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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms


Series I

Sacred Vocal Works






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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms


Editorial Principles ……………..…………………………………………………….. VI

Foreword………….…………………….……………………………………………… VII

Facsimile: Leaf 1r of the autograph of KV 193 (186g) ……………………………….. XIV

Facsimile: Leaf 1v of the autograph of KV 321 ………………………………………. XV
Facsimile: Leaf 7v of the autograph of KV 321 ………………………………………. XVI
Facsimile: Leaf 44v of the autograph of KV 321 ……………………………………... XVII
Facsimile: Leaf 3v of the Violine I part of KV 339 …………………………………… XVIII
Addendum 1988 ………………………………………………………………………. XIX

Dixit et Magnificat for soloists, mixed choir, orchestra and organ

KV 193 (186g) …………………………………………………………………… 1
Vesperae solennes de Dominica for soloists, mixed choir, orchestra
and organ KV 321 ……………………………………………………………….. 33
Vesperae solennes de Confessore for soloists, mixed choir, orchestra
and organ KV 339 ……………………………………………………………….. 101


Magnificat for soloists, mixed choir, orchestra and organ KV 321a

(fragment) ……………………………………………………………………... 181

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

The New Mozart Edition (NMA) provides for research volumes are indicated, for which the following scheme
purposes a music text based on impeccable scholarship applies: letters (words, dynamic markings, tr signs and
applied to all available sources – principally Mozart’s numbers in italics; principal notes, accidentals before
autographs – while at the same time serving the needs principal notes, dashes, dots, fermatas, ornaments and
of practising musicians. The NMA appears in 10 Series smaller rests (half notes, quarters, etc.) in small print;
subdivided into 35 Work Groups: slurs and crescendo marks in broken lines; grace and
ornamental notes in square brackets. An exception to
I: Sacred Vocal Works (1–4) the rule for numbers is the case of those grouping
II: Theatrical Works (5–7) triplets, sextuplets, etc. together, which are always in
III: Songs, Part-Songs, Canons (8–10) italics, those added editorially in smaller print. Whole
IV: Orchestral Works (11–13) measure rests missing in the source have been
V: Concertos (14–15) completed tacitly.
VI: Church Sonatas (16) The title of each work as well as the
VII: Large Solo Instrument Ensembles (17–18) specification in italics of the instruments and voices at
VIII: Chamber Music (19–23) the beginning of each piece have been normalised, the
IX: Keyboard Music (24–27) disposition of the score follows today’s practice. The
X: Supplement (28–35) wording of the original titles and score disposition are
provided in the Critical Commentary in German. The
For every volume of music a Critical original notation for transposing instruments has been
Commentary (Kritischer Bericht) in German is retained. C-clefs used in the sources have been replaced
available, in which the source situation, variant by modern clefs. Mozart always notated singly
readings or Mozart’s corrections are presented and all occurring sixteenth, thirty-second notes etc. crossed-
other special problems discussed. through, (i.e. instead of ); the notation
Within the volumes and Work Groups the therefore does not distinguish between long or short
completed works appear in their order of composition. realisations. The NMA generally renders these in the
Sketches, draughts and fragments are placed in an
modern notation etc.; if a grace note of this
Appendix at the end of the relevant volume. Sketches
kind should be interpreted as ″short″ an additional
etc. which cannot be assigned to a particular work, but
only to a genre or group of works, generally appear in indication ″ ″ is given over the relevant grace note.
chronological order at the end of the final volume of Missing slurs at grace notes or grace note groups as
the relevant Work Group. Where an identification well as articulation signs on ornamental notes have
regarding genre is not possible, the sketches etc. are generally been added without comment. Dynamic
published in Series X, Supplement (Work Group 30: markings are rendered in the modern form, e.g. f and p
Studies, Sketches, Draughts, Fragments, Various). Lost instead of for: and pia:
compositions are mentioned in the relevant Critical The texts of vocal works have been
Commentary in German. Works of doubtful adjusted following modern orthography. The realisation
authenticity appear in Series X (Work Group 29). of the bass continuo, in small print, is as a rule only
Works which are almost certainly spurious have not provided for secco recitatives. For any editorial
been included. departures from these guidelines refer to the relevant
Of the various versions of a work or part of Foreword and to the Critical Commentary in German.
a work, that version has generally been chosen as the A comprehensive representation of the
basis for editing which is regarded as final and editorial guidelines for the NMA (3rd version, 1962)
definitive. Previous or alternative forms are reproduced has been published in Editionsrichtlinien musikalischer
in the Appendix. Denkmäler und Gesamtausgaben [Editorial Guidelines
The NMA uses the numbering of the for Musical Heritage and Complete Editions].
Köchel Catalogue (KV); those numberings which differ Commissioned by the Gesellschaft für Forschung and
in the third and expanded edition (KV3 or KV3a) are edited by Georg von Dadelsen, Kassel etc., 1963, pp.
given in brackets; occasional differing numberings in 99-129. Offprints of this as well as the Bericht über die
the sixth edition (KV6) are indicated. Mitarbeitertagung und Kassel, 29. – 30. 1981,
With the exception of work titles, entries in published privately in 1984, can be obtained from the
the score margin, dates of composition and the Editorial Board of the NMA.
footnotes, all additions and completions in the music The Editorial Board

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Of the psalms and the settings of the canticle Magnificat of his subordinates has to provide in return for a certain
in Mozart’s Vespers, Alfred Einstein wrote, “No-one annual salary.”5 In the instrumentational practice of the
knows Mozart who does not know his pieces in this 17th century,6 the trombones were counted as part of the
genre.” As early as 1774, Mozart had written a Dixit and choir, regardless of whether the parts were written out or
Magnificat, that is, an opening and a final piece for the not. These were improvised from the choral parts if
Vespers, for Salzburg.1 We know as little about the individual parts had not been written out. This use of
occasion for which this Dixit and Magnificat KV 193 trombones is ad libitum in contemporary performance
(186g) was written as about the reasons for Mozart’s practice and, like the organ, served to support the choir.7
compositing the complete Vespers KV 321 and 339 in the
years 1779 and 1780.2 That this Vesper was intended for The scoring and also the hurried composition of the two
Salzburg Cathedral can be deduced from the absence of Vespers betray that they were works for Salzburg
horns, since Leopold Mozart reported in 1757 that “the Cathedral. The additional evidence of the sequence of
flute is seldom, the French Horn never to be heard in the psalms shows that the Vespers can only have been
Cathedral Church”.3 This report delivers a clear picture of intended for a church whose Office Liturgy was
the capacities available for church music in Salzburg celebrated according to the Roman Breviary.8 St. Peter’s
Cathedral. It lists by name 8 violinists, 2 viola players, 2 is therefore ruled out, as the Vesper in the Benedictine
cellists, 2 double-bass players, 4 bassoonists, of whom 2 Breviary only has four psalms.
were simultaneously oboists, 3 oboists and flautists, 2
horn players and also 3 organists and harpsichordists as In its transmission, the Vesper KV 321 is usually
members of the Royal Chapel.4 As solo singers, 5 described as Vesperae de Dominica and the Vesper KV
sopranos (castratos) and 4 basses are listed, in addition to 339 as Vesperae solennes de Confessore. The term
whom “2 to 3 sopranos and as many altos from the High “Vesperae de Dominica” is liturgically incorrect.
Prince’s College are constantly required”. The choir is According to liturgical ordnances, the Vesperae de
formed by the 21 canons, 8 choristers and 15 choir-boys. Dominica comprehend the psalms 109, 110, 111, 112, 113
“Finally, 3 trombonists are additionally employed along (In exitu Israel) and not Ps. 116 (Laudate Dominum),
with the choir, to play namely the alto, tenor and bass which is included in both Vespers by Mozart.
trombones, which the City Master of the Watch with two
The Liturgy distinguishes the Vesperae de Confessore
In contemporary resources for the Vespers, Dixit, Pontifice and de Confessore non Pontifice. While the
Magnificat and Psalmi are notated separately, e.g. in the sequence of psalms in the 1st and 2nd of the Vespers
material for KV 321; for KV 339, only a copy of the outer Confessor non Pontifex is the same (Ps. 109, 110, 111,
movements has come down to us; in the Lambach copy of 112, 116), the sequence also obtaining in the sequence of
KV 321, separate copies of the outer movements and the psalms for the 1st Vesper Confessor Pontifex, the 2nd
other psalms have been preserved; the Magnificat also Vesper of this kind has Ps. 131 (Memento Domine David)
appears on its own, e.g. in a score copy in Salzburg instead of Ps. 116 (Laudate Dominum).
Cathedral Music Archive. The individual movements of
complete Vesper compositions were therefore also The autograph KV 321 bears no title in Mozart’s hand.
performed separately. On the fly-leaf of the Göttweiger copy Franz Gleissner9 initially gave the composition the correct
of KV 339, performance dates between 1822 and 1890 have title, Vesperae de Confessore, on the first page of the
been noted; amongst the entries are: “17th Jun. 824 Magnif:, original manuscript and also in his thematic catalogue of
29th Aug. 824 Laud. Dom., 3rd Sept. 826 Confitebor” etc. 1800 for the items from Mozart’s estate (No. 19) acquired
Besides complete performances of the piece, it was expressly by J. A. André. This is also the title used in J. A. André’s
noted that the Laudate Dominum was very often used as an manuscript catalogue (No. 133). Later, the term De
Offertory in the Mass.
The diaries of Schiedenhofen, Nannerl, Mozart and Hübner
contain no information regarding dates and purpose of the “Nachricht […]” op. cit., p. 195.
Vespers. R. Haas, Aufführungspraxis der Musik, Potsdam, 1931. K.
Nachricht von dem gegenwärtigen Stande der Musik Sr. G. Fellerer, Die Aufführungspraxis der katholischen
Hochfürstl. Gnaden des Erzbischofs zu Salzburg im Jahre Kirchenmusik in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, Einsiedeln,
1757 [Report on the current state of the music of His High- 1933, pp. 23f.
Princely Grace the Archbishop of Salzburg in the year Cf. below, pp. XI/XII.
1757], in Marpurg’s “Historisch-Kritischen Beiträgen zur S. Bäumer, Geschichte des Breviers, Freiburg, 1895. J. A.
Aufnahme der Musik”, Berlin, 1757. Jungmann, Der Gottesdienst der Kirche, Innsbruck, 1955.
4 9
The musicians are often employed on several instruments Cf. E. F. Schmid, Neue Quellen zu Werken Mozarts,
and appear in variously constituted ensembles. Mozart-Jahrbuch 1956, Salzburg, 1957, pp. 35f.

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Dominica was added to Gleißner’s title in the autograph, Swieten acquainted with them.12 The Office settings
whether by error or to indicate its frequent use as a Vesperae de Dominica KV 321 and Vesperae solennes de
Sunday Vesper. This liturgically incorrect designation was Confessore KV 339, both for 4 voices, 2 violins, 2 clarino
also used by Leopold Mozart in the copy donated to the trumpets, timpani, basses (violoncello, double-bass and
monastery in Lambach, marked Vesperae solemnes de bassoon), 3 trombones and organ, contain the Psalms 109
Dominica.10 Similarly, the copies of this Vesper in (Dixit), 110 (Confitebor), 111 (Beatus vir), 112 (Laudate
Salzburg Cathedral are marked as Psalmi de Dominica pueri), 116 (Laudate Dominum) and the canticle
and Vesperae de Dominica. This nomenclature is not Magnificat. The individual psalms are independent pieces
surprising, because the loose application of liturgical rules of music; the concluding doxology is in each case
in the 18th century allowed Mozart’s Vesper also to be developed from thematic material in the corresponding
used as a Sunday Vesper, although it could have been psalm.
rendered suitable for that day by replacing the 5th psalm
by another composition or by choral psalmody. In either The limitations on the scoring of church music in
case, the Vesper KV 321, according to the sequence of its Salzburg are clearly visible in both the Vespers and the
texts, should properly be called Vesperae de Confessore, Salzburg Masses. The brevity demanded by the Prince-
as in Gleißner’s original description. Bishop in the music for the Mass also sets the example for
the compact dimensions of the Vesper psalms. Some texts
For the Vesper KV 339, the correct title de Confessore has overlap in the contrapuntal parts of the settings. The
become established. As a consequence of World War II, counterpoint in the setting of Ps. 112 (Laudate pueri)
the autograph has been lost [but see addendum below]. follows the Italian/Southern German tradition, in which
According to A. Einstein, who had seen it, a title in this psalm – no doubt because of its text – was usually set
Mozart’s hand is missing here as well. An “unknown in “stile antico”. This psalm is placed in the Vesper as an
hand” had added the designation Vesperae Solennes de element contrasting with the other movements in the
Confessore to the autograph. Perhaps it was also Gleißner sequence, particularly with the Laudate Dominum, which
who gave it this title, since it appeared in the same form in is usually set in the expressive freedom of the “stile
his catalogue entry (No. 20) for KV 339. This liturgically moderno”. Mozart retained the special status for Psalm
correct term was also written on Köchel’s copy of the 112 already established in the general practice of the 17th
score (Vienna, Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde and 18th centuries.
[Association of the Friends of Music]). Leopold Mozart
gave this Vesper in the Lambach copy the wrong Imitation is the dominant feature of the stile antico, with
designation Vesperae solemnes de Dominica, an which Mozart had become familiar, both in Salzburg and
erroneous formulation which re-appeared in the score with Padre Martini in Italy, as a special means of
copy in Salzburg Cathedral. J. A. André, in contrast, expression available in church music.13 It was typical
names it correctly in his manuscript catalogue (No. 166). practice in both stile antico and stile moderno to place
Taken exactly, it should be designated as de Confessore imitative sections in alternation with homophonic, while
non Pontifice, since these large-scale musical Vespers the instrumentation more or less loosely followed the
were sung predominantly on the Feast for which the vocal parts. When Mozart begins the Laudate pueri in
Liturgy requires the 2nd Vesper, while the 1st Vesper for Vesper KV 321 with a canon or employs the theme in
Confessor Pontifex Feasts, which uses the sequence of inversion at “qui habitare” in the 3rd section of Psalm 112
psalms set by Mozart, is celebrated on the previous in Vesper KV 339 and combines both themes
evening (Vigil) and was therefore probably performed contrapuntally over a pedal-point in the “Gloria”, it
only seldom in the large-scale musical form. becomes clear what a significant role he wished to give to
the contrapuntal arts of the “strict church style”. The
The importance Mozart himself attached to his Vespers11 weaving of melodic lines around the choral composition
can be seen from the fact that he asked his father, in a in such cases by the two violins helps to round-off the
letter of 12 March 1783, to send both works to him in form, a point which gained importance through Padre
Vienna so that he could make Baron Gottfried van Martini’s influence on Italian church music. If
homophony is still dominant in Psalm 112 in Mozart’s 1st
Solemnis was not a liturgical term in this case, but a
normal designation for church music involving soloists, L. Schiedermair, Die Briefe W. A. Mozarts, vol. II,
choir and orchestra in the 18th century. Munich, 1914, p. 217.
11 13
H. Abert, W. A. Mozart, Leipzig, 1923, pp. 799ff.; K. G. K. G. Fellerer, Der Palestrinastil und seine Bedeutung in
Fellerer, Mozarts Kirchenmusik, Salzburg/Freilassing, 1955, der vokalen Kirchenmusik des 18. Jahrhunderts, Augsburg,
pp. 117ff. 1929.

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Vesper, it is pushed more into the background in the same this psalm in KV 339 comes close to the following
psalm in the 2nd Vesper. The chromatic thematic material movement, dominated by counterpoint in stile antico.
of the “Amen” with its sequential patterns adopts features,
as do the harmonic progressions, which distinguish this The cyclical unity of the two Vesper compositions is
stile antico of the 18th century from the diatonic basis of sealed by the concluding canticle Magnificat, whose key
earlier polyphony. and character point to the musical concept of the opening
psalm. As in the various psalms, the general atmospheric
The Laudate pueri KV 321 was initially printed by emphasis of the canticle in KV 339 is more pronounced
Diabelli as the Offertory Amavit eum Dominus (KV than in the first Vesper.
Appendix 119),14 the 112th Psalm of the Vesper KV 339
as the Offertory Sancti et justi (KV Appendix 114).15 The The basic form of both Vespers is the same because of the
stile antico, much favored in settings of the Proper, liturgical conventions in Salzburg, as are the means of
enabled the underlay of Offertory texts to these pieces. expression in the individual psalms and their sequence.
The original significance of this stile antico movement They differ from one another in that KV 321 is more
was no better preserved in being torn out of its place strongly tied to the word, while KV 339 shows a finer
within the whole concept of the Vesper than was the development of the musical expression because of the text
sensitive treatment of the words, which was destroyed by and its interpretation.
the underlay of a foreign text.
Each of the psalm compositions is self-contained.16 Their
The idea of the praise of God offered by both church and use was foreseen not only in the cycle of the Office, but
world led to the stile antico of the Laudate pueri being set also as polyphonic renditions of individual psalms in
off against the stile moderno in which the worldly, services in which the other psalms were sung choraliter or
affective Laudate Dominum is cast. In both of Mozart’s in settings by other composers.
Vesper compositions, the solo writing in the latter
deliberately contrasts with the stile antico of the choral Individual polyphonic psalms and partial settings of the
Laudate pueri, but also with the style of the other psalms Vesper are as frequent amongst Office compositions of
of the Vesper. the 18th century as the complete settings. With the Dixit
and Magnificat KV 193 (186g), Mozart wrote such a
The introductory psalm Dixit Dominus, predominantly partial setting, whose missing psalms had to be performed
homophonic, in KV 321 very much determined by the choraliter or made up with other compositions.17
patterns of the text, allows choir and solo to alternate in
KV 321, while in KV 339 the Doxology (“Gloria Patri”) After a homophonic motto, Mozart lets the vocal parts in
has a solo introduction. Ps. Dixit KV 193 (186g) enter in imitation, embedded in
uniform orchestral figures, with the exception of the
In both Vespers, the urgent aim of Ps. 110 (Confitebor) is passages in which the voices are briefly fused into
the expression of the word. In a poetic summoning up of homophonic blocks. Recurrences of thematic material
the atmosphere, the varied content is reflected in the create formal symmetries. With the emphatic effect of a
music, the expression achieving, particularly in KV 321, a transparent contrapuntal texture, this psalm moves to its
notable depth. The unity in the treatment of the orchestra close in the Doxology. In a similar way, the following
and common thematic material in the individual sections, Magnificat is also dominated by contrapuntal voice-
as in linking of the Doxologie KV 339 to the orchestral leading and imitations, a technique encountered
interlude, furnish the movement with a rounded-off form.
This self-contained character facilitates the use of the
Ps. 111 (Beatus vir) is placed as a counterweight to the
individual psalm compositions with the original or underlaid
second psalm of the Vesper. This development of this text. Beside the printed editions by Diabelli mentioned
movement, with its alternation of solo and choir, takes above, the individual psalms have been used variously in the
place in the sonorous orchestral lines woven around the Mass, the Office and outside the Liturgy with original and
vocal parts, without however interpreting individual altered text. Cf. footnote 1 above.
textual points. In the character of its contrapuntal work, 17
In a manuscript in Lambach Monastery, the Dixit and
Magnificat of the Vesper KV 321 are bound together, while
A. Diabelli & Co., Vienna, parts: publisher’s number the other psalms of this Vesper are missing. In more modest
2245, around 1826; score: publisher’s number 9019. surroundings and for minor Feasts, polyphonic performance
A. Diabelli & Co., Vienna, Ecclesiasticon 76, parts: was restricted to the opening psalm and the canticle. Cf.
publisher’s number 2244, around 1826. footnote 1 above.

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repeatedly in the church music tradition, particularly in Augsburg (Heilig Kreuz collection23, now in the Staats-
closing sections. This tendency towards contrapuntal und Stadtbibliothek Augsburg) and Salzburg Cathedral
structure is also clearly visible in the Magnificat settings Music Archive24; for KV 321 and 339: beside the two
in KV 321 and 339. In the Magnificat of KV 339, the archive copies mentioned, copies from the monasteries of
soprano solo (“Et exultavit”, mm. 6f., and later “Suscepit Lambach and Göttweig and from the Westdeutsche
Israel”, mm. 53f.) is an unmistakable anticipation of the Bibliothek, Marburg [now in the State Library Berlin –
second subject of the Overture to La clemenza di Tito (E. Prussian Cultural Heritage, Music Department]. The
F. Schmid). autograph of KV 339 used to be kept in the Prussian State
Library in Berlin; it was moved out for safety and has
The text of the psalms, conforming to ecclesiastical been untraceable since 1945 [new information: see
directives, is complete apart from minor errors; in Ps. Addendum below]. In this case, three sources were of
110/4 it should read “misericors et miserator Dominus”, particular value: the copy from the Holy Cross collection
but Mozart writes in both Vespers “misericors et in Augsburg, which also contains written-out trombone
miserator et justus”, which is actually Ps. 111/4. In the parts which, like the other parts, show additions by
Vesperale Romanum, Ps. 110/8 reads “Redemptionem Wolfgang and Leopold25 and are therefore of substantial
misit populo suo”, whereas Mozart has “Redemptionem interest regarding performance practice, a score prepared
misit Dominus populo suo” in both Vespers. In Ps. 111/7, by L. von Köchel after the autograph in the collection of
Mozart omits the phrase “confirmatum est cor ejus” in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde [Association of the
both Vespers. The comprehensibility of the text and the Friends of Music] in Vienna with comments by C. F.
formal clarity of the sections of the psalms also comply Pohl, and finally a score in the Westdeutsche Bibliothek,
with liturgical regulations.18 More clearly than his Mass Marburg [now in the State Library Berlin – Prussian
compositions, Mozart’s Office compositions19 respond to Cultural Heritage, Music Department], which, as can be
the liturgical significance. In keeping with the custom of seen from the concordances with the score just mentioned,
the day, the character of these works as ecclesiastical art is with very great probability goes back to the autograph.
underlined by the counterpoint and the peculiar feature of
stylised declamation in the homophonic passages. Mozart The autograph of the Magnificat fragment KV 321a was
consciously drew a boundary between this manner of once in the possession of W. A. Mozart jun.; the basis for
composing and his secular works.20 The Encyclical Annus this edition was the reprint in the music supplement of the
qui of 174921 was decisive for the direction Mozart took in Mitteilungen der Mozart-Gemeinde Berlin, 31st Issue,
his church composition. 1911; this reprint was based on an notarially attested copy
by W. A. Mozart jun., but this is likewise now lost.
The present edition of KV 193 (186g) and KV 321 is
based on the autographs,22 kept in the National Library in
Vienna and the Bibliothèque du Conservatoire National de E. F. Schmid, Mozart und das geistliche Augsburg,
Musique in Paris; these sources have been supplemented insonderheit das Chorherrenstift Hl. Kreuz in: Zeitschrift des
by the following copies: for KV 193: City Archive, historischen Vereins Schwaben, vols. 55/56 (Augsburger
Mozartbuch), Augsburg, 1942/43, pp. 168–174; idem, Neue
Quellen zu Werken Mozarts, in Mozart-Jahrbuch 1956,
G. de Bona, Psallentis ecclesiae harmonia, Rome, 1658 Salzburg, 1957, pp. 37f. The Heilig Kreuz [Holy Cross]
(De divina psalmodia, 1676). copies came originally from Leopold’s estate and reflect the
K. G. Fellerer, Mozarts Officiumskompositionen in: manifold personal ties between father and son Mozart and
Mozart-Jahrbuch 1954, Salzburg, 1955, p. 135. Augsburg. Cf. the Nachrichten zur Übernahme eines Teils
K. G. Fellerer, Mozarts Kirchenmusik, op. cit., pp. 26ff. von Leopold Mozarts Musikalien-Nachlaß bei W. Hitzig, Die
Fl. Romita, Jus musicae liturgicae, Rome, 1947, pp. 253ff. Briefe Franz Xaver Niemetscheks und der Marianne Mozart
In the Neues Mozart-Jahrbuch III, Regensburg, 1943, pp. an Breitkopf und Härtel, in “Der Bär”, Leipzig, 1928, p.
160–163, W. Boetticher identified in his study Neue 114, further Gustav Nottebohm, Mozartiana, Von Mozart
Mozartiana the divergences of the old Mozart complete herrührende und ihn betreffende zum großen Teil noch nicht
edition (AMA) from the autograph of Vesper KV 321; he veröffentlichte Schriftstücke, Leipzig, 1880, pp. 136/137.
failed to mention, however, the most important divergence, Discovered in January 1956 by E. F. Schmid; this early
in measures 26–28 of the Magnificat, a passage in the which copy carries a heading by Leopold Mozart on the Battuta
the trombones have individual notation and on which the part, “Di Amadeo Wolfgango Mozart”, a proof that the
whole question of the colla parte trombones for the whole material is authentic; E. F. Schmid, Neue Quellen zu Werken
work depends; his remark regarding the Mozarts, op. cit.
“Bratschenbehandlung” [“treatment of the violas”] results Walter Senn, Mozart-Überlieferung im Stift Hl. Kreuz zu
from a misunderstanding. Augsburg. Manuscript kindly made available by the author.

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Combined ties and slurs have been rendered as in the

The aim of the NMA is to render Mozart’s intention as original; inaccurate bowings were corrected. Cautionary
faithfully as possible, not only where this has been accidentals appear in square brackets; repeats of
transmitted in an autograph but also where it has had to be accidentals within the same measure were dispensed with.
deduced from secondary sources. Departures from the Original tutti and solo directions in the form of T and S
original readings, wherever they lie beyond the remit of have been written out without comment as Tutti and Solo.
the senior editor in the Foreword, have been dealt with Missing text underlay in the autographs of KV 193 (186g)
separately in the Kritischer Bericht [Critical Report, and 321 which are obvious from the text in other passages
available in German only]. The abbreviatures used by and are mostly marked by Mozart with the sign ÷, have
Mozart have been written out, and additions resulting been made up without comment. The orthography follows
from the direction unisono in some parts, particularly the the latest edition of the Vesperale Romanum. In the solo
second violin, have not been specially marked. Parts for vocal parts, which Mozart usually notates without
two trumpets in one staff have been written on one stem dynamic marks, no dynamic marks were made up; such
only for intervals of an octave or more and have otherwise marks were made up in the choral parts only in
been written with separate stems. Passages in the string exceptional cases.
parts for which double stopping is clearly intended have
been written on single stems. Dottings extending over For the realisation of the fermata in Laudate Dominum
barlines have been written out in the modern form. KV 321, p. 87, measure 128, the following was suggested
Dashes, wedges and dots as accents or staccato marks by E. F. Schmid:
could not always be distinguished in the autographs,
especially since the different forms could merge within
single groups of notes or appear simultaneously in parallel
figures; a further complication is that even the authentic
copies in which Mozart himself had made additions often
diverge from one another on this point.26 The dash and In the two Laudate pueri settings in the Vespers, the time
wedge should however not be interpreted schematically in signature indicates an alla breve movement; this serves as
the sense of the technical studies of the 19th century, a basis for setting the tempo within the framework of
where this meant martelé (hammered bow strokes). In church music practice of the day.
unisons involving violins and bass, bowing is often
indicated only in the bass, not only in Mozart’s Vespers, In the Basso continuo, only treble and bass clefs have
but also in all of his works for the church, where the organ been set. The use of the violoncello, indicated in the
always joins the bass strings. The ambiguous significance original by the tenor clef (senza Basso), has been
of the dash in the continuo part, where it could serve as a indicated, if not already marked in the autograph, by
staccato, or accent, mark or as a replacement for the “Vc.”; for KV 339 the score copy by Köchel, apparently
thorough-bass figure “1”, has already been attested to by made from the autograph, was particularly helpful in
Ph. E. Bach;27 in a thorough-bass method, Kurzgefasste providing valuable information. For practical reasons of
General Bass Schule, ascribed to W. A. Mozart and overall impression and clarity, a writing-out in two or
published by Steiner in Vienna, the author comments, three staves could not be avoided; Mozart adopted the
“But if one sees straight dashes of the same kind above the same procedure himself in the autograph of KV 321.29
notes, these notes are performed with one hand alone
without accompaniment, no matter what clef applies. In The remark “Bassi soliti” – the usual basses – designated
choruses and tutti passages, and also symphonies (when the collective notation on one staff for all bass instruments
forte or fortissimo is indicated), one can make octaves normally employed according to Salzburg practice,
all'unisono; at the beginning of fugues, however, not”.28 namely the Battuta part, from which probably the
violoncello, double-bass and bassoon played, as opposed
Cf. the Kritischer Bericht [Critical Report]. to the written-out Organo concertato part.30 The
C. Ph. E. Bach, Versuch […] Part 1, Section III, § 17. indications “a tre” and “a 4” in the Basso continuo for
On this cf. Hellmut Federhofer, Striche in der Bedeutung Laudate pueri in KV 321 refer to the number of vocal
von “tasto solo” oder Ziffer “1” bei Unisonostellen in
Continuostimmen. This as yet unpublished study was kindly
made available by the author. Of particular interest in this Dixit, measures 43/44.
context is the passage in measures 150–153 on pp. 155f. of Minos E. Dounias, Foreword to Series IV, Work group 16,
our volume, where the sources differentiate exactly between Church Sonatas, in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe [NMA],
the figures “1” and “8”. Kassel–Basel–London, 1957, p. X.

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parts and are placed here for the orientation of the available to us with the exception of the measures in the
organist, as are the directions Solo and Tutti in the same Magnificat of KV 321 already referred to, although this
staff. will be at the cost of the characteristic tone color.

In the autograph of KV 193 (186g), there is no mention of The use of bassoons is confirmed by the remark
trombones, although, on the other hand, the copy in Violoncelli e Fagotti at the beginning of the Confitebor of
Salzburg Cathedral Music Archive, just referred to, and KV 321 (cf. the facsimile on p. XVI); furthermore, all
which can be considered as authentic parts material used copied sets of parts contain bassoon parts headed Fagotto
for contemporary performances, contains parts for this or Fagotti.
instrument;31 collaparte play for trombones is an old
tradition, originating in the cantata practice of the 17th In the performance practice of the period,34 the bassoon
century and also widespread in Salzburg.32 In the plays unisono with the basses; if it is to go with the
Magnificat KV 321 the trombones have a different violoncello where violoncello and double-bass separate,
notation in mm. 26–28 from that of the vocal parts; as the this has been explicitly marked; there is no visible
stems show, this was not a later addition (cf. the facsimile evidence in the scores or the parts material of divisi in the
on p. XVII); the whole question of use of the trombones in bassoons. But as a last resort the bassoon can also be left
the entire work, however, depends on this special out, as even the independent bassoon part in the Laudate
notation, as there is no direction for the trombones next to Dominum of KV 339 (pp. 158ff.) is marked ad libitum.35
the relevant vocal staves at the head of the score; The parts in Holy Cross, Augsburg and Salzburg
furthermore, the contemporary copied parts already Cathedral Music Archive distinguish between Organo
mentioned contain trombone parts for the entire work. For concertato and Organo ripieno; the Organo concertato is
KV 339, the Heilig Kreuz copy in Augsburg contains employed throughout the whole work, while the Organo
trombone parts; here the directions “senza Tromboni”, ripieno accompanies only the Tutti. In Mozart’s day, there
which most often occur in piano passages, coincide with were 6 organs in Salzburg Cathedral,36 concerning whose
those in Köchel’s score copy, which was probably made use Leopold Mozart prepared a report37 “The High
from the autograph, and in the score in the Westdeutsche Prince’s Cathedral Church has at the back, by the
Bibliothek in Marburg [now in the State Library Berlin – entrance to the church, the great organ, at the front by the
Prussian Cultural Heritage, Music Department]. The choir 4 side organs, and below in the choir a small choir
trombone parts were adjusted to match the corresponding organ, with the choir singers next to it. When music with
vocal parts, as far as the representation of phrasing and large forces is played, the great organ is used for preludes
context is concerned, by the addition of ties and slurs (as only, but during the music itself one of the four side
dotted lines), without any intention that these marks organs is always played, namely the one nearest to the
should be considered binding in all cases.33 A number of altar on the right side, where the solo singers and the
contemporary copied parts, e.g. in the monastery at basses are. On the opposite side are the violinists etc. by
Lambach, which bears remarks by Leopold Mozart, have the by the left side organ and at the other two side organs
no trombones. In a modern performance it is therefore are the two ensembles of trumpets and timpani. The organ
possible, if absolutely necessary, to do without the in the lower choir and violone join in when all forces are
trombones, which have no parts in the autographs required”.38 If one compares the parts material with this

31 34
The parts for alto, tenor and bass trombone – in contrast to K. G. Fellerer, Die Aufführungspraxis der kath.
modern practice – were not played on the same instrument, a Kirchenmusik, op. cit.
tenor trombone with a bass valve; trombones at that time Cf. the Kritischer Bericht [Critical Report].
came in various sizes and therefore various timbres; the alto Details of the organs, in particular of their disposition, in:
trombone in particular, with its wide bore and Hans Dennerlein, Zur Problematik von Mozarts
correspondingly narrow bell, had a much more gentle sound Kirchensonaten, Mozart-Jahrbuch 1953, Salzburg, 1954, p.
than the modern tenor trombone; on this cf. Fritz Ramin, Die 102. H. Spiess, Die Salzburger großen Domorgeln, Salzburg,
Posaune in “Der Weg zu den Blasinstrumenten”, in Hohe 1929.
Schule der Musik, ed. J. Müller-Blattau, Potsdam, 1936/37. Marpurg, Historisch-Kritische Beiträge zur Aufnahme der
A Salzburg chronicler listed the following instruments at a Musik, op. cit., p. 195.
High Mass on 12 November 1612: trumpets, lutes, theorbos In Marpurg (III, 3, p. 187), three organists are referred to.
and trombones. Cf. Constantin Schneider, Geschichte der The “two gentlemen organists have to officiate in alternation
Musik in Salzburg, Salzburg, 1935, p. 59. Cf. also p. VII at the great organ (which stands at the back of the church)
above. and the side organ (where the concert singers are).” The
Cf. the Kritischer Bericht [Critical Report]. third organist “has at all times to play the small organ below

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

report, the following could result: the organ which timpani, there were probably generally only one of each.
“always” had to play must have used the Organo In total, approximately 50 persons must have taken part.41
concertato part; it accompanies primarily the soloists. The
“basses” referred to were very probably a violoncello and At this point, heart-felt thanks are offered to all persons
a double-bass. Under “violinists etc.” we should probably and institutions who have advanced the work on the
also understand, besides the violinists, also the oboists, if present volume by providing information and access to the
their employment is foreseen, and the violoncellists; they sources: The Most Honorable Rev. Bruno Brandstetter
were obviously placed near an organ whose player used (Melk Monastery), Library Director Dr. Martin Cremer
the Battuta part and who was simultaneously the leader of (Westdeutsche Bibliothek, Marburg), Archive Director
the performance;39 for a peculiarity of this part is that, as Dr. Heinz Friedrich Deininger (City Archive, Augsburg),
orientation, one measure of the violins is notated at the Prof. Otto Erich Deutsch (Vienna), Prof. Dr. V. Fédorov
beginning of each psalm. The Organo ripieno part was (Bibliothèque du Conservatoire National de Musique,
used by the organist at the lower organ with the choir, that Paris), the Most Honorable Rev. Prior Suso M.
is, in the Tutti, “when all forces are required”; here, Geiselhardt OP (Dominican Monastery and Treasury,
probably, the violone and bassoon were to be found. The Holy Cross, Augsburg), Dr. Walter Hummel (Salzburg),
Göttweig parts material for Vesper KV 339 includes a part Director Dr. Hedwig Kraus (Collections of the
for Violonzello (sic); the part for the low strings in the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna), Prof. Hermann
Lambach copy of KV 321 presented to the monastery by Lang, Music Archivist of the Benedictine Monastery,
Leopold is marked Violon et Violoncello, next to which on Lambach, Upper Austria, Cathedral Music Director Prof.
the right side is Fagotto; this copy also contains a non- Joseph Messner (Salzburg Cathedral Music Archive),
independent Viola oblig., whose only function is to Court Counsellor Prof. Dr. Leopold Nowak (Austrian
reinforce the bass, an expression of an old practice. National Library, Vienna), Lecturer Dr. Walter Senn
(Innsbruck) and His Grace the Most Honorable Prelate
Information on the strength of the Salzburg strings and Rev. Wilhelm Zedinek, Abbot of the Benedictine
choir40 can be gained from the number of extant parts in Monastery, Göttweig, Lower Austria. We owe particular
the copies in Heilig Kreuz, Augsburg and in Salzburg thanks to Dr. W. Bittinger (Kassel) and Karl Heinz Füssl
Cathedral Music Archive, both of which show (Vienna) for reading the proofs, to Prof. Dr. Hellmut
considerable signs of use. The bound manuscripts contain: Federhofer (Graz) for many favours and to the Chief
Organo conc. (a part from which, besides the organist, a Editor, Dr. Ernst Fritz Schmid (Augsburg), who gave
cellist and a double-bass player also played, see p. XII much helpful advice.
above), Organo ripno., Battuta; for soloists there were
one each of Canto conc., Alto conc., Tenore conc. and Karl Gustav Fellerer Felix Schroeder
Basso conc.; in these parts the choral sections are also Cologne, November, 1958
notated, distinguished by a “Tutti” after a previous “Solo”
section. Regarding choral parts, marked “ripieno”, two Translation: William Buchanan
each exist of Canto, Alto, Tenore and Basso; from each
choral part, in which the note-heads were very large, up to
three persons could sing. Violino primo and secondo are
represented with two parts each; since one must assume
that two players sat at each desk, the number of violins
can be stated to be four first and four second. The Violone
has a part of its own, from which the two bassoonists also
played, as the title on this part is occasionally Fagotti. Of
the brass instruments, trumpets and trombones, as well as

in the choir, where the choir singers are; and to officiate at

the daily choral church services”.
“Battuta” denotes the conductor’s part (from battere, i.e.
beat, set the tempo). Walter Senn, op. cit., p. 3. According to the report in Marpurg (III, 3, p. 198) “the
K. A. Rosenthal, Zur Stilistik der Salzburger Kirchenmusik number of all those who belong to the music or are paid at
von 1600 bis 1750, in: Studien zur Musikwissenschaft 17, Court because of music” amounted to 99. This also included
Vienna, 1930, pp. 88ff. instrument makers and bellows calcants.

International Mozart Foundation, Online Publications XIII

New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Facs. 1: Fol. 1r of the autograph of Dixit and Magnificat KV 193 (186g) after the autograph kept in the National Library, Vienna, Dixit, mm. 1–6; cf.
pp. 1–2.

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Facs. 2: Fol. 1r of the Vesperae solennes de Dominica KV 321 after the autograph in the possession of the Bibliothèque du Conservatoire de
Musique [now in the Bibliothèque nationale Paris, Département de la Musique], Paris. Dixit, mm. 1–7; cf. pp. 33–34.

International Mozart Foundation XV

New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Facs. 3: Fol. 7v of the Vesperae solennes de Dominica KV 321 after the autograph in the possession of the Bibliothèque du Conservatoire de
Musique [now in the Bibliothèque nationale Paris, Département de la Musique], Paris. Confitebor, with the remark “Fagotti et Violoncelli [. . .]”,
mm. 1–11: cf. p. 45 and Foreword, p. XII.

International Mozart Foundation XVI

New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Facs. 4: Fol. 44v of the Vesperae solennes de Dominica KV 321 after the autograph formerly in the possession of the Bibliothèque du Conservatoire
de Musique [now in the Bibliothèque nationale Paris, Département de la Musique], Paris. Magnificat, mm. 26–31; special notation for the
trombones in mm. 26–28; cf. p. 91 and Foreword p. XII.

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New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms

Facs. 5: Fol. 3v of the Violine I part for the Magnificat of the Vesperae solennes de Confessore KV 339 after the copy kept in the City Archive,
Augsburg [now in the Staats- und Stadtbibliothek Augsburg], Bestand Heilig Kreuz; Piano mark in staff 2, m. 45, in the hand of W. A. Mozart; cf.
p. 173.
International Mozart Foundation XVIII
New Mozart Edition I/2/2 Vesper Psalms


The contents of the Bibliothèque du Conservatoire national de Musique (with the Malherbe Collection) are today in the
Bibliothèque nationale Paris, Département de la Musique; this is relevant for KV 321 in the present volume, i.e. the facsimile
legends on pp. XV–XVII of the music volume and the information on source A (autograph) on p. b/12 of the Kritischer Bericht
[Critical Report] must be changed accordingly.
The sources described in the Foreword to the music volume and in the Kritischer Bericht [Critical Report] as being in the
Westdeutsche Bibliothek Marburg (formerly Preußische Staatsbibliothek Berlin) are today kept in the State Library Berlin /
Prussian Cultural Heritage (Music Department).
The “Heilig Kreuz” collection, formerly kept in the Stadtarchiv Augsburg, are today on loan from the Dominican Monastery
Heilig Kreuz, Augsburg to the Staats- und Stadtbibliothek Augsburg, i.e. the facsimile legends on p. XVIII and the corresponding
source descriptions in the Kritischer Bericht [Critical Commentary] must be changed accordingly.
The autograph of KV 339, one of the possessions of the former Prussian State Library, Berlin lost after 1945, is kept today in the
Biblioteka Jagiellońska, Kraków and has been accessible since 1979/80. The work had to be edited in 1959 from secondary
sources (cf. the Kritischer Bericht [Critical Report]). Changes in the musical text resulting from study of the once again accessible
autograph are reserved for the NMA Work Group 31 (Addenda), in which a description of the original manuscript will be
presented. Here a number of the substantial changes are listed in advance:

Page Measure Staff Remarks

108 81 Vln. II 1st and 2nd 8th-notes: for c'''–c'' read c''–a'
126 80 BOrg. 2nd half of measure: set figure “1” under all 16th-notes
132 34, 35 Vln. I set trill sign above 1st note (a'' and g'')
133 45 BOrg. set figure “6” under 3rd 16th-note of 2nd quarter-note instead of under 1st 16th-note of the 3rd
143 157 quarter-note
137 87 BOrg. extend prolongation stroke after figure “6” only to 4th 8th-note instead of to end of measure
139 111 BOrg. extend all prolongation strokes after 1st figure to 4th 8th-note instead of to 2nd 8th-note
143 153f. BOrg. advance forte from beginning of m. 154 to beginning of m. 153
143 159/160 BOrg. figures: for read
145f. 175, 183, 186 BOrg. figures: for read
145 181 Ten.
2nd and 3rd quarter-note: for read
148 26–27 Bassi remove the notation for “Vc.” (= upper voice)
149 50–51 Bassi
for Vc. read
149 42, 44 Strings set piano at 3rd quarter-note instead of 2nd quarter-note
153 116, 118
154 124 Org. remove piano in italics
154 124f. Bassi advance piano to the beginning of m. 125
154 129–131 Bassi
for whole rests read:
156 154, 158 Org. set figure “8” under half-note d
156 167 Org.
157 168 Figures in second half of measure: for “ ” read
161 28 BOrg.
set figure “6” under 1st note, under 2nd note
166 64 SATB for piano (straight and italics) set pianissimo (straight) in all parts
168 9 BOrg.
175 57
figures: for read (last quarter-note: no figure)
174 54 BOrg. remove staccato dashes
175 56
177 71 Basso set staccato dashes on the descending 8th-notes (see also Kritischer Bericht, p. b/47)
72 Tenore
73 Soprano
180 99 BOrg. set “Org.: tasto” after 1st note

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