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VGB PowerTech 6 l 2016

Monitoring fouling in coal fired boilers

New technology for monitoring


fouling deposition in coal fired boilers
Naftaly Menn and Boris Chudnovsky

Kurzfassung

Introduction

Eine neue Technologie zur


berwachung von Ablagerungen
in mit Kohle gefeuerten Kesseln

The paper addresses the age-old problem


of improving power plant and boiler efficiency and specifically in facilities where
solid fuel, such as coal and biomass, is
burnt and combustion energy is transferred into electric power generated by the
steam turbine.

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Eine neue Technologie wird vorgestellt, mit der


Echtzeitdaten zu Schichtdicke und Reflektivitt
der Verschmutzungen auf der Wandberohrung
von mit Kohle befeuerten Kesseln ermittelt werden knnen. Die Daten werden durch Direktmessungen an unterschiedlichen Positionen des
Kessels ermittelt und ermglichen die berwachung der lokalen Wrmebertragung entlang
der Kesselwand sowie die Auswirkungen auf
die Feuerraumendtemperatur (FEGT) und den
Sauberkeitsfaktor (CF) der Anlage. Mithilfe
dieser Daten lassen sich die fr die Reinigung
des Kessels optimalen Verfahren ermitteln.
Messbeispiele zeigen, dass die Verschmutzungsdynamik innerhalb des Kessels signifikante Abweichungen aufweist.
Es hat sich auerdem gezeigt, dass sich beim
Betrieb zwei unterschiedliche Ablagerungsmechanismen ausbilden: Ein Mechanismus mit
geringer Schichtdicke und kontinuierlichem
Wachstum und ein weiterer Mechanismus, bei
dem groe Konglomerate unverbrannten Materials beim Auftreffen auf die Kesselwnde ansetzen und dann nach relativ kurzer Zeit durch
turbulente Gasstrme im Innern des Ofens
wieder entfernt werden. Fr unterschiedliche
Kohletypen wurde ein Vergleich der Verschmutzungsdynamik durchgefhrt. Dabei hat sich
gezeigt, dass die Auswirkungen der Verschmutzungsreflektivitt auf die Feuerraumendtemperatur (FEGT) und den Sauberkeitsfaktor (CF)
den entsprechenden Auswirkungen der Verschmutzungsdicke entsprechen bzw. dass die
Verschmutzungsreflektivitt sich unter Umstnden sogar strker als die Verschmutzungsdicke entwickelt.
l

Authors
Naftaly Menn, PhD

AMS Advanced Measurement Systems Ltd


Haifa, Israel

Boris Chudnovsky, PhD


IEC-Israel Electric Company
Haifa, Israel

Increased efficiency can still be achieved


using new technologies allowing for a
deeper understanding of the complex, dynamic processes taking place in the combustion chamber (the furnace) and other
major parts of the facility.
As is well known, there are different methods for coal firing: pulverised combustion,
fluidised bed combustion, moving bed etc.
For pulverised combustion, the particles
of coal are mixed with air. The pulverised
coal-air mixture is fired by the furnace
burners (located at several furnace levels).
The fuel particles are ignited and create the
flame consisting of very hot solid particles
and combustion gases. The temperature in
the flame achieves 1,700 C to 1,800 C. At
such high temperatures the transfer of heat
energy from the flame to the furnace wall
(comprising the water tubes where water
is converted into steam) is mainly due to
radiation heat transfer (up to 90 %). In
such conditions radiation properties of the
furnace wall (spectral reflectivity R and
spectral emissivity ) play a significant role
in the overall heat balance of the facility.
Furthermore, the fuel characteristics of
coal and especially biomass are very different, including moisture content, ash content, calorific value, and alkali/alkaline
earth metal content. Ash-forming elements
are present in biomass and coal as salts,
bound in the carbon structure or as mineral
particles introduced randomly even during transportation. Concentration of major
ash forming elements (Si, Ca, Mg, K, Na, P)
have an influence on ash melting behavior
and corrosion/erosion mechanisms.
During combustion, a fraction of the ashforming compounds in the fuel is volatilised and released into the gas phase. Another fraction creates the solid particles
which cannot be completely burnt. These
unburnt residuals, primarily consisting of
oxides of the aforementioned metals and
other elements presented in different proportions in different kinds of coal and biomass, appear in the combustion chamber

as separate ash particles and sometimes


also create the aggregates of slag. Complex fluid dynamics existing in the furnace
is responsible for multi-phase flow with
3D velocity distribution which moves ash
particles towards the walls where they are
deposited on the water tubes. The deposition layer (fouling) created in such a way is
usually characterised by very low thermal
conductivity and causes significant thermal resistance, which reduces heat transfer
from the flame and hot gases to the water
and steam. The larger the thickness (T) of
the deposition layer the greater amount of
heat energy originated in the combustion
is going not to the heated water, but to the
furnace exit and increases the Flue Gas Exit
Temperature (FEGT). Therefore, increases
of T and R reduce the overall heat absorption of the combustion chamber and as a
result reduces boiler and unit efficiency.
To improve the heat transfer inside the furnace the fouling deposits obviously should
be removed. This is usually carried out by
activating numerous soot blowers distributed all along the furnace walls and operated in some predefined manner in order to
clean the heat transfer surfaces. However,
activation of the cleaning blowers causes
additional energy wastage and, what is
more critical, results in growing erosion
of the water tubes. Therefore the cleaning
should be optimised taking into consideration different factors which influence the
heat transfer, fouling dynamics and maintenance issues.
Several approaches addressing the cleaning procedure have been suggested over
the years.
In advanced boiler systems the activation
of soot blowers is based on the Cleanliness
Factor (CF) defined as the ratio of overall
heat transfer coefficient at actual operation condition to its value at clean condition. However, usage of CF is still problematic because real heat transfer depends on
many factors, such as the utility load, tilt
position of the burners, spatial distribution of different fraction of solid particles
inside the furnace, situation in convection
pass and other conditions varying in the
course of normal operation of the utility.
Most of them can hardly be measured or
even quantified. In addition, CF is defined
as an integral parameter which depends on
local heat transfer in different zones of the
furnace water tube walls: it may happen
that in some places the fouling deposits

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VGB PowerTech 6 l 2016

Monitoring fouling in coal fired boilers

the extended part is introduced to a very


hot zone of the furnace.

Fouling thickness in mm
(Vertical lines designate soot-blowing process)

Comparing intensity of light reflected


from the fouling surface with intensity of
light reflected from the standard specimen
makes it possible to calculate spectral reflectivity of the fouling in the wavelength
of the laser. Special measures undertaken
in order to get high contrast of the spot image with regard to the background of the
high intensity radiation originated in the
furnace flame.

2
1.8

Thikness in mm

1.6
1.4
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
204

205

206

207

208

209

210

211

212

Time in hours

Fig. 1. Measurement of fouling thickness versus time. Type I of fouling deposition.

Several FTR devices installed on the furnace wall are connected in one complete
system interfaced to the system local server. From the server results of measurement
and calculation of T and R from all zones
equipped by FTR devices are transferred to
the PI (data acquisition system) of the station. A special software package provides
real time processing of all data in PI followed by recommending how the cleaning
procedure should be carried out.

Fouling thickness in mm
(Vertical lines designate soot-blowing process)
6
5

Thikness in mm

4
3
2

Experimental results

1
0
290

Reflectivity measurement is performed in


each cycle of thickness measurement, so
both values, T and R, characterise the dynamic of fouling (and, finally, of local heat
transfer) in the vicinity of the FTR device.

291

292

293

294

295

296

297

298

299

300

Time in hours

Fig. 2. Measurement of fouling thickness versus time. Type II of fouling deposition.

achieves the critical thickness while in others deposition is still very low. Moreover,
reflectivity of the fouling surface varies
in a completely different way to deposition growth and sometimes in a manner
opposite to the impact of the thickness of
fouling. In other words, implementation of
CF as a target parameter for cleaning optimisation requires measurement of fouling
data collected in real time and from different areas of the furnace.

ence surface located inside the device. The


light beam originating in the light source
(a laser diode) is focused on the fouling
surface growing on the water tube. The
image of the light spot is transferred by the
system optics to the video sensor interfaced
with the system processor. Movement of
the image spot is translated into measured thickness T. The measurement is fast
(about one second) so there is no need for
intensive cooling, in spite of the fact that

FTR systems have been successfully operated over the last 2.5 years on two Israel Electric Company plants one is a 575 MW unit
of tangential firing boiler in the Orot Rabin
power plant (Hadera) and the second is
a 550 MW unit of opposite fired boiler in
the Rutenberg power plant (Ashkelon). A
great volume of data was collected during
this period at both stations. Analysing the
results measured makes it possible to find
new features of the process of fouling and
to gain a better understanding of relations
between the dynamics of fouling, parameters of heat transfer and characteristics and
sequence of cleaning. Some typical results
are presented below.
F i g u r e 1 and F i g u r e 2 demonstrate
two different types of fouling existing in

An approach presented here is based on


non-contact direct measurement of Fouling Thickness and Reflectivity (FTR) in real
time. For this purpose a special electro-optical device attached to the furnace wall is
used which enables the simultaneous and
continuous measurement of the T and R
of the fouling (see detailed description in
[1 to 3]). This device is located in the vicinity of a soot blower and therefore collects information from the adjacent zone.
It comprises the extended part (moving
head) which moves in and out of the furnace while inside the furnace the system
measures the fouling thickness and reflectivity and, as it leaves the furnace, the system collects data on reflection from a refer66

Reflectivity (hemispherical)
(Vertical lines designate soot-blowing process)
0.6
0.5

South Africa coal

Russian coal

0.4

Reflectivity

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Method and technology

0.3

Low load

0.2
0.1
0
230

235

240

245

250

255

Time in hours

Fig. 3. Fouling rflectivity variation versus time.

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260

265

270

275

280

Thickness in m

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3.0

Monitoring fouling in coal fired boilers

2.0
1.0
0.0
280
a)

Water wall tube contamination thickness trend


Level 9, SA Anglo MAF coal

281

285

286

287

288

289

290

5.0

4.0

4.0
Thickness in mm

Thickness in mm

284

Water wall tube contamination thickness trend


Level 9, SA Billiton coal

6.0

3.0
2.0
1.0

3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0

0.0
280
a)

30

281

282

Fig. 4. Contamination
6.0

283

284

285

286

287

288

289

290

5.0

Thickness in mm

b)

34

36

38

40

42

44

46

Time

and Billiton coal.

thickness. The situation shown in Figure 2


is completely different: it is seen that big
lumps of material are approaching the water wall, attaching to the tubes for some period of time after which they are removed
by the main flow of the air and combustion
away
40 products
42
44 from
46 the wall. The cloud of

such big lumps of material of course reduce


the radiation heat transfer from the flame
to the wall, but may be even more essential
that when they are sitting on the tubes
these lumps significantly increase the thermal resistance of the fouling layer.

Time

FTR01 Device data

FTR05 Device data

FTR02 Device data

FTR02 Device data

32

b)

Time
Water wall tube contamination thickness trend
Level 9, SA Billiton
coal
thickness variation
for Anglo
MAF

the furnace. Each point on those figures


4.0
represents one cycle of measurement of
3.0 of contamination on the water
thickness
wall tubes
and vertical lines indicate the
2.0
soot blowing
activation. The first type
1.0
of fouling (Figure 1) is characterised by
0.0
slow, almost
monotonic
30
32
34 change
36 of fouling
38

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283

Time

6.0
5.0

282

Sootblowing SQ. 5

FTR06 Device data

FTR07 Device data

Sootblowing SQ. 3

FTR04 Device data

Sootblowing SQ. 6

Sootblowing SQ. 5

FTR08 Device data

Sootblowing SQ. 6

Fig. 5. PI data for thickness and reflectivity of FTR system with 8 devices.

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Monitoring fouling in coal fired boilers

Thickness in mm

Sootblow
SQ. 3
11:55-12:05

Sootblow
SQ. 6
12:50-13:15

Sootblow
SQ. 5
12:18-12:35

Indirect effect on FTR07


Indirect effect on FTR08

FTR01 - THCKNS

FTR02 - THCKNS

FTR03 - THCKNS

FTR04 - THCKNS

FTR05 - THCKNS

FTR06 - THCKNS

FTR07 - THCKNS

FTR08 - THCKNS

8
9
04-03-16 11:31

04-03-16 12:00

04-03-16 12:28
Time

04-03-16 12:57

04-03-16 13:26

FTR01 - THCKNS

0.9

FTR02 - THCKNS

Thickness in mm

0.8

FTR03 - THCKNS

0.7

FTR04 - THCKNS

0.6
0.5

FTR05 - THCKNS

0.4

FTR06 - THCKNS

0.3

FTR07 - THCKNS

0.2

FTR08 - THCKNS

0.1
0
04-03-16 11:31

04-03-16 12:00

04-03-16 12:28

04-03-16 12:57

04-03-16 13:26

Time
FTR01 - RFLKT

FTR02 - RFLKT

Thickness in mm

0.9
0.8

FTR03 - RFLKT

0.7

FTR04 - RFLKT

0.6

FTR05 - RFLKT

0.5

FTR06 - RFLKT

0.4

FTR07 - RFLKT

0.3

FTR08 - RFLKT

0.2
0.1
0
04-03-16 11:31

04-03-16 12:00

04-03-16 12:28

04-03-16 12:57

04-03-16 13:26

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Time

Fig. 6. Three sequences of cleaning versus T and R data of FTR devices.

F i g u r e 3 shows reflectivity measurement. It is clearly seen that reflectivity


depends not only on the type of coal, but
also on the loading of the boiler, which
can be explained by different dynamics of
combustion at different loads (caused by
changing of the burner blades tilt, for instance). Cleaning activation in most cases
results in an immediate decrease of reflectivity, but then, after a short period of time,
it goes back to the higher values.
The measurements presented on the F i g u r e s 4 a , b have been performed during
68

standard operation of the 550 MW unit


with two types of coal, Anglo MAF and
Billiton. The unit was fully loaded and the
furnace exit temperature was high (about
1,450 C in both cases). Therefore some
actions were definitely needed. But what
actions? FTR data allows one to ascertain
the reason for high FEGT in both cases
and indicate what action should be taken.
Figure 4 demonstrates the thickness of
contamination and moments of cleaning
(activation of soot blowers, red lines on
the graphs). We see that the DYNAMICS of
fouling is completely different in these two

cases. Indeed, in the case of Anglo MAF


(Figure 4a) deposition achieves significant
thickness, then it is removed by cleaning,
but it grows again very fast before subsequent cleaning. In the case of Billiton (Figure 4b) contamination rate is much lower,
but it is not removed by cleaning. Reflectivity of both coals was also different - reflectivity of Billiton is almost two times higher
than that of Anglo MAF. Therefore, in the
case of Anglo MAF, more frequent cleaning
is desirable whereas in the case of Billiton it
is reflectivity which is responsible for high
FEGT and changing the cleaning procedure

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Monitoring fouling in coal fired boilers

Sootblow
SQ. 6
12:50-13:15

Sootblow
SQ. 5
12:18-12:35

450

93.800

435

93.725

420

93.650

405

93.575

390

93.500

375

93.425

360

93.350

345

93.275

330
04-03-16 11:31

Efficiency in %

Load in MW

Sootblow
SQ. 3
11:55-12:05

93.200
04-03-16 12:00

04-03-16 12:28

04-03-16 12:57

04-03-16 13:26

Time
Boiler Eff (%)

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

1,350
1,300

FEGT in C

1,250
1,200
1,150
1,100
04-03-16 11:31

04-03-16 12:00

04-03-16 12:28

04-03-16 12:57

04-03-16 13:26

Furnace cleanliness factor

Boiler load (MW)

Time
FEGT (C)

Furnace cleanliness factor

Fig. 7. Variation of efficiency, cleanliness factor, FEGT and boiler load versus time, with indication of three cleaning sequences.

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cannot improve the situation significantly


(in this case only using the mix or different
coals might be useful).
The next three figures represent results
from the 550 MW unit with opposite fired
burners where 8 FTR devices are installed.
All devices are connected in a single network interfaced to the PI of the station.
A pair of devices is located on floor 7 at
the top burners level, an additional two
devices are on the floor 8 (at SOFA level)
and another 4 devices are positioned on
floors 9 and 10, two devices on each floor.
The measurements have been performed
and processed every four minutes at each
device. F i g u r e 5 shows the results recorded by PI during about three hours of
continuous operation. As it can be seen,
there is a significant difference between
the dynamics of fouling in different zones
of the furnace: namely, FTR 1 and 2 (from
the tenth floor) recorded the first type of
fouling with a low rate of contamination
growth. In all other locations, and especially on the seventh floor the second type
of fouling definitely exists. The lumps of
material achieving about 10mm size and
which are sometimes attached to the tube

for a relatively long period of time cannot


be successfully removed by the overall flow
existing in the furnace. It was decided to
activate cleaning of three sequences of
the soot blowers in the vicinity of FTR
devices number three, five and six where
contamination was most significant. Three
sequences of cleaning were performed and
the results were clearly seen on the PI record. Immediately after activation of the
soot blowers the thickness was reduced
to a very low level. Reflectivity in locations of FTR three and five also decreased
significantly whereas in location FTR six
it returned to a higher value after several
minutes.

Discussion
In order to check whether the fouling
cleaning chosen according to FTR data is
relevant and correlates with dynamics of
the main parameters of the boiler performance, the following values have been estimated on unit 4 of the Rutenberg power
plant: CF factor, boiler efficiency and FEGT.
All values were calculated and recorded in
the same period of time when three sequences of cleaning mentioned above were

performed. Results are depicted in F i g u r e 6 and F i g u r e 7. The first of these


two figures demonstrates changing of FTR
measured parameters as a result of cleaning. Just after the cleaning, the fouling
thickness decreased in all three locations
of the activated soot blowers. In addition
to cleaning operated in locations five and
six also caused a reduction of fouling thickness at locations seven and eight because
these zones are close to the activated soot
blowers (indicated in Figure 6 as an indirect effect of FTR).
As it is clearly demonstrated in Figure 7
each soot blowing sequence is accompanied by a corresponding increase in CF values, increased boiler efficiency and reduction of FEGT.
Due to actual dynamics of heat transfer in
the boiler, there exists a delay in variation
of efficiency, CF and FEGT compared to the
cleaning action.
It should be noted that all results presented
in Figures 5 to 7 have been obtained at the
unit partial load. As it can be seen, efficiency measured as a result of these sequences
of soot blowing improved by 0.2 %.

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Monitoring fouling in coal fired boilers

It is interesting to indicate that the correct


choice of cleaning location, based on direct
measurement of FTR devices, provides for
a marketable change of heat transfer expressed in efficiency, FEGT and CF, in spite
of the fact that in each cleaning sequence
of our experiments, only a small amount
of blowers (three-four per sequence) have
been activated, while all other blowers of
the furnace were in the OFF position. This
fact demonstrates once again the benefits
of the FTR approach compared to other
procedures of cleaning optimisation based
on measurements of integral boiler operation parameters such as the amount of superheater spray flow, the position of burner
tilts, boiler exit temperatures etc. (see, for
example [4, 5]).

Summary
Usage of the FTR approach results in reliable information on dynamics of heat
transfer in an operating furnace of a
coal-fired boiler. Information is collected
in real time and addresses the directly
measured thickness and reflectivity of
fouling deposited on the water wall.

It was revealed that parameters of fouling in different zones of the furnace can
differ significantly one from to the other.
Two major types of fouling deposition,
one with low rate of thickness growth
and the second with big lumps of material attaching to the wall for a relatively
short period of time, were experienced
at the same time inside the furnace.
It was demonstrated that the situation
might occur when reflectivity variation
and not the thickness play the major role
in heat balance of the furnace. In such a
case the cleaning cannot be effective at
all. It depends on the type of fuel (type
of coal) and chosen procedure of cleaning activation.
It was shown that data collected by the
FTR system and interfaced to PI data
acquisition system of the plant can be
successfully exploited in order to define
location and time of cleaning activation
If cleaning procedure is based on direct
measurement data collected by the FTR
system, it is possible to improve overall
efficiency by up to 0.2 %, even at unit
partial load.

References
[1] N.Menn, B.Chudnovsky: Measurement of
thickness and reflectivity of fouling deposits
on the wall tubes in a pulverised-coal furnace.
Proceedings of ASME Conference Power,
Aug1, 2013, Boston, MA, USA.
[2] B. Chudnovsky, N.Menn: Long term experience of the real time fouling deposits thickness measurements for on-line soot blowing
optimisation. Proceedings of the ASME
2015 Power Conference, June 28 July 2,
2015, San Diego Convention Center, California, USA.
[3] N Menn, B. Chudnovsky: Boiler performance
optimisation for pulverised coal and biomass
co-firing due to utilising novel method of real
time of fouling deposits thickness and its reflectivity measurements. Proceeding of COAL
GEN 2015 conference, August 2015, Nashville, USA.
[4] S.J. Plboontum, S.M. Smith and R.S. Conrad: Boiler Performance Improvement Due to
Intelligent Soot blowing Utilising Real-Time
Boiler Modelling on UP Boilers. Proceeding
of Electric Power, April 5-7, 2005, Chicago,
IL, USA.
[5] C. Clark, C. Breeding, S. Shah: Intelligent
Soot Blowing Installation Experience at Homer City. Clyde Bergemann Inc. White Paper,
March 3, 2007.
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Provision of
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Although projects very clearly describe the scope of a supply of energy supply unit and equipment, when it
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K 43

ISSN
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89/2009
ISSN
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K 4360

199

35-3

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ISS

Volume

1435-3199

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