir, nonne i1lic
illic

'(g: 8\10' '''9' ~) JlIl.l<r.:l ",,!nJun lO!

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33

OE
SACRAMENTQ EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHARISTlE.

auetor
aucto atque opifex omnium:rerum
omium:rerun marem et feminam
fe:nina:n ea lege creavit,
ut non
nisi
pet'
pe coniunctionem eorum
""onm animalia
anmalia propagarentur
propagarentul' ? Rursusque in
n aliis
alUs semen
seen nasci et ex terra
tea ordinavit,
ut seminetur,
se:nnetur, seminatum
nascetm:
natwnque multiplicetul'?
fiel't.
nascetu natumque
mtlicetur ? At idcirco nec-sse est ita fieri.
fi Oportet enim (Sse
esse arantem.,
an.ntem, opartet
oportet esse !oclf)Iltem,
!oclf)tem, oportet esse generantem, omnesque
o:nnesque divinae obtempexantes volunt01.ti,
voluntati, hoc est ita agentes,
Tantem,
ut ille
lle statuit.
5t01.tuit. Statuit
5tatuit enim
eni:n eo modo, quo diXirnU5.
dixirnus. Quemadmodum
Quead:nodum
illa
il101. vox, qua dIctum
dictum est: Crescite
C,.escite et muUiplicamini, operae nostrae vim
praebet adgenerandum - opern.e,
opeae, inquit, naturae nostrae
nostae vim paebet,
praebet,
10 banc
balle sci1icet
seiHcet ei
legem
Iegem ponens, ut iIIa quod suum est agat, ipsa vero
omnem
omne:n vim praebens - ,, in
hoc vero
divino, de quo agimus,
aginus, sacramento
.sacra.nento
dumtaxat
dumtax01.t apostolos saceTdote5
sacedotes eIficiens et materiam
mateam panis et vini,
in,
qu01. ipsi quoque uterentur, ostendens
qua
ostendem tradjdit
tradidit eis fonnam, qua sacramentum eonficeTent.
conficeent.
Haec autern
auten mmt
n.n verba
verb01. eius
: Hoc est crwpus
corpus
umeum, et
Hic est sanguis
s4nguis meus. Quae semel a Salvatore
5alvatre dicta, ait
lJSmeum,
sacratssirnus doctor,
docto, semper operari, non
on eooperari,
cooperari, nec
euiusquaxn
cuiusquaxn
sacratissimus
paesidio
praesidio egere.
egee. Magnam enim,
eni, immo
iuno maxima.m
maximam omnium vim
virn. baberen,t
hwnana verba, si
quid auetoritatis
auctoritats aut potentae
diins adderen.t,
potentiae divinis
immo
nuno vero illa excellerent
exceI1eent dignitate, quod etiam eogitare
cogitare impium est
e;t
20 atque nefarium.
Cooperantur, inquit Ephesinus, Dominicis
Dominieis verbis
vebs sacerdotis.
preces. Quom.odo,
Quomodo, 0 bone vir, eooperantur?
cooperantur? An
tamquam per
pe se
5 tamquam sufficientibus,
suffieientibus,
insufficientibus, an tamquaxn sufficientibus ? Si
supeflua certe et
vana est tua omnis
omns oratio; si tamquam non sufficientisuffcientisuperilua
25 bus, heu I quae improbitas
inprobitas est, quae blasphemi01.
blasphemia dicere, !
ut quod divinis
deest ve1"bis,
vebS, hominis
homins suppleant preces ? Praeterea cum
euro verba haec
dicis
dics simul
5inul eum
cum oratione totum pce
perficere , utnmque
utrmnque imperlectum
inperfectum putas,
necesse est igitur,
g, ut aliud
aIiud tertium adveniens
advenens id agat. Quid vero hoc
sit,
, tu, quaeso, n obis aperi,
aperi. Neque enim Spirituro
5prtuu sanctum
sanetum id esse
30 dices; siquidem hoc est, quod quaeritur, an quodlibet eorum
eown pet'
pe se,
an a.mbo
ambo simul
sn Spiritum
5pJritum sanctwn
sanetwn ad id agendum inclinet.
nclinet. Quod s i
ambo contendis id posse, inteIIegas
intellegas necesse e st, quod si
arobo simul
hoc possunt, quatenus inibi
nibi Dominiea
Domnc01. verba continentur, ea sunt, quae
confieiunt sacramentum,
conficiunt
saeramentum, sive
, sequatur, $ive
sive non sequatur oratio. Itaque
35 nihil eis ad hoc addit aratio
oratio sacerdotis, nee
iI1is
iIlis aliquod necessarium
a1iunde praesidium. Quod si
quatenus
qu01.tenus supplicat saceTdos,
sacedos,
ut deest aliunde
'lCendens Spiritus
'!Cendens
5piritus sanctus illa sacrificet munera, eatenus dumtaxat consecrantur,
secrantu, nihir
hl ergo
ego operantur
opeantur verba Dom.inica,
Dominica, nec verum dicit
dieit ChryChry4
sostomus, eum
cum ea asserit semper
seropel' operari
opeari et transmutare et integre
Jntegre pet'pe40 ficere,
cere, nec cooperatur
coopeatur ei boc m.odo
modo saeerdotis
sacerdots supplicatio, ut tu ais,
o1.s,
10 iIr
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ou6~o,
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35

DE SACR.UfBNTO
SACR.UlBNTO E UCHARI STIAE .

sed totwn
totum operatur. Quid igitur comunpis
commps verba sacri
sac doctoris non
reeteeaexponens, et de sacralnento
fa lsamhabes opinionetn ?
recteeaexponens.
sa.cra.nento eucharistiae
eucha rStiae 'a
Atqui, inquis,
Atqui.
inqus. etiam baptisma sola.
sola sacerdot
sacerdots
is orationeperfidtur.
ora.tioneperficitur. Etiam 4
in hoc etTaS.
etTaS, et veritas in te non
est. Etenim baptisma.
baptisma quoque Dominieis
Dominics
11Gperficitur
perfieitur verbis.
erbs. Euntes.
Euntes, enim inquit.
inquit, baptizah e()S in "ami,"
romiu Patris a

Filii et
Spi1'itus
Sp1'itus sanc.t.
sanc.ti. Tunc
Tune peTicitur
perlicitur baptsma.
baptisma ,. quando dicit
dieit sa.cerdO$:
sacerdos:
tBaptizetur servos
serus Dei_,
Deic, aut : ,tBaptZo
Baptizo te in nomine
nOmne Patris et Filii et
,Baptizetur
Spiritus saneti._
sanct Unde Si
si quis etialn
etia.n nihit
hl a.liud
aliud aeter
praeter haec verba
eM
dixerit, recte baptizat.
dixerit.
baptizat, et qui hoc modo b aptizatus !uerit,
fuert, salutem
sa1utem
10 adeptus est. E
eonverso
coneso vero, si quis
qus caetera dixerit et infinitas ad
pollexerit preces.
preces, haec vero
praetenniserit,. nihit
omoino agit.
Deum ponexerit
eo pra.etennisert
nihl omnino
10
In hunc
hone modwn apost oli
ol per impositionem manuum et bened.ctonem
bened.ictionem
et pronuntationem
pronuntiationem horum
hOTUJll verborum baptizabant.
baptizabant, in hunc
hune modum
eueharistiae
eucharistae mysteriwn
mysterium consecrabant.
consecabant .
Nondum orationes.
orationes, noodum
nondurn
lGhymni,
ll1hymni. nondurn caetera.
caetera, quae in ecc!esia
ecclesia dicuntur.
dicontur, composita era.nt.
Cogitemus
Cogtemus enim.
enim, quod fjeri
fier; certe potuit, ipso passonis
passionis die aut sequenti
PetTum
Petum vel
el alium
a.lium quemlibet ex apostolis in memoriam Christi et
passionis eius sacramentum altaris conficere voluisse,
passioois
o!sse, neque enim
credibile
credbile est non
assidue eos illius
illus meminisse,
memnisse, in cuius commemorationem
eommemorationem
20id fien
fieri mandaverat
mandaerat quibus a1ijs verbis
erbs id eos feeisse
fecsse existimabimus
nisi Dominicis ? Et post coenam, quod
quod. etiam longo temporum inte'f'o
inter-vallo
obseratum est, et eommunibus
communibus vestibus
estibus indutus?
va1lo observatum
At baec verba.
verba, inquis.
inquis, narrando
narr.udo recitata oon
non pos.sunt
possunt sacramentum'
saeramentum'
conficere. on
Non autem
autern tamquam
ta.quam Tei
rei gestae seriem
serlem narrans
naans sacerdos
zbaec
profert, sed tamquam petsonam Ch risti inJutus,
t ita ea
26baec verba profert.
inlutu s, u
!
proferens, quasi Dominus esset.
esset, qui loqueretur,
Ioqueretur, et eam habens intentionem, ut per verba iUa
illa iuxta illius
illus mandatwn, qui ita
. pe<:epit
prae<:epit.,
corpus Christi
Chsti sanguinemque eonfieiat,
confciat . quemadmodum ille fecit . Fecit
Feeit
autern per ea,
autem
ea. quae supra memoravimus verba. Passunt
Possunt haee
haec sane
sa.ne
od! accipi : aut tamquam ab evangelista
evangelsta relata.
relata, et tunc
tune
3Oduobus modis
narrative accipiuntur,
aecipiuotur, evangelistis
eangelistis scilicet
scilieet ea, quae Christus
Chstus in illa
saluterae
salutiferae passonis
passionis nocte egit, nanantibus;
naantibus; aut tamquam a sacetdote
sacedote
prolata, intentionem habente, ut iuxta
. ordinem a Salvatore
Salatore traditwn
sacramenturn hoc: conficiat.
conficiat, et tunc
tune non
narrative.
narrative, sed cunetative
cunctatie proS5feruntur. eum
cum intentione conflCiendi
confciendi mysterium iuxta
iuxta. imitatiooern
imtationem
Christi, et quasi ipse esset.
Cbristi.
esset, qui et diceret et faceret . Idciroo sacri
doc:tOTes ass ~runt necessariam
doc:tores
recessariam imprimis
imprims esse sacerdoti
saeerdoti rectam intentionen
et propositum ea fadendi
faciendi ., quae dicta sunt, quippe sine illa nihiI
hiI omnino
confici posse.
jX!S5e. Quemadmodum si quis regum
regurn per aliquem
a.liquem ex iis. qui
coapud se gratia
gata et auctoritate
auetoritate valent.
valent, vo!unta
volunta tem sua.m
suam cupiens subditis
snm
30is facere
fa.cere manifestam et ita id apud iUos
illos valere, ac si se animum suurn
12 ..
~ M
v
13 cnas
cas Vn . lat.
"l.on4

h
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"D"''''

":lI.DlQ>

rn02l.

SUIOIllVSS:;Ul

"

DE SACRAMBNTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHRISTIAE.

37

expnmente.m audirent, sanciat, ut ita illa verba in prima persona


exprimente.m
sunt, populusque ita prolata audiens tamquam
referat, uti asedicta
a se dct sunt.
ab ipso
pso rege dictis obtemperet.
obternpeet. Manifestum est enim,
en, quod si hac
lege
Iege data veniens ad poUlum
populum nuntius ita dicat: Rex. vestTae
estae salutis
5 cupidus vest1:a:rnque
vest1:a:nque reIn
rem publicarn in fdicitate ac copia
copa omniurn
omnium renun
rerun
tenere
tenee desiderans, continue iis rebus invigilat
ingilat et leges condit,
condit. quas ad
id existimat utiles ac necessarias.
neeessarias. Unde cum in multis aliorurn
aliourn ex.empla
secutus, tum
turn plurimonrn
plurimonnn ipse inventor
inentor hanc legern sandt:
sancit: Volo quemlibet vestrum, qui conditis a me legibus paruerit, talentum
talentun auri ex
10 aerario publico tot an.nis
annis accipiat. Profecto
Profe<:to nec
ne<: narrative
naatie haec
hae<: dicit,
sed simulatque
smulatque dicta SWlt,
sw, rata
fiW1t,
fiWlt, quae iubentur. Quamobrem?
Quia rex. ita
sanrit.
sanx.it. Eodern modo hoc intellegendum est talern a
Domino sacerdotibus traditam
traditarn potestatern, ut eius verba
erba ab illis in

pima
prima persona et tamquam
tanquam simul
Jnl ab eo dicerentur
diceentur po1ata
prolata totwn effieff15 ciant.
clant. Aut cur
illiquidem
illiqudern suffecerunt haec vet'ba.
verba. nobis vero non
sufficiunt ? Si enim illi
suffecerunt, et
n
nobis
obis utique sufficere debent potenta
potentia
ilHus
et tarnquam
tanquarn ab illo
iUo dicente prolata.
Quod si nobis aJiquid
aliquid necesse est addere, imperfecta sunt verba.
verba'
illius. Absit a is
piis mentibus
rnentibus talis cogitatio. Quam enim aliam potesta20 tern
tem per consecrationern accipiunt sacerdotes,
sacedotes, nisi
illa.tn Christi personam posse subire et ro
pro eo nobis adesse et, que.madmodum
que.madmodurn ine
iUe fecit,
feeit,
corpus eius posse consecrare?
consecare? Fecit
Fect autem
autern illa per verba,
veba, quae diximus.
dixinus.
Enimvero simpliciter orare
oare quisque posset, imrno vero
eo efficacius saepenumero orarent
nurnero
oarent multi sa.cerdotes
sacerdotes nonnullis sacerdotibus.
sacedotibus .
Siquidem
25 plerique sacerdotes
sacedotes ita
viVWl,t,
viVWlt,
ut non
sint Deo acce.pti. Plurimi
vero
eo
ex. saecu1aribus
saecu1arbus ita
ob eorum
bon itatem
ita.t em Deo cari
sunt et
grati,
gati, ut
plerumque miraculis decorari
decoari mereantur. Si igitur vel
soIa oratione,
ve1
e1 ea praecipue haec sacramenta perficerentur, certe magis perlicerenperliceTentur a viris
iusti:,
iustis, quamvis non
sacerdotibus,
sacedotibus, quam ab indignis
indigns sacer~
saceT~
30 dotibus. Hoc vero falsum est. Perinde enim
mim sacramentum conficit
sacerdos, quamvis malus atque pervesus,
perversus, ut optimus atque sanctissimus. Saecularis vero
eo pesona,
pel'SOna, qualibet fide religioneque excellat,
excel1at, nihil
omnino potest, quia nullam
nuUam ad faciendum a Domino potesta.tem
potestatem accepit.
cum sacerdos
sacenlos acceperit maximam. Si igitur non est vi:
is orationis,
oationis, quae
35hoc
3lhoc facit esset enim
mim omnibus
omibus cornnllUlis
cornmmis - , superest
supeest
ut pro Chmto
Christo
adsint nobis
nobs sacerdotes eiusdem in
hoc potestatis, qui et
instar illius
operari possint et
annuntiare ,
populo, quae ille praecepit. Hoc enim,
jacite in meam
inquit, jaGite
mu'" commemoratimem. Hoc scilicet, quod ipse feci,
accepto pane et villo
ino in manibus, respiciendo
espiciendo in coelum,
corium, frangendo.
40 benedicendo, gratias agendo Deo Patri, et in corpus
cops et sanguinem per
pe
ea verba:
veba: Hoc est corpus meum, et Hic est sanguis meus, transmutandO.
transmutando.
H oc enim ea
transmutat, hoc ea integre peficit,
perficit, ut beatusChrysostomus ait.

3.

BESSRIQNIS
BESSARIONIS

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4~. 96 D-.
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27 Cf. Ad.t
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c..o tijlOl
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. t 10. s6sa '0.

..

DE
SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHRISTlE.

39

Haec quidem,
quid~m, nisi me animus
anms fallit,
all, satis
satS sUpeIque
supeque cse
as~ videntUT
videntu ad f
obturanda
obtur.uda omnium OTa,
OJ"a, qui tam apertae et manifestae rei
re contTad.icere
conanM. Audiamus
Auilia:nus ta.men,
ta.tnen, si p1aoet,
plaoet, etiam
etia.m Gregol"lum
Gr~gorium Nyssenum,
virum
iru.m et doctrma
doctrna et vitae
Vtae sanctitate
sanc.titate excellentem. Is in catechetico eius
eis
5 sermone
sertnone de divinis sacramentis
sac.ramentis ita loquitur:
loq: .Recte igitur et nunc pa.nem
panem
divino
diino verbo
erbo sanctificatum in corpus Dei Verbi transmutari credimus.
credmus.
Nam et illud corpus - intellegit autem
autern corpus assumptUDl
assunptum ex vitgine
virgine panS
panis potentia erat.
era.t. Sancti{icatus vero
ero tuit
! habitatione Verbi in cam,e
habitantis.
habitantS. A
quo ita panS,
panis, qui
in iIlo
ll corpore
corore erat, transsubstantiatus
]0 fuit
in
divinam
diinam potentiam,
pe eum nunc quoque aequaliter
aequa1iter fit
. Et

potentiarn, per
ibi enim gratia Verbi sanctum fecerat illud corpus, quoo
ex pane
consistebat. Et
illud quooanunodo etiam pans
panis erat, et hic similiter
panis, quemadmooum apostolus ait: Saneti!icatu,
Sancti!icatur per verbum Dei d
watimem, non
(per)
() c.omestionem
copus Verbi
orationem,
comestionem ad hoc p:ed.ens,
prcced.ens, ut corpus
15 fiat,
riat, sed mox ad corpus per verbum transmutatur, quemadmooum
quem.admooum ab
SO Verbo dictum est : Hoc est co,pus
d. c1arius
c1a, certiusve
certiuse
ipso
corpus meum.t
meum . Quid.
iis
s audire
auilire desideras? ,Panis, inquit,
, verbo Dei sanctificatur.f
sanctficatur.f Hoc
:
imprimis
imrimis pobat
probat ma.nifeste
manifeste verbo Dei sacramentum
saca.mentum hoc confici. Deinde
ml.us poOOos
aertius ostendit:
tCorpus, ait, potentia pans
modus
probationis idem apertius
osterulit: .corpus,
panis
20est, quia
. pane constat.,
c.onstat., Alimentum enim, ut Aristoteles dooet.
primo quidem dissimile, ostea
postea vero simile fit eius, cuius est alimentum.
a1imentum.
Corpus igitur,
igtur, quoo
ex virgine
Vrgine Dominus assumpsit, potentia pans
panis erat.
At
tale corpus ex virgine
virgne assumptum, qund
quod potentia pans
panis erat, non

fuisset aliter
a1iter sanctificatum,
sanctific8otum, nisi Verbum illud carnem
C8.1em illam
il1am inhabitasset.
25 Ita
It80 nunc
nune panis quoque altaris
a1taris non
aliter
a1iter quam per verbum Dei et orationem sanctificatur. Cuius rei testem
testern Paulum citat.
c.itat. Quod
l. autem
ait: pe
per orationem, nihil
hil corroborat adversariorum
adersariorum rationem, siquidem
in prima ad Timotheum epistola
epsto1a hoc de communibus cibis dicit. Hic
vero doctor non de communibus, quae illic
llic dil.:untur,
diGuntur, illius usus est
30 testimonio,
testinonio, sed dumtaxat, quantum ad confinnationem ropositi
propositi sui
spectat,
sectat, de tran.smutatione,
transmutatione, quae sit per veTbwn
ve-bwn Dei.
De. Unde paulo
post concludens
conc1udens 8oit;
ait; t.
Mox ad carnem transmutatur
transmutatul'. Et ad huius
confinnationem subiungit : t Quoniam ipse dixit: Hoc est corp..s
cop..s ~I.'
~m.'
Adverte,
Aderte, quaeso, cum caetera
c80etea omrua,
omnia, tum quod
qul. in
fine ait, quoo
mox
35 per verbum transmutatur.
transmutatut. Verbum vero inquit
esse : HQC
HQc est cor-pus
mewm. Nonne, oro te, verbum
vebum illud mox non relinquit locum
Iocum orationibus? Si igitur verbum illud : HQC
HQc est corpus
cQrpus meum, mox transmutat,
manifestum illud solum esse est, quod
od transmutat, aliter
a1iter enim
enm non
n
mox, sed a1iquo
aro
aliquo et non
parvo interiecto tempore transmutatio fieret.
40
I ta
t80 certe inter se conveniunt sancti
sal1cti patres et doctores nostri, ita
it80 sibi
invicem
inVcem consentanei loquuntur, sive
sie orientales,
orienta1es, sive
sie occidentales.
Quippe Damascenus in
!ibro
libro sententiarum ec... 23 ita inquit: .Non
est panis figura
fgura corporis et sanguinis Christi, absitl sed ipsum corpus

.0

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16 ,Cor",23.121
ICorII,23.12t .Cor",2J-<l6.
.Cor",23-<16.

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.

Christi deUicaturn.t
defica,turn.t Et
unde hoc, sanctissime
sa.nctSSime doctor? . Hoc ha,bemus
habemus
ab
a,b ipso, inquit, Domino dicente non
: Hoc est figura
{gu corporis, sed
psun corpus
CO"rpUs meum, et non
figura.
sa.nguinS, sed ipse sa.nguis
ipswn
figura sanguinis,
sanguis meus.t
meu.u
Verba igitur
Veroo
igitu illa:
illa.: Hm;:
Hot; est corp.n mlilm,
mUlm, etiam
etia.m iuxta
iuxta. sententiam
sententia.m illius
I>
doctoris fadunt
faciunt , ut pa.nis
panis altaris
altas venun ChTisti
ChTSti corpus sit cred.a.turque.
cred.aturque.
Sed Hs
i! omnibus, quae supra
supra. memoravimus
memora.vi.mus quasi ultma.m
ultimam ma,num
manum 11,.
11,'
imponit
mponit epistula doctoris gentium ad
a.d Corintbios de huius sacratissimi
sacra.tissmi
mysterii
rnysterii traditione speculantis.
speeulantis. Ego enim,
mim, inquit, accepi
accep; a Domiro,
Domirw,
tJf40d et tradidi oom.
vom. Deinde enumerat, quae accepit.
aecepit. Primo
Pmo itaque
16 videamus,
ideamus, si libet, an suffieienter
suffcienter tradiderit. Patet siquidem manifeste
eum
euro tradidisse. Neque enim
enm imperfeete
mperfecte accepit,
aceepit, neque minus, quam
acceperat, tradidit
accepera.t,
tra.didit ; sed quidquid cl
et necesse erat cirea
c:a huius sacramenti
sa.cra.menti
mysterium fieri
lieri,, et accepit et tradidit. Accepit
Aecepit autem
autern haec,
haee, quod
scillcet Dominus l eSf4s, qua mn;te
scilicet
mte tradebatur, accepit pa.nem
panem et craJias
graJias
16agms
am5 tregit
,' d dixit:
<: Accipi/.e et
manduude.
mndUC4te. Hm:: est corpus meum, quoll
quod
pro vobis trangitur: Jvx; taci/.e
taNte i n meam commemorationem.
commemcrationem. SimiliUr
SimilUr
et
calieem, postqutJm
dieens: Hie
calicem,
postquam eoena!!;t,
coenavit, dkens:
Hk calix novum testamentum tst
in
!neO
meo sancuine:
sang";ne: hoc IadU
tadU quotiescunq",e Mberitis, in
meam eommecommemorationem. Et nihil
hil praeterea addidit.
Quia
Quia. enim nmil
nih1 amplius
a.mplus
2acceperat, nihil
2Oaccepera.t,
nih1 a.mp1ius
amplius tradidit. Et addidit modum consecrationis
divini corporis et sanguinis, omni ex parte sulficientem atque perfectum, quali
qua1i usus luit
fuit Christus, qualem
qua1em ab
a,b eo ip50
ipso a.ccepit: acdpere
a.:ipere
scillcet panem,
scilicet
panern, gratias agere, fra.ngere
frangere et dicere : AccipiU
AcdpiU et manducate,
mnducate,
Jvx; est corPus meum, et hoc modo eonficere
conficere sacramentum.
sacramentum.. Quid,
250bsecro, horum
honm consecrat divinissimum
divinissimurn ilIud
1lud munus
rounus ? Profecto
Profeeto non
acceptio
a.:epto panis- hoc enim subiectum est consecrationis, quod in
corpus
Domini tra.nssubstantiari
gratiarum
gra.tiarum actio, non
fra.ctio,
transsubstantiari oportet- non
fractio,
quarum
quawn altera
a1tera ad conunemorationem
conemorationem ineffabilium
ineffa,b1ium erga nos beneficiorum
m Dei, altera
a1tera. ad
a.d distributionem necessarla,
necessaria est. Superest igitur, ut
30 verba ista sint, quae consecrent : c
Hoc est eorpus
corps meum, et Hic est sanguis
meus.
_so Et
ita existimandum
exStimandum. est et tunc fuisse consecratum et nunc
nune
consecrari, conculTentibus
concutentbus scilicet,
sc1icet, ut dictum est, et Patre et Spicitu
Sp!itu
sancto, cum
curn omnia in creatura
creatura, opera
opera. iis tribus communia sint.
sinto Verum
Salvatori
Sa1vatori quidem haud necesse fuit Patrem
Patrern et Spiriturn
Spiritum sanctum
sancturo pala.m
palam
35ad hoc opus invocare, eurn
cum unus idemque et unius cum
curn illis
iltis substantiae
substa.ntiae
sit, propter quod, quidquid ab eo vel fiebat vel dicebatur,
dicebatuT, idem ab
aliis quoque fiebat
allis
febat dicebaturque. Nos vero fas est et nominatim
nominatm illos
invocare et, ut munera.
munera nostra sanctificent, precari, verum id non
a1io
allo
atque aHo
alo modo agere, nec
ne<: alio
atque alio
tempore, sed et pro tempore
4tI)
4) Domini
Domni pronuntiamus verba, et quomodo verba significant.
sgnificant . Quod si
9 ""P"'''
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Domini V"'$. 1,.,.
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U' (V 4 It MYOiYO LOuhou. ~
BESSARIONIS

"

SINOlllVSS:;m

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRAJtENTO EUCHA1USTIAE.
EUCHJISTIAE .

illum tamquam hominem


iIlum
homnem diceremus, dum gratia5
gratias agebat beneficiis
acceptis.
a:eptis. orasse etiam tacite PatTem
PatTern et Spiritum saJ\ctum,
saJ1,ctum, ut ad eam
consettationern
consetationem concurrerent.
concuerent. deinde
dende verbis illum prolatis mysterium
mysteium
peregisse non sine
on: ratione dic:eremus.
diceremus.
modo
od et nos
os agere
agee necesse est, invocato scilic:et
scilicet Patres
5
Eode.m igitur
et Filio et Spiritu sancto nominatim
nomnatim et
! manifeste, sive ante verba
Domini sive JX'
post.
>St. seu utroque mod.o
modo - nihil
hil enim
m interest,
mterest, ut postea
disz:remus
d is::remus - ita
demum
de.mum prolatis Domini verbis sacrum hoc my:terium
mysterium
conficere. Ita
accepit Pau
Paulus,
lus, ita
nobis traclidit. Ttansgredi aute.m
autern
10 traditionern
traditonem eius neque pos!iumus
possumus neque debemus, si
5 discipuli eius, immo
vero Christi et
esse et vocari eupimus.
cupimu:. Abunde vero :uperius
superius demonstratum
'un est, quoniarn
quoni.an Paulus
: hanc
hane traditionem non a Christo, sed ab
apostolis acc:epit,
accepit, non
modo
mod verbohoc, sed opere etiam ita facientibus,
manifesturn
anifestum esse non aliis quam Christi verbis ipsos etiam apostolos post
15 Christum consecrasse et
caeteri5
caeteris eundem mysterii
myster ritum tradidisse. Pra.eterea hoc idem ostendunt popul
populi ad ea
verba responsione:.
responsiones. Sacerdote
Saeerdote
enim verba illa aita voce.
voce, ut vos
VQS Graeci soletis, pronuntante
pronuntiante 8.S!iistens
assistens
popuJus in utraque parte respondet:
respondet : Amen, quasi dicat:
dicat : Vere
e: ita
est.
ut tu dicis. Amen enim cum
curn aftirmandi
aftina.ndi apud Hebraeos
He braeos adverbium
20 :1t,
sit, graece idem quod vere signi.ficat.
significat. Amen igitur ad ea verba respondens populus : Certe, inquit,
quit, corpus et
sanguis Christi sunt munera
ista
Sta propos.ita,
proposita, ita
Ciedimus,
cIedimus, ita
confite.mur.
confitemur. Et
quomodo, quaeso te.
es:et
ignrare,
non
esset turpe putan.dum
putandum eo:,
eos, qui doctiores haberi volunt, ea ignorare,
quae saeculares et :acrarum
sacrarum litterarum
ltterarum ignari respondendo
espondendo Amen
25 manifeste
anifeste se scire
seiTe magnificant?
magnificant ? Quid. nonne 8.S!iistens
assistens sacerdoti diaco: eique ministrans,
mnStrans, dum sacerdos alta voce iuxta orientalis
oenta1is eccIesiae
conus
ecclesiae
ritum verba illa pronuntat;
pronuntiat: Hoc est corpus
copus meum,
meum. et
Hic
Hie est sanguis
meus. ipse
se propa
propria :to1a
stola duobus pmis
primis digitis tacta panem et
caiicem
ostendit? Nihil certe a1iud
aHud significans,
:gnificans, nisi panem illum Christi esse
30 corpus, et quod. in ca1ice
ca1ce est.
est, esse sanguinem
sangunem eius. quemadmodum verbis
illis asseritur. Et
haec sane ostendens
ostendeIls diaconus
daconus non
on mentitur et non

mentiens cum iis


S sentit, qui soIa
sola Domini
Domni verba aiunt. hoc sacrum
perficere sacramentum. Neque enim frustra tales
ta1eo institutae sunt ab
ecclesia
ecclesa caeremo:niae.
caeremonia.e.
35
3:
Illud
IUud quoque haud
baud contemnendum metur,
vdetur, quod
qud cum duo sacra-12.1
menta nobis a Saivatore tradita fuerint, baptisus
baptismus et
eucharistia,
eucharista,
utrumque verbis
verbS suis eonfid
confc iussit. Etenim baptismus. quemadmodum
que.madmodum
supra mernoravimus,
BapUzau W$
ws #
j# 1Wmine
nomine
memoramus, per verba iIIa
ill conficitur: #"
Palr
Spintus sane#.
sanc#. Cuiu:
Cuius rei testimonium esl,
est, quod patres
Patris d Filii d Spiritus
.0
nostri sancti
:anct ecdesiae
eccksae doctores,
doctoes, qui statuerunt, qu
quinam
inam ex
iis.
is. qui
ab haeretici:
haereticis ad catholicam revertuntur ecclesiam, rebaptizandi sint.
sint,
qui non
on eos haud rebaptizandos esse censent, qui in
n nomine Trinitatis
Tritatis
semel fuerint baptizati. Quod etiam
etam expositor synodalium
synodalum canonum
canOum

mSSARIONIS
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I1 .s6.fC.

,,

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHAlUSTJAE.
EUCHIUSTJAE.

"
Is
IS enim in quadragesimo septimo

apud Graecos
Gaecos videtur
Vdetur confirmare.
;:onare .
apostolonun
apostolorum canone
;:anone ita inquit
oquit:: . Vere baptIzatur
baptizatur aliquis,
aliqus, cum
;:um secundum
se;:undum
vocem
o;:em Domini semel baptizatur in
nomine Patris
PatrS et Fil
Flli et Spiritus
5piritus
san;:t, tamquam
tamquan pronuntatione
fdei in
ea iuxta Dominisancti,
pronuntiatione Trinitatis et fidei
5 cam traditionem perfica.tur
perficiatur baptismus.t Si
5 igitur hae<: duo sola
501a sacramenta in evangeJiis
evangeliis manifeste tradita legimus,
Jegiml.ls, alterum
alterom veto
er eorum,
hoc est baptismus, Dominicis perficitur verbis,
verb S, profecto et illud quoquaque, hoc est eucharistiam, divinis
divinS illis
l et a Deo traditis verbis
verbs confici
coc
existimandum est. Siquidem in
onmi
onu. genere rerum quattuor esse causas
100portet : effectivam, foIma1em,
10oportet
fonalem, finalem et materialem. Forma autem
autern
huius sacramenti verba sunt
S1.l0t Dominica,
Dominiea, et nihil
hl aliud. Propter quod
unum idemque esse decet
d~t unumquodque,
unurnquodque, eum
cum et fonna una sit,
5 , propter
quam est quod est et esse dicitur. Haec vero ipsa sunt verba Salvatoris,
Salvatois,
quae apud omnes sunt eadem, quod minime habent sanctorum
sanetorum preces,
11\cum
lIIeum aliter
alite et aliter et aliis atque aliis
alUs verbis diversi supplicent.
supplcent. Hune
c
modum et apostoli a S'l.lvatore,
S:vatore, ut eredendum
credendum est, et ab apostolis sancti
saneti
atres
patres postea sumentes in
singuIis
singu1s ecclesiae sacramentis,
sacranentis, quemadmodum
materiam
propriam, sine
nulle modo fieret, quod ,
proponitur, ita
materian popan,
sne qua nuUo
etiam
etian proprarn.
propriam fonnam statuerunt. Hoc catholica
;:atholca quidem Latinorurn
Latinorum
20 ecclesia
e::lesia usque in
praesentem diem observat.
obserat. Et verba illa, quibus
unumquodque tamquam per materiam perficitur, nulli non
sacerdotum
sac:erdotum
apud eo.s
ws notissima sunt. os
Nostri vero, multa alia,
ala, quae primum apud
nostros ortum habuerunt, propter calamitates
ca1amitates temporum
tempornm perdidere, ita
etiam horum rituum sunt obliti.
oblt
20
Quod manifestum fiet, si
5 quis ad chrisma.tis
chrismatis sacramentum
sa;:ramentum ffieD-t
ren-t
26
tern converterit. Etenim secunda
tem
secunda. oecumenica
oe::umenica synodus verba, quae
sa;:rum chrisma
;:hrisma perficiunt, tradens in septimo canone ita inquit:
sacrum
JObsignantes,
Obsigna.ntes, hoc est, sacratissimo
saeratissimo chrismate
;:hrismate eos chrismantes. dicimus:
s.ignum doni Spiritus sancti.t Et haec
hae;: verba secundum eos
mus : signum
ws
30 chrismatis
chrsmati.s sacramentum perficiunt.
periieiunt. Hoc idem in caeteris diligens
investigator inveniet. Quae
Qae igitur
gitur de divino eucharistiae
eucharistae sacramento sanctorum opinio sit, quae
q1.lae Christi, quae Pauli traditio fuerit,
fuerit ,
satis,
s.atis, nisi
si me animus fallit, supra demonstratum est. Manifeste
Manfeste enim
appa.ret, orientales atque occidentales
o:identa1es omnes eiusdem in hoc esse
35sententiae, !
ut sdlicet
scilioet verba Domini
Dnini sint, quae sacrum corpus Christi
Chst
sanguinernque conficiant. Idem affinnat, idem ipse Dominu5
sanguinemque
Dominus asse
verat.
Nunc reHquuffl
re1iquum est,
ut tertiam
tertam :\8grediamur partem,
partern, et rationibus
ration ibus 13,1
quae in
n contrarium adduci solent, solutis linern
firem operi imponamus.
imponamus.
40 Sunt autem tres prae::ipuae.
praecipuae. Una est auctoritas
au;:trtas sanctorum
san;:trum ecclesiae
e:lesiae
doctorum, Clementis, Iacobi, Basilii etChrysostomi, qui omnes
doctotum,

}ffiSSARIONIS
}ffiSSRlONIS

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xc~ao; 11.
opcpoj.i.hw;
Cp.t...u;

r.CM"<i(JII1t;
r.rr'J8t; ).oaor'Tcc.;:
{,oc; ).0.;:
io; mc.&c\'1CCI
m.&cc Tij>
j'> Myep,
.

.!xcttOO""""

t,

Ii CI
C . ... p'" " . 1, 4. 1
9 CI. )oh
Job . Dam.
D.. , DftJideorth
DoJideorth . lV
(PG94. "j3). 112
112 Cf.
cf.
Diany . Areop. , 1>e
Pe oecl.
In" (Pe
4d). 1 18 C onu.
VIII 11
Diony
cc], hier. 1I1"
(PG 3 . 4"j4"j-3).
on.t. apo .t., VHI
'" n.39.
0:1.
. Funk I j'O.
jlo. 1 29 Cf.
cf. Lit . Jae.
)a:. cd
. Bd&,btman
rrht.n I ,..
H. I 32 Lit
Ut .. Bu,
... (PG 3'.
'''"io A:
'''"i0
: d . PG 3', '073 C). 1
38
3 Lit. .. Chry .. (PG 6], 9.6
916 8)1
8)1 39 I.], c. (PG 6,. 9.6 Cl.
C).

"
in missis , quae ipsi composuere, post verba Dominica sacerdotis precibus
predbus
DE
SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTlAE.
EUCHARISTIAE.

ho;; sacramentum conficere videntur, siquidem


siqudem etiam
etian post verba Domini
hoe
prolata non corpus
co et sanguinem, sed panem et vinum
vnum nominant.
Secunda vero
auctas Dama sceni,
Ba.silum
velO est auetoritas
seeni, dicentis beatum Basilium
I)
) haec
haee munera ideo praefigurativa nomina~se , quia nondum sanctificata
sanetificata
erant, ita
;> vero ea nominasse multo post verba Dominica. Tertia ratio

est
es! opinio
i sanctissimi viri
Dionysii
Dionysi Areopagitae, qui aperte sentire
videtur, post verba Domini hoe
ho;; sacramentum eonfici.
confici. lis
i in praesentia
rationibus a nobis respondendum
respondendurn est.
10
1mprimis
lmprimis autem verbis sanetorum
sa.nctorum doctorum.
doctorum, qui missas composue-l
composue- t
runt,
unica ratio
rato atsact.
~atisfacit. Cum ip,si quattuor patres idexn plane dicant,
eorom verba ante omnia audia:mus. Clemens itaque pm,
primus, eurn
cum
miraeuia Domini et res gestas eius ac saeramentorum
miracuia
sacamentorum a Domino traditadi
tionem eommernorasset,
commemorasset, post ea inquit: t Memores itaque nos
os passionis,
16mortis
Il)mortis et
ct resurrectionis eius
cius etc.,
ete., offerimus
offemus tibi Regi et Deo secundum
seeundum
eius pra.eepta,
praecepta, de.
etc. Rogamus te, ut elementer
clenenter inspicias haec
haee proposita
coram te
cora.m
: munera, tu nullius indi8ens
indiens Deus, et in eis bene complaceas
ad honorem Christi tui et mittas Spiritum
5piritum sanctum
sanetum tuum, testem
testern
passionis Domini nostri
os Iesu, super hoc sacrificio, qui hunc
hune panem
2Ocorpus Christi tui et
ct hunc
hune calicem sanguinem Christi tui
efficiat
effciat .
sctura.s commecne
Licet enim haec Clementis verba inter apocryphas scripturas
morari soleant, placet
pIaeet tamen
tarnen eis
es impraesentiarum tamquam veris
s
assmt1amur. Iacobus
aSS:11t1amur.
Iaeobus quoque multo post verba Domini obsecrat, ut

mittatur Spiritus
5 sanctus. De quo eurn
cum multa dix.isset,
dixisset, s.ubiungit:
s,ubiungit:
21) JUt
t Ut adveniens
advenies sanctificet,
sanetificet, et faciat hunc
hune quidem panem corpus
corpus. Christi
tui et hunc
hune ca1icem pretiosum sa.nguinem
sanguinem Christi
Chisti tui.. At
magnus
Basilius
Basilus similiter pos.t
post verba
erba. Salvatoris
Savas invocat
iIvocat sanctum
sanetum Spiritum,
ut ad proJX>Sita
proposita descendat
desndat munera et sanctificet
sanetificet et faciat
facat panem quidern
qUdem
pretiosu
pretiosum corpus
co Domini Dei et Salvatoris
Salvatorls Domini nostri
nost Iesu Christi,
Chisti,
30et calicem pretiosum sanguinem Christi
Christ nostri,
os, qui
qU effusus
eifusus est pro
mundi vita. Ad haec
haee Chrysostomus post verba Domini
Domni et rerum
rerurn
per eurn
eu gestarwn narrationem
narationem subdit;
subdit: . Rogamus te, emitte Spiritum
tuum sanctwn super nos.
nos, et
ct super haec proposita munera, et fac hunc
hune
quidem pretiosn
pretiosUln corpus Christi tui,
, quod vero in hoc calice est.
est, pretio35
36 sum sanguinem Christi tui..
tu. Post haec subiull8it:
subU8t: tTransmutans ea
Spiritu sancto tuo
.
tuo.'
Ex
quibus omnibus faeile
facle esset euivis
cuivis argumentari:
argumentar: Si
5 verbis illiu
illisa
Dominicis
corpus me_, et
Hic est sanguis 1MUS,
,,"us, sacnun
Dominics : Hoc.
Boc. est eorpus
Ac:wn
eucharistiae
eucharstiae conficitur sacramenti
s.acramenti mysterium,
msteum. saneti
sanct eeclesiae
ecclesiae doctores
rninime post ea verba
id rs
propriis supplicationibus
supplieationibus efficere
effcere conarentur.
conarentur,
-wrninim.e
nec deinde
dende panem et vinum nominarent.
nominarelt. Cum
Curo vero
veTO id agant, nec
2(1 d~ M
V d!,uc.c
dl,r).{;C B
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..

BESSRIONIS

SlNOJ1IVSS:a:H

..

DE SACRAMENTO
SCRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHARISTIE.

frustra sanctos
saJctos Was
viros sit existimandum, a1am.
palam fit
,, quod hoc sacnun
sacrum
mysterium Dominicis
Dominics verbis nequaquam
nequaquarn confici existiJnabant.
exstnabant. Huic
igitur
igtur argumento
agumento ItspOUdeYe volentes primo quidem
quiden id repetimus,
epetimus.
quod
qud supra probatum est, omnes tam
tarn orientales quam occidentales
occidenes
s doctores in hoc convenire.
convenire,
ut sacrosanctis
sacrosanctS Domini verbis
ebis eucharistiae
mysterium
rnysteriwn conficiatur.
conficatur. Deinde audimus
audnus non
esse ha.ec,
haec. quae modo
retulimus, superioribus
retuliJnus.
supeoribus illis
ills contTaria,
conta.ria. nec a1iud
aliud hic, a.liud
aliud illic.
illic sanctos
saJctos
viros vel dicere vel
sentire, nec esse occidentalium
occidenta1ium sententiam ab
orientalium
orienta1ium opinione
opinone diversam. Ne:
Nec enim si
ita fOTet,
foet,
unus et idem
10 divinus spiritus,
spritus, sed diversus,
divesus, nec
nee verita.tis,
veritatis, sed mendadi
mendaci
potius atque
a.tque
erroris
spiritus in iis
locutus fuisset.
Quod
od etiam cogitare absque
mpietate non
) lied.
licet. Necesse
Ne.cesse est igitur, ut iUa
haec perrectam
impietate
lUa vera sint
smt et
expositionem illis consentanea esse ostendantur.
Doere itaque non
no sine
ratione fortasse quispiam
quSpiam posset, quod cum'
cwnt
Dioere
lSeotpUS
ISUS Domini
Dnini duplex sil,
, quemadmodum in prUnolio
primordio nostri
nost &eilnonis
s:"oo
ostendimus,
ostendmus, verum seilket
scilicet et
mysticum, illud quidem ips.ius
ipsius Domini
verbis
verbs cuius corpus est, confici, hoc vero.
vero, quod ipsi sumus, sacris
sa.crS sacer
sacer
dotum precibus et
iustis
s actionibus et
vitae ac morum
norum honestate compleri, curn
p1eri,
cun digne
dgne homines
honines sacram eucharistiam
eucharStiam capiunt et eiusdem cum
cun
2OCbristo carporis
corpors efficiuntur.
e fficiuntur. Et hoc quidem petere sacerdotem,
sac:erdoten, cum
rogat, !
ut descendens Spiritus sanctus panem quidem pretoswn
pretioswn corpus
Christi, calicetn
ca1icen vero
ero pretiosu
pretiosum sanguinem
sanguinen fa.ciat,
faciat , hoc est, ut fidelem
populum mysticum
mysticun corpus Christi $a.Ilguinemque
sanguinemque faciat, quo membra
menbra
et
partes corpusque eius effecti
effe:ti et sibi
5ibi ipsis
cantate
caritate et
Christo uniti
21 vivant cum
25
curn eo
co vitam
itam aetemam et fiant ipsius cohaeredes.
Nos vero praete
dic:endum existimamus,
exstimamus, quod'
quod
praeter baec
ba.ec illud potius dicendum
cum divinum
divinurn hoc sacrarnentum
sacramenturn sit
commune, sit opus
totius Trinitatis,
Trinitats,
nece
necss
mee est n08,
nos, quemadmodum supra diximus, et
Patrem
Patrern et
Spiritum
Spiritn
sanctum cum
curn Filio
Filo invocare,
inocare,
ut
proposita munera perliciant.
perficiant. Quod
30 et passim per tota.rn
totam missam
mssam Cacimus,
facinus, et non
ante verba Salvatoris,
sed etiam post multis
mults cum
cun precibus invocantes
inocantes supplicantesque, ut
digni ministri
minstri tantae rei
efficiamur, quo possi.mus
possimus illa.
illa munera
muera perfioere,
perlicere,
ut accepta eis Ciant,
fant, et
gratia
ga.tia Spiritus sancti super ea descendat.
descend.at. Quae
OUlia
omna non
tam
tarn agimus,
aginus,
ut ipsi ea
ea. faciamus, quam ut populo ostendamus
36 communia
coununia esse in creatura
ceatura opera
opeca. Trinitatis.
TrinitatS.
Quenmdmodum
in
Quemadmodum enim
beneplacito Patris et Spiritus sancti voluntate unus in Trinitate
Trinita.te natura
Dei et Patris Filius ex sanctis
sancts et inunaculatis
i.nunaculatis virginis sanguinibus
corpus
co assumpsit, ita cl
et hoc corpus altaris ipsa Trinitas
Tcinitas creat, ipse
Spiritus sanctus potenta
potentia sua ex substantia
substanta in
in. substantiam,
substantam, hoc est
oWex pane in corpus transmutat. Quae res
ut fideli
fidel l
populo pa1am
palam fiat,
nns meminisse
memnisse ne<:esse
nccesse est. Et hoc veUe illos doctores,
illius etiam nos
qui per adventum
ad.ventum Spiritus sancti sacnunentum
sacnmentum hoc fieri dicunt. Sunt

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'IM'-

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DE SACl't.AloI:I'rnTO
SACJ't.Jol:1rnTO EUCHARISTlAE.
EUCHRIST'lE.

51

vero iidem
m plane, qui solis
solls Domini verbis eucharistiae
eucharistae sacramentum
exiStmant confici. Idem enim
enm utrumque
contraria aut
exiStimant
utrwnque dicunt, non
ant
sibi invioem repugnantia, sed eadem
eadern dicere existimantes. Utrwnqae
Utrnqae
enim
..., verwn est. Et eum
cum unum et idem
idern ambo siot.
sinto unum idemque
5efficiunt, et uno atque eod.em tem
tempore.
pore. In
instanti enim tem.poris
temporis
non
aliter atque alite~, neque alio atque alio momento,
monento , sed eod.em
eod.ern
momento et, si
s dicere ras
est, eodem. nunc utnmque
utrumque idem
iden efficiunt,
eum
cum et
divinae Trinitatis
Tnitatis personae, quas
qua; invocamus,
mvocamus, unum atque
idem
idero substantis et
inseparabiles
inseparabIes smt.
sinto
10
Quod si
rerum natura.
natura ta1e
tale aliquod verbum pati posset, quod mox'
moxl
et sine a1icuius
alieuius tempocis intervallo rem
rern omnem exprimeret, profecto
nos
simui
simul et eodem ternpore
tempore euro
curn verbis Dornini
Domini caetera omnia pronuntiaremus, illa quidem
qudem dumtaxat sacramenti
sacramen efficientia credentes,
et tamen
tarnen Patris et
Spiritus sancti gratiam
gratam non
dubitantes adesse, et

15 hoc oratione et precibus


predbus maniIestantes. Adsunt etenim illi quoque
eurn
cun istis Domini verbis, etiam nobis nonnihil u1tra
ultra flagitantibus.
Sed cum
euro desiderii nostri nequeamus ardorem
ardorern continere, nominatim
nominatrn
quoque eurn
invocamus
nvocamus et praesentiam eius populis aperimus. Caeterwn
quoniam natura rerwn id vetat,
velat, necesseque est per intervaJla
intervalla ternporis
20 UDum
post a1iud
aHud verbum pronuntiare atque ita totam historiam sacramenti
roenti repetere, deinde Patcern et Spiritum sanctum
sanetum invocare, idcirco
iis,
i, qui non
bene rem
rern considerant, videri solet aliud
aHud esse, quod
qud postea
postta
invocatione sancti Spiritus dicitur,
dieitur, idque solumm.odo absque verbis
Domini
Domin sacramentum
sacamentum conlicere.
conficere. Quod certe a veritate longissiJne
longissime amt.
abest.
2: Oportet enim
i haec
tatnquam in tempore, in
25
haee a1iaque
aliaque huiusmod.i
huiusmodi non
quo dicuntur,
dieuntur, sed tamquam in
tempore, pro quo dicuntur, ita
a intellegere,
ac si tempus illud maneret
maueret minimeque
minieque ddlueret,
uere, sed in
uno eod.emque
nune illa dicerentur. Profecto enim ita dicerentur,
nunc
dcerentur, si fieri
posset,
plsset, et
Terum
rerum natura minime
ninime repugnaret. Cwn igitur
gitur pro tempore, in quo illa
30 Dominica verba dicuntur, invocationes
inocationes etiam
etian posteriores fiant, et ad
illud referantur tempus, profecto et eod.em haec ipsa dicta esse
es;e tempore
eexistianda
xistimanda sunt, quod certe factum fuisset, si natura rerum pateretur.
Etenim quemadmodum si
qais sennonem alicuius
alieuius moJeste
moleste ferens
fereus et

audire ipswn re<:usans diceret:


dceret: Clausi tibi aures, cum tamen nondum
SIi
S clausisset, veL
vel aliquid
aliqud sibi
Sbi mo1estum videre
dere no1ens diceret:
diceet: Obduxi

ocu1os, cum id nondum, et


alia iis
s similia,
simila, ita ta1e
tale nescio quid
qud in iis
Domini verbis
erbis animadverti
aniadverti potest.
pltest. Cum enim
errim ita loqui debuisset,
dicens discipu1is
:dPiU et nwttducat"
ntdu;a"
co,ptI$ m,.,,,,,
discipulis suis: dcdPiU
Nx m J'PUS
fregit et dedit eis.
. Hoc
oc enim ipse ordo re'CUm
rerum po.scebat:
poscebat: primum eoncon4Qsecrare, deinde frangere,
rangere, postea
plstea distribuere, quod nos in
facimus. llIe
1e tamen
at: Fregit etdedit, dicens;
tarnen ait:
dicens: c
Hoc est
12 ixG>pta,.v]
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00

SINOnrvSSml
SINOnr-SSXU:

"

DE SACRAMENTO
SCRMENO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHRISTIAE.

figurato S(;liilone,
StJilIone, quem hysterologiam
hysterologiarn vocant, usus. ruxta illud ~tae:
.Simul
.Siul nutriti natique fuerunt . Et alibi:
albi : .Sonuit
tSonuit cadens . Primo enim
nascitur aliquis,
alquis, dcinde nutritur, et eadit
cadt quis, antequam
antequa.m sonum faciat.
Decet igitur
gitur nos recte iud.icare
iudicare volentes singulaquaeque
singu1aquaeque intdlegere, ut
6 in propriis dicta sunt locis,
Iocis, nec in quo, sed pro quo tempore dicuntur
animadvertere,
aninadvertere, et quae veI
vel ante vel
ve1 post aliqua dicuntur,
dcuntur, aliquando
aIquando
quidem tamquam simul
smul cum illis, aliquando
aliqud vero ve1 ut posterius, quae
prius, vel
ve1 ut prius,
prim, quae posterius dicta sunt, dicta existimare.
existmare.
Siquidem
5iqudem ipse quoque Chrysostomus multo ante et post verba 1
10 Domini
Domni in oratione, quae post oblationem diciturmunerum:
diciturmunerum : .Oignos
IDignos nos,
n05,
inquit, fac Domine, ut coram te gratiam inveniamus,
invenamus, et acceptum tibi
fiat sacrificium
sacrificiun D05trum,
nostrum, et inhabitet Spiritus
5piritus gratiae tuae bonus super
nos et super haec proposita munera.' Vbi
Ubi considerandum, quid
qud haec
verba: IDignos nos fac, ut Spiritus sanctus tuus inhabitet
nhabitet super haec
15
Ir; proposita munera..
munera.' Nihil differunt a verbi.s
verbis illis Clementis vel Iacobi
ve1 Basilii vel quae supra retulimus
retulmus ipsius Chrysostomi, quibus nonnulli
existimant
existmant hoc sacramentum confici. Etenim
Etenh;n illi quidem Deum
Deun precantur, ut mittat Spiritum
Spiriturn sanctum, qui adVllniens
ad~nens sancticet
sanctiicet et panem
efficiat preti05um
pretiosum Christi corpus.
corpus. Hic vero: "Dignos, inquit, facias, ut
20 inhabitet Spiritus
5piritus sanctus tuus super haec proposita.. Quae verba
nullam sane inter se diversitatem habent. Haec tamen
tarnen ChrysostQl11i
ChrysostQl1li
ante Domini verba dicuntur et longe
Jonge ante
te preces illas, quibus
qubus nonnulli
l
existimant
existmant sacnun
sacrum eucharistiae mysterium confici. Quod si Hs
i, prioribus
verbis et hac Chrysostomi oratione sacramentum non
conficitur, pro2Ii fecto nec posteDoribus
posterioribus perficietur, quae cu.m
cum illis
llis eadem
eadern sunt. Eadem
eniJn eorundem
eorundern sunt efficientia. Perficitur autem
autern verbis illis, quae
inter utraque media, maxime principalia sunt, hoc est Dominicis verbi.s.
verbis.
Haec sunt, quae totum efficiunt, haec ad quae omnia
oa referenda sunt,
sive antea, sive
sie postea dicantur.
30
Hoc
Basili verbis in
eodem loco
oco percipiI
H oc ipsum apertius etiam ex Basilii
percipi'
potest. Mox
enim post munerum oblationem: .Respice,
.RespCe, inquit, super
n os, Deus, et super
nos,
super hanc
hallc nostrarn latriam, et acceptam
acceptarn eam
earn habeas,
quemadmodum accepta habuisti munera
muneta Abel, immolationes Abraham,
Abraharn,
Moysi et Aaron sacerdotium, Samuelis pacificas. Quemadmodum
sr.
3!> cepisti a sanctis apostolis tuis veram hanc latriam, ita a nobis ec.ca
pec.catoribus, manibusque nostris accipe haec munera bonitate tua, Domine.t
Domme.t
Videsne, ut post multa, quae oraDS
oras dicit, post propositum sacrificium
latriae,
latrae, quod soli
51 Deo et
et nulli alteri
a1teri debetur, post prees,
preces, quibus ut
accepta Deo fierent
accepta.
fierent,, sicuti
sieuti AbeI,
Abel, Noe, et caetera sacrificia?
sacrifica? Tamen
Tarnen ne
:
j() a1iqui.s
aliquis contentioni relinqueretur
relnqueretur locus, subiunxit:
subiunxit : tQuemadmodurn
t Quemadmlu e
manibus sanctorum aposto!orum
apostolorum tuorum hanc
hane veram Iatriam
Iatriarn accepisti,
ita e manibus nostris haec munera accipe..
accipe.. Quid ergo tergiversamur?
32

..na
n -ri)vJ
J

B
_.
_.

~~ l33
33 II ~scrm
~ scripn. 11
~ M B
d~
6~MB

BESSARIONIS
BESSRI0NIS
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Cf. Dionya.
DiODY8. Aroop
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(PG 3,
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7 1~) . 1
3Ii Ps 4. 2. I
36 Theodoret. In
" Ps
4.
4 .3
3 (PG 80.
So. 8B9
89 C).

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.
EUCHARISTlAE.

65

"
Hoc modo et verba haec aatis
a.a.tis esse ad con-ecrationem dicemus, eurn
curn

dicat Basilius: tIta e manibus nostris


nostrs haec munera accipe,
aceipe, quemadmodum a tuis
tu.is apostolis hanc
hane veram latriam accepistio.
accepisti. Si enim apo$tolomm manibus
lorum
marubus verum Christi corpus eonsecratwn
consecratwn 'uit,
lut, idque nunc
nune in
fj
manibus suis lieri rogat
regat Builius,
Basilius, cur non
on his
bis verbis
verbs subito peficitur
perficitur
sa.cnmentum?
sa.camentum? Nihil
Nihl enim
enin ha.ec differunt
diferunt aposterioribus
a posterioribus precibus, quibus nonnulli
nonnulll putant perfici
perliei sacrwn mysterium. Audi euim,
eum, quid
qUd
dicat: tRogamus te, ut descendat Spiritus sanctus tuus super haec
proposta
proposita munera
mnnera et faciat
facat pa.nem
panem oorpus,
corpus, ealicem
ca1icem vero
ero sanguinem
sanguinem.
.
10 Si igitur prims
primis illis
ills orationibU!:l,
oratonibU!:l, quae simillimae posteroribus
posterioribus sunt,
on perficitur
non
perlicitur sacrwn
sacrum mysterium, profecto nec postremis perficietur.
perlicietur.
Simillimae enim preces simillimos parerent elfectus.
effectus. Superest igitur,
ut verbis Salvatoris
5aJvators nostri haec vis tribnenda sit,
, et ad ea caetera
referendasunt omnia,
omna, quaeve ante, quaeve
quaee postea dicuntur,
dieuntur, et pro eo
16 tempore, quo illa verba
erba dicuntur, hoc quoque dici
existimandwn.
Diutius autem
autern in
hac
hae parte dedita opela
opeIa comrnorati sumus, tum
turn quod
ad eognitionem
cognitionem eonnn, quae supra dicta sunt, non
parvam afferre
utilitatem videbantUT,
videbantu, turn
tum quod necessaria erant ad ea solvenda, quae
ex divino Dionysio et Damasceno
Damaseeno opponi
solent.
~
His addi tertia
teta quoque ratio, nulli fortaue
fortasse superiorum in{erior,
inferior, posset
posset.
hieraTcham
herarcham totum Deo repletum divinoque amore iuxta Dionysium ,ne
divinis nominibusc
nomnibusc captum vduti
veluti exstasin quandam et divinum pati ze
lum. Ob hoc saepenumero extra se poSu
positum et totum rejamatae
reiamatae haerentem zelo quodam et timore, ne id quod desiderat non
on assequatur.
assequatur, saepius
2f)
2 eadem
eadern ex vero
ero ac paene incredibili mentis desiderio petere nec ignorare
quidern se iam, quod quaerebat,
quidem
qua.erebat, adeptum., sed insatiabili quodam
amore iterum atque iterum eadem repetere, ut etiam in quibusdam
qUbusdam
symbolis
synbolis quasi evidentissimis signis,qui adsunt, inteIlegere
nteIIegere poss,
possit, totum
Deo captum, totum iam divinum effedum,
effectum, ac per hoc imitatione
mitatione eius
30 ad virtutem vitaeque integritatem alliciantur
allicia.ntur et, ut aiunt, quasi manu~
ducti ponantur in viam. Hoc summus ille propheta David plerisque
in locis
Iods facit. Nam cum dixisset: Cum invocarem,
invocarem. exaudivit me Deus
Deu:
ius#ae
iUJutae meae, paulo post in
eodem psalmo
psa1mo subiungit: Miserere mei,
me,
U exaudi
exauli oranonem
oraJionem meam.
mem. Quem locum Theodoretus ex sententia,
35 nisi fallor Chrysostomi, - neque enim Chrysostomum apud nos in
praesenta
praesentia habemus - exponens: tNon
satiatur, inquit, hic
hc iustus
im.tns
orando, sed supplicans et impetrans et froctus orationis
orations colligens
collgens adhuc
orando ac supplicando perseverat. Scit
Seit ettim,
em, quando inde sequatur
utilitas. t Alibi quoque idem David: Dirigau.r, inquit, oraJio mea
utilitas.t
me sCul
sieul
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56

BESSARIONIS

"

SHWUIVSS:aa:

57
67

DE SACRAMENTO
SACRM ENTO EUCHARISTIAE .

in'en.fum in
in'en.f"m
" umsputu
,(mSput"

,"0.
40.

ut sua
Quid, quaeso te, elamat
clamat David,
exaudiatur
exaudatur oratio? Si enim iniqua et praeter rationern
ratonem erat, numquam
ad Deum
Deun ascendisset, quomodolibet eo rogante atque obseCTante.
obsecante. Quod
si
reda
recta et exaudiri digna, iam
iarn directa erat ad Deuro,
Den, ipso quoque
5 propheta tacente. Nempe igitur
g petit, quod tenebat, et quae praesenta
praesentia
iam
am erant, desiderat. Idem nostri quoque doctores, qui missaJn
missam composuerunt,
powernnt, fecere. Etenim post verba illa: tFac
tFae hunc
hune panem corpus
Christi et hunc
hune ealicem
calicem sa!18uinem
sall8uinem Christit,
Christi., quibus soIis
solis nonnulli existimant fieri consecrationem, adhuc
adhue pro eis adorant aut frustra prorsus
10 id faeientes,quod
facientes,quod nec cogitandwn est, aut vehementi
vehenenti quodam desiderio
desde
eadem saepius repetentes. t_Memento
Memento enim,
enin, inquiunt, Domine, imin
beeillitatis meae et praesta mihi
becillitatis
mhi veniam
venam onmis
onu sive voluntariae,
voluntarae, sive
"
non voluntariae meae eulpae,
culpae, neque propter peccata
peceata mea inhibeas
nhibeas
Spiritus sancti
saneti gratiam ab his proposits
propositis muneribus
muneibus.t
. Et rursus paulo
15 post ad populum dicitur: .Pro oblatis
oblats consecratisque muneribus
muneibus pretiosis
Deum rogamus.. En
Dewn
quomodo orant, ne ex proposits
propositis muneribus
Spiritus gratiae
gratae arceatur. En
quomodo
q uomodo pro sanetificatis
sa.nctfcatis propostisque
propositisque
muneribus
mneribus hortantur
hortaDtur Deum precari, quamvis multo ante
aDte sanetificata
sanctficata
fuerint, quamvis perfecte consecrata, etiam iuxta eorum opinionem,
opinonem,
20qui nobis contraria et loquuntur
loquutur et sentiunt. Quid igitur dicemus hoc
loco, fratres ? Nisi quod ex sententia
sententa Chrysostomi Theodoretus ait:
a it :
tNon
satiatur orando iustus.,
., et reliqua quae supra memoravimus.
memoravius.
Quod si
qui fortasse dicerent:
divnis muneribus,
muneibus, sed ro.
Non pro divinis
prot.
nobis fit, quod significant,
sgn.ificant, quaeram ab eis
cis primo quidem, eur
cur nostra
2sexpositio
2Iiexpositio non
eonvenientior
convenientior sit atque subtilior.
5ubtjlior. Nam quod hierarchae
divina quaedam passio et veluti exstasis accidat, ita ut vehementi
quodam amore extra se positus. totus rei amatae haereat et eadem
saepius quasi divino quodam furore correptus
coetus repetat, quemadmodum
in telleJIis
tellellis istis
ists amoribus accidit, ut amans ab amato
arnato inseparabilis
nseparabilis
30 sit,
5it, profecto non
parva et eontemnenda,
contemnenda, sed magna et mystica ratio
est. Quod vero
velO iustus non
satietur orationibus, sed quae desiderabat
iain consecutus adhuc perseveret eadem peten5,
petens, desiderio certe ac
devotioni talis tantique sacrarnenti
sacram.enti consentaneum est. Deinde vero
fingamus adversariorwn istam rationern validam esse nec quovis modo
35
~ refutari debere. Nonne pro nobis magis facit ? lnuno vero nonne a
nobis in confirmationem
confrmationem seutentiae
selItentiae nostrae adducta
addueta est? Hoc est enim,
quod in
n principio fere huius disputationis diximus, duplex esse Christi
COrpu5,
corpus, verum et mysticum.
mystieum. Et haec
haee quidem, nisi
me animus fallit,
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DE $ACRAM!tNTO EUCHARI$TlAE.
EUCHARI$TIAE.

satis sunt ad solutionem ac confinnationem eorum, quae ab adversariis


dici solent.
Quod
Qul veco nonnulli subiungunt etiam post verba Domini
Domni panem 11
i1
et vinum poposita
proposita munera a sa.cri!'
sa.c illis
ill.is doctoribus nominari, quod
qul
I>
5 non
n011 videretuc
vderetuc "77:
"57: faciendum
faciendum,, si
iam cOsecrata
consecata forent non
enim
enm
iam amplius panis
pans et vmum,
vinum, sed corpus
copus et sanguis Domini et eS5eIlt
eS5et
et dicerentur - facilis est ad ea respon!'io.
responsio. Quis enim neget verum
Christi corpus et sanguinem recte panem et vinum
Vnum uncupari
nuncupa.ri posse
posse??
Nam. ut praet.eceam
praet.eream multa diversornm
diversorum doctorum testimonia. qui
q in:10 differenter etiam post consecrationem modo
od corpuset
cotpuset sanguinem Christi
modo
mlo panem et vinum
vnum nominant neque enim
enn est in ce facili diutiUlll
u
commorandum - , nonne ipse Dominus. quo nullus fide dignioc
dignoc est,
est.
de suo
pcaesertm
pcaesertim corpore Joquente, indifferenter
indfferenter modo
mlo hoc, modo
illud nominat?
nomnat ? Qui
" numducaJ,
_1IducaJ, inquit. meam C4NUm,
caNUm, abibi'
bibi, _
_m
m
15sanguum,
15Sang"inem, haba
habd vil4m
vitam aetem.:rm.
aetenam. Et
rursus:
rursus : Caro mea vere est
es' cibi,
eibus,
a $1l";$
sangu;s mtU$
"", ven est
es' poius. Et
iterum: Qu;
Qui numdUtIU
_1IduciU meam camtm
cartm
a bi1i,
Mbi' meum sanguinetn,
sanguirum, in
me mand
mnel d
ego in
eo. Alibi veco:
veco : Ego
$_
5 _ "
panis vitae,
l4, inquit. PiUru
PlUres "um
"esm mal'lducaverum
_'ucverum manna
1'< i1l
1l tkseno,
deserlo,
" morlui
sumo Hic
Hie ed
mortui $",".
est $
panis,, qui de coelo descendit,
deseendd, t4
U qui u
e% eo co_da'.
20_ 1tUJriaJur.
morUUur. Et
alio in loco
loco:: Si quis manducaJ
muU ex
% hoc ptlne,
ptme, viveJ
vivet in
,.
ade,#um. Et
aUeJIJum.
rursus
rursus::
Panis quem ego dabo, taro
caro mea est,
, quam ego dabo
pro mul'ldi
,""' vita.
viJa. Manifestum est igitur,
igtur, quod iterum suum corpus panem
nominat etiam Dominus.
norninat
Nune ad id, quod de Damasceno opponitur,
Sed de his satis. Nunc
ntur , 14,
1., I
25 venimus.
vennus. Idem inquit Basilium
Basilimn munera illa
lla praefgurativa
praeflgUrativa corporis et
sanguinis Domini nun,cupasse,
nuncupasse, quod
qul nondum consecrata erant, et tamen
tarnen
hoc verbo
ebo usus est Ba.t>ilius
Basilius in
in. composition.e
composition,e missae suae multo post
verba Domini. Ad haec responsuri
primo tamquam
tarnquam filli
filii a patre veniam
poscimus. si
duobus propositis
pcopositis amicis pcaeferamus
praeferamus veritatem. Dehinc
Deh.inc
30 dicimus sacramenta etiam,
etiarn, postquam consecrata sunt, figufam
figufarn esse, et
ideo
jdeo etiam pcaefigurativa
praefigurativa veri corporis et sanguinis Christi dici posse.
quod etiam superius ostendimus- sensibilis enim panis et vini etiam
post consecrationem species figurae quaedam et praefigucativa
praefigurativa ti
uti sunt,
ita etiam dici possunt tum
turn contenti sub eis veri Domin.ici
Dominici corporis
oporis et
$ sanguinis. tum mystici corporiset
corporis et ecclesiastJcae
ecclesiasticae unitatis- ipsum quoque
corpus mystici corporis
orporis symoolum
symb:llum ac signum
sgnum esse, ut latius paulo
ante disseruimul'. Decet tarnen,
tanen , ut tunc
tune quoque memoravimus, haec
debito modo. et non
instar sacrarnentorum
sacranentoru.m veteris legis, quae tantum
figurae sunt. accipere. Quod etiam Dionysii
Dionysi testimonio confinnatur,
coninnatur,
40 qui
q sacramentwn hoc etiam post consecrationem in 3. ecclesiasticae
ecc::lesiasticae
16 t..
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29

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sINonlvss:o:
SINOIlIvssn

09

DE Slt.CRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHlt.RISTllt.E,
EUCHRISTlE,

61

hieraTChiae
hierachae capitulo symbolum nominat. lta
Ita enim inquit: .Sacras
tSacras
divinas operntiones
operationes bierarclabierarcha laudame
Iaudan~ conse<:rat
conseerat divinissima
divinissma et ma.nimanifesta-t,
testat, quae
qu;e laudata
Iauda.ta- sunt, per symbola sancte proposita-.
proposita . Et infra:
infrn:
.Populo
tPopulo quidem divina solum symbola intuente.t Et rursus: .tIn
In sacram
sa.cram
prineipale symbolum fuit
ti memoriam
memoam nos ducit divinae eoenae,
cenae, quae principale
eomm,
eorum, quae in
altan
a1tari fiunt.
{u . Unde et ipse symbolorum creator optimo
iure eum repeUit, qui non
sancte neque simili modo
nodo cum eo sacra
sa.cra illa
coenaverit.t Cum
coena,verlt.t
Curn igitur sacra
su:ra illa munera etiam post consecrationem
symbola
symbola, nominet. [creatole1l1que]
[creatOiemque] <et) eorum, quae
qua,e nunc
nune quotidie in

lOecclesiis
loe:lesiis fiunt, principale symbolum iUam sacramentalem
sacramenta1em coenam (et)
<et)
sacramentorum
sacnImentorum in eo distributionern, ipswnque Dominum
Dominn symbolorum
creatorem appellet,
a-ppellet, eOTUlll
eOTUD1 videlicet
Vdelicet quae
qua.e tum
turn creavit-haec
crea,vit-ha.ec vero fuerunt
fueront
propr corporis conseu atio,
proprii
a,tio, distribu tio,
, traditio-, eur
cur non
etiamfiguram
convenientissime
covenientissme vocet? Atqui quod nec pra.efigurativi
praefigurativi quidem voca16 bulum vero Christi eOl'pori
cOi'pori sanguinique conveniat,
convenat, idem Damascen
Damaseen us
testatur in eodem eapitulo,
capitulo, ita dicens: Praefigurativa
Praefigura.tiva futurorum dicuntu1'.
ll quia
qua non
fiunt
verum
mm corpus
tur. Verum corpus et sanguisChristi, non
et sanguis, sed quia
qua nunc
nune quidem per ea participes efficimur
effieimur divinitatis
Christi. tunc
Christi,
tune vero per solam visionem
isionem intellegibiliter. Hoc idem apertius
2Oconfinnare
2Oconinare videtu1'
videtur beatus Gregorius, ideoque inquiens
inquens haec nominari
figuram, quia
quia- corpore et sanguine Domini Dune
nunc participamus in figura
pans
panis et vini, tunc
tUDe vero eum talern,
talem, qualis
qua1s vere est, rnanifestissima
nanifestissima.
Qamobrern non
video, quid tandern
tandem fonnion
visione contemplabimur. Quamobrem
dans Damascenus praefiguratiyj
praefigurativi vocabulum
voeabulum renuerit ideoque ita ex25 ponere sit conatus, eum
cn possibile sit tarn
an ex ipsius quam ex caeterorum
doetomm
doctorum sententia. verum etiam corpus et sanguinem. sive figuram,
figurant,
sive praefigura.tiva
praefigurativa nominare.
Licet igituc
nobis hoc
hoe loco dicere.
dicere, quod sanctus Basilius
Basilus ad
a.d Am-a
An-.
philoehium scribens Iconiensem de Dionysio Alexandrino
philochium
Alexa-ndrino martyre
ao
: inquit. Nam cum loqueretur de his, qui rebaptizandi sunt, Pe pusia-pusianosque contra Dionysii sententiam rebaptizandos
rebaptzandos censeret: tMiror,
., inquit. quomodo hoc latuerit
Iatuerit Dionysium, quamvis canonum
canonurn omnium
nn;n
expertissjmum . Volebat sane Diooysius,
expertissimum
Dionysius, quamquam sanctus, immo
vero
ero etiam martyr,
nartyr, eos qui ex Pepusianorum
Pepusanorum haeresi ad fidem
fidern "enirent.
venirent,
35 non
debere baptizari. Cuius contrarium sentiebat Ba.silius,
Basilius, nec veritus
ri
Dionysii, et sancti et martyris, auctoritatem.
a-uctotatem, qui contra eiu!i
eiull opinionem
iudicaret, diceretque ad fidem ex ea haeresi venientes rebaptizari
debere, quod non
recte neque in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus
sanct; essent bapti:.ati.
bapti:r.ati. Et nobis
nahis igitur mirandwn
mirandum est, quomodo dixerit
sancti
.ohoe
4Ohoc Damascenus.
Damalicenus. Sed meminisse oportet hominem 'eum
'euro fuisse,
fusse,
19 6 Al4),oy~
U.oyo lI(0
..
. . _r. B
; .. lu'"
.".. I 30 hllll4C
hutC
... M
e.t>I"iC_
e.t>i(_ B
I lC<d
~.
"nIpO<;)
"no;) B
OIfI.
. lC<d

62

BES$ARJONIS

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11>-.3"-).
11>-.3).

DE SACRAMRNTO
SACRMRNTO EUCHARISTlAE.
EUCHARISTIE.

63

quamvis
quanvis mira sanctitate paeditum,
praeditum, et fieri
lieri aJiquando
aliquando otuisse,
potuisse, ut
pro
imbecillitate humani ingenii
ngenii non
rec::te
recte aJiquid
aliquid senserit. Nos ~tO
~ro non

ex iis
s vel ipsum vel a.lios
aJios de illis, quae paJan
palam atque unaniniter
unanimiter tradidenmt. sed otius
potius ex iis
s haec discemere ac
ae iudicare debere.
Ii
Fortassis autem, quod impossibile
imossibiJe non
est, diceret
dceret quispiam verba illa'
iUa'
Basilii, quibus haec
haee munera praefigurativa nommavit,
nominavit, tempore Da~
masceni locum ante
ate verba Domini in
m tnissa
nissa Basilii habuisse, ideoque eo
modo et recte exposuisse
exosuisse Dama.scenum. Nunc
Nune vero
veTO nescio, quomodo
quomod.o ea
verbafuisse( nt) transposita. Multa enim
vetbafuisse(
enin huic
huie trimilia
rirnilia tam
tarn longo ternporum
10 intervallo
ntetvallo acciderunt.
aceiderunt. Siquidem apud apostolum bis illa vetba
verba posita
sunt: Hoc taci'e in
" meam
maM cDm~mm'ati01tem. Item
Hem pos:
post: Hoc eu corpus
me"m, et post: Hic es' sant"is
Smg"iS meus. Nos vero
semel tantum in sacra
oonsec.ratione hoc dicimus.
dieimus. Ptaetetea
Praeterea sacra.s particulas.
partieulas. hoc est sacre
dounientium
donientiun me.moriam, multo
mu1to ante Domini verba iuxta eundem Dio
Do
16nysiwn
neseN> quolfinysin facere solebant, nos vero hoc multo post, mutato nescio
modo ordine, facere COJIsuevimus.
consuevimus. Minime
Mnime igitur mirandwn
mirandn esset, si
hoc paefgurativi
praefigurativi vocabulum Damasceni tempore ante Dominica verba
locatwn,
locatn, dehinc
dehine a recentioribus eo, quo nunc legitur loco, mutatum
mutatun
ac positn
positwn fuisset.
20
Hisitaexpositissuperest,utadea
Hisitaexpositis superest, ad ea tandem, quaedesaneto
qua.e de sacto Dionysio
D ionysio 15, I
ab advetsatiis
adversars obci
obiici soIent,
solent, respondeamu.s.
respondeamus. Verba eius haec sunt:
.tInde
-tInde divinus hierarcha
herarcha accedens ad sacnun
sacrum altare !audat
laudat praedictas
praedietas
sacras operationes
operatioes Dei, ipsius Iesu providentiae, quas ptO
pro salute generis
nostri beneplacito
sanctissmi Patris in
n Spiritu sancto secundum
secundun evan
benep!acito sanetissimi
2ligeIica verba operatus est.
eS. Postquam autem laudavit
Iaudavit et venerandam
intellectualemque
nteUectua1emque speculationem eorum intellectua1ibus
intellectualibus oculis perspexit,
ad symbolicam eorwn oonsecrationem
oonseerationem venit, et hoc secundum d~
tradi~
tioDem divinam. Unde devote simul et lUerarchice
tionem
hlettTChice post laudes divinarwn
operationwn
operatonwn de oonsecratione eorwn respondet : Tu dixisti,
dixi.sti, inquiens:
nquiens:
:.JHoc
:>Hoc tacite
/acite in
,. mum
_m commeiiiora#OMm.
com",eiiiora#Otem. Deinde postuIans, ut dignus
fiat hac oonsecratione et ad similitudinem Cbristi haec divina peficere
perlicere
valeat et caste distribuere, oonsecrat divinissima
va1eat
divinisina et manifestat laudata
lau<iata
per symbo1a
symbola sancte proposita.c
proposita.. Ad haec Dionysii verba, q"3mquam
qnamquam
difficilis fore responsio
responSo videatur. apud eos paesertim,
praesertim, qui
qU contentionis
CO\tentionis
sa
35 eupidiores
cupidiores sunt quam veritatis, dicimus tamen
tanen et ingenue attestamur
apud probas et devotas aures nihil in
n hS
bis esse, quod iis,
S, quae suPnI;.
supra..
djvimus, a.dversetur.
adversetur. Quid enim, 0 bone Iesu, clarius, quid
qud apertius,
quid manifestius
manuestus inveniri
potest quam verba sanctonun
sactorum doctorum, de
.
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40

'*";

_'''I''

a,'

ro

,.ro

c .
....
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hier. 111
III ",. (PG 3, 4"j
42j D)
D)..
17 I.
. C
II~
""". hJer.
30 Max
" 1m.
lm. eOIlI.,
CoIIf., ScboJi .. ill
Dionya.
Diony.. Pe
De """\.
""". hier.
her. III
"
,. (PG 4 1)6 DI
DI..

65

OE
DE SACRAMENTO
SACRMENTO EUCHARISTIAE.

quibus supra mentionem


nentionem fecirnus,
fecimus, verba Dornini
-Domini mutare panem in
in.
corpus, illa sacramentum
sacramenturn integre peicere,
perlicere, verbo Dei panem sancti
saueti
ficari, panem in
corpus
oorpus pet'
per verbum
veburn mutari, ante verba panem simplieiter
citer esse
es:;e munus, quod offertur, post verba mox in
eorpus
corpus mutari,
.5 aliaque huiusmodi
huiusmodi?? A
quibus quomodo, quaeso te, di5sentiret
dissentiret Dia--
nysius, praesertim doctrina et sapientia ac
ae vitae sanctitate aequalibus
atque simillimis?
sm1Jimis? Profecto
Pofecto nemo hoc
hoe mentis eompos
compos fateatur.
Est autem,
autern, quod. DiOl'lysius
Dionysius inquit, ta1e
tale aliquid,
a1iquid, quale
qua1e superiusI
superiUst
dXimus, quod eum
cum opera in
ereatura
creatura totius Trinitati~ eommunia
commllma sint,
diximus,
10 ut hoc omnibus palam fiat, operae pretium est totam nos
os Trinitatem
invocare. Quod eum
cum simul
sirnul et absque intervallo temporis fieri non

possit , eum
possit,
curn praesertirn
praesertim oporteat omnem
ornnern illorurn,
illorum, quae ea nocte gesta
sunt historiam enarrare, necesse est nos
os unum post aliud
allud secundum
vim et naturam nostrae pronuntiationis exponere. Ita ergo post verba
16 Dommica,
Dominica, quibus iuxta Chrysostomum integre perlicitur
per/icitur sacramentum
ae proposita transmutantur, quibusve, ut Gregorius Nyssenus ait,
ac
sanetifieatur panis, in eOl'pusque
sanctificatur
cOl'pusque tran.~fertur, Patrem ac
ae Spiritum
Spiriturn
palam atque aperte invocamus. Hanc
Hane vero
manifestam
nanifestam invocationem
invocationern
tamquam multitudini
rnultitudini notiorem tradit bcatls
bcatus Dionysius, eum
cum sacer
20dotem dicit,
dieit, postquam "
pro se Tespondit,
respondit, dicens: Tu dixisti,
dxisti, Htx
; /aCu
/aciu
il$ meam commemcrationem, tunc
iIJ
tune dernum
demum ad consecrationem
oon secrationem accedere.
aecedeTe.
Conseerationem
Consecratonem enim hoc loco
Ioco vocat non
illam, quae sola et principaJis
principalis
est, et sine qua pedici
perfici mysterium
rnysterium non
posset, sed eam, quae notior

est ac
ae manifestior rnultitudini,
multitudin, quaeque ad primam illam atque praeci
25 puam,
puarn, quae fit
verbis Domini, refertur, quam eodem
eodern temporis
ternporis momento
mornento
et, ut supra
5upra diximus,
diXimU5, eodem nunc,
nune, cum verbi5
verbis Dorninicis
Dominicis pY"Otulisset
protulisset
sacerdos, si
5 id natura rerum fetTe
fee potuisset.
potuisset.
os autem
{ manife5tiu5,
etam ante haec_
Hos
autern ex eo quoque fit
manifestius, quod etiam
haee_
verba perfectum iam
iarn sacramentum
sacramenturn ponere
panere videtur, cum
eurn dicit,
dieit, quod
30hiernrcha accedens ad sacrnm
sacrum altare laudat prn.edictas
pra.edidas sacras operationes cl
et ita
a consecrat divinissima
divinissirna et manifestat
rnanifestat laudata. Manifestare
autem
autern 1audata
laudata iuxta expositoris sententiam,
sententiarn, qui luit
vir
sapientis':limus
sapientis':Iimus
Maximus, est clara facere, quae laudata
Iaudata sunt, hoc est divjna
divina opera
ope1"a
Christi, quae enumeravlt
enumeraVlt facta a Salvatore
SaIvatore nostro in
remissionem
35peccatorum
3peccatorum. et in vitam aeternam.
a~ternam. Haec verba sunt Maximi, immo
etiam Dionys.
Dionysi. Nemini autem
autern dubium est, cominemorationem divi
norum beneficiorum fieri ante verba Dominica.
Dominiea. Quae vero
ilIa
i11a sint,
ipse doctor enumerat. Quamobrem et ante verba Domini fuisse haec
manifestissime
rnanifestissime docere videntur. Quod autem in
remissionem
enUssionem pecc.atorum
pecc.a.torurn
40 et vitam aeternam ipsa opera ducant, mox per verba Dominica sequitur,
immo
imroo vero
inter ipsa Domini vecba
verba continetur. ;
Hoc enim eid,
esJ, inquit.
<i"",~tp ........ """,on
oivoc~p~ M
uwru; UyOYT<><
18 .""'t
un.A ivo~
V B
1
19 )J:y ........ <orr.
<>< MV
V B
1

28
2

4yc.~ ...,.,.,.. M'


4c
..
oly
.
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29

d U
.:on'
'

1110"160,
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ardJ ... 1 B_rIOo.
B_rIOI. 111.

_.1 U

~<j..~ ...
<j.
rw<]
.:o"VI)~ B
_.

ricpyc"
Myc" ........ V)MB
VJMB"",.
......
5

66

BESSARIONIS
BESSRIONI$

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40
3oXlxw.;
xctl 7'l:ltpv.."l11'TIXWt;;

m a..n-a

atu-r

-ro

12 Diooy
Diony a . Areop .. De eoc:L
e; hi."..
hie. 111 3. t I:>
'" (PG 3. H'
D). 110 Maxim. ConI.
Conl .
S<:hola;n Oiony
8.
. Oe
De eoc:l.
""". ber.
bier. In
3. I'~
~ (PG 149BC). 1
35
31> Diony
"
. Areop .
Scholio.;n
De
Oe ecd.
:d. hier.
h.".. 111
III 3. f'2
f u (PG),
(PG 3. H
I A).
).

67

DE SACRAMEN'TO EUCHARISTIAE.

corpus
carpU$ mtum, quod pro
p,o fJobis Irangiltu
I,angiltu in remi$$ionem
,emissionem peaarum,
peaarorum, et
ct
Hic
Hi, eu
esJ $anI:Ui$
sanguis tneus,
neus, qui pro
p,o vobis et muItis
multis eIJundetu,
elJundetur in remi$sionem
,emissionen.
peccatorum. Quamobrem
peccaOrum.
Quarnobrem iuxta huius doctoris
doctors sententiam iam
iarn per~
fectum est sacramentum,
saeramentum, eum
curn dieimus
dicims remissionem eccatorum
peceatorum nobis
Ii pra,ebei.
praeberi. Didmus
Dicmus autem
autern hoc subito post verba,
verba Domini, immo vero
in
ipsius Domini verbis.
verbis. Sequuntur enim haec illa Domini verba,
quibus perficitur saeramentum,
sacrarnentum, seiHcct
scilce t Hoc es' corpus
co,pus meum,
neum, et Hic
Hit
est sang",is
sanguis meus,
neus, quemadmodum res ipsa l'em ipsam sequitut, hoc est
cst
peceatorum l'emJssio
peccatorulD
l'emissio Dominici
Dominiei eorporis
corporis eommunionem,
communionem, euiusest
cuiusest effectus.
10 Medio igitur illo
tempore, quo divina
diina opera ante
a,nte verba Domini laudantur,
la,udantur,
et quo eadem post iHa
iUa verba populo manifesta fiunt, eonsecratio
cosecratio fit

illis
ills videlicet
videlcet Domini verbis.
Addit etiam postea idem sacer
saccr Dionysius: t Postquam autemI
auteml
laudaverit et venerandam intellectualemque
inteIlectualemque speculat ionem eorum ~
in~
15 telleetualibus
tellectualbus oculis perspexerit, ad symbolicam eorum cansectationem
consectationem
venit, et hoc secundum divinam traditionem.
traditionern. ' Quem locum exponens
Maximus ait: .Benedicens seilicet
scilcet panem et
ct ealicem
calicem saerorum
sacrorum. munerum.' Ergo benedictionem panis et calicis
calieis eonseerationem
consecrationem ait esse
Dionysius, eamque secundum divinam
diinam traditionem. Benedictio
Benedietio igitur
igtur
20 panis et calicis, qua tunc
tune secundum Dionysium sacerdotes utebantur,
eum
cum dicebant; Et gratias
gatias agens benedixit, sanctificavit,
sanetificavit, fTegit
fegt deditque
diseipulis suis dicens: Acdpite a tnanducau,
discipulis
nanducau, hoc est CMj>w;
cIj>w; meum:
haec, inquam,
inqua.m, benedictio per verba Domini perficit sacramentum.
saeramentum.
Qua.mobrem
Quamobrem secundum
seeundum divina.m
divinam tra<litionem hoc fieri inquit Dionysius.
25 Traditio enim
enm Christi haec
haee fuit: accipere
aeeipere panem, gratias agere, benedicere
et verba illa
lla pronuntiare. on:
Nonne igitur luce
luee clariw:;
c1arius videmus etiam
testmonio Dionysii
])ionys per verba Domini cansecratum
testimonio
conseeratum esse eucha,ristiae
eueharistiae
mysterium benedictione
benedietione praecedente? praesertim iuxta Graecorum
ritum, qui post oblationem munerum
munerem in
aJtari,
altari, nunquam ea
ca nec
ne<: antea,
30nec post benedicunt,
benedieunt, n isi tantum eum
cum se existimant
existrnant eonsecrare,
consecrare, quasi
qua.si
benedietionem eonsecrationi
benedictionem
consecrationi necessariam
necessaram existimantcs.
existrnantes. Propter quod
et ha.nc
hane benedictonem
benedictionem,, quam Dionysius et MaxUnus
Maxmus ante verba Domini
fadendam
facendam eensent,
censent, praetenittunt
praetennittunt nostri, non
recte quidem faeientes.
fa.cientes.
Quod si turoc
tune benedicere decet, ut hi doctores sentiunt, immo vero
veTO ut

35 Dominus ttadidit,
tadidit, procul dubio tunc
tune prolatis Domini verbis credendum
est
cst fieri eonse<.:rationern.
cosrationem. Subdit deinde Dionysius, quod postulans
hierareha, ut dignus fiat
hierarcha,
fat hac
hae eonsecratione
consecratione et ad similitudinem Christi
haec divina
divna perfciat
perfieiat e t caste distribuat, participaturosque, prout sa.cros
saeros
decet, participet,
partidpet, cansecrat
conseerat divinissima. Ex
quibus ma.nifestissime
manifestissime
4Oapparet, quod haec verba eonsecrare
consecra,re atque perficere
perfieere per synecdochen
ad ea, quae sequuntur, accipi
aeeipi debent, id est ad castam distrJbutionem
distributionem

,.

68

BESSARIONIS

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ci'f'E&8~ 7Wppl1l:'
ou.

DE SACRAMENTO EUCHARISTlAE.
EUCHARISTIAE.

G.

et dignam participationem. quae omnia


omna post consecrationem rnysteru
rnysterii
precari ac petere solemus. Quod facile est intellegere. si quis missas
a Iacobo. Basilio
Basilo et Chrysostomo
Chtysostomo editas diligenter
dIgenter animadvertat.
anmadvertat .
Tunc enim supplices oramus, ut digne communicare et caeteris distrilistri:;5 buere OSSimUs.
possimUs. Quamobrem quae subiunguntur verba consecrare ac
divina conficere aut per synecdochen aut per hysterologiam dicuntur,
ve1 forte, quod supra dictum est, manifestiorem invocationem, qu.ae
quae
Salvatoris
SaIvatoris verbis non
ita aperte continebatur, significans.
habut, quae de eucharistiae
Haec habui,
eucharistae sacramento, sicuti ab initio
pollici-16.
pollici- 16.
10 tus fueram, in praesentia dissererem. Ubi ita, ni
fallor, adversantium
adversantiurn
mtiones
rationes atque argumenta solvi, ut nulla posthac frustra et inaniter
contendendi reIicta
relicta occasio videretur. Modo omnes meminerint, quam
manifesta quamque extra omnern
oronem contentionem
contetionem sint sanctorum testirnonia.
monia. quibus ostenditur verba Dommi
Domini esse, quae sacrum eucharistiae
15 mysterium integre periCiunt,
perliciunt, ac idcirco caetera quidem omnia
oa verba
ad haec, haec vero
ero ad alia minime
mnime ~
e~e trahenda. His
! praeterea maxime
omnium esse credendum, tum
turn quia unanim.es
unanimes et unius sententiae
sententae omnes
sunt sive
sie orientaJes
orientales sive occidui. tum
turn quod ita clare
c1are ac manifeste de
hac ce
re loquuntur, ut nulla omnino
omnno dubitatio supersit tibi.
tib.
Quae ex
20 adverso dicuntur, ita obscura et quibusd.am
quibusdam quasi tenebris
tenebrS involuta
sunt, ut plures
plores variasque et vix extricabiles recipiant expositiones.
Clarioribus
Ca.riorbus autem ad eorum, quae obscuriora sunt, cognitionem utendum
esse eruditi omneset
omeset putant et iubent. Quae cum ita sint, ad extremum
eos, in quorum
quonm manus haec forte pervenerint , hortamur atque obsecra25 mus, ut onmi
n reiecta contentione studio dumtaxat inveniendae veritatis
haec legentes ad ipsam veritatem accedant, inventam suscipiant,
susceptamque caeteris patefaciant. Valeant autem hi omnes, qui
rationis callem minime sequentes, cum contentione ac saepe etiam
etam
iurgs et contumeliis,
iurgils
cotumeliis, quidquid eis in
n mentem
mentern vel
potus
potius buccam
euctare atque evomere non
erubescant.
eubescant .
3Ovenerit, nemini arentes,
parentes, eTUctare

BESSARIONIS CARDINALIS
IN
ILLUD EVANGELII:
SIe
SIC EUM VOLO MANERE, QUID AD
TE?
?
Die alte Streitfrage um die angefhrte
angefhte Stelle der Vulgata, ob sie
wie allgemein berliefert
ibelefert sie
sic eum volo
10 manere, oder
ode mit dem grie.
gie.
chSChen U ... IXUTO'
r:uTlJ\l" &I;)'w
&i h
l manere zu verbessern
vebessern
ehischen
~tW... in si eum volo
sei, hatte auch in
Bessarions Akademie zu Rom Gelegenheit zu
lebhafter Errterung
rrtenng gegeben. Ausgangspunkt war eine
bis heu~e noch
nicht wieder aufgetauchte Schrift
Schft des Georgios Trapezuntios,
Tapezuntios, die etwa
aus den Jahren :':453
~453 /54 stammte1. Auf sie ging der griechische
gechsche Kardinal wahrscheinlich bald nach seiner
seine Rckkehr
Rickkehr von
seiner Legation
;n
; Bologna
BoIogna (:r455)
(455) mit der vorliegenden Abhandlung ein.
. Bisher
Bishe war
diese nur
in
einer lateinischen Obersetzung
bersetzung bekannt , die bei Migne P
.
gr. :r6z,
6, 623-640 zuganglich
zugnglich ist. Nachdem ich den griechischen Text
erstmals in
erstma1s
jn der Rmischen
Romischen Quartalschrift 4z
4 (Z933),
(933), y&)-z06
&)-:%06 herausheaus
gegeben habE:,
hab:, biete ich ihn hier nochmals mit Verbesserungen.
Verbessenngen . Einzige
Vorlage ist der schon oben S. zerwhnte
envahnte Cod.
Cl . Marc.
Mare. gr. 527, Fol.
Fo!.
Y60---z74
60---74 v. Die Bedeutung der Tex~kritik Bessarions erhellt daraus,
da
daB diese
dese Schrift
Schft Lorenzo Val1a
Valla die Anregung
Anegung zur Abfassung seiner
Adnotationes zum Neuen Testament gegeben hat'.
hat J
1 Nicht
Ni<:.ht zu
~u "et'Wecll$eln
&Wecl$eln mit
mt der
d .. r ..
ebendOilhin
bendOilhin zielenden
zi..Jen!.en splltercn
5pll.tercn Schrift d .... Georgios
Trapezuntio8 bei Migne, P.
. gr. 161.
~61. 86;7-882.
I Zum Ganzen
Ga.nzen "gI.
gl. L. Mohler.
Mohle Kardinal
a.Ml Bessa.rion
Bessarion als
Theologe, Humanist
Humanst und
Staatsmann.
Sta.a.tnann. I Paderbom I923.
923. S. 399---40-4399---4-4-

Bptyo
B'loO'Clplwyo~

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8 Hier., Adv,
. !ovioiaoum
Joviaiaaum I

~6 ( L,
PL ~ l, ~46) .,

BESSARlONIS NICAENI
BESSARI0NIS
Libellus
QUOD NATURA CONSULTO AGAT.
Die hier erstma1s
erstmals verffentlichte
erffentlchte kleine Schrift
Schft enthilt
enthlt skizzenskzzen
haft die in
dem nachfolgenden Werk .. De natura et arte" entwickelten
Gedanken. Da Georgios
Georgos Trapezuntios hinter ihr
ihc Theodoros Gazes als
a1s
Verfasser vennutete, wurde sie von
den Abschreibem
Abschreibern ohne weiteres
diesem zugeschrieben. Auch Leo
diesern
Lee Allatius hat diesen Irrtum in seine
Abhandlung ..De Theodoris" ibemommen
bernommen (abgedruckt bei Migne
Abhand1ung
PG 161, 971 sqq.), und von
da 1st
ist er weitergegangen bis z.u
:. Fabricius
und Spteren.
SpitereII. Die Abfassung durch Bessarion ergibt sich aus dessen
"De natura et arte", in
der er ausdrcklich
ausdrcklich auf diese frhere
frhere Schrift
1 1m
und die oaheren
nheren Zusammenhilnge
Zusammenhinge hinweist
hinweistl.
Im Cod. Barberinus gr. 84
hat denn auch eine spatere
sptere Hand Bessarion ausdriicklich
ausdrcklich als
a1s Verfasser
anstatt Theodoros hezeChnet.
fo 155

bezeichnet. Ambr. D 118


II8 bemerkt fot
ISS in
marg.: Ferrarius putat non
esse Gazae, sed Bessarionis
BessarionS ... de qua
Bessarion in libro suo addito. Die oben gesetzte lateinische ttberschrift
berschrift
stammt von
spterer
spiterer Hand im Barb. gr. 84.
Die Schrift ist in
folgenden Handschriften iberliefert:
berliefert:
a) Rom, Cod. Vat.
Val. gr. IQ98,
l, fol.
{. ~n5-216"
~U5-2I6" = B.
.
b) Rom, Cod. Barb. gr. 84, fol.
l. 139-14zr
139-142r = C.
c) Rom.
Rom, Bibl.
BibI. Vallicellana Cod. gr. 189 (C VIII),
VI), Nr.12.
Nt. 12.
Maland, Bibl.
Bibi. Ambr. D n8
8 info
.
d) Mailand,
e) Mailand, Bibl.
BibI. Ambr. M
41 sup.
{)
f) Paris, Bib1.
BibI. nato
nat. Cod. gr. 817, fol.
l. 207-208".
207.-208".
Sie sind durchweg sptere
spi.tere Abschriften mit vielen Willkrlichkeiten
Willkirlichkeiten un.d
und
Fehlern. Die AIlgabe
Angabe eines Cod. Barb. gr. 399 bei L.Stein,
L. Stein, Der Humanist Theodor Gaza als
II 526 H.)
aJs Philosoph (Archiv f,
f. Gesch. d. Phil. 11
)
ist irrig. Es handelt sich lediglich um die ltere
i.ltere Signatur
Sgnatur des oben genannten C. Zum Ganzen vgl.
' A.
. Gercke, Theodoros Gazes. Festschrift. Greifswald 1903, S.39
5.39 Uu .. S.
5.41
41 f. und L.
L . Mohlet,
Mohler, Kard.
Bessarion I 391 ff.
.
nato et arte
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haben.

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,98 .199b.
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6. 1141 &
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Vor" 456
456'1

BESSARIONIS CARDINALlS
CARDINAL1S
DE NATURA ET
ARTE.
Der
De Text d
di_
i _ Abhandh.ng,
Ab!ulndIw:g, den
de >eh
kh hier
hie e!'Stmali
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ch frllhe.
filher von
vo mir
i namhaft
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gemaclteo Hatldlcllriftel)'
Hatdclrifte)' Ilbe.'Uefert:
llbel.efert:
a)
.
) Venedig,
Veoedig, Cod. Mare
Mrc . gr. j~7
'~7 fol.
. 176-199
176-199.
b) VeoedIg
Venedig , Cod.Man:.
tod.Man:. g'.198
g . 198 o1
fol ' ~94"-316".
Cod. Mare.
Marc . gr. ~27 (M),
(), du
de .,hOll
., frllher
iIh". erwlhD~
erwlhn~ Samrnelband
Sammelband q :&I"rioD.
el"rion.
eigenem
ciD.,.,. Gebrauch,
Gebra.u<:h, i,t
;t die Altflle
. Vorlage.
'Vo1a!:. Er
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lkher
1k1e. ~tf
~hrlft lDit
vielen Aht.IIr&uqell,
Aht.lluuDgell, ohne
Kapiteteilltellu,..
apiteleoteilu ... IIl1d
ulld Obenchriftell.
tn.enchriftell.
10
lo Cod . M.an::. Sr.
. t<}8
<}8 (V)
() 1st
ist die At>handj<Lq
Al>haMr"ng aJ.
als VI.
. Blr.ch
B<:h EIl,
111:I.,,,on,
1:!"'.. rion, 10
Io Co.!u"",,(a.
Co.\I"""'
torem Platon;'
Platoot eiogereiht'.
eingereiht'. Wie der
(Ie Vera:leIch
Vera:leleh heder
belder HandloCh,ift
H.,IIdch,tfteo
.. n :oeigt.
:oegt. ist
it V.
. der
Doch
noch nntn
" deo
den AUge<!
ge> lJ"sarioDi
IJ ".rioDl entstanden.
entst.llde. 1st.
Ist. eine
ei oehr
ehr genaue
geDaue Ab8chrift
Ab.:hrift al1l
AU M.
.
An
einigen Stellen 1&Ot
l&Ot skh beobacbteo,
beobachten, daa
V offell.ichtliche
offensichtliche Uori::htlfkd~
Uoriehtltkd~ Ver_
_
t rp ..
. . te. Ich fhre
f~h.re di_
_ EingrjUe
EngrjUe .uf
das E"'ve
erst.aDdni
... taDdnis da
d ... Verfaaen
Verfaen Z'llrltck
Z'tItck w:d
und
gab ihneu
gah
Ihncp in
du
.,.. TexegestaltuDg
Texeget&ltuog deo
den VDuug.
VORg. Der..,
Der c. 3 ei .....fgte
fllgte BrieI
Brief da
d ... Ceorglos
CeorgOS
Trapuuntios
Tapezu.ntos an
& H_iu von
vo Kypern
Kypero. 1st
Ist auerdem
atlBerde:m Doch
noch im.
m. Cod. V.t.
Vat. gr.
. 1098
tot
/ 216--2.19'
216-'1.19' (B)
() IIherli"f
IIherliefcrt.
... t. D<:>ch hietet er
fr
il. den
IIe: Text
keiIIe
keine BC5Ieichenlogell,
BeleichenopII.
Die
De hier beigegehene
beigegebene IateiniIIChe
Iateini""he Ohe.-..t
Obe.-..t ....... etso:hien
etchieo :rn..
... mmen.
mIDe. ...
mit
it B
B 'T"onls
prionls
In
Ca}uIDlliator"",
Calumllia.tor"", Platooie
P1atonis im
... Druck
Drucl: Romae
Ronao q69.
I~69. Venetu.
Veneti8 lj03
Ij03 oDd
und Ij.6.
Ij16. Hand.
aod
.,hriJIlich
IoChriftlich 1st
Ist ";e
aie ..erha1ten
rhalten In Iolgeadell
l<>lpdll Kodba:
Kodl:... :
a) Veoedig.
Venedig. Cod . Man:
Mare . I&t.
la.t. 229.
b}
b) FI
F loreQ~,
oreQ~, Bibl. Lo.I1",
Lo. ..... lat.
.. Piut.
PhI . j. Cod. I , 101
10 .219
. 219 oqq.
c) Rom. Cod. Urhio.teo.
Urhinaten. la.t. 196.
1, fol.
. 1I - I'.
1,".
aIt8re,
AbgeJ.~:. tlberseuuog
Ubesetllo (Ine.
(c. CWD.
ritoteI... et
.....
_
Eiae
lltere, abgeJr.n:te
CIIID. phlloaphllI
phUooaphuI Aristoteies
tuT
r ......
ram.
.. . !k..
tk.. IIt
ut se
e coguoacete
cDtl<>acere vaJeat,)
vJeat,) bietet Coc:I.
Co:\. M.an::. gT.
g. j27 fol.
. 20:l-a34
2~3.T als
&
Anbaog
bao 2"m
211 griochiacllen
gnochiacllen Text.
.
WilO
choo die latei.nhche
1atei.n:he Obenetzung
Obeetzuq der
de vier
. BOcher dee 10
Ca!lIooiatorem
Wilt Khon
I n Calumniatorem
Plateau
PlAtooi aJ.
als eine
no VenrA5serung
VerwA5serung der
(- griechbch
griechiach ...
.... Vor)ap
Vorlage 211 betrachterl
betrach1etl iet.... noch
no:h
mehr die
Obenetzu
Obersetzu .. g von
on De
Oe naturll
... et
arte. Schwier!ge
Schwierige und weniger
wenger gdeiJte
gefeilte Steuo
Stonen
..
umgeht der Obenlttzer
IIOgeht
Obene1:zer mit
m.it weo;gen
wenige<! Slt_.
St_. Zum
Zuo Sc.b!ulJ
Sc.billlJ hearheiteto
bearbeitete er
e den
. . Text
ha1cI
ba1d durch
VerkUnu
Verkllnull/l:.
.... ha1d
hald durch
dllrcl E
....... tGm
ten.
.. g.
Die Abf
Abfauuog
8uDII,..."eit
,eit der Schrift
Schrft De
Oe natu,a
natura et
atte
arte ist
it ..
acl
aclI dem nunmehr
llonelr
vorUeg .... deo griechilochen
vm-eg""den
griechichen Tut
T~It lI,egen
gegen ...
m&i
ei .... frllhete
frhere Aut1assv.og
Autlassung 1I<>d
ulWt 1I'C8'1tO
gegen Gercke'
Gercl:e'
viel frO.her
vieI
frUber ab dla lJilcher
IJllcher 10
In Calumuilltonom
Ca!lImo;aOom Platenu
P1atons A~zeII.
an~zen. Du
D.. ergibt ,ich
,
einmal
einm.al .... der in
Verhaltenen
V erhalt.ereo RaDdbemerk\lng
R.adbem.erl:uog "Be
k 'clo
'rion:
.... : 1\"pb
1"/) ..,
,
.... 'f!)V "U"J'o
"II"Y"fP~
~ ....... ;;.,,"
~;;."" {i.
{ e. In
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Plat.) 1\"pb
1"/ ~ ~ 1"6-<c~
1\"p6npo~ ........
'I'OU'ft .......cyp4,"l'
u-ocy4'l!. Ferner
Ferne
oat
at Beaarion,
Beaarion. da
daB ... da
d ... CenrRIos
Ge<>rRos vielgerllhmte
idgellhnte Comparatiottn
Com.par.tio_ Aristotei",
AristoteIS et 1'\&.
toni die hekaolltlich
tooi
bekanlltlich den Anlall
lla zu aei
ei ...... We,t.
Werk 111 eatU11lJliatorem
C.I01DDiato,en Platonu
PlatoIIs geg,.ben
geg.ben
habell.
habe
... damals ""'<h
o:h IIIcht
n::ht EIl,
%U Gesicht bekonmell
bekommen habe {c
{c.o 6. 9).
9}. Da B
BT
HOl
..iou 10
In
Cab.mniatorem
Calu:iatorem Pla.ton'"
Pla.tolls anf
" 1436
.36 bie
bis tuB
r4j8 &I1ZIl..,tzen
Azu ... tzen iat,
ist, kame
Itmo filr
De
Oe ....
II&tura
tura et
IHO hi.
hio 14H
arte wohl die Zeit
Zot voo
'430
." in
Fra&e4.

,ijf'" ..

, L. MohIer,
Mohler, Kardinal
aMial Be
Besarioo
..arion I 392 11.
ll. 3. -_

Die dortige Anpbe


Angabe 1'
" .. b) Cod
Man:. gT.
g.ISg
8g ist
it .,il1
Df\lckfoh)er
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ach Obigem
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.". heri::htige.
berichtigen. Die ... ~ter dort
lJI>IlUlIl1:en
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und d .... PAri_
P.ri..,. Natiooa1bibliothel
Natiooalbibliothell ....
eutla1teo
tha1teo
d"" vorbergepnrn
vorherean.eo
..... kleinen.
\:Ie_ Libelllll
Libellul B
'aOO
uno ... steiche"
geicheo Titell.
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I Ober
Obe:r Cod. ~. 11"'. 1')8
1<;18 vgl.
gl. Band
Ba,nd 11. Eillleit
Eillleit"O
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p. Vll.
V11.
Ba.od t 393. A.
. Gerck,.,
Theodoro C
.."..
B"nd I 360.
I Band
Gerekto, Theodoros
..... S. 39 f.
I O""d

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M
_ Cod. MA:rc.
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'27.

V _ Cod. Marc.
Mare. gr. 198.
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BUSlrlonl.
"l.
Cardinalis Sabini, Patriarehae Constantinopolitani
Pe
De natur.
natra et arte

Adversus Georgium Trapezuntium Cretensem liber.


Caput I.
.
Cum Aristote1es phlosophus
philosophus in secundo
seundo libro eius operis, quod 1,
de rebus naturalibus scripsit,
scpst, naturam quidem statuisset
statusset ornnia
omnia alieuius
alicuius
rei gratia
grata facere,
faeere, verumtamen
verumtarnen nihil consu1t9
consult9 agere, quemadmodum ars
quoque licet
lieet sine consilio agat, omnia tamen
tarnen alicuius rei gratia {adt.
facit.
]0 Plethon CQostantinopolitanus, vir nostra aetate opinionurn
10
Platonis
aemulus atque defensor, hane
c Aristotelis
Arstofelis sententiam improbandaIl\
inprobandaIl\
longe refellendamque existimavit et
10nge
tam
tarn artem
artern quam
quarn naturam esseruit
asseruit
secundum Platonicorum opinionem.
consulto agere. Cui
. quae faciunt,
c, consu1to
Cu
sententiae repugnans Theodorus Thessalonicensis, familiaris noster,
]5talibus quibusdam argumentis usus est. Consultationem enim earum
15talibus
rerum (ue
C9Ee dicebat,
rueebat, de quibus nullam cognitionem aut certitudinem
certitudinern
habemus, an
ad eum, quem constituimus
constifumus finern
finem , conducant. At
naturae
atque artis
ut cognitus certusque finis est, sic ea, quae ad finem
spectant,
spec::tant,
cognita ac
:: certa esse. Quapropter n.eque
neque artem
artern neque naturarn
naturam con2Osilio agere. Ad haec cum
curn agendi faciendique operatio non
parum inter
se differant.
difterant. fadendi
faciendi quidem officium
offcium arti tribui,
tbui, agendi vero prudentiae.
Solere eutern
autem non, quid faciamus, sed quid agamus. oonsultari.
oonsu1ta. Ideoque
consilium non
artis esse. hoc:
hoc est habitus cum ratione factivi, sed prudentiae,
tae, id est habitus cum ratione activi.
ac::tivi.
.
25
Admirari
dmira praeterea se idem Theodorus dic::ebat
dicebat Plethonem existi-.
masse
rnasse paucis quibusdam verbis et quasi unica
unca positone
positione recipi suam
sententiam posse. tot alioquin
aloquin Aristotelis rationibus adversam, quae
.f.4M1atio
4r"Ho "'04~
"'il"-;~ .f.14i_
14_ : Huc
HHc d.
de arte atqll..
atqll.e :ahra
_hin diapll.u.tio teiUDCt&
ew:ta fIIt
et
ab opeI. 'luod
quod ~venus ca.lomniatOTe!ll
ca.llI.mniatrem Platoois
odh ut.
auct"e mult'Du1t.
Platonis edihlln
Nt. et &b
ab aw:tote
3O&DIUs,
3O&DUs, anteq_DI
antequam Ubri
Ibri isti Krlberentur.
Kriberentur, edlta.
. Verurntamen
Verumt&.n 'lnia.
qnia. ad
&d 1It:nuPque
atr1uPque philolOphum.
ophUDl. Platonem Kilii:.t
KUii:et atque ArlstowI81II.,
Arlstotelem, ba~
baee qu.-clo
qu.&88t1o poatDet,
po.tiDet, non
n a10e
a100 ratione
b.aec In calce
b.&ec
ca1ce Operil
operis poedOM
poneDdlm auctor exmt.ianavit,
xit.in&it, UI
i qao mu1t&
multII. de
d. -utri1llllluo
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ophl opinionibUi
opinionibu tractabaDtur.
tr&ctabtur.
Opas enim <1efenIionii
1etenon 'luinque
qvi.nqu. Ubm
Ibri8 dividitur.
divid.itur.
QlU.ttuor
QlI.&ttU()l' primi Platonem
P1atonem hlentar.
hentar. Quinhll
O.h boc dumtuat
du.tuat oltendlt
ot.ndJt IIOB
pot
potniTU
.. i77I adver&der36
Kripm
arim d.
de eo philoopho
philolopho iudiCiUDl
iudicium terno.
.rn. quom miaimo
inteUexit.
intoUexit. Vltimua
tU:1l8 est.
et. de
da
qao
q1lo prime
pnttimo 4ium
4iuDI ..t.

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tuU.

DE NTR
NATURA ET
ARTE.

95

oontrarium plane confinnant atque pe1Suadent. Et


Si
si quid a nobis
plenus
plenius ea de re eum
cum a1iqua
aliqua vi
demonstrationis
demonstratois diei
dci posset, Jibenter
se auditurum ostendebat, utque id, nisi
S molestum
molesturn esset, fa.ceremus,
rogabat vehementer. Huie
c nos eum
cum morem gerere et, quantum in
IS nobis esset, gratificari
gratifica.ri studeremus, taIia
tal18 quaedam e.x scriptis Platonis
Platois
brevi libello
Jibello complexi sumus.
Caput 11.
Naturam alicuius
alieuius rei gratia omnia agere et Aristoteles tradit et 2,1
2,
ventat! consentaneum est. Neque enim
veritati
enirn dicendum esset idcirco
idcireo eam
10
JO non
alicuius gratia agere, quod sine consilio agat, quippe
quipe ars quoque,
etsi absque consilio, omnia tamen
tarnen alicuius
alieuius gratia agit. Quod autem
sine eonsilio
consilio agat, illud argumento est, quod, si ars in ligno
!go esset, nullo
consilio uteretuf.
uteretur. Atqui Plato et qui eum secuti
seeuti sunt phlosophi
philosophi omnes.
nihil
hl in
prima parte ab Aristote1e discrepantes, naturam similiter ponunt
11S alicuius
alieuius rei gratia omnia facen,
facere, in secunda vero parte ab Aristotele
Aristote1e
dissentiunt,
dssentiunt, nihil
Jlhl eam sine consilio facere
faeere asseverantes. Nam etsi per
se ipsam
p!i8I minime natura aut consulat quicquam
quicquarn aut deIiberet,
deliberet, intellectus
tarnen uJliversus,
tamen
universus, qui rebus omnibus ex natura nascentibus
nasc.:entibus insistit
naturamque ipsam ad finem
finern dirigit, consilio praeditus est. Neque
20 enim naturam Plato existimat pmam
primarn rerum causam esse, sed esse
eausam
causam aliam ceDSet
ceset natura priorem IOJlgeque
Iongeque nobiliorem, quae ratlone
ratone
et consHio
consilio omnia agat, ad finemque
finernque perducat, siquidem in
se ipsa finis
quoque eontinet
continet rationem. Tendit sane aliquid
Qlquid ad finem
finern duobus modis
aut propria operatione aut aliena;
aliena ; propria !
ut homo et reIiqua, quae
2IS ra tione pollent, aliena sicut
sieut ea, quae ad finem
finern aliunde moventuf,
quemadmodum a sagittario
sa&ittario sagitta
sagtta dirigitur
dirigtur et omnino res
r es inanimatae
ab aliquo, quod rationis particeps sit, moventur ad linern,
Iinem, eum
cum ipsae
nulla sua facuItate
nuUa
facultate moveri queant, sed a1iunde
aliunde id beneficium
benefieium nanci
nanei
SC&I1tur.
scantur. Quo in
genere natura posita est, quippe quae causa est instru30 mentalis
mentals et ita moveri solet, ut mens suo consilio rationeque permoverit.
permovent.
Quo quidem in
loco maxima meo
rneo iudicio
iudieio inter Platonem et Aristote-t
Aristote-!
lern differentia est. Hinc
lem
c enim
enirn perdifficilis illa et perobscura de ideis
quaestio oritur. Nec vero naturam solum, sed etiam
etiarn artem
artern Platonici
PIatonci
ponunt consilium praecedere, quippe artificern
artificem sibi finem
finern proponere et,
3/)
3r> quae ad illum ducant, investigare. Cum autem
autern plura ac diversa sint,
quae ad finem
finern perducunt, oportere artificem, quid eelerius
celerius me1iusque
me1usque
dscemere. Hoc
H oc vero iure consilium appellari.
appe11ar.
eo perducat, cogitare atque disc.:emere.
Narn eum
Nam
cum pleraque occurrant artifici minus
!! consueta, quorum quodlibet ad propositum finem
finern perducere potest, consilium capiat oportet,
.a
. quid rectius operi quove modo accommodetur. Nec ideo existimandum
est nullum posse in arte consilium esse, quia factivus
faetivus potius quam activus habitus est. Neque enim actio a faciendo differt con
consili
sil ratione,

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