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Pp Anexcannap M. Herponnh,







HCTOPH1A COHH1AAHHX H HOAHTHHKHX
TEOPH1A
(MOHOIPAuHJA H3 uHHOCOuHJE HOHHTHuKHX HPEJA:
Anrnuxe, cpennonexonne n monepne connianne reopnie)







HOBH CAP-KOCOBCKA MHTPOBHHA
2010


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HPEBIOBOP
Pasmnmana o npxann nesana cy sa neny nnacrnry ersncrennniy n pasnniaiy ce y
anrnuxoi Jenann, xasyiyhn o ypannsannin mncnn, xoia nnme nnie oxpenyra iennno npnponn
n xocmocy. Ca Coxparonnm anenem `yncxnm crnapnma`, ra ce mncao oxpehe pasmarpany
uonexonor nonoxaia y npymrny, re neronom npxannom n npannom nonoxaiy. Beron yuennx
Hnaron pasnno ie raxna pasmnmana no xoncrnryncana nayunor saxnarana nnn no
nnoconie nonnrnxe xoia he na npenonpenn nayunn nncxypc pasmarpana nponemarnxe
xoia ce c rnme nonpasymena cne no y name npeme. Apncrorenonn npnronopn n npyxana
pasnora sa ycanpmanane raxnor mnmena annuxy enoxy unne xamenom remenem
npxanornopne mncnn yonmre, iep ce cnn canpxain xoin n nanac unne ry xynrypy mnmena
nanase remarnsonann. C rnme ie nonymreno na ce xaxe xaxo peanncrnuna pnra o cnoicrnnma
n cmncny npxane y cnncnma Hnarona n Apncrorena nanasn cnoiy nencnpnny nncnnpanniy,
npe cnera y norneny onanana cmncna snauena noima nopa y nnoconin, cmncna
npxannor npana, xao n cnnx npcra yronnicxnx npencrana o npernocranxama onnoca uonexa n
npymrna, ycnonanaiyhn rnme n rsn. `anrnyronnicxe cranone`. Ona ie nocpenonana
xpnmhancrnom nocnna n panocpennonexonny nnoconiy nonnrnxe (on cn. Anrycrnna n
Ipnropnia Hncxor no cn. Tome Axnnncxor n Ipnropnia Haname), xpos opy sa npnencrno
Hpxne y nonnrnuxnm crnapnma ca Ppxanom, ann n xpos samncao cnmonnie xao
ycxnahnnana y naxnnm onnyxama, xao n y cexynapnsanniama xoie cy ysnnsane uncrohy re
nneie, nmaiyhn y nnny nene norpemne npnmene y ncropnicxm norahannma.
Hponem nope noe n nnie no nocranan y cxnarany npnpononpannor crana no
crynana na cneny penecancnnx saxrena sa ocamocrannanem uonexa on nncrnrynnonannnx
npernocranxn cpennonexonne nnoconie nonnrnxe. Hononexonnn naunn mnmena,
saxnayiyhn nponecy noneenocrn mnmena ynyrap came norana iennncrnene Cnere
Hpanocnanne Baceencxe Hpxne, xoin ie xynmnnncao ca pacxonom y ienanaecrom nexy n
nornynnm onnaianem Hporecranrcxe npxne y mecnaecrom, npocro ie nonpasymenao na
cexynapnsannia nma cnoie yremeene y rparany sa nonnm xapmonnunninm onnocnma y
npxann n npymrny. Morno n ce pehn na cy raxna rnenana nonna n cnoiy pannxanny opmy
y npymrnennm npeopaxainma xoin cy ce necnnn roxom upannycxe ypxoacxe penonynnie
1789. r., iep cy nenn axrepn saxrenann na ce neh npnrpaenn oxancxn arpnyrn
nemoncrparnnno peannsyiy, yrnpyhn nyr ysnmany npnpone sa oiexar nnrepeconana, re
onnananannma nennm saxonomepnocrnma, y noncrnnany camocrannor saysnanana nomohy
nayunnx casnana, ann n crnxninor neyraxnnor ncxopnmhanana pann orahena, xoie ryn ns
nnna snauai exonomnunor nonamana, repaiyhn rnme uonexa cne nnme n ns xyhe npnpone. Ca
pacrom snana y naynn n rexnnnn, re neronom npenysnmnnom npnmenom, ne moxe na ce
xaxe na xnnor nnie nocrao naxmn n ynonnin, ann c npyre crpane raxohe n onacnnin, n cne
mane xonrponannan y anopnsannin npenysnmnnocrn, ri. pnsnuan, na n onax.
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Ha mecro Foxnier ayropnrera xoin ie ynpxoc cnemy, cpennonexone renepanno
ynaxanano, ca penecancnnm ncrynannma noxpenyra ie nona enoxa pasmnmana xoia ce
sacnnnana na `regnum homini`, na npenomnnanrnom nocranany uonexa y cam nenrap cnnx
norahana, unnehn on nera rsn. `ynnnepsanny nepnepniy`. Kana ce raxo emannnnonan uonex
narno nocna na cam ypehyie xnnor es nexe nnme nncrannnie, raxopehn yremennan na cen
camom (na nnunm nsasnanoi nononnunocrn yremennana nnacrnre nyxonnocrn), ncropnia
mnmena npecrana ie na yne rnap ysopnor panra n pana na orxpnnany nyer cmncna
crnapnocrn, a nneie xoie cy y noi nocrnsanane ncrpranane cy ns xonrexcra n xopnmhene
yrnannom npema naxoheny n norpen, ri. nononnuno. Ono npenpennonane cmncna
ayropnrera sanouero y enoxn penecanca (nnie esnauaino na ie yunre iennor nennxor
npencrannnxa re enoxe, upanuecxa Herpapxe no Bapnaam ns Kanapnie ca nponano
nonnrnuxom xapniepom y Bnsanrnicxom napcrny n ne mane snauaino nopaxena crpana y
cyxoy ca cn. Ipnropniem Hanamom oxo ncrnne ncnxasma), iom nnme ce nponyyie ca
peopmanniom ypymanaiyhn cnernny npxnenor npenana xoia yremeyie xpnmhancxn cner,
raxo na he nyna anpmannia raxnnx nauena nennnrnno na saxnnn y noa npocnehenocrn,
noxasyiyhn n nome n nope crpane raxnnx conniannnx nneia.
Haxon ocnaiana rpuxnx anrnuxnx nonnca n npernapana y nponnnnniy Axaiy (1. Bex
npe PX), Pnmcxa nmnepnia ce ynehana n ca ynacxom y re npocrope xpncrniannsonannx
napnapa, xoin cy n nponenn ynepene na `cnn nyrenn none y Pnm`, ri. y `neunn rpan` xao
nepcxo cpennmre snnana cnera mro ie snauaino sa yne. Taxo ce pannia nonena na
cnoonne rpahane n poone, nnnnnnsonane napone n napnape, rana snauaino npomennna na
nonene nsmehy Hpxne n Ppxane xpos cnopone oxo npana na npnmar. Pacr rpanona no ie
npahem pasnoiem rpronnne, a ro ie oner unnnno naiiaun mornn sa orncxnnane ynn na nyre
nnonnne n nennxa nyronana. Konno xoie ie orxpno Kpncrnop Konymo 1492. ronnne,
cmarpaiyhn na ie crnrao y Hnnniy, nasnao ie Maprnn Banncmnnep 1507. r., na cnoioi
reorpacxoi xaprn, Amepnxom no Amepnry Becnyuniy, npyrom snauainom mnancxom
mopennonny. Haxon Marenanonor onnonanana semacxe xyrne Enponann cy xpenynn ca
naceananem Honor cnera, c unme he enponcxa xynrypa noxnnern na yne yrpahena y
remee cnercxe nnnnnnsannie. Pnnann cy, xaxo cy aopnnnncxo cranonnnmrno nmenonann
xononnsaropn, noxasnnann cne snaxe nnnnnnsonane yurnnocrn n ynosopnnn c rnme na ie
npnua o `nnemennrom nnnamrny` nrexaxo yremeena (mro ie nna nncnnpannia n Xan-
Xax Pycoy y neronnm pasmnmannma), a npexomepna ynorpea cnne n pyrannocr nnme ce
nesnnana sa crpany xononnsaropa. Taxo nopen ncropnia noiennnnx napona na semn nounne
n ncropnia iennncrnenor rnenna na cnnxpone enoxanne nepnone yncxor xnnena xao
nsnecnocr ancrpaxrne `ncropnie uoneuancrna`, ri. nnrenexryanna npeycmepanana na
npoyuanane yncxe npnpone y nyrnm enoxannnm rpaiannma. Ono ie oner nonpasymenano
noneny na ncrpaxnnana xoia nonpasymenaiy npnponna npana nnn npana uonexa cxnahena ns
onuaine nonnore sarnnane y rsn. `npnponnom crany` (ri. es xynrype n nacnnrnnx
cpencrana xpos peannsanniy nponeca opasonana), re na nosnrnnna npxanna npana y
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ancrpaxrnoi n xonxpernoi opmn, xana ie cpennonexonna napannrma rorono cacnnm
nanymrana. Hecnmnsam xoin ry n ramo nponeiana ns Xerenone nnoconie mro ie nacroiana
na cne re nonene npenasnhe n nonynn pemene ienne xonxperno-ynnnepsanne samncnn
ocrnapena nainnme yncxe nneie no mepn Forouonexa, nnax nnie nemro nepeanno. Cner ce n
nanac nanasn npen ynacxom y nono crane napnapcrna, xaxo nac ie ynosopno Enmynn Xycepn
cnoiom penexnniom o nyxonnom nnxy Enpone, nsnoxenom y Feuxnm npenanannma 1938 r.,
iep ie nonpnnnuno ymopan n ncnpnen ca psnnom npomena xoie ce onnniaiy.
Tpancopmannie n myrannie ce onnniaiy ronnxnm ypsanem, na n noiyue cacnnm crannne
npxanne rnopennne n ypannorexenn nopenn npennocrn nnaiy nsniann ns pannorexe n
noyanann y nexonnnm reopnicxnm nacroiannma na nsrpannn nnmemnnenniymcxnx
xynrypnnx npennocrn. Bennxn nneonomxn noxpern penonynnonapne rpannnnie c nouerxa
nnaneceror nexa, xoin cy npomennnn npxanny cnnxy yrnannom cnonencxnx napona, xao n
necnnuapcxa nanncrnuxa penonynnia cpennnom ror nexa xon repmancxnx, enoxa `xnannor
para` xoia ie sanpranana noneny nnrepecnnx cepa n snaunna nsnecny pannorexy
mehynpxannnx onnoca, nonpasymenaiyhn nanop y camoxonrponncany xao ysnpxanany on
ornopennx xonnnxara; ca nanom Fepnnncxor snna ie ornopeno napymena, a ynorpea noine
cnne y mehynpxannnm nnrepnennniama na xpaiy ror nexa snaunna ie n par na rny
Jyroncroune Enpone. Ieononnrnuxe crparernie nonono cy oxnnene ca necnyhenom cnarom
nonynpre mynrnnannonannnm nnrepecom rnoannor xannrana ca neonnepanncrnuxnm
nporpamnma namerana rnx nnrepeca cnnma xoin nemaiy nonono cnare na ce onynpy
nnacrnrnm omrehnnannma, re yxonnxo ce nsysme oiauana Pycnia n Knna, moxe ce
xoncraronarn xaxo ce ianno ornapa iom ienna `nona enoxa`, xoiy neh mnorn nmenyiy enoxom
rnoannsma, a sa xoiy cy npennonnnuxy ynory cana npeysene Ciennnene Ppxane Amepnxe.










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An1nuxe n cpeanonexonne connjanne 1eopnje

ARCHE u POLIS: Hnaronon nnianor upraea
n Popo xao sanor nncrnonana n onnxonana uonexa

Hneia nnoconie nonnrnxe nnie sa Hnarona nna ynex y npnom nnany. Beronn pann
nnianosn cnenoue na ce ona nomaana nocreneno, na n morna na osnaun cnpcncxonne
xopnsonre no xoinx my ie n nocnenana mncao. Ono mro ie onmax nomno na pen morno n na
ce nmenyie xoncrpyxrnnnnm canpxainma, raxo na pacnpann o npxannocrn nperxone
pacnpane o npnnnn, xoie sanpano cnene Coxparono mncaono ncxycrno. Hsnnaiane nonnrnuxe
npnnne ie onnxonano xpnrnunomhy npema npymrny n saxrena npnxas casnanana y
nacraiany, a rome saxreny ie naioe ynonono ynpano nnianor upraea xao caspeo mncaonn
nnon n neponarno naixoncrpyxrnnnnie n nainoncrnnainnie Hnaronono neno. 3arouu xoin cy
my ycnennnn, sanpano cy rex xopexnnia n peannnia npnmena y upraeu nocrnrnyrnx ynnna.

CTPVKTVPE OPHOBEBA V METOPOHOBKOJ 3AMHCHH PPXABE

1. upraea rao ua:uu dop+upana uume)ueuou)uoe no)umu:roe cmaea
Morno n ce pehn na ie cncremarnsannia y nemy nocrnsanana xpos nenarny
nponemarnxy, re na nnie nnmena nnycrparnnnor marepniana, nouecro n y opmn mnroca
xoia yxyuyie n nneie erocne n connianne nponemarnxe. Hnie nn ycnocraneno nexo
merononomxo naueno xoier n ce esycnonno npnnpxanao, raxo na ce ne ann crpornm
remarnsanniama nnrana npxannor npana nnn npcra ynpane ca saxononancrnom nnn
nonnrnxom y nanamnem cmncny re peun. Hnaron ne pasnnia nnxaxan `cncrem` nonasehn on
nexor `nosnrnnnor` crana, ann raxohe ne ysnma sa osnno nsnuxoreorpacxe acnexre
npxanne xonnrypannie y reonomxom n anrpononomxom xopnsonry. Hapon nnn rpyna ynn
nnn ncropniom nsnnaiane nannie, npeneperanane cy noniennaxo xao n cnaxonnennn nocnonn,
onuain n naunn xnnora, iep cy npocro neo nepnepnie xnnora. V neronom cpennmry
nanasn ce nponem snauaia yuena n casnanana, xoin ie xao nacnnrnn n opasonnn oxnnp
pasmarpana nocmarpan xao raxan, na sannpe y cne ocnonne canpxaie xoin nsncxyiy
nponemarnxy pemanana oprannsannie xnnora y saiennnnn, ri. sannpe y erocna npannna n
nauena nonamana xoia onpehyiy neny ncnpannocr.
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Hpna xnnra nounne ca resom o rsn. iaxoi npxann xoia npnnny npannunocrn npxn sa
onuny rnynocr, a eroc nenpannunocrn mynpomhy, xoia ie no Hnarony, xaxo on ro xpos
Coxparona ycra y nnianory ncxasyie, nocroina npesnpa. Ha rai naunn nnrane npanennocrn
opmnpa xopnsonr nponema npxannocrn, xoin Hnaron ynonn cnenehn Coxparon
nporpenrnuxn n maieyrnuxn meron xoin ynxnnonnme y nonnrnuxnm n conniannonpannnm
nnmensniama xao nacnnrauxa moh n ncnxonomxo yremeene. Taxo ie camo `snane
nonnrnuxor` onai cnoi snana o nonnrnnn nonesan c iypnnnuxnm crynniama n npernocrana
xomnaparnnna snana npanne n nonnrnuxe nayxe.
Hnrane `mra ie npanenno` no cnoioi nenocpennocrn ne npernocrana iypnnnuxy npaxcy
nponecynpana y nponenypn rexnnuxor ycxnahnnana ca naxehnm nopmarnnnma, neh ce npe
onnocn na pasymenane nenona yncxe ncnxe n nene crpyxrype, xao n npaxrnuxnx cranona
yma. Hpanna mncao paspahnnana ie y `Conononnm saxonnma` n yrpahena ie y xynrypny
nonnrnxy Jenane, a concrn cy rai xynrypnn nponem ycnocranana npnnncxor xnnora
nauenn ca cacnnm npyrauninm pasmnmannma o nopexny nenarornie n xynrypnnx
napannrmn. Hnaron nx carnenana ocnerananem cxpnnennx npernocranxn iennncxor
nacnnrana n opasonana, ca uninm cnaenem n orxpnna pasnor oesnpehnnana n
nsonauanana npxannor xnnora neronor npemena. Pnianor upraea ie raxo ne camo `nopyxa`,
nero n `nacnnrna mepa` sa ncrnny npxannocrn, a ona ie npernocrannna nsrpanny n
oiannnane ienne no rana nenosnare n moxe ce pehn cacnnm none npcre snana o
nonnrnuxnm nponemnma. Ona opmnpa ocoen nnrennrnnnnn nonnrnuxn cran, xoin
saxrena cnary camoonnxonana noiennnna n xoncrpyxrnnan onnoc npema npymrny.

2. Apxaicru ;arouu u npupooua noo)oea, rao u cvumuucra ceoicmea upraee

Cnapranan Tnprei ie y cnoioi noesnin nsiennauanao cnaprancxn nopenax ca canpmennm
noperxom, crnapaiyhn y cnoioi noesnin cnnxy ennomnie xoia ie neoma onynapana on peannia
raxnor xnnora. Mynpn Conon ie npanenan nonnc yremeno na napannrmn neuno npanennor
npaxrnuxor yma, ann cy y nsocranxy opasnoxena ro nnme nne onmre napone neronn
sanonecrn sa esycnonny npnmeny. Hnaron ce nnie orpannuanao na npyxa camo canere sa
noomana nonasehn on nexor cacnnm onpehenor onnxa npxane, nero ie pacnpanaiyhn o
penarnnnoi npennocrn nnxonnx opmn nonpasymenao n xpnrnxy xoiy ie nsomrpanao no
nnrana sacnonanocrn cmncna. Taxo ie nerona upraea yremeena na nnein npanennocrn ro
nocrnrna npexo ncropnicxe nosannne, xoia nnie snaunna camo nocnymnocr npxannom saxony
(xoin n ie n mrnrno on ayroxparnie nocennx nnrepeca), nero n anannsy xopecnonenrnnx
npymrnennx crpyxrypa, cexyhn y nynne camnx crnapn npnpone. Hponncann saxon ns
apxaicxnx npemena xa onmrn saynex, mopao ie na nornanne non xpnrnuxo pasmarpane na n
morao na ce nooma n npomnpn. Kana onpehenn enemenrn y nonncy ysmy saxon y cnoie
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pyxe, unne ra nonnoxnnm ysypnannin n xana ysax nocennnuxn cnoi npymrna nnn mohnn
noiennnan xpeny na ra cnoiaraiy npema nnacrnrom naxoheny nnn nnrepecnma, ry on ryn
ynopnmre. Bnanaiyhe npano ne n rpeano na yne nn nspas noe crpanxe xoia naniaua y
cxynmrnnn, iep ce rana ono nocrana xao ynxnnia mohn. Hponem ca mohn ie y rome mro ie
nnnnepenrna npema onronopnocrn xoiy nanaxe mopanno naueno, raxo na npxannn nopenax
nocraie xynnca nsa xoie ce onnnia opa nnrepeca.
To nnanaiyhe npano y rymaueny concra, xao yuennx ynn xoin cy sa nonan noyuanann
xaxo na uonex ycne y npnanany orarcrna, nnie morno na ce onnnia es orxnanana
mopannnx oanesa (onnamnn menanepn ynxnnonannnx nsnnc nnanona), mro nnie morno
na yne nncxo nn npoceunom uonexy onnamne Jenane. Ipyn narypannsam ynex ie y crany
na oecmncnn cnaxy nnoconiy, a xana ce saxon n npnpona nocmarpaiy xao cyxoene
noiane, nynrapnsannia n cnohene na nno npnnne xnnora one npyre, nerpannpa n saxon
cnohenem cnera na nerenepncano cxnarane. Taxno ienno cxnarane na nouerxy Ppxane
sacryna concr Tpasnmax xpos reopniy o nopy xao `crnnany mohn`, ynonehn na nonpyuie
narypannsannie rsn. `npana iauer`, re noniaiyhn on Hnarononor nnianomxor Coxpara
onronop xoin nonia cxnarane na ie npanennocr camo nspas noe cnaxnnie crpanxe. Ca
Hnarononom pahom Inayxonom n Anenmanrom on nacrana na pacnpana o npanennocrn
camoi no cen n sa cee, mnmonnasehn connianny xopncr n noronope xao npernocranxy.
Inayxon nsnocn cran na ie nopo unnnrn nenpanny a sno rpnern on ne, ann nma y nnny
naxnocr samrnre saxonom n nosnpana ie y nenocrarxy cnne na ce cranno xnnn nanmohno
xao cnoienpcran xomnpomnc na ce nenpanna unnn nexaxneno, a ysnma y samrnry on sna. On
cmarpa na n cnaxo axo ie y npnnnnno no cxnon rome na sanonon raine xee, mana cy one
ernuxn nrexaxo cymnnne, a ro oner npeanyie na repen xann sor neynaxanana phannx
naroncxnx cxnonocrn xoinma ie uonex nonnoxan. Cnaxaxo na nnrane samro uonex onuno y
npncycrny cnenoxa nocryna npyraunie nero es nnx, ne moxe na nonie onronop es
npnxnarana rese na ie nenonane narona ycmepeno na ro na ce nonie ono mro ie npniarno, a
nserne nenpniarno. Henpanennocr ie ynocnnia n connianno nnme ycnena, a npanennocr
nparn myxa n xnnorna narna, na n necnnnn reonornmy o oronnma xao norxynnnnm, npxn
Anenmanr (upr., 364a), noniaiyhn on Coxpara onronop na asn crpyxrype ncnxnuxor
xnnora, rne n rpeao na nnana npnnnnn na cnaxo pann cnoi nocao. Ouai xoin n morao na ce
xaxe xaxo ie nponcrexao ns poinnx npnmepa xoin ie Anenmanr morao na ncxycn y
onnamnem arnncxom npymrny, sanpano n nnie paspemnn na pannn neronnx napnniannnx
xaysannrera n enomenonomxe narocrn y renepannom ysnmany onmrer naxena.
Hsnopno, npxana ie iennocranna npymrnena crpyxrypa ca neonxonnnm saxonnma n
npoecniama, npnmepena xonnrypannin rna n cranonnnmrny. Hnaron cmarpa na ie rpan
xoin pacre ns cne neher nyxcysa n ona nareuen, na ie xana nma mnoro ynn xoin pnny o
nsnnmnnm crnapnma, sanpano ooneo. Onarne nornue nneia mnpena xoia ce ocrnapyie
onysnmanem n npncnaianem nena cycenne npxane, a ro ce oner onuno snna paronanem,
8 | a a e

sor uera noinn cranex nonia npoecnonanan craryc. Ppxana ie raxo npnmopana na
cncremcxn ypenn n nacnnrnn craryc cnoinx uynapa, a onarne nspacra n amnnnia monepnnx
npxana na perynnmy nacnnrane cnoinx rpahana. Hnaron ie nsnpmno noneny rpahana npema
cranexnma c osnpom na `npnpony` n ncnxnuxe nncnosnnnie, a camnm rnm n n connianno-
nonnrnuxn rperman nacnnrnnx mepa nonpasymena onronapaiyhn xapaxrep.

3. H)amouoea rpumura necuu:re meo)oeuie

Hs pacnpane o npanennocrn xao ns ocnonnor nnrana n pasnnieno ie n unrano Hnaronono
neno Ppxana, raxo na ie nen xapaxrep ayropnrarnnno nacnnrauxn npema nnein Popa, raxo
na ie nopa nonnrnxa sanpano crnap xapaxrepa nacnnrana nonnrnuapa. Inmnacrnxa n mysnxa
pnny sa reno n nymy, raxo na ce Hnaron npnxnana ocnenouennm n xonsepnarnnnnm
npennocrnma, y uemy ce n sacnnn cnop ca noesniom n mysnxom xoie cy npeonnanane y
opasonany neronor npemena. On ie nanme cmarpao na ro nacnnrane nounna na `naxnma`
xoie cy pamnpnnn `reonosn` (ri. necnnnn n panconn) xpos mnrone xoin ce npnnonenaiy nenn.
Mepa ncrnne xoia ce npenocn nonmnarxy na rai naunn nma nacnnrnn snauai, a xopncrn ce n
xao noxymenrannia y nenocrarxy npyrnx noxasa xao npcra `npannor nexa`. Taxo npnnonenaun
nerennn n aixn naa na ce nansnpy, iep cy onn y npnnnnn na rpainnie yrncny neuare y
neuniy nymy, neronn mro ro moxe pyxa neronarea na nerono reno. Bpennocnn oxnnp
npencrana y noesnin camnm rnm nnie nnmra sanemapnno xana ce onnocn na cxnarane
npnpone orona n yncxy npnnny, iep ce onmanena yrncxyiy y mnanenauxy nymy. Cnene
pasonone n pasysnanocrn y mnrcxnm momenrnma Xomeponnx n Xecnononnx nenana nncy
reonomxn nocroine (n nnie sa neny na cnymaiy xaxo Kponoc iene nnacrnro noromcrno nnn
3enc na ce npernapa y nayna xaxo n oyno Heno nrcn.), raxo na nnococxn cran ry
nonpasymena xpnrnxy necnnuxe reonornie. V rome Hnaron nnie ycamen, iep ie neh
Kcenoonr xpnrnxonao anrponomopnsam n soomopnsam xomepcxnx oxancrana,
Xepaxnnr npema nnma no carnpnuan, a Hnnnap, Cooxne n Enpnnnn samennnn cy crapy
cnnxy orona nonom. Mehyrnm, Hnaron ro unnn remenro, ynaxanaiyhn `crnncxe sacnyre`,
ann n omrpo ce cynpocranaaiyhn raxnoi nannein, ca unme ie yrnnao n na xpnmhancxe cnere
one xana cy xnrocann anrponomopnsam n nopounocr rpannnnonannnx iennncxnx
oxancrana (mehy npnnma a moxna n naiiacnnie, anonorer Teonn Anrnoxnicxn).
1


1
Pae, nmena orona, xoinma ce, xaxo ronopnm, xnanam, iecy nmena ympnnx ynn. H xo cy n xaxnn onn
nnn? Hnie nn ce Kponoc noxasao na iene n ncrpeyie nnacrnry neny? Vxasyiem nn na 3enca, neronor cnna,
pasmorpn naxnno nerona nena n nnx xnnora. Hpe cnera, no ie orxpanen na ropn Hnn on xose, xoiy ie, xaxo
mnronn ronope, yno n cxnnynmn xoxy ca ne, naunnno cen onehy. O npyrnm neronnm nennma, memany xpnn,
npeynnmrny n cpamnnm unnnma, nanexo nnme xasyie Xomep n npyrn necnnnn. Mopam nn na yxasyiem na
nerone cnnone, na Xepaxna, xoin ce cam cnanno, na nnianor n y menannma Pnonnca, na Anonona, xoin ie ns
crpaxa noerao on Axnneia, sayenor y Pane n xoin nnie snao sa cmpr Xniannnra, na paneny Benepy, na
9 | a a e

Hecnnx, npema Hnarony, naa na nma y nnny opnce npennocnnx npencrana, nanme
cxemare orona y nnxonnm npnxasnnannma saienno ca xapaxrepnsanniama yncxnx npnnna,
iep ce one on naipannie mnanocrn ypesyiy y nymy. Ono mro ce yrncxnnano y noesnin Xomepa
n Xecnona eiaxy mnrcxn momenrn y pacnopeny nenana, yrnannom nesann sa cnene pasonone,
a n raxne xoie nncy sa neunin yspacr iep noxasyiy ysop unie ie cnehene neh nanomenyro na ie
raxno na nonn phanocrnma n xnapeny xapaxrepa. Kaxo on omrpoymno ynnha na na rome
nounna erocno n pennrnosno nacnnrane, on ra ynayie ns `upraee` ys onanane nouacrn
sor crnncxnx sacnyra y ynanpehnnany onmre iesnuxe xynrype n mohn nmenonana xao
snauainom unnnony pasnoia iennncxor nyxa, a xoie nouacrn y pasnnienom onnxy moxemo na
nmunramo ns Kpamu)a, xome cy nosnnin nononnarononnn noxnonnnn nocroiny naxny
cnaxnnx anannsa. On, nanme, ne cmarpa na ie yxnnane y ymernnuxom neny nexn `nocnehenn
n mopanno neyrpanan unn`, nanasehn pasnor sa ro n y unnennnn na cy ce ronopnnnn,
sacrynnnnn (concrn) na cyny nosnnann na ry necnnuxy rpannnniy xana nnie nno nncannx
naparpaa saxona. Hecnnmrno ie ynpano xonnnxonano rsn. `nenncane saxone`, ynopennno
ca onnm yrnnaiem, xoin ie xacnnie no ianno mnene nmana Buo)uia.
Ty ce necnnuxa peu npocro ysnmana sa nopmy, raxo na ie Hnaron cacnnm onpannano morao
na ie mepn ca onom nopmom no xoie ie y nnococrnonany nocneo xpos nayuno
ncrpaxnnane, ri. nnianexrnuxo casnanane uncror nncrnonana. Fynyhn na ono npenasnnasn
nennunnom n camy cymrnny, cner necnnxa my ce npnxasyie xao onuno npnnnhene y
nopeheny ca moryhnomhy casnanana ncrnne anconyra. Hoesnia ce ry nnnn xao `nrpa cenxn`
ns uynene aneropnie `nehnna` nnn `onpaxanane onpasa` y neceroi xnnsn upraee.
Hs npyror yrna nocmarpano nonpyuie narahana, noxcacrnunocrn, neonxonno ie sa
yncxo nacnnranane, na ie oryn norpena crpnnnocr na n ce nopo camepanano ca
nnococxnm mepnnnma. Hma xomenraropa xoin cmarpaiy na ie ro ronn nspas cyxoa
nymenne nanapenocrn n pannonannnx cnara camor Hnarononor xapaxrepa, mro ie na nexn

Apeca xoin noryyie yne, n iom nnme na xpn xoia reue y raxosnannm oronnma? H cne ie ro iom mano naxno
y onnocy na ro xaxo ce cehamo pacxomananor ora nasnanor Osnpnc, sa xoier ce npasnyie cnaxn nan, xao sa
nornnynor n oner nahenor, n no menonnin rpaxenor, iep nnie nosnaro na nn ie ympo n nnie nnnnno na nn ce
nanasn... Axo yxaxem na Jennne n npyre napone, onn nomryiy xamene, npnehe n npyre rnapne crnapn, nspane
xaxo cam neh pexao, ympnnx ynn. Hosnaro ie na ie unnnia y Hnsn caunnno 3enca onnmnnicxor sa nnnine, a sa
arnnane Arnny na Axponoy. Hnram n ia ree, uoneue, xonnxo ce 3encona moxe nahn: 3enc onnmnnicxn, 3enc
Harnap, 3enc xacnicxn, 3enc Kepannn, 3enc nponarep, 3enc Hannxnie, 3enc Honnyx n 3enc xanroncxn. 3enc, cnn
Kponoca xoin ie no xpa Kpnra nma rponnny na Kpnry, nox ce pannin, moryhe ie, nncy ynocroinnn norpea.
Axo cnomnnem maixy raxosnannx orona, na ycra moia ne ncxaxy nena nena (iep ie nenpncroino na ce raxo n
nasone), nnn nax nena onnx xoin ioi cnyxe n noxnanaiy ioi ce, n xonnxn npnnoc n nanana naiy xpay n ona n
nenn cnnonn. Jep onn nncy oronn, neh nnonn, xaxo cam pannie pexao nena yncxnx pyxy n neuncrn nemonn.
Cnnunn he na nm yny onn xoin nx caunnanaiy n y nnx nanaiy (Hc. 113,12). /Teonn Anrnoxnicxn, 1. nncmo
Anronnxy rn. 9, 10/


10 | a a e

naunn noxymai ncropnicxor npannana nerenepannie xnnxennocrn neronor npemena. Taxohe
ce rai cyxo nnnn xao raxmnuene oxo yrnnaia, xor sacnrypno y peannoi npxann Hnaronone
canpemenocrn nnie nno, a npennn re npcre ie morao na nacrane camo ryenem ns nnna
naixanamner pasnnaxena nnn crape uerpcrn nnoconie n noesnie na xoiy ce on nosnna
o:i ooio urv :ic oiooooo oiooooio :r xoi oin:ixn (upr., 607b 5-6).
Cne ro, oner, npennha n Hnaronon nauennn crnapanauxn cran, xoin ne nonpasymena nn
`npoxparcxy nensypy` nn `ryropcrno mopannsma`, nero iacno ocnemranane y norneny rora
mra ce npencrana n samro ce ro unnn. Crnopnrn nemro snaun nsnecrn ns nennna na
nnnnnocr, n nnie cnopno na rora nma n y noesnin. Mehyrnm, cacnnm ce onpannano moxe
pehn na ie y nnrany nyxonna peopma, xoia nma y nnny nanexocexnn nonnrnuxn snauai y
peannsonany nauena ysopnocrn, re ce rnme noesnia ycnonana ca snauaiem npxanornopnnx
nneia, a ne ca orarcrnom n yianem npema seomepnnm npenennma. Onosemacxn xapaxrep
npxane nnie morao na nsnpxn neh Coxparone mopanne saxrene, raxo na ie neh ry onuainnm
nopmnpannma npxane y xoiy ce yxnanana n noesnia onysnman xapaxrep npnencrna. One nn
xon neronnx cnenennxa nncy morne na ncnyne npany nacnnrny amnnniy, iep cy necnnnn y
nonnopanany yxycy nynnxe ymenann n npecno na naxy, sacrpanyiyhn rnm nyrem no
esymnnx nynna nonnnane mamre. Hnaron sa Hapmennnony ymny noemy o npnponn xaxe
na ie ronnxe nynne na n ypanane y ny rpaxnno nehy nemrnny on `nencxor ponna`, a sa
Xepaxnnra raxohe na ie npnmpax ns xor sopn sa oun canpemenor unraona nenposnpan, iep
nocn orpomny yennnocr. Ecrercxa nenora npecoxparoncxnx nena, xao n camn neronn
nnianosn nncy no cen cnopnn, a necnnuxa nnonarnnnocr, cnexnna n naoi y nnma
npncycrnyie y nynoi cnasn, raxo na Hnaron cam npenopyuyie unrane 3aroua xao neno
noercxor nanaxnyha xoie npxynn y nnococxoi reonornin, a nexonnxo nexona xacnnie,
Hnyrapx nexrnpy Hapmennna n Emnenoxna xao naioy noesniy. V nnxonom npencranany
npnencrno Fora ie anconyrno n on ne moxe na ce rymaun xao na ie cxnon na cnnuno uonexy
unnn pasnonpcne nenononmrnne sor xoinx nnxo sapan aceneie ne n cmeo na npnronapa.
3a camor Hnarona For ie Tnopan xocmoca n on ie cnrypan na ie canpmeno Poap n es
nenocraraxa, re na ne moxe na yne yspoxom sana y cnery. Vnpano ce xpnrnxa n ycmepana na
ysypnanniy npana na ce nanocn namepna mrera npyrome, mro ie y narancrny
xapaxrepncrnuno. On raxo esoxnnm nnnn neponane na oronn ns sanncrn n heona
ynnnhy uonexa y ono sa mra cy camn xpnnn mayhn sne nanpare na yncxn xnnor, ca unme
ce ns remea nononn y nnrane unran cner rpuxe rparennie xao npennocnn oxnnp, iep ie
cymanyro na ce npencrana xaxo ncnamra npanennnx, a ne rpemnnx xoin unnn esaxone.
Crora ce naa nparnrn ca nyra sanohena n sacrpannnana na nyr xoin cnoinm yuenem nehe
nsasnnarn n mnpy mrery no pasnniane npnnna xpapocrn n camocannananana. Morno n ce
pehn na cna xpnrnxa rnx crapnncxnx npencrana n nounna na ncrnnany npnnna
nooxnocrn, xpapocrn, camocannananana n npannunocrn, iep cy onncn nenocnymnocrn,
11 | a a e

cxnonocrn xa nperepanom yxnnany, noxnene n nonmnrnnocrn onn xoie naa nsannrn xao
mrerne sa nymy.
2

Peicrno mysnuxnx nena ne nounna y ronnxoi mepn na canpxaiy, xonnxo na opmn, na ie
xpnrnxom opme norahan n canpxai xoin npernocrana. Cnaxo nonpaxanane npernocrana
npeoxper nymennocrn y cmncny npnnpemenor xperana xa nymennom ysopy xoin ce
nonpaxana, na c rnme ranane xena, xonxa, nemopan, n ne mory na yny nnmra ysopno. Axo
yxnna rpnnniannocrn ro ne snaun na ne nanaxe ynorpey nnemennrnier iesnxa xpos
orpannuanane ncxasne rpamarnxe na npncenocr n iennocrannocr, npxehn na ie npespnno
xyuane n yuane ca nonpaxananem xepona n mauaxa, nonona n marapana. Ionop n naano
na nacraie y nenocpennocrn cnehena yma n onor mro on nanaxe, na yne neron nspas xoin
moxe na ynonon norpen npanor nacnnrana.
4. Bacnumaeane u oopa;oeane v +v;uuu u eu+uacmuuu
3a pasnnxy on ymnor saxrena sa npannm nacnnrananem, noesnia ie y Hnaronono noa
nocana rearpoxparcxa, raxo na ie n nan noercxnm nopyxama rocnonapnna cnennunocr, xoia ie
ycrnxonany mynpocr cranana y nonoxai ncnon rocnoncrna mysnuxor cnenapnia, non
nemaromxnm snaxom emannnnannie mysnxe y nacrynaiyhem napcrny snyxa. Kaxo ie ro nno
iom n opcnpano pacryhnm norpeama sa neonrepehyiyhnm saanama, ono mro n morno na
yne onnnxa raxnnx npymrnennx snnana xomorno n morno na ce nasone pacnymrenomhy.
Pemene oryna sa Hnarona nnie y npahany na nnxn pasnoinn crenen, nero na cam nouerax
xoin n caunnanao mynpocr ymeha, npxehn ce Pamonone mysnuxe rexnnxe sa nocrnsane
xapmonnie. 3a cysniane cy naane xapmonnie xaxne cy nnnnicxa n ioncxa /ryxannne/, iep
noronyiy nniannnama, nox cpnaunomhy onronapa nopcxa n pnrnicxa crnapaiyhn cneuany n
cnanehy armocepy, na crpyunannma sa ry onacr ocrana cnoony xaxo he na nx
npnmenyiy (ona nonpaxana rnac parnnxa, narnamanaiyhn camocannananane n rpesnenocr
npen panama n cmphy, nnn nouapana xapaxrep mnpnor, npomnmenor uonexa). Hnpa n xnrapa
xao mysnuxn nncrpymenrn sa Hnarona cy nnme sa ynaxanane on nayre, xape n racona, iep
ys nnx moxe na ce uyie n rnac, nox sa ceocxn amnienr npenopyuyie pyny.
3
Cnnxapcxa

2
Hnaron ce rnyma nan cnenama y xoinma Axnn ysnma nonan sa Xexropon nem nnn ce sa nonan mnpn ca
Aramemnonom, re xoe sapoennxe na Harpoxnonoi nomaun. To ie iom camo Hopnpnie pann anarnunor
narannsma xoin ie sacrynao morao na npanna y cnncy O nehuuu uu+du xao npxanornopan unn xome ne moxe na
ce samepa, a ry n my samepno ynpano cam Hnaron sa nennococxo npxane (es osnpa na nerone mornne, ro
ie n pasnor ynnmrena neronor cnnca Hpomue xpuuhaua, xoin pexoncrpyncan nema y cen nnmra on nsnopne
nnaroncxe nanneie, neh xao na my ie nnean no ynpano naranncrnuxa ananneycna, ri. xpaina nenacnnranocr xoia
ie nonna npannuan onronop). Cne ie ro sa Hnarona sanpano neneponocroino iep raxan eroc ncxyuyie
oxancxn xapaxrep, na ie en nnme npnxpnnao neronn orxpnnao npnpony xnnora, oxnnaiyhn uonexa y nerne
npnmnrnnnsma craponpennor mnmena n yehyiyhn ra y ro na ie ncnpannocr ocrarn cnpon n rpy y cnaxom
norneny, on xpnie noernxy xoia xao nacnnrno cpencrno mopa na yne oysnana n na ioi ce rpannne nocrane na
nnno npnmnrnnnninx xrena.
3
Apncroren y 8. xn. Ho)umure nae pasnnia onaxo sacnonan eroc y mysnnn, n nnyhn Hnarononnm rparom
rnpnn na mysnxa n pnram noce ernuxe canpxaie ca nacnnrnnm snauaiem. V erocy raxrona nnn nornnx npcra on
12 | a a e

ymernocr ie sanar nonyr rxauxor ymeha, npxn Hnaron, a raxna ie n apxnrexrypa nnn
ypehnnane xyhnor amnienra. H y cpennem nexy ie cnnxap no nemr sanarnnia xoin ie
ypamnnao monnrne n cnnxao no nopynnnn noprpere n snauaine cnene ns xnnora, xao mro
cy ro iennnn unnnnn na amopama, nasama n rannpnma, yxyuyiyhn n penecancna no-
mranana y nnnamnsam npocropa nnn nepcnexrnnne nnmensnonnsannie na nnarnnma.
4

Hainye y yncxy nymy nponnpe mysnxa n y noi xao ymernocr nacnocrana nnemennr,
enrennuan cran, xoin nacnnrana sa npennsnocr n cmncao npenosnanana nenore. Cnaxn
noiennnan on cnor pohena n naipannier nernncrna rpea na nonie moryhnocr na ynnme
snpan nasnyx y nyxy oxpyxenocrn nennm mro iemun nopo ycanpmanane. Ty ie n xopen
rexnn sa nsrpannom naioe npxane y xoioi n ro no npernocrannn nno nonymreno npema
saxononannom ayropnrery xoin n ie ypehnnao. Casnane nopa y uonexy pacre ca raxnom
peannomhy xoia crnue npnmepeno onnuie y neronoi nymn xao nspas saxnannocrn na
npyxenom, raxo na ce oxo nyxa crnue sanpano nacnnrananem xapaxrepa xao onnx nymennnx
npra xoie ra onnxyiy. Hnaron ro nopenn ca yuenem npenosnanana cnona sa unrane n
nncane, cmarpaiyhn na ie cnnuno ca rempom n xapmonnicxnm monynanniama, y xoima ce
rymaue nspasn xpapocrn, ormenocrn, pasopnrocrn n ynyhyiy na nponene npema sacnyrama.
V rnmnacrnnn ce cem xao onnxy caunnanana arnercxnx ayromara n parnnuxnx
yoinrocrn, xasyie penarnnno mano. Boi sanpano nainnme onronapa npnmena mennnnncxnx
snana sa nacnnranane n opasonane (mro he xacnnie y cxnany ca cnoiom ycmepnomhy na
crnapn ry n onne, na sarnuyhe crane, nnme naxne na opaha Apncroren xome ie oran no
neunnx na maxenoncxom nnopy), cacnnm nopo ynosopanaiyhn na noniennaxo naa na ce nonn
nnierercxa pnra o cacnnm snpanom uonexy, xao n npema nniarnocrnnxonany onom
oonenom. Bexana cy nnaue n comarcxa n ncnxocomarcxa n uncro nymenna xao
nnianexrnxa, na ie yonuaienn nn rnmnacrnxe y iauany rena n pasnniany npnnne
xpapocrn, nox ce nan rora cxpehe npema pyrannoi cnnn xoiom ce nnaue xopncre n
xnnornne. Cama rnmnacrnxa nnie xanpa na xporn onune annmannsme xoin mory na ce
noiane y naronomxnm opmama sacrpannnana y oxpyxia ne am nocroina uonexa.



ie raxohe nnneo onpas nymennnx cranona pasnonpcnocrn npennocrn, sa pasnnxy on eroca nnxonnnx ymernocrn
xoin nam nocpenyie uyno nnna, n rne ie on rex nasnauen xao n y cxynnrypn nnn peey. uyno nnna raxo nnie
nyxonnnie on uyna cnyxa, neponarno n crora iep ce nnme ycnaia noroc.
4
Torono, Heonapnono, Ioinno, Bepmep Ban Penono nnn Ban Aixono, Ban Iorono nnn Hnxacono cnnxapcrno
Hnaron cnrypno ne n raxo onmepanao. Hpehyrxyiyhn n cxynnropcxy ymernocr, xoia ie nnerana ca caxpannom
apxnrexrypom y Hepnxnono snarno noa, xao na nnie morao nopen nmnosanrnnx unnninnnx xnnona nn na
nacnyrn apem cxynnropcxy noprpernmyhy noernxy ynyher Mnxenanhena nnn Ponena.

13 | a a e

5. Te+e+uu euooeu oopa;oeana u opvumeeuu rueom
Inmnacrnxa npyxa snana o onnxonany rena, mysnxa crnapa pnram n xapmonniy y nymn,
a crpyuna ymeha cy cxnahena xao rexnnxe nnn sanarcxa snana mro nncy on snauaia sa
remeno opasonane. Vronnxo ce y xacnninm xnnrama upraee nsnnaia nonena mxoncxnx
nniarpna yuena (rsn. xnanpniym n rpnnniym) xoie he ocrarn xpos unran cpennn nex y
nacnehe n monepnom noy. Ono mro nymy oxpehe xa mncnnma ie npna nniarpna xnanpniyma,
nayxa o poiennma nnn apnrmernxa (upr., 522c-d), xoie ie snane naxno sa ouoneunnane.
Ono nma npaxrnuny npnmeny y crpareremarama, nnannpany pacnopehnnana noicxe y
onpann n nanany, ann raxohe n y norneny merononornie casnana, iep ynn na cmorpenocr
mnmena n npounmhana nymy cenexnniom raunnx on neraunnx casnana (upr., 523a, 525a,
526b, 527b), ann raxohe nomaxe n y nonehanany cnoconocrn cxnarana. V Teememv (145a)
ie ncrnnao xaxo apnrmernxy n reomerpniy nonynana cponnocr acrponomnie n mysnxe
(neponarno on Hnrarope ncrnnanom xapmonniom cepa), iep maremarnuxe saxonnrocrn
norahana na ney npernocranaiy nnxone nocnone onapene ymom n cnemhy (Tu+., 24c,
3arouu, 898b). Hopen nosnarnx nniarpna apnrmernxe n reomerpnie, acrponomnie n mysnxe,
Hnaron ynonn n crepeomerpniy y maremarnxy (upr., 528b), npxehn na ce rnme oiauana nena
ynnnepsannocr ca ynohenem monena onepannia ca noernuxnm crnapnma na rpary Teerera n
xacnnie Eyxnnnone opmannsannie. Taxo ie ynenena n cnoienpcna nemoncrpannia xoia
noiauana rpancnapenrnocr merononornie npncryna crnapnma, xoia saxrena ersaxrnocr, xao n
ecnpexopno noxasnnane sa npernocranxe xoie ce ncnnryiy. Morno n ce pehn na sa pasnnxy
on concrnuxe yuenocrn Hnaron nncncrnpa na `ennnxnonennunocrn` nanonynanaiyhn
xnanpniym rpnnniymom on rpamarnxe, nnianexrnxe n peropnxe xoie opmnpa na ncropnicxnm
canpxainma pasnniannm y rpuxoi xynrypn (necnnmrny, mysnnn), nox cy my snana ns
orannxe n soonornie rorono nenpnmerna. Jesnx n nerono npannno ycrpoianana pasnniann cy
y nnianory Kpamu), a ronopnnuxa nemrnna xoia nounna na mohn yehnnana nnax nana
nanexo ncnon nnianexrnxe, a ca xoiom ce y nacnnrany nonia ono mro ie cymrnncxo. Ona ie
cnoconocr na ce o neuemy nonoxn n ysme pauyn (upr., 536d), rne ce camnm noimonnma
xpos nonmana nsnasn ca nnma camnma na xpai, a xoia nspana ns Coxparone merone
ocnopanana n noniana neraunnx mnmena. Maremarnuxe nniarpne npnnnxanaiy ce
ncrnnn nncrnonana, ann ie one nonnpyiy camo xao na cy y cny, nox ce na iann ne cnanase
xao nn ona ymeha n nemrnne unia cy snana norexna on nnennnx mnenana n narahana.
Pnianexrnuap ie xanap na nonoxn pauyn o cymrnnn cnaxe crnapn, nyrem noroca
pasrpannuanaiyhn `nneiy nopa` y `nponiany xpos cne nanane`, a na my mncao npn rome ne
nocpne (upr., 534d,8-10), cnanaiyhn y neonxonno opasonane uynapa npxane. V rom ie
cmncny mynpocr nonnrnuapa xao rsn. `npaxrnuapa y npxannnm nocnonnma` sa nenonony
oneny, iep noiana nneie npanne npxane yremeene na Popy nonpasymena ynnnepsannocr
xoiom on nnie xanap na onnana. Tamrnna n nnacroynnocr ne mory na yny nainnme mepnno
sa oanane npxannnuxnx nyxnocrn, mro n caunnana npenosnarnnocr naioe npxane,
14 | a a e

na y noi ne nnanaiy nnacronpmnn n ynren mohn, neh onn xoin ce snymno rpyne oxo
marepniannor n nyxonnor nanpenonana npymrna.
3a Hnarona ie xnnornn npocrop uonexa oprannsonan npxanom. Cnoiy npennocr nma
xnnor n nonamane noiennnna y ocmnmanany nennne ror xnnena, raxo na ono mro unnn
saiennnmrno cnaia, a cnaxo neene na nocenocrn pasnnaia. Hnxn cnoienn npymrna ce
noponono norunnanaiy nnmnm, xana ce na neny snna nohcrno xoie noxasyie ycnex, raxo
na ce nornphyiy ynnnn n casnana xoia none nanperxy n nopom pasnoiy npxane. Taxo nenn
nnanapn nocraiy ncronpemeno n uynapn, ne xao rnaunren nero nomaraun y nanpenonany
npema nsnacxy npymrna ns xpnsnnx nponeca, a cam napon xoin nx cnenn nnie sarynan
cnyxnncxn, neh ce opasyie npema moryhnocrnma xoie ce nenocpenno nyne n rpernpa ce xao
xpannrecxn
5
. Bpennocr nexe npxane raxo ce ne cacroin y `ernnuxom marepniany` (mana on
nnxan nnie esnauaian), nero y onom canpmencrny xoin onnnhe nennna cacrannnx nenona.
Hocroie, nonyme n nsnecne npennocrn nnn npenonpehenocrn na rome nocny nexn naponn
npe, cnpemnnie n pahe npncryne, ann uonex nocn npxanornopny cnary npema xapaxrepy
onnxonanom y cxnany ca oxpyxenem n nnxo ne moxe na nopexne na ie Coxpar ysop sa
nopehene ynpano ca cnoiom nsrpahenomhy xapaxrepa n erocnom meponannomhy. Taxo na
sacanama crapnx npannna nonamana n onuainnx npana, Hnaron ysnnxe nony cnnxy npxane
xao nonn xocmoc nacrao naxon xaoca rnranromaxnie, pasnniaiyhn npennocrn apxaicxnx
npymrnennx crpyxrypa no npounmhennx opmn nocpenonannx napounrnm norpeama
ncrnncrnonana. Ty ie xoncrpyxrnnna cnara nnoconie neonosnna, nanme ynpano onor nyxa
xoin ie Arnna y nnxy Coxpara namepanana na ynnmrn, a nonna ie nocroian onronop neronnx
mncaonnx cnenennxa no xoinma ie ocmnmeny npxany moryhe cnponecrn y neno xana ioi ce
sa ro yxaxe anexnarna moryhnocr, onaxne n cexe ynepene o ncnpannocrn saxrena nene
nomnnannie. 3a ro ie norpeno nonecrn noy sa moh no xarapsnunnx ncxonnmra xpos
onycraiane on ncnxnuxe n connianne cenunocrn n ocnoahane on camonoe cnehenem
npncycrna nene uncrohe npema npnpohenoi ynyrpamnoi cnpcn rexne xa nopy.
Hcrnncxy moh caunnana crpemene xa npnponnom ncnynanany raxnor nna, a ro ce
nainpe ocrnapyie neronnm casnananem, ca unme ce nnoconia npenosnaie xao xpaencxn
nyr xa npanoi n npanennoi mohn. unnocon sacnyxyiy xpaencxo nonepene on napona iep ie
npomnmane onnxonana ncrnne nopa xon nnx ysnnrnyro no nainnmnx xopnsonara,
ynyhn na re xopnsonre npomnpyiy enrysniasmom nonor ynepena o cymrnncxom uonexonom

3
Kon Pyca ie Hap nasna no `ahymxa`, uax n onai Iposnn Hnan, a ca cnoiom `xpecriancxoi npannoiy` n na ie
sema onor xo ie opahyie, napon ie no xpannrecxn. V `Onncein` xpa Hraxe ne camo na nma nornyno
npniarecxn onnoc ca cnoinm ceannma, cnnnapnma n uynapnma xosa, nero saxnayiyhn nnxonoi onanocrn n
ycnena ca cnnom Tenemaxom na orepa nacprnne npocne xoin cy my noxapann nmonnny, mro cnenoun o
npaxrnunom erocy yncxocrn on crapor noa. V nnianory Hnarononom `Menon` Coxpar sanonena maremarnuxy
pacnpany ca poom xoin ce noxasyie nponnnnn n mynap, a y `3axonnma` ce on opaha yncxocrn y uonexy es
osnpa na craryc xoin nma y npymrny. He saopannmo na ie y Ciennnennm Ppxanama Amepnxe poncrno
yxnnyro rex y 19. nexy, a na ie poncxn nonoxai axryenan iom ynex y mnornm asnicxnm n apnuxnm semama, a
na nepnnno concrnnnpan naunn ncxanne nonnrnxe n nnxrara npennocrn, n xon nac na Fanxany.
15 | a a e

nosnny, a ro ie ononnrecxo casnane o ncrnncxoi xnnornoi nnein, nanme onoi xoia npema
Hnarony nanpocro neonosnnom cneoyxnarnomhy oesehyie cmncao npanennocrn, yxonnxo
ce nnococxn nyx nocnern rparany sa Jennnm n Popnm y iennncrny nncrnonana.
Pemoxparnia ie ynaxnna noy nehnne xao saxononanny peu, rne no nspasa nocnena noa
iennnxe, ann nan reopnicxn paspahenor monena ona na neny nocraie cne nnme opyhe
necanecnnx arnraropa xoie cy nacnnrann concrn cnoinm nyxannm cxnonocrnma. Hacxano
nonnnaxene macama y npnnarohanany nnxonom npomennnom pacnonoxeny, saxrena
ycnocranane nyxa npnnaronnnocrn xoin pann ocrnapnnana cnoinx nnena ne moxe na
orpnn ncrnncxo nacnnranane n opasonane ynn.
6
V cnnunom nnsy samepxn ce onuno
nanonn n npnronop xaxo nnoconia cama onecnocoana uonexa sa xnnor, rypaiyhn ra y
cnexynarnnnn nonop y xome onennnn sa cam cmncao xnnora. `Cnexynarnnne opme` y
ncxannoi nonnrnnn nocraiy npemenom cnnonnm sa npenape n xpahe, a `mnexynarnnne
nynose` yonuaien peunnx xoin nonpasymena xnarane na neny nexora xo ie noxymao na
yrain anxonna nnn npxanna cpencrna. H ro ie yrnannom peunnx napacrao y xen sa
ocnerom nan nainnmnm nspasom nnoconie Tome Axnnncxor xoin ie raxo pasymenao
nainnmn onnx nyxa xoin npncryna ncrnnn npema Apncrorenonnm reopnicxnm cxnarannma,
nnn Xerena xoin ie non cnexynarnnnnm mnmenem nonpasymenao nanaxene pemena xpos
nosnnniy xoiy npexnana xonrpanosnnnia, xao n ncxony anannrnuxnx momenara y
cnnrernuxom xao npennananany naprnxynapnnx narocrn y yonmrennioi mncaonoi opmn xao
nnmem iennncrny crnapnocrn. Hnaron ie onaxnom npnronopy cynpocranao `yan npema
opasonanocrn` xoia ce neoma remxo ycrayie es nnianexrnuxor ynexanana nyxa.
Vcraen onnoc nonpasymena nenonnpranane ycraennm cynonnma romnne neh nperxonno
nmnpernncannm arnraropcxnm panom pyxonohennm npnmnrnnnnm nnrepecnma, ne onaiyhn ce
cnpencxom sony npoecnie npnnaronnnocrn sor nnune xopncrn, neh xpos oxperane
ecxonaunom n neunom cnerny nncrnonana, on nna ncnynanan nexnm mnpom n noperxom.
V ycanpmennioi npxann n reopnia n nenonane n nonamane sanonhe osnnnin ron, xana ns
crana nemohnor nocmarpana cryne na neno nnn xpos opasonane yncxor xapaxrepa xpeny
na ocrnapnnane nynx npernocranxn ca ornapanem crnapanauxe nenpnne.

6
He camo na ne moxe na ra nonnece, nero ra npxn n sa cmprnor nenpniarea xao y cnyuaiy Coxpara, Hnnepona,
Hnarnie, Foernia nnn nporoncrnom ysnpahannm Anaxcaropn, Apncroreny, Pamacxniy, nnn no pyrannoi cnnn
ynaxaxenor n npornanor y Hasnxy Maxcnma Hcnonennnxa, nnn y monamxoi penynnnn sapoenor Cn.
Ipnropnia Haname nrn. H sa npomnn nex ie nannonan-connianncra Anon Xnrnep ocranno cnoie enemxe Moia
oopoa, y xoinma ie nspaxanao nnnene ranamnem Coniercxom nohn Jocny Bncapnononnuy Tyramnnnniy
naprnicxn xoncnnparnnno nasnanom `Crann`, ne camo saro mro ie neysnpxrano nacnenno pyrannn snounn
onmasne nan yxynnom xpaencxom amnnniom Pomanonnx, nero npe cnera sor nonacxa omennxa na nnacr ne
raxo mro cy unrann nena Mapxca n Enrenca nnn Bnannmnpa Vanonnua, neh sor oprannsonana orpomnor
mnomrna arnrarnpa xoin cy ce pamnpnnn no npxann na yehyiy yne xaxo ie xynnyo sannn uac sa
connianncrnuxy penonynniy. Mana ie naxr o capannn oxo repnropnia Hocxe nonpasymenao nnuny
xomynnxanniy sa npeme para, xana ie n cam y nera xpenyo sor nsnenepennx nanana, Crann ce nosnnao na
orannncxy nmnepnianny cnecr Pyca na pane `marymxy pohnny`, mana ie mehy nmneparopnma `ahymxy`
onmenno na ycnenocrn arnraropcxnx nenniannia nocranen oneiann ysypnarop.
16 | a a e

BACHHTABE FOPFEHOI PVXA V 3AJEPHHHH HAJFOHX H HOHOXAJ XEHA H
PEHE V TAKBOJ PPXABH
Jenna on naxnnx npernocranxn ycrpoicrna Hnaronone upraee ie na npnnannocr
nonannxa ncroi nannin nnie npecynan unnnnan sa nen xnnor. Mehyrnm, on ie xopncrno one
npennocrn xoie ie nynnna nonesanocr nannonannnm ocehanem mehy Ipnnma y 5. nexy npe
Xpncra, na n na rai unpcr ocnonan nocranno ernuxe nopme npe cnera sa parne crparernie
xoie cy ce onnocnne na ysaiamne cyxoe mehy rpuxnm rpanonnma-npxannnama, nonncnma. Te
ernuxe nopme xao neo xonexca paronana, nocnyxnne cy sa nsrpanny yuena o nacnnrany
uynapa /upraea, 469b/. Ha npnom mecry on npenopyuyie nrnopncane onnx neonnna ns
Xomeponnx enona xoie n ncnynanane crpaxom on cmprn, a npn rome ynyhyie na mecra ca
pemenomhy, xoia iauaiy noy npencranaiyhn onceune mysnuxe xapmonnie (nemro y pony
xopaunnna), xoia yxnanaiy mnnranocr n nenocr xpos onnpahaiyhe npnmncnn. Honcrnnai na
xpapo npxane y cyxonma npyxa n oiauanane renecnor cacrana nsnuxom rnmnacrnxom n
nparmarnuno iennocrnnom noinnuxom ncxpanom, raxo na n uynapn mornn na yny ne xao
`ycnanane arnere`, neh xao onn `y nainehoi nnn` (upraea, 403e). Parnnuxn nyx ce ynn
narpnorcxom mysnxom, a rnmnacruxn uaconn nncy samnmenn xao yonuaienn `arnercxn
rpennnr`, neh cnennannsonan sa ycanpmanane opnnauxnx nemrnna, neponarno onai
`nanxparnon` xoin nonpasymena marchal arts, n caunnana parnnuxo nacnnrane uynapa. Pa n
rn uynapn nnn nonono ycanpmenn na ce ynocroie cnor nosnna rnanemnna (apxonara) n na
mynap naunn nopo nonnnn npxany, norpeno ie na ce nyrem camocannananana ycnocrann
npannunocr neronanem iennocrannnx n cmepnnx cxnonocrn xpos npomnmenocr,
pasasnanana ncnpannnx mnena, uera ce rpea nnamnrn a uera ne, npyxaiyhn rnme samrnry
on ynraunnx ceiana npnnnnnnx ncrnna n npenapa. Vmepenocr, xpapocr n mynpocr cy
npcre raxne samrnre (upr., 429c, 433c) na xoinma nounnaiy cxnannn onnocn rne cnaxo
oana cnoi nocao naronapehn pasnniennm cnoconocrnma n npxany, a cnyuaienn
oncxaxana cy neo re nenpexnnnocrn rpaiana xao mro narnnana crnapn npn mnponany nncy
nnxaxan noxas na cy npema rom momenry cacnnm y xperany (upr., 436c-437c).
Jenan on nornunnx saxyuaxa xoin cnenn xana ce nacnnranaiy uynapn, a xoin cy
sanyxenn na yny onraiann y nyxy npenanana `upraeu` na n esycnonno cnyxnnn
saiennnnn, iecre na n npnnarnn xnnor naa na nm yne nsnnman, ri. na xnne es xyhnor
nocena n nmonnne. Hs ncxycrna ca cnoinm npemenom Hnaron ie cxnarno na romnnane nocena
snaun iauane npnnarnocrn n conniannor eronsma noponnne, y xoin ce ona sarnapa ne mapehn
sa mnpe nnrepece npxane, raxo na ie saxren sa nnmananem nocena ecxomnpomncan saxren
sa iennncrnom npxane.
Orpannuananem npana noiennnana oesehyie ce esycnonnocr iennncrna, iep
crananem y rpainy cnyxy npxann nserana ce onai cyxo xoin n morao na nacrynn y
xnnory y noponnnn. Tora ie nno y Cnaprn, rne cy ce mymxapnn nocnehnnann ncnynanany
noinnx n nonnrnuxnx nyxnocrn, a sa nocnennny ie nmano nnsax mopan xena sor nnxone
17 | a a e

nonpehene ynore. H paunn xnnor, xoin ie yrnannom nounnao na nohnom npnxpanany
cynpysn y xpener nox ne nsahe cynne, n noponnuna ronnnna noma nnn cy ronnxo
sanemapnnann, na ie n ienno n npyro nno na nomem rnacy (Ap., Ho)um., 1269b12). Hnaron ie
ro na nexn naunn xeneo na ncnpann n oiaua, narnamanaiyhn na ro unnn xao npema nexoi
mnronomxoi xoncrpyxnnin (upr., 450c), a n neno ocrnapnnane ie noneneno y nnrane
(upr., 501e). Hmamo nn y nnny na xacnnie y 3arouu+a saxrena sacnnnane paxa oxo rpehe
nenennie xnnora, re nnahane npxann nopesa na espaunocr axo nexo ro ne yunnn, morno n
na ce npernocrann xaxo ie raxny samncao ocyiernna ncropnicxa nrxa Cnapranana ca
Teannnma xon Heyxrpe, naxon xor nopasa cy cnaprancxe xene nsamne na sao rnac xoin ce
nanexo npouyo. Ha cnaprancxo ypehene nnun n cnpanane iannnx opoxa sa mymxy
nonynanniy xoie crnapa unpmhy connnapnocr, ann ne cnomnne momenar oyxe y xome ie
yuecrana nenepacrnia, xaxo n cypono xaxnanane nnromana no nsnuxnx caxahena nnn
`nnnnniannia` y unana cnoonne saiennnne, xoiom n ce omnannnan `noxasnnao` rorono
pnryannnm ynianem xenora xoin n ce nno unme ncrnnao. V rom xonrexcry
`nenncnnnnnnonanocr` xena nocn n snauene xee sa npomenom raxnnx onnoca.
Hnarona pyxononn n raxno casnane, na ie orpannuanane saiennnne ca xenama cneo na
nnanaiyhn cnoi, na uynape npxane, ann nornyna sapana n nnmnna npxany nnera
cranonnnmrna, na ie ro paspemeno ca yuenem na uynapn nmaiy saiennnuxe xene n neny.
Taxne xene raxohe nmaiy sanarax na ysmy yuemha y nacnnrany uynapa cxonno nnxonnm
npenncnosnnniama n nsnuxoi nsnpxnnocrn. Taxo n xenn uynapa nana y nyxnocr na ce
nacnnrana y mysnnn n rnmnacrnnn n na ce npnnpema sa parne oxonnocrn. Onnaranem
xanna xena y npaxrnxonany rnmnacrnxe ne onnaxe n cpam, a nnie naonmer na ce cnomene
xaxo cy napnapn cmarpann na ie rnmnacrnuxa narocr mymxapna raxohe cpamna. H y Ipuxoi ie
ro pannie nsasnnano nopyre n nerononana, na ro mro n canasan narnm xencxnm renom
nponasnna cnnuno iannnmn ce na Kpnry, sarnm Cnaprn n y cnnm npyrnm nonncnma naxon
rora, ne n nno uynno. Haro xencxo reno nanasn ce na ymernnuxnm nennma naiapa
Hnarononor npemena, na ie nerona npenopyxa na ymecro xanne xene uynapa rpea na cee
na oyxy npnnny (upr., 457a). Hema ror nosnna xoie ys mymxapne ne n morne na oanaiy
n xene, cmara Hnaron, iep n one rpea na pasnniaiy cnoie ranenre xoin ce ne cnone camo na
pnry oxo nene n crapana sa nomahnncrno (upr., 456b-c). 3amepxe sa `snoynorpey xena` n
npoiexronana nexaxnor maconnor xonxynnara nsrnena na cy nsrynne ns nnna na npyxeno
opasonane nehe npxarn sa nonnune pacnoiacane eporcxe cxnonocrn, a na saiennnna raxohe
nehe ocraiarn es noromcrna, na xoioi ioi nounna ynyhnocr. To ne nne na cnaprancxy
cxnonocr na ce xena npernapa y amasonxy xao penncranannie apxaicxor pennxra, neh npe na
na ro na xene ne cmeraiy n na nnxona npncyrnocr unnn carnacnocr n yuecrnonane y
ocrnapnnany npxannor iennncrna. Cne npyro cacnnm cnnun canpemenom npany xena na
opasonane.
18 | a a e

uecro ce Hnarony npnnncyie n y nnein enrennie nsnecran pacnsam, rne ie raxohe peu o
nepasymenany. Bnanannna apncroxparnie xon nera ne nonpasymena nacnenno npano no
mymxoi nnnnin, neh nyxonny nnanannny naioer, sa mra nonorncrnuxn xpnrepniymn ne
naxe. Kon nera necnoconn n nenocroinn ne nornanaiy non nerpananniy xao y `pacnom
nacnennom npany` xao neycnenn marepnian xoin ce cxpnna nnn nerparom sarnpe, nero crana
y npyry connianny rpyny, nox ce npennaxe ysnnsane uecrnrnx n cnoconnx npema nonehoi
rpynn y xoioi ce ncrnuy cnoinm npnnnama. Pa n ce naioe nacnnrane cnponeno, sa ro cy
norpene n npenncnosnnnie, na n one na cy on naannx ponnrea xao oxnnp npnponnnx
cnoconocrn, a ro ce y upraeu nocrnxe pnxnnnm nsopom cynpyxnnxa. 3a ro nocroie
npymrnena ncxycrna xoia Hnarony cnrypno nncy morna na npomaxny. Kana ce crapo
apncroxparcxo nnemcrno ycnen nnancnicxe xpnse memano ca orarnm nnecom, nonasnno ie
no nsonauanana apncroxparcxnm nonoxaiem nacnnranannx npnnna. Crora ie neonxonna
nacnnrna xonrpona, npema xoioi n apncroxparnia no poheny nna nyxna na noxaxe cnoiy
npnnny, a ca unme n rex n nonna onopene na yhe y nsop naionx xoinma ce nonepana
nnacr. Hnax n ca rnm aprymenrom ocraie npnronop na ce sacryna nponasna nesa mehy
nononnma pann noniana noromcrna, re na yxnnane npanor rpahancxor paxa snaun
xprnonane noiennnna y xopncr nneana, ca xoinm ce onysnma npano na renecnocr n
nnrnmnocr (upr., 458d), a ca unme ce nnxaxo ne n cnoxnnn nn xpnmhancxn Cnern Onn.
Hnaron ie n npernocranao na n ro remxo nmno na ie ne panehn nnuna ocehana n
sayenocr, sa xoie nnax mopa na ce rpaxn narocnon npencrannnxa nnacrn (upr., 458d-
e), nonynno n cyporar xoin ie nasnao `cnera cnana` y sameny sa pax, a ona nonpasymena
onopene nnmnx nncrannn, na maxap ce ro na xpaiy noxasnnano n norpemnnm (Ppx., 459c-
d), iep ie nymeponomxn onnoc poia mymxapana xoin cy norpenn npxannom cexropy sa
ncrnnane xnannrera ry npecynan.
Pae, samnmao ie na neny naa na neryiy neronarenne, a na nx maixe xpane nox cy
ee, na n yan xoiy ocehaiy npema noromcrny morne na npyxe n ocranoi nenn (upr.,
460c). Tnme ce npnponan noponnunn nncrnnxr nnacnpa na nopo saiennnne, raxo na ce
connnapnocr npema unanonnma noponnne npomnpyie na connnapnocr npema unanonnma
saiennnne xao `npomnpene noponnne` no oprancxor cxnarana npxane, ann ce cmehe c yma na
nma pasnnunrnx maiunncxnx npnpona (n onnx cxnonnx sanemapnnany, xao n nnnonamranany
nnn xnneny nene) ca unme ce pasnnxe camo nonehanaiy no ancypnnnx nnmensnia, xao n
nornyno nemapnnx ouena ca nennianrnnm cxnonocrnma. Hnaron ie xreo na yxaxe na ynepene
na xnnor n npxane noiennnna npny cnoi cmncao ns xnnora n npxana nennne, ann xao na ie
npepannao nonomxe n mennnnncxe acnexre na n ce noxonao npnnnxe na ry nneiy nnacnpa,
mro ie xacnnie snauaino xopnronao rex y nosnom neny 3arouu. Hecenunocr nnmer cnoia,
onnx ocnocoennx na nonoce saxone sa cne y rpahancrny, ne onnocn ce nnme na cpehenocr
xomynnrapnnx xapaxrepncrnxa, nero ie espaunocr uax cmerna sa crnnane nonepena y xom
n ce nnxn cnoienn nonnpranann nnmnm es ponrana n rynhana ca xoinm ce nonpnna
npxanno iennncrno (upr., 463a).
19 | a a e

BACHHTABABE PATHHuKOI H HPABEPHHuKOI PVXA uVBAPA
Kao mro nacnnrannxe sa parnnuxn cranex rpea ys nansop onnx xoin cy nnunn uynany
yxyunnarn nonpemeno y par, na n ocmarpann npnsope `xpnanor yniana`, mro npema
Hnarony caunnana neonxonny npernocranxy na n ycnenn y onynnpany crpaxy xoin nx
npnponno xnara, raxo n sa nacnnranane npyrnx cnoconocrn naa nahn mecra sa npaxrnuny
nacrany. Pa n ce npnsop nenocpennor parnor cyxoa xpapo nsnpxao, noreno ie ncxycrno
uennuena cpna ynyher parnnxa, a npnxynenn snp noinnx nemrnna n pyxonane opyxiem
ce npocro nonpasymena xao nexa npcra nncmenocrn y rome. Heorxnonenn xyxannunyx
Hnaron nosnoana camo sa rpahane npyror pena (sanarnnie, nponsnohaun, ceann), nox onn
xoin cy y npnnm penonnma mopaiy na yny nacnnrann y erocy xoin noncrnue xpapocr, re
noysnan ocnonan xnneny xao unpcrn n npexaenn cryonn npymrnennx crpyxrypa. Onai
xo ce npena nenpniarey es ornopa, nna nnn no nenaxnonenoi parnoi cpehn ynien, nnn
nocraie parnn sapoennx ca onysernm rpahancxnm npannma; nox onai xoin noxaxe xpapocr
nonia nenan, a yxasyie my ce nouacr n nosnnom na cneuann oen y nerony uacr. Vxonnxo n
nornnyo y cyxoy, nono n na pauyn npxane rponnny xoioi n ce npnnasnno camo ca
pennrnosnnm nomronanem, a onai xoin n npexnneo cyxo n npemnnyo y crapocrn,
npnnanane n my ncre nouacrn (upr., 469b). Hnaron uecro nanomnne y upraeu xaxo cy
Ipnn iennn npyrnma pohann n npniaren, a nnxono mehycono pyranno ncrpennane y
Henononecxom pary cmarpa na ie nennxa mrera, iep ie rpeano na ce snpyxe npornn
cnoamner nenpniarea ymnpnnanem nnnepcxnx amnnnia. Hopoanana
7
, nycromena
seme, nanena xyha n ornmana noapa nncy orannncxa cxnonocr. Hoceno ie cpamna
nauxa nanor opna, nsysen onysnmana opyxia, na ony onuainy peryny Hnaron ynaxana
nornpranaiyhn snauai caxpane mprnnx (upr., 470b).
8

Kao na ie ono n npennme sannunno na nneannsanniy on xoie n ocraiane camo nyxe nene
xee, na ce n Hnaron nnrao: Pa nn ie ona npxana moryha, n na xoin n naunn n nna
moryha (upr., 471c). To cnaxaxo saxrena nanop na ce npencnnra yremeenocr mornnannie
sa nneanncrnuxa onpenennana (`nnrane onpannanocrn` /questio iuris/), xao n ycnonn
naxena raxnor nocranana crnapn (`nnrane unnennunocrn` /questio facti/), a ro ie moryhe
camo yennnnm noxasnnanem xoie on oesehyie cnnxom canpmencrna npannunocrn

7
H Xyro Iponnyc ie cmarpao y De iure belli ac pacis na ie npano na nopoanane parnnx sapoennxa
npornnnpnponno, mana ie onaxno mnmene nomno xao unpcro ynepene rex ca noianom xpnmhancrna n neronor
cnernor yrnnaia xpos mnpene y nepcxoi saiennnnn ca npernocranxama ncnpanne n ynnnepsanne pennrnosnocrn.
3aiennnuxn ocnon ca Hnarononnm yehennma morao n na ce nahe y norpen sa oyxnaranem unranor
uoneuancrna xpos nannnernuno naueno, raxo na naponn xoin npnnanaiy onpehenoi npxann nnn Hpxnn
nacranaiy na ioi npnnanaiy uax n y npeme para. Hanme naueno `cnaxa nrnna cnome iary` ne moxe na naxn
esycnonno, axo ce noiennnaune `nrnne` nnn oopmene rpyne ne ncrnuy xao `iarann xermancxnx onpena`.
Taxosnana npenenrnnnocr no rom nnrany ie rnpnoha es ynopnmra y noxasnma nenoiannocrn n nencxpenocrn y
norneny nenocpennnx nnrepeca xnnena npyrnx n npyrauninx y raxnoi npxann y pary n mnpy.
8
Jep ie nenocroino na nexo xo ie on cner nenpniarecrna ocranno camo nem yne rpernpan xao pemernnan n
nperna (y onom cmncny na ie naxo yniarn mprne xana ne naiy nnxaxan snax ornopa), na nsrnena na ie n Hnaron
ynexonnxo cmarpao nonycrnnnm camo ynnmranane nernne.
20 | a a e

nocranene xao ysopne, xao one napannrme xoioi ce onai xo ie npanenan ynex npnnnxana.
Hpann npenmer pasmarpana npxannnx crnapn ie oryn npanenan uonex n nerona
npxanornopna cnara (upr., 472a), xoin y narom oxpyxeny oxonnor cnera, ri. onronapaiyhem
npocropy n armocepn nsrpahyie xapaxrep. Canpmen uonex moxe na ce onnxyie camo y
canpmenoi npxann, a sa opasonane raxne npxane norpeno ie n snane o onnxonany raxnor
uonexa, ynyhn na ianna armocepa xao ycnon nnie nnmra esnauaino. Vsop ie ono mro xao
nneina nopma caunnana canpmencrno, a y nenoi npnponn nexn ro na ie onnoc npema nemy
nar xao ncxycrno npnnnxanana n ynaanana (upr., 472c, 473a-b), na crnnsonan sa
nnianomxy opmy Hnaronon Coxpar ynorpeana uonexon nencxopennnn naron sa
nonpaxananem, na n ncraxao moryhnocrn npnnnxanana ysopnocrn. V rom cneny ro nnie
camo ncropnicxo mnrcxn nnn ronopnnuxn monen y cmncny crnncxe nrype, nero erocno
mepnno xoie nonpasymena peannnin onnoc, ri. nonpasymena npehene erane n iacno snane o
ynaenocrn on nna, raxo na npe moxe na ce ynopenn ca snauaiem xanona y naiapcrny nnn
ysopa yncxe nrype npema cpasmepama n onnnnma napannrmarnunnx npcra (upr., 472d).
9

Cnaxaxo na ie nnrane ocrnapnnana ysopnocrn npanennnxa n nnrane nernrnmnocrn, xoie
ce ornena y nonnrnuxnm onnyxama npn opmnpany nacnnrnnx sanaraxa, ann ie raxohe rauno
n ro na ncnpanane conniannnx neopmannia nocraie moryhe rex onna xana ce nonnrnuxa
moh none norpynn na ynonon moryhnocrnma nomrena n npanennocrn. Hneanna moryhnocr
ce snna onna xana ce ona nonynapn ca nnococxnm nyxom xao xoncrpyxrnnnnm nauenom
xoie nounne na npeonnanana. Hoiam mohn naa na ce nonnprne pannxannom nnianexrnuxom
npounmhanany y xome ycryxne cenuna cepa xoia nounna na nnunnm nnrepecnma, xoin
nnaiy oncrpannnann iep ne mape sa saiennnuxa nopa n nauenne cranone. Bnanannna
nnocoa no Hnarony raxo n snaunna ocnoahane iannor xnnora on camonoe, re
opnienranniy na ynpanane semom npema npannunoi non nnn uncroi non npema Popy,
xoia ce ne mema ca narpynama yrpahnnana nnrepeca y npanne nenonana onmre noe.
Hnienno yncxo nhe ne xenn na ce npenapn y norneny cxnarana yncxor nopa n onor mro
my ie xopncno, ann ie ono nonpnnnuno xpxxo y cnoioi npncyrnocrn, raxo na ra nsiane rnna
`nnie naxno xaxo iecre, nero xaxo nsrnena`
10
, neoma ynaanaiy on cnoicrna ycnaianor

9
Fynyhn na ie ysop crnap ancrpaxrne onmrocrn, on ce cnaia ca naronom sa nonpaxanane xoin yonnuana onmrn
noiam y rnncxom yrenonnnany uonexa. Honpaxanane saxrena na ce rai ysop cnpononn y orenonnnane no
ocrnapena, a na rai naunn nneia nocraie eneprnuna nnn ocrnapnna sa cee, ne saxrenaiyhn nnxaxno noceno
noxasnnane. Mehyrnm, Coxparona `noprperncana naioe npxane` n onaxna nopehena ca naiapcxnm ymehem no
ysopy Coxparonor ona Coponncxa npocro cy cnymrane no onnnnnocrn norpacxnx nonaraxa xoin ne
mopaiy na oesene nn meraopnuan panr npencrane, a nn nonmaiyhn nnno ananornie. Hpe n nno na mecry na
ce cnomene nponsnonnn n crnapanauxn xapaxrep uonexonnx mohn xoie npernocrana Cmapu 3aeem y nomeny
saxononancrna, a raxohe n Hoeu 3aeem y ncrnnany norpee sa npeopaxananem camor uonexa `ns nexa y nex`
(Cn. Anocron Hanne).
10
Haxo opranon nonnrnuxor ynpanana xon Maxnianennia nma npe cnera snauene npxana napona y
noxopnocrn no nonnxanaiyhnx cpencrana, on nnax xaxe: Hexa nnxo mome mnmeny ne cynpocrann ony
orpnany nocnonnny na xo snna na napony, nonnxe na nary, iep ro naxn camo xana na nemy nonnxe reme
onuan rpahannn xoin ce yyxyie c nanom na he ra napon nsnyhn ns pyxy nenpniarea n nocroiancrnennxa. V
rom cnyuaiy naiuemhe ce napa, xaxo ce ro necnno pahn Ipacnma y Pnmy n rocnapy Tophy Cxann y unpennn...
21 | a a e

xopnsonra snauena. Hsrnen napa nanexo uemhe nero mro n ro morno n na ce nomncnn, na
ocranpnnane npannnx crpyxrypa snauena y canpxainom cmncny nonpasymena cnary
ononpranana npnnnnnnx snauena y nnny cycnensnie mnrcxnx enemenara xoin ce npnnnhaiy
xao npann. To ie y crany nnoconia xoia na rai naunn ornapa nyr npema ncrnncxoi mohn,
ocrnapyiyhn nomnnanniy axo ne y npxann, a ono xao xpanna nayxa y ncropnin, es osnpa
na cne yuecrannia onosnnana, mpmana n nonnmene ronone ca crpane, iep xaxo n Hnaron
xaxe, nomnnanniy nnoconie onpannana cam nen noiam (upr., 474b-480a), ca ynomenem
enrysniacrnuxor n nenpecymnor nonepena npema moryhnocrn npeopaxaia uonexa. Cnaxaxo
na ro ne moxe na ce ocrnapn cnoamnnm nonpaxananem npnpononayunnx nnn
maremarnuxnx casnana, ynyhn na ie cam noroc xao oanesa nanana pasnora sa rymauene
onpehenor nponema ono, mro n camoi maremarnnn rex ornapa xopnsonre nynx cxnarana.
Opasonane xoie ne mapn sa oiamnena cxpnnanem oanese sa nonaranem pauyna nnie
cymrnncxo, mro cy xacnnie cacnnm nopo younnn n xopnein cneroorauxor npenana.
11


a nma n cnerne momenre, nsianyiyhn: One xoin cnoiy cynnny ncnpennery ca cynnnom nnanaona, a nncy
rpamsnnn, rpea oacyrn nouacrnma n yany (Hnxono Maxnianenn, B)aoa)au /Knes/, npen. Frn., Pan, 1976.,
crp. 38)
11
V rom cneny mnmena xpnrnuxn pasmnma n Cn. Ipnropnie Hanama, nnmyhn: Bacnnnie Bennxn, nanonehn
peun uapaona Hspany, na nencrnyiere, nenmrnne cre; saro n ronopnre: xaine na npnnecemo xprny Iocnony
(Hsn. 5, 17), nonaie: To ie nopa nenocr n xopncna sa one xoin npasnyiy, a sna ie nenocr Arnnana, xoin nncy
nosnanann oe noxonnne, neh na ronope n cnymaiy nexaxne nonocrn (Pena. 17, 21); a raxny nenocr, npary
snnm nyxonnma n cana npyrn nonpxanaiy y sannmannma nenor cnor xnnora. Pa nnxo ne n ronopno, na ie
Bacnnnie Bennxn onne y nnny nmao camo ecennnuxo npasnocnone, nonaiemo ro, mro ie on nsneo na npyrom
mecry, pasanpyhn Conomonon saner na ce ynosna npemynpocr n yuene n noime peun pasyma. Beh cy nexn,
xaxe on, sannmaiyhn ce on Ernnhana nspahenom reomerpniom, nnn xon Xanneiana nenenom acrponorniom, nnn
yonmre ynymraiyhn ce y onnuia n cenxe n xnnmarcxa npennnhana, npespenn nsyuanane oxancxnx
npopouancrana; nomro cy mnorn anehn ce rnme ocrapnnn y orxpnnany rnx ncnpasnocrn, sor uera ie nyxno
cxnarane opasonana: xaxo sa nsanpane opasonana xoie ie naano, raxo n sa onannnane esymnor n
mrernor. Bnnnm nn xaxo on ry cnoamny opasonanocr n came maremarnuxe nayxe n casnane xoie ce na
nnma ocnnna; sa xoiy, xaxo rn xaxem, nexn nsianyiy na ie cnpxa nocmarpana n cnac, nasnna npasnom,
mrernom n esymnom? V nncmy Encraxniy Cenacrnicxom Bacnnnie ie oropuen na ronnne xoie ie n cam nponeo y
sannmany c rnm nayxama: Pyre ronnne nporpahnnmn na cyiery n xaxo cam cny mnanocr nsryno y sanynnnm
nanopnma, xoie cam npenyseo, rpynehn ce na ycnoinm yuena re mynpocrn xoiy ie For yunnno nynomhy, xan
naiennom, xao na cam ce npoynno ns nyoxor cna, ynnneo cam ecxopncnocr re mynpocrn `nonnmrennx cnna
onor nexa` (1 Kop. 1, 22; 2, 6), re cam sanpmno ca rnm snocpehnnm xnnorom n nomonno ce na mn napyie nexaxno
pyxononcrno. Pa nn cn uyo, xaxo ce nasnnaiy nayxa n ro snane, xoie ce cana nexn sanyn rpyne na ysnennuaiy?
Bnxono ie nme cyiera, sanynnn nanopn, oecmnmena mynpocr, nonnmrena mynpocr, mynpocr onor npemena n
neronnx nnacrn, mynpocr noryna sa oroyronan xnnor n saiennnny /oi:rioc/. 3aro ce onai ynre ncrnne
mynpocrn ronnxo xaiao, mro ie nporpahno npeme na sannmane rom /nayxom/, xan y noi nnie namao nnxaxno
nohcrno xa ncrnncxoi mynpocrn. (Cn.Ipnropnie Hanama, C)oea v ;aumumv ceeumeuo muxvivhux, I, 1, 8)

22 | a a e

unnoco ce y nyxy nocnehyie ncrpaxnnany ncrnncxn nncrnyiyher, a ne npnxynanem
onne nnn onne nsnomennx mnena n narahana, iep ncrpaxyie nneie xpos cymrnncxa oenexia
crnapn, na ie rai eneprnuan npncryn pasnnunr on ounrnx nnnnnnnyannsannia
mnorocrpyxocrn noiana. He mory raxo cnn nocroiehn ycrann n saxonn na yny npxannnuxn
ysop, ma xaxo na nnn cnoa norepnnann, iep cy npocro nmnrannia ncrnne (upr., 300c).
Hmaiyhn sanarax na ce y camoi nymn yonnun iacan ysop raxne ncrnne npxannocrn (upr.,
484c), nnocon ca nom nonesyiy yan n npenano neronane, a ono mro ro ncxpnnana,
nonnxana n noxasyie npesnp mory na nasony napanem n nonnnm naranem. Hpana ncrnna
ycnehyie ns `nyme` xoia ie pasymena xao moh cxnarana n cnoconocr mnmena y crnnany
snana. 3nane ie no naiyxem onpeheny cehane na ncrnny, xoia cnoiom nennuancrnenomhy
npenasnnasn n camy cymrnny, ri. moxe na npnnanne camo pasnoinoi n ycanpmanaiyhoi
cnoconocrn nyme, ri. ycanpmanano n npaxrnuno n reopnicxn iep ce y xonaunocrn nnnn xao
na ncxonn ns iennncrnene onmre nennne xoiy Hnaron y 3arouu+a nmenyie naiysnnmenniom
reonomxnm nonmanem.
12


HOCTOJABE HPABHHHOI H JACHOI V3OPA PPXABE V PVBH

Hnaron nanaxe onnma xoin ce nare nonnrnuxnx crnapn na y nymn nmaiy `iacan ysop` sa
caunnanane npannunnx saxona n nope ycrannocrn, re na y npemennma onmre necnrypnocrn
unpcro ynpy nornen y ro npannno nncrnonana, iep ie ono y crany na nm omoryhn nanmoh
nan npxannnnnma xoin ne nnoconpaiy (upr., 484d). 3no ce iana ca orcyrnomhy nainnme
nncrannnie xoia n morna na ynyrn na xpaine cnpxe, na nperpece nncrnrynnie nnena n
onpenn npannna xoin cy naunnn nopn na ce onn nocrnrny, a ro snaun nopmnpa nncoxe
xpnrepniyme npennocrn. V nemoxparcxnm pexnmnma ro ie saxononanna moh nehnne n neh ie
nanomenyro xaxo vox populi vox Dei moxe na yne nnrnpan n rpaano snoynorpeanan.
Beh y Hnaronono npeme nemoxparnia ie nocrana opyhe necanecnnx arnraropa, xoin cy ie
nsonauanann romnnanem mnornx npasnnx oehana y uemy cy nx oyuanann concrn, ne
mapehn sa ro mro n nenocnennocr y nnxonom ncnynanany snaunna npenapy. Cnoie nenonae

12
V rom cmncny on ce ocmenno n na ycranonanane reonomxnx ocnona saxononancrna, re ynohene saxona o
xaxnanany esoxnnmrna sa one xoin sanone mace nasnnaiyhn npnponom ono mro ie npno no cnom nacranxy n
xaxe: Axo ce, naxne, noxaxe na ie ro npno nyma, a ne narpa nnn nasnyx, na ie, naxne, nyma nacrana npna, onna
n ce sancra cacnnm rauno morno xasarn na ie ona y npnom peny npnponno nacrana. (Hnaron, 3arouu, 892c).
Hpexo npcra xperana n npomene on ie ry noxasao xaxo ie xnno n xnnorno ono mro ce camo npexo cee noxpehe,
a xperana yma cy pannomepna xao on nenrpa xa oony xyrne ynymenor xocmoca, raxo na: raxnn snn ynn ne
n moxna mncnnnn na cy cnoinm ronopom nocrnrnn noeny n na, na ocnony cnor mnmena xoie nmaiy o
oronnma, mory cnoonno unnnrn mra ron nx ie noa y nno uemy na maxap xaxo snauaino ro nno. (Hnaron,
3arouu, 907c). Paponnrocr y mnmeny, ncrnue Hnaron, moxe na yne nyna nyxancrna n npenape, na ie moryhe
na on raxnnx nacraiy onn xoin raraiy ynyhenn y cne npcre marnie, na ce nspone rnpann, crparesn n ocnnnaun
npnnarnnx mncrepnia, a oryn ie nopexnom n oncenapcrno raxosnannx concra (908d).
23 | a a e

onn cy pasymenn xao `nemre sanarnnie` nnn canernnnn y rexnnxanniama xaxo na ce yxporn
`nennxa xnnornna` (mnpoxe naponne mace), raxo mro cy nonyuanann y mannnynannin
iesnxom xoinm ona nspaxana sanonocrno nnn ec. V naxno ynyrcrno cnanano ie npannno na
ce macn nonnnasn nacxanem, ca unme ce npnnonia n crana non xonrpony, re nonnnamhyiy
nena npomennna pacnonoxena. Haxohene mace rnme nocraie mepnno nonnrnuxnx
nocrynaxa xoin ce onmepanaiy npema creneny npnnaronnnocrn, a ro npocro snaun na ycnena
nainpnnaronnnnie cranonnmr, a ne ono xoie n ce sanarano sa rpaine npennocrn. Hnaron
narnamana xaxo ynpano nnoconia on rora onnpaha, cranaiyhn rai ncnxonomxn nponem
naunna mannnynannie macama y onronomxe oxnnpe n y rom nomeny ncrpaxyie nerony
ncnpannocr. On ne canpxn nonan crenen nncrnenocrn, raxo na onosnn ncnpannnx casnana
pann penarnnnsannia y xoioi n cnoiy mancy nnnenn pasnn oiexrnnnsmn n narypannsannie
iecre n yxnnane nauennnx casnana anconyra xoie snaun n nanane ayropnrera. Ayropnrer ce
oapa ca onysnmanem npnnnnna anconyrnor casnana on nnanapa n neyrpannme
penarnnnsanniama anapxonnnnx n rnmoxparcxnx nauena, xoia nonpxanaiy nonena y
myrnom. Kana xpeny n camn na casnaiy, ynn menaiy cnoi cyn o npanoi nacnnrnoi mohn
casnana, ca unme npnponno nanymraiy n sanonocrno nnune xee na ynex yny y npany, a
mro sa coom nonnaun n nperxonno ncnynen saxren sa saysnmanem mecra y mnmennnama
xoie cy nm ce noxasane snauainnm, re raxopehn npnuemhnnanem y cnerny pasyma.
13


13
Tpynehn ce na cannm npyrom xopnsonry na ycnocrann cmncao y peunma xoie xnannnxyiy casnane xao
opnienranniy npema ncnpannnm cxnarannma, n nennxn orocnon npanocnannor xpnmhancrna ie npexo napnpana
Hnaronone rese o `npenasnnaxeny camor cee` xao oiauanany nsnamao n npernocranxe sa ymnn cner nneia, sa
xoie ie nanasno ocnon y Iocnony xoin ra n omoryhana, re narnamanao: A no menn ce ro snane, xoie xaxo
xaxem, onn iennno cmarpaiy ymcrnennm npocnerenem, nasnna cnernom camo saro mro ra npyxa ono cnerno
xao mro n nennxn Hanne ronopn: For xoin ie pexao na ns rame sacnia cnerno, sacnerneo ie y namnm cpnnma, na
n ocnernno nosnane cnane Foxnie (2 Kop. 4, 6). Carnacno c nnm n nennxn orocnon Pnonncnie ronopn na
npncycrno ymcrnenor cnerna ciennnyie cne xoie oaciana, n canpe nx y iennncrneno n ncrnncxo snane.
Bnnnm nn ro cnerno casnana, xoie ie ncnyneno npncycrnom re cnernocrn naronarn n xoie nac ocnoaha on
nesnana cxnonor neneny? On ro cnerno nasnna ymcrnennm, a Maxapnie Bennxn, opahaiyhn ce cxopo
nenocpenno onnma, xoin nepyiy na ie snane cnernocr naronarn, nasnao ra ie ymnnm: Ho neronnm neicrnnma
/rvroynuo:v/, xasyie on, casnahem xana rnoiy nymy osapn ymno cnerno, na nn ono cexe on Fora nnn on
carane. Ha npyrom mecry, nasnanmn cnany na nnny Moicnia ecmprnomhy, axo ie ona rana sacnernena na
cmprnom nnny, n noxasanmn na ce cana xao canpmeno cnerno orxpnna y yncxnm nymama xoie cy yncrnny
sanonene Fora, on xaxe: Kao mro oun uynnor rnenana nnne uynno cynne, raxo onn ounma nyme nnne ymno
cnerno, xoie oacianmn n pasnnnmn ce y snax ycxpcnyha na nnxona rena, ounryie raxohe n rena y nenorn
neunor cnerna. Paxne, cnerno snana nnxo nnxana ne n morao na nasone ymnnm, a ono nocroin n xao ymno, xan
ie nenornopno n xao ymcrneno saro mro ra ym rnena nomohy ymnnx onaxaia n saro mro nx ono ynasehn y
pasymne nyme ocnoaha on cnyuainnx nesnana, raxo mro nx oxpehe on mnomrna mnena xa iennncrnenom
/uovorion/ snany. 3aro n onai cneuann nenau Foxninx nmena, y namepn na cnann nasnnane Popor nmenom
cnerna, xaxe xaxo rpea pehn na ce rai Popn nasnna ymcrnennm cnernom saro, mro ncnynana ymcrnennm
cnernom can nanneecxn ym n onarnana cnaxo nesnane n sanyny ns cnaxe nyme y xoioi ce nahe. Paxne, ienno
ie snane, xoie nacraie xana ce orepa nesnane, a npyro ie ro ymcrneno cnerno, xoie omoryhana ono. Vnpano saro
24 | a a e

Casnana pacry camo saxnayiyhn nennxnm nnunnm nanopnma n nyrom nacnnranany, o
uemy cnenoun n Hnaronon cnnc upraea, npyxaiyhn ienan raxan naan onnc. Kana ce
neecxn nner sacann na ianono rno, on nene, xao mro n nnoco nene n nocraie ianon y
nomoi npxann (upr., 497b), nox y ysopnoi npxann on nonpnnocn narocrany saiennnne
ncnpannomhy cnoinx ynnna n ornapanem nepcnexrnna. Vocranom, cnymrana rensnia xoie ce
nocrnxy ca raxnnm ynnnnma npaxrnuno omoryhanaiy ncnynanane oxancxnm mnpom n
noperxom, xoie camo onnaia on concrnuxnx nonemnunocrn, iep xaxo xaxe n Hnaron,
omane, mpxne n sanane n nncy sacrynnnmrno npannx snana yma (upr., 500c). Camo y
ysopnoi npxann nnoco npenasn ns crana nocmarpana y crnapanauxo crane, raxo na he
camoonnxonane na nanorpann onnxonanem ouoneuennx xapaxrepa n y npnnarnoi n y iannoi
cnyxn: n npnnpxanahe ce onora, sa mra ie Xomep pexao na ie y ynnma cnnuno n iennaxo
ca oronnma. (upr., 501b) Ty Hnaron nnococxy nnanrponniy cynpocrana
concrnuxoi, ca saxrenom sa meroncxn ocnemrennm ycnaianem npannnnocrn nacnnranana sa
ono Popo, a npornn rnpnne na ce ono ayromarnsonano cnpononn y nyxy npnnarohanana
peannoi npxann xoncrnryncanoi arnraropcxom opom sa npemoh noiennnnx crpanaxa.
Hpann iannn ysop n ncrnncxa crnapnocr naioe npxane nounna raxo na nnein nopa, na
Hnaronono saysnmane nonnrnuxor cranonnmra ne moxe na ce nocmarpa xao nepeanno n
neocrnapnno. On cam ie npxao na ro oxancxo canpmeno crane opasonanocrn nyxa npnnana
ynyhnocrn, xoia ce xpehe xa neunom ysopy nneie nopa, mro ne moxe na ce xnannnxyie xao
nyxo yronncrnuxo mamrane nnocoa xoin y nocmarpauxom xnnory onrepehyie nayxy
iennom sa ny neyonuaienom reonomxom rensniom.
14
Tex xana n esoxnnmrno nocrano
xnannnxonana nopma nponene, raxan n saxren nonpnmno oenexie ianonocrn, iep ero
nansrnen napanoxca, na ie rai npnnnnn nyro ycnenao na nnana y `Monamxoi penynnnn` na
Arocy, nox ra cnoinm ocnaiannma nncy nesanyncann Typnn, a n y Hpnoi Iopn sa nnanana

ono ymcrneno cnerno ncnynana nanneecxn ym, sanpano ym xoin ie npenasnmao cam cee. Kaxo n ce ra
nanneecxa n nanymna cnernocr morna nasnarn snanem, ocnm y npenocnom cmncny? Ounmhanane on
cnyuainocrn nesnana xoie ie onai nennxn nasnao nesnanem n sanynom, moxe na ce nonpmn camo y pasymnoi
nymn. /Cn.Ipnropnie Hanama, C)oea v ;aumumv ceeumeuo muxvivhux, I, 3, 3/
14
Beh y npnom nncmy Anronnxy, Teonn Anrnoxnicxn cacnnm cmnpeno na camom nouerxy ocmnmana raxny
anrononomxy rensniy nnranem n cynncnnm ononopom: Axo xaxem: noxaxn mn rnor Fora, onronopnhy rn:
noxaxn mn rn rnor uonexa, na hy ia na rn noxaxem mor Fora. Hoxaxn, na oun rnoie nyme nnne n ymn rnor cpna
uyiy. Jep xao mro renecne oun ynn xoin cxnaraiy nnne npenmere nosemapcxor xnnora, y ncrn max
youanaiyhn pasnnxy, pennmo mehy cnernom n ramom, nsmehy enor n npnor, nsmehy esnnunor n naronnxor
/nenor/, nsmehy npannnnor, cpasmepnor n nenpannnnor, necpasmepnor, nsmehy nperepanor n nenocraiyher,
cnnuno onom xaxo ymn xnaraiy snyxe, pecxe, remxe nnn npniarne: ynpano cy raxo ymn cpna n oun nyme, na n
nnnene Fora. H For nna nnnnn sa one xoin cy cnoconn na Ia nnne, xon xora cy neh ornopene nymenne oun.
Cnn nmaiy oun, ann xon nexnx one cy noxpnnene mpaxom n ne nnne cynuano cnerno. H npemna cnenn ne nnne,
cyuano cnerno oner nocroin n cnernn, a nexa ce cnenn xane na came cee n na cnoie oun. Taxo cy n xon ree moi
npyxe, oun rnoie nompauene rpexonnma n rnoinm snnm nennma. uonex naa na nma nymy uncry xao nncrano
ornenano. Kana ie na ornenany npanmrnna, rana ne moxe yncxo nnne na ce nnnn na ornenany: raxo n uonex,
xana ie na nemy rpex, ne moxe na ocmorpn Fora.
25 | a a e

Herpa I n Herpa II Herponnha Beroma, npocnehenor anconyrnsma xoin ie no nnuan y
ynpyxnnany cneronne n nyxonne nnacrn.

BPXVHCKA TAuKA V BACHHTABABV uHHOCOuA KAO HPEJA POFPA

Jom ie Xeren ncrnnao xaxo ie nyr nyxa saonnasan, ann na y cen nocn ynyrpamny
cnpxy y nsanany on oryhnnana y npyronncrnonany. Hcropnicxn nponec caspenana ra
ynyhyie na xpehe xa camom npxy, na ycnon rne ce crnue nainnma noyxa, a ro ie `nneia nopa`.
Cne mro ie npanenno, npanenno ie n neno saxnayiyhn nnein nopa, a ona ie n xopncna iep
nma ynnnepsanno cnoicrno caxero y noimy. Fes osnpa mro n mnomrno nosnaie `oyo0o\
ioro` n `uryio:ov uo0nuo`, ro ie xaxo y Xerenonom enomenonomxom crany pasymena
crnap, na npemna nemro mro ce sna iom ynex nnie n nonono ynosnaro, xao n y Hnarononom
onpehenniem on pannie, na raxno yuene npocro nema nnme nnxaxnor ynopnmra y nymn rne
ce cne mro ce cmarpa npennnm cnonn na sanonocrno xoie ce onarne nsnnaun (upr., 505a-b).
Opasonannin ynn cy cxnonnin on ocrannx na cmarpaiy xaxo ie nainnme nopo n ym nemro
mro caunnana mynpocr, a ne nexy noneny sanonocrana na ona nnrensnnnnia n mane
nnrensnnna. V nnianory rsn. `cpenner nepnona xnnora` 4u)eo, Hnaron ie ncrnnao `yncxo
nopo` xao ono xoie iennaxo mepeno canpxn n sanonocrno n ymcrneno casnane, xoie n ce
cacroiano y nenorn, cpasmepnocrn nenona n ncrnnn (4u)eo., 65-66 b-c). Hnie crnap nnme y
rome na ce xnnorna sanonocrna oncrpanyiy nnn nonnmranaiy, neh ie nponem y nnxonom
ycxnahnnany ca ymcrnennm casnannma xoia am ra sanonocrna nnnnnianno repaiy y
sanemapenocr n ornapane npema ecxpainnm cnaocrnma, xoia nonpnnoce phany
nymennocrn n ymnom sacnennnany. C npyre crpane, peunma ce xecroxo onnpe n moryhnocr
na ce npnxaxe n cam nnianexrnuxn nyr y ornapany xopnsonra nneie nopor, raxo na ona
nsmnuyhn peunma ocraie y cnoicrnenoi cxponnrocrn, a Hnaron ie oner ry nocerao sa
npencranornopnom onronornsanniom cnnxe n nonynno ananorniy y nnnnnom cnery uynnnx
n nemracrnennx onnxa, mro ie n xacnnie ynaxanano xao ymecno cpencrno rymauena.
15


15
V cnnunom nponemy nahy ce mnorn on onnx xoin rexe nnoconpany, ri. peueno nanac pasymnnnie,
nanaxeny pasnora sa naxene npernocranxn sa xoie npxe na nmaiy panr onpxnnocrn, ca unme ce sacnrypno
cyxono n Cn. Ipnropnie Hanama y reopnicxn aprnxynncanoi nonemnnn ca Bapnaamom Kanapnicxnm (nonyme,
n npyrn nyr y nenocpennnioi ersncrennniannoi camoynnrnocrn, xana ie Hap Pyman npepesao `Anexcannpon
unop` y cnryannin oesnanenocrn y rypcxom poncrny napennnmn orxyn sa nera). Ono mro cnern ncrnue xao
moryhnocr npenasnnaxena cnnxonnrnx snauena peun /y cnmnonnma n saronerxama/ xpos nanpenonana nyrem
npnmepa n cnnunocrn npema naronarnom ronopy xao opronornunoi axpnnnin: Cam cee ne npenasnnasn camo
anheocxn, nero n yncxn ym, xana nocrane cnnuan anhennma no ecrpacnocrn. Paxne, n on raxohe moxe na ce
npnnnxn Foxniem cnerny n na yne nocroian narnpnponnor /urouo\c/ oroianena, npemna ne nnnn
26 | a a e

Tex saxnayiyhn cnernocrn oxo ie xanpo na nnnn, npnehn cnary cnor nnhena ns
nenornopnocrn cynna nnn nexor npyror nsnopa cnernocrn (meceuencxor onnecxa na cnrno n
enexrpnunor, enexrponcxor, saysnmaiyhn npocrop y nnheny), raxo na cnoconocr nnhena
cama am n nnie nemro es nonpmxe onnx xpynnnx meraeneprercxnx cpyxrypa. Ann xaxo ce
nnianexruxn nyr xa carnenanany nneie nopor yonmre ne moxe npnxasarn peuiy, no cnom
nocnennem neny on ie samenen cnoinm ananoronom, a ro ie nemro mro rpnehn on cynna nnnn
ananorniy, sna na ie nerono snane nsnnmno, n na ne npencrana nnxaxny noponnuny
xapaxrepncrnxy xoia n nae nemro snaunna n nnme on yonuaiennx xapaxrepncrnxa.
Vonuaiene xapaxrepncrnxe cy nnme nero cmemne, sanniene y unopnmra yonuaiennx
npenpacyna, ann ono mro ornapa re nnmensnie nnie mamra, nero oner yonuaienn ocehai sa
crnapnocr, cennmenrnnia ncxycrna xoia xasyie nanexo nnme nero nnaue. Moxna ie ono n
xnaycrpoonuna nsiana xoia snaun neiennaxocr y opasonany, nomanxany enrysniasma nnn
cnnunnx acnexara, ann on snaun nennnnniy, nnuno onpehene xaxno ie nnanane npnmepeno,
a xaxno ne y onmrem nnheny crnapn. Hpnnnxanane xopnsonry xoin oehana ncrnnnrocr
nnxana nnie nn iennosnauno nn cacnnm oeseheno. Mnorn cy snaxonn na nyry xoin ra
caunnanaiy n ramna crpana yncxe nnunocrn nnxana ne moxe ca nnme cacnnm na onnana. He
na ioi For pann npannunocrn n ro npocro snaun na nponec nma na ce nponyxna cne norne nox
ne saysme one nonoxaie y ncxasnnany, nox ne nonpnmn xapaxrepncrnxe nainanpennnier
cranonnmra. A onuno ie ono nainanpennnie nonesano ca exonomcxnm, ri. snpannm
pasymenanem mra moxe, a mra ne na ce yunnn npnxnarnnnm sa onpehene oxonnocrn, c
osnpom na cne ono mro ce nynn xao nosnn n ynopennnocr. H ry ie Hnaron nocneo y cyxo ca
resom na oxancxn cner nonexan saxaxe, ynyhn na ie necnopasyma nanperex. Kaxo ce
necnopasymn cacroie y nponenn nenore, mn cacnnm ncnpanno moxemo na rnpnnmo xaxo
onome xo ne sna neh ynanpen y uemy ce cacroin nenora n mra ona snaun, xao n na xoioi
crpann nexn, ro nonpasymena na ce ne sa nn ono mra ycnonana rexnny ncnonecrn casnana.
Vocranom, rema ncnonecrn nonpasymenana n nornyno npyraunie npernocrnxe npncrynana
crnapnocrn, a sa ny ie norpeno na ce yhe y `nono noa` n na ce pasrnacn xpnmhancxa `nopa
necr`, xaxo n oxnnp ncnonenana nonpnmno nynn cmncao. V cnncy monepnor mncnnona n

cymrnny Foxniy; on nnax nnnn Fora xpos Fory nonnuno orxpnnane cpasmepno Bemy camom... Mehyrnm, axo ie
nnhene nnme on nopnnana, ann ronop xoin ra rymaun saocraie sa rnm ycnnnanem na ocnony nopnnana, ynyhn
na nanpenyie nyrem npnmepa n cnnunocrn, on saro sa nehnny cnoinx nasnna nma nonesano ro xao, xoie nocn
cnnxonnro snauene, ynyhn na ie ro nnhene nenspennno n nannmeno. Kana y rome cnern ynn y camnma cen
nocmarpaiy ono orononnuno cnerno, a nnne ra unm nocrnrny oroneicrnyiyhy /0rouoyo\/ saiennnny nyxa na
ocnony nenspennnor npocnerena canpmennx ncnianana, onn nnne onehy cnor ooxena /0rorc/, iep ym nm
ce /ysnnxe/ y cnann n ncnynana npenennm ciaiem ycnen naronarn peun, xao mro ce na Iopn orononnunnm
cnernom npocnannno c Bnm nonesano reno, ycnen oxancrnenocrn Peun. /Cn.Ipnropnie Hanama, C)oea v
;aumumv ceeumeuo muxvivhux, I, 3, 4/.


27 | a a e

nennxomyuennxa Hanena Anexcannponnua unopencxor o maprnpniama xao meranornunnm
mnrapcrnnma, cne ono mro nnie ncnoneheno n paspemeno npaha ce xao npomemopnian
nponema, mro n y canpemenoi nnreparypn xoia rpara sa nsnopnma nenononmrnna nma
cmncao anopnia, xoie nac cnpeuanaiy y npannnnom pasymenany anapxnunnx ncxonnmra
snauena nenpnxnarnnor nonamana. Mnrapcrna snaue ynpano onnoxeno nonarane pauyna
nnmoi nncrannn , xan cne re crnapn sa onunor xnnora nncy nne moryhe, a sa ro mro ona
nncy anexnarna namnm pasymenannma, remxo na moxe na yne xpnna yonuaiena nepnennnia
cnaxonnenne cnryannie. Cnaxonnenna cnryannia ce n nnaue npnnarohana rexyhnm
nopmarnnnma n onuainnm npannnnma.
uonexona nyma ie nannx oxy, na axo ynpe nornen y cnernocr ncrnne n nncrnonana, ona
ie y crany na mncnn, casnaie n ynocroiena ie nocenonana yma. Hpocro rnenane y ramy
cnocono ie iennno na nponsnene ienny noxcorpaniy onennnenocrn, xoiy xoneane unnn
raxohe ynpomheno ymnom noxcorpaniom, iep ne yme na nsahe na xpai ca nnsniom cnerocrn n
cnernocrn xoia ioi ce noianyie. Oxo nyme n casnana xoia ce noianiy cy `noporonnxn`, xao
na cy naicponnnin `onnuiy nopa` (upr., 509a), a nocnennne xoie ne mopaiy na yny
nonycrnne xao raxne, saxnayiy cnoiy ersncrennniy nanexo nnmnm onnnnma o xoinma naa
na ce ymyie, iep npyxaiy ysope cnaxor nnnena. Kao reneonornia xnacnunor cnerna nonmana,
nnarononcxa reonornia nncrnonana ie npocro menypene mncnnona y npemeny n npocropy
xoie nema noxpnhe, ann oceha na ie npncrnrno npeme sa neopaxaie n ysnnmennie
carnacnocrn. Cner y xome ce nainpe casnaie ne nonia on Popa camo casnana, nero n
nncrnonane, mana ie ono camo nsnan nera - o r:i rrxrivo :nc ouoioc oro3rio xoi
ouvouri uror;ov:oc /: nero ra iom onocrpano cymrnnn nsnpcnomhy n cnarom
npenasnnasehn/ (upr., 509b/. Taxo ie y oxpenyrocrn nncrnonany nnn npnponn nocmarpau
nocranen `reonomxn` raxo na nneiy Popa nonpxana pennrnosno oenexie reonomxnx
nocrnrnyha xnacnunor cnera. For ie `camo nopo` iep onmepana ono oxancxo n unnehn ro
mro ie nopo, raxo na ie y 3arouu+a nocranen xao mepa cnnx crnapn ns ror anconyrnor
nopa, xao mro ie y upraeu nocranen xao anconyrna nneia n mepa nainnmer ymeha mepena.
Morno n ce pehn na ie nnane nopnm n naxencrno ienno n ncro /nneia nopa/, onaxo xaxo
ie n nneia nenore nena cama no cen, nonpasymenaiyhn npnpony camocanpxanana xao
ynyrpamnn pasnor nocroiana. To ie meransnxa opasonana npema nenoi nenrpannoi
onronomxoi rauxn xoioi Hnaron ynaxnyie cmncao n npennocr xao npnponnom nnn
nncrnyiyhem nny cnexonnxor crpemena. Taxo ie nainnmn onnx xperana norocom mehy
nneiama n xpos nneie, xana ce mncnn y uncrohn n nne xa esycnonnom es ocnonna na uynna
onaxana n npencrane, na n ce saycranno xon camnx nneia (upr., 511b), iep ie rai nainnmn
saxren nonpasymenao na ono mro maremarnuap ysnma ynnnepsanno, sa onor xo
nnococrnyie nma snauene xnnorese. Pasnnxa ie y uncroi samncnn xyrne n nexe nspahene
mepmepne xyrne nnn npnene nonre, ca uninm yxnahennm nponopnniama nocraie moryhe
xoncrpyxrnnno xperane xa npnom npnnnnny (upr., 511b5). Maremarnuxa nponopnnia c
28 | a a e

rnme ce npnmenyie ananorno na n nocnyxnna xao nnycrpannia crnapnor nncrnonana, xao
n napaona o cynny, mro ie npxyncxa rauxa casnana y 6. xn. upraee.

MHTOC H HOIOC V AHEIOPHJH HETHHCKHX VPH

Cenma nnra nounne aneropniom nehnne xoia ranenronannm cnnxonnrnm cpencrnnma
rexn na ocnnxa ycnon no casnanana `nneie nopa`. Peu ie o nnarany y mnrcxom crnny y
opmn npnue o `nehnncxnm ynnma` xao ncxycrno sareuenocrn y iennom nsononanom
nonsemnom cnery xoin iennnm rpnom moxe na ce yrnue y cnernocr. V roi nonsemnoi nehnnn
ynn ce nanase y oxonnma xoin nx cnpeuanaiy na unne noxpere na crpany n ynasan, a nehnma
cy oxpenyrn nsnasy rne ropn narpa n ana cenxe na snnone nehnne ncnpen nnx. Hsmehy nnx
ce nanase n rnymnn xoin nsnone cnoie npencrane ca rnaconnma xoin n mornn na ce cmarpaiy
iesnxom cenxn. Hma, mehyrnm, onnx xoin nenpncraianem n iaxom noom pasnaane, na n
noxnnaiy oxone, nmaiyhn naxon rora mra n na nnne. Hpenosnanmn na ce pann o nnysnin, onn
ro caonmranaiy ocrannm oxonannm ynnma, ann onn y ro ne noxasyiy cnpemnocr na nm
nepyiy. Hn raxnn iom nncy xanpn na rnenaiy ropnn cner ca cnernocnnm ornopom na nehnnn,
nox camn ne nsnexaiy nnhene. Oxo nyme ie cpehno xan ynasn y cnernocr (upr., 517d), a
xanocrn ce xana nonono ynasn y ramy nehnncxor cnera. Vronnxo ie nponec casnanana
`nainnmer nopa` nasnan n `nainnmom noyxom` /uryio:n oiorio/ (upr., 504e, 505a), mro n
iecre xpainn cmncao Hnaronone `nnianexrnuxe nacrane` xao nponynnane nocroieher
xonnenra snana. On nnie nocranen xao na ce cnenny yrpahyie cnara nnna (upr., 518b),
nero xao npoyhnnane ycnynnx cnoconocrn nyme. Bacnnranane y noimonnma axrnnnpa
opran yuena n nonmana, raxo na ie ynora opasonana nara y ncnpannocrn nocranana nyme
npema casnany, xa nsnopy cnerna. Taxo ce unranom nymom snna oxper on nonpyuia
nacraiana (xao mro ce renom oxpehemo xa cynny), nox ce ne ocnoconmo sa rnenane cnerna
cymrnne n Onor Koin ie omoryhana. Ha rai naunn Hnaron ie y nnoconiy yneo noiam nane,
nesyiyhn ra ca ouexnnannma on mncrepnia xoie nonesyiy ca npyrnm cnerom. Menniarop ror
naaiyhe nonesnnana ie nyma xoia crnue oxo sa rnenane nennhenor, nonasehn no casnanana
npane cymrnne n acnexara npennocrn. Pyma ca myxom yun n casnaie `nneiy Popa` xao yspox
cnera ncnpannor n nenor, noporoynnor. Taxo napaona ca `nehnncxnm ynnma` ne
nonasn on ancrpaxnnie, nero na snauai opasonana yxasyie ns xnnorne nenocpennocrn,
nyrem xoie nocrnxe panan anconyrnor. On nocenor ie snauaia ocnonan na npnnny
pasopnrocrn /ooovnoic/, sacnonany na cnecrn o casnanany neunor npnnnnna cnexonnxor
Popa (Ppx., 500d). Ona nnme npnnana oxancxom neny nyme y sanncnocrn on ncnpannocrn
nenor ycmepena (Ppx., 518d), n nnie y roi mepn cponna renecnom n snpancrnenom acnexry
xao xpapocr n npomnmenocr no xoinx ce nonasn nexom n nannxom. Crpemehn xa
mynpocrn xpos nyxonno onnxonane, nyma unnn nanpenax y ycanpmanany crynaiyhn na onai
29 | a a e

nyr xoin Hnaron y nnianory Teemem nasnna `nocrnsane cnnunocrn ca orom`.
16
Hpnnnnn
pasopnrocrn ie y upraeu ynemen apxnrexroncxn xao ocnon n cnpxa nnanana, a pasopnro
ie npe cnera ro na ce npernocrann nocroiane Fora, a ne nerono nenocroiane.
Apncroren ie y 4u;uuu pexao na ie nocranane nnrana na nn npnpona nocroin nnn ne
nocroin cmemno, iep cnaxo moxe na ce ocnenoun xan ron xohe xaxo ca rnme croin, a cnenehn
yunreeny mncao on ie cnoiy `npny nnoconiy` nasnao `reonorniom` (Mem., E1, 1026a19),
mro ie n cymrnna Hnarononor mnmena. V 3arouu+a on xopncrn noiam `acrponomcxe
reonornie` Tu+aia, a rai ce noiam iana n y upraeu (379a), rne ce nopo nacnnrane nocrnxe
npnmenom `ocnona reonornie`, raxo mro ce ynyhyie na anene nainnmnm nnrannma
nocpencrnom nnococxor yma. To ie pesynrar nainnme cmenocrn nyxa y npounhenniem n na
nnmn crenen ysnnrnyrom pasymenany, c osnpom na narancxo ooxanane orona y
mnronomxnm nneiama n npenpacynama mnomrna. Hpemna narpnxena pannonannnm
ynnnnncannma xao n concrnuxnm snoynorpeama, nooxnocr ie nnax n y Hnaronono noa
naxnna sa ienny on xapnnnannnx npnnna rpahancxor npymrna, mro my ie nno on nomohn na
ie rpancnonyie y nonncrnuxe cnpxe. Hooxnocr ie raxohe nanneia n ona cnana y npnn crenen
oyxe uynapa, na n ce y nnmem creneny nacnnranana nperounna y reonorniy nneie Popa,
ouynanaiyhn raiancrneny aypeony oxo ne. Kao nannan cnemrennuxoi reoxparnin opnienra,
cnanaiyhn y crenenonany oyxy uynapa npxane, nooxnocr ce nnrepnopnsyie n nenyiyhn
nsnyrpa nonymra crnapane cmene cnnxe nnanannne nnocoa, xoin na ocnony cnoconocrn
ncrpaxnnauxor nyxa casnaie oxancxa nopa. Bnnnn cnmnon xoin ro noxasyie ie onai xoin
nponcrnue ns nopehena ca cynnem mro oaciana unran cner n cnaxor iyrpa ra nosnna na
xnnor. Cnmnon ocynuanocrn nopen necnnuxe nnxropecxnocrn uecro nocn n reonomxn ciai.

16
Ocnocoenocr sa nponyennia casnana nnie crnap nyxor ranenra nnn nexe nocene naponnrocrn
nsapannma, nero ce onnocn na cne yne npema narenrnnm moryhnocrnma xoie cy nm nare pohenem.
Hpernocranxe pasnoinor nponeca ocnocoanana nmaiy sa ycnon `crpemene y cnaxonnennom rpyny`, raxo na
ce rnena na `ysop xoin nexn y nncrnyiyhem` (Hn., Teemem, 176c). Tparane sa ncrnnom n nocraiane npannunnm
sanpano nnie naxo ocrnapnno iep nonpasymena rpyn n nennxn nanop nsyuanana, na ie ynonoanane raxnom
nanopy ono mro ie ycnon re n raxo nnhene yuenocrn. Hainaxme ie ro npornacnrn narancxom npenpacynom nnn y
saopany naxnocrn raxnnx nsysernnx nanopa pyxno ronopnrn o rsn. `crnponop rexnnnn orocnonena`; ann
axo ie xpnmhancrny nncxa canecr ono mro n rpeano na onnnxyie cnerocancxe cnenennxe, xpnrnuapn he ce
manyrn onaxocrn. To n apem npenopyuno n Ipnropnie Forocnon (330-390), xoin ie nponeo neo cnoi xnnor y
mynpoyy, y nnoconin xao nocenonany n crnnany cnera mro ie nainparonennie, xasyiyhn sa cee na ie
npnn mehy ynrenma mynpocrn uemy ne moxe nnmra npyro na ce npernocrann, na ra xaxo xaxe: Mynpocr
ne n nasnana iannnm xao yunrea mynpocrn n opasonana. On ie eneprnuno mrnrno opasonane n yuenocr,
n ro ne camo npxneny nero n cneronny, ronopehn nan rpoom npyror cneror Kananoxnina Bacnnnia Bennxor:
xoie ce mnorn mehy xpnmhannma, sor nomer pasymenana, rnymaiy xao snexyne, onacne n on Fora
ynaanaiyhe. Ho mn nehemo oxperarn rnopennny npornn Tnopna. He rpea nonnxanarn yuenocr, xaxo ro nexn
unne, - nanpornn, rpea pehn na cy rnynn n nesnannne cnn onn xoin npxehn ce raxnor mnmena xene na n cnn
ocrann yny nannx na nnx, xaxo n y onmrem mpaxy caxpnnn cnoie concrnene nenocrarxe n nsernn
pasonnuanane cnora nesnana. /Hnrar npema xn.: Ieoprnie B. unoponcxn, Hcmo:uu ouu IV eera, Bpnauxa
Fana, 1997., crp. 143./
30 | a a e

`Aneropnia nehnne` ie onprana cnnxa xoia cnmnonnsyie rparane sa ncrnnom, a neno
nocrnsane ce nnnn na nsnacxy ns nehnne, na ie naunn nyronana no ornopa cnernocrn
nnianexrnuan. V sanpmnn nnianexrnuxn npncryn crnapnma raxo cnana casnanane n
oiamnanane cmncna camor xnnora (upr., 535a). To ie moryhe onnm omrpoymnnm, xoin
pso cxnaraiy n nopo namre, xnnann n neocaxahenn, camoxpnrnunn xana nm ce noxaxe
nesnane, re onnma xoin ne nonnexy naxo ymopy y cnponoheny nyxonnnx nanopa.
Ocnocoennma sa nnianexrnxy noneyie ce n onronapaiyhe mecro y ynpann nonnca, cacnnm
cynporno ynepeny xaxo ie sa nonnrnuxn nonoxai nonono ne snarn nnmra npyro cem cnor
nnennor nocna. To ie crora mro ce ynyhnnane y cnnonrnuxo nonesnnane cponnocrn
npenmera n onacrn snana snna na nacrann nnianexrnxe, rne ce saxrena ocnocoenocr na
ce cxnara nncrnonane xoie nnie noxyunno camo uynnnm onaxannma. Pnianexrnxa ne moxe
na ce nsyuana camo ns crpaxa on xasne, iep snana xoia ce nymn namehy na cnny, na ny ne
mory na npnony, raxo na nnxona npnmena moxe na yne rex manoncxa n nemro
neynorpenno. Maxap ce ro nasnnano n `nenaromxom yronniom`, Hnaron ie cmarpao na ie
orpannueno nnococxo opasonane nenonono, iep ne nonpxana nyropouno cnmnosy
ncrpaxnnauxnx nniarpna, xao nn cnary na ce nonycre ocnopanana y onpehennm asama
(upr., 534c). 3a nponec casnanana Popa nyxno ie na ce pasnnie n eroc nncoxe mxone
xapaxrepa n axnnie, iep nnianexrnxa moxe na crnopn n ocehai nanpehenocrn n pasnnie
yopaxenocr, re na nocrane nn cama cen y moryhnm cnoponnma (upr., 537e). Ho
opmannom xapaxrepy ona ie raxo cnnuna epncrnnn na y cnahanauxom rony nrpa nrpy
ocnopanana mncnn npyrnx, a y nperepnnany c rnme ryn ce nyx nomronana npema
rpannnnin, na mnann n nencxycnn y noi uemhe nanaiy y anapxnunocr esaxona. unnoconia
raxo nacnnrana uonexa na noponono unnn ono mro romnna unnn camo non npnnynom
saxona, npyxaiyhn uax n nnme on rora mro saxon onehyie (upr., 538d). V rom cmncny
nomrene ce y nnianexrnuxnm ncrpaxnnannma npernocrana, raxo na xperane on nonasne
rauxe npema nenoi cynpornocrn n nponanaxeny iennncrnennx xapaxrepncrnxa y pasnnxama
mro n snaun iennncrno xpos pasnnxe y cnnrernuxom nonmany, sanpano n snaun npannunocr
snana na xoioi ie Hnaron ncrpaianao. 3noynorpea nnianexrnxe xpnnn n ayropnrer
ncrnncxor casnana, na ne moxe na npohe es nanana na panr peropnxe xao nemrnne
yehnnana. H xao mro nexapcxa nniarnosa n anexnaran penenr rapanryiy osnpannnane
nannienra, raxo n nponncn o nacnnranany naioer rapanryiy nerony ycnenocr xoia naie n
naioe ypehene npxane y npnmenn, a napony cpehny ynyhnocr.

OCTBAPEHE uOPME PPXABHOCTH H BHXOBH HCXOPH

Pa n ycnena nponena anconyrne npannunocrn Hnaron ie y 8. n 9. xnnsn upraee naneo
n peanne onnxe npxannocrn, xoncraryiyhn nereneparnnne opme xoie sacnyxyiy
31 | a a e

onannnane. One cy no nemy sanpano naronomxe, iep nopmanna npxana nma sa sanarax na
nacnnrana nopmanne n y nymn snpane yne, xoin ce nehe nsysnmarn on camnx cee cnaxn nyr
xana ie y nnrany nexn xpynnnin nnrepec nnanaiyher cnoia. Hsonauenn onnnn npxane cy
naonaxa cxnarana ncnpanne npxannocrn (rnmoxparnia /nnacr nnrepeca/, onnrapxnia /nnacr
xannrana/, nemoxparnia /saxnanane nsa nehnne/, rnpannia /nsonauena npannunocr/), re
npencranaiy noiane nennx nsonnuenocrn. Haonaxocrn ne nounnaiy ronnxo na ycrannnm
pemennma, xonnxo na rnny nacnnrana xapaxrepa ynpanaua. Cne npomene nonase on
nnanapa, a ne on onnx xoinma ce nnana, raxo na ycnehyiy nyrem pasnopa y xpnny nnanaiyher
cnoia (upr., 544d). Kana ce memaiy necponne crnapn ne nonasn no ycnennx cnoiena, y uemy
ce n cacroin yspox nsonauanana, a nerono nopexno nacranxa nanasn ce y neconnnnom
nacnnrany xao nan y anomannie n phane xapaxrepncrnxe cxnarana (upr., 547c). Anannsa
`cnaprancxor rnna uonexa` noxasyie na anonnsam npecrnxa y pasnoiy ope y nymn, xoia
nonn y ramrnny n nanoynnocr, raxo na ce cnaprancxa rnmoxparnia cnonn na nnnnny
neoysnane hynn (upr., 550c). Onnrapxnia ce sacnnna na ynepeny na marepnianno orarcrno
npencrana cymrnny nnemennrocrn, na cnn pane cne camo na mro nnme sapane, mana ie eroc
sapahnnana n crnnana npyraunin on onor norpomne, na ro nenn npxany ynyrap ne came na
anraronnsam orarnx n cnpomamnnx, noxasyiyhn nnnnny cnaocr y onpamenom norneny,
iep orarn nncy cnpemnn na nonnecy reper parnnx reroa (upr., 551e). Kan ce rnmoxparnia
xao uacroye noxaxe na rpaxn na ce xprnyie cynnme, npeoxpehe ce y onnrapxniy y xoioi
nnana rpamsnnocr. Hesacnra rpamsnnocr npernapa onnrapxniy y nemoxparniy nsiennauennx
no npannma, rne ce ianne cnyxe nene xonxom n cnaxo pann mra xohe es osnpa na
nyxnocrn. Tnpannn ce nocraie xana uonex esoxnnm ycnama oxycn xpn cnor napona,
npernapaiyhn ce y yncxor nyxa n npexayiyhn ce y nonmerany naxnnx oehana, re na n
noxasao xaxo ie xao noha neonxonan, y crannom sanonenany xanrn n parona. On uncrn
npxany on xpapnx n npannoynnnx ynn, iep my nyma nacraie ns xpnna nnnnx narona n
nesaxonnrnx noxyna. Eporomannunocr n cxnonocr nnhy noxasyiy ce xao rnpancxn enomenn
ersncrennnianne nocane, a ysnanpenonao nponec xao mannuna nenpecnia on nacnnnnmrna
mannx pasmepa cnrnor nonona n nponannnxa no necpehne neoysnanocrn ycnemnor necnora
na nnacrn (nponnunnx 729 nyra ie mane sanonoan on nnococxor uonexa, npanennnxa na
nnacrn upr., 586c). Mnorornano naroncxo nhe uonexa cmemreno ie y noxynnom neny
nyme n pasnnxyie ce on xpapor n mncaonor nena, nanme nyxonnor nena uonexa xao `uonexa y
uonexy` (upr., 588e). Tai yncxn neo nyme moxe na ce noxaxe xana mnorornann n nanoncxn
neo nnaiy cranenn non xonrpony, nanme xana ce npnnnrome n norunne uonexy y nama.
Bacnnranem ce oiauana n ysnnxe rai xpxxn enemenr name nymennocrn xora noxnpa
nonyncxo, raxo na ce ycnemnnm onnxonanem ncnxe ysnnxe nnanannna nan xnnornncxnm
naronnma (upr., 590d).
Hnaron xaxe na he npanennnx y nenocrarxy canpmene npxane npe cnera na onnxyie cam
cee nocehn y nymn ony ncrnncxy n xnnehn y cxnany c nom xpos camepanana ca peannnm
saxonnma. To, nonyme nnie nneanan rpahannn crnapne npxane, iep noa sa crnapanem
32 | a a e

nonnca nnrne y cnery ne ycnena na ce ynomn n on ie nnme xao crpanan y noi. On `rnena cnoia
nocna` xoin oana naioe mro moxe y crnapnom oxpyxeny n `xnnn nonyueno`.
17
Tome
penpesenrarnnno nne y npnnor cnenouancrno Coxparonor xnnora n cmprn, na ie ro ona
cnoona yncxe nnunocrn yremeena na npannunocrn xao `npxana y nama` xoia nonymra n
sacnnnane Hapcrna Foxnier y nonesnnany ca camnm coom.

CHACOHOCHH H O3AKOBVJVTH XOPH3OHT PPXABE

Hnaron nonnrnxy y ocnonn sacnnna na ernnn, iep nonnrnuxa onona xpehe on erocnor
nacnnranana uonexa. Bpennocr npanennocrn n npennocr opasonana unin ie nn
npanennocr, ne moxe na ce ncnpnn ca conniannnm npnsnannma xoia uonexa unne
sanononnm. Kparxopouna cpeha nexor ycnexa y npymrnenoi crparnnxannin ie npemennra
crnap, a nncrnonane nyme Hnaron ie mepno apmnnnma neunocrn, xpos rpaino cnacanane n
na onom n na onom cnery. To ie nonpasymenano xao cnpemane sa xnnor `uonexa y uonexy`, a
ne xao mannnynanniy ca mnorornanom uynonnmnomhy narona, iep ie Hnaron no neoma
ynepen na ie nyma nepasopnna n ecmprna, re na moxe na ie nonnmrn iennno nena nnacrnra
naronornia. V nocnennoi xnnsn upraee, nyma ce oaciana cnernom naruynnor ncxonnmra
xoie npocena ns onocrpanocrn na neny cynnny na semn, a y ry rainy nesy nyme n
narnpnponnor, on ie yrxnnao mnroc nenor sarponor xnnora. Mnr o (3opoacr)Epy xperao ie
ca ncnncnnanem unranor cnncxa noxnana npanennnxy, re my ce xao npnsnane noneyie
ynora npennonnnxa y onacrn naxon nsnuxor ymnpana (upr., 614a), iep ie nserao nyrn
nyr narne na xoin crynaiy nenpanennn. Cnenehn opnuxy rpannnniy on ie ry npe npnnnxom
ynohena nneie `nannnrenecnca` npneranao meramoposma n ennomnin, neronn nexnm
nepnnxrnma onmasnn xoin n ce npnnncnnann non Hainnmer Fnncrnyiyher.
Hsop nneia xoie nymy ycmepanaiy naxon xnanyronnmner nyrana ie ry sa Hnarona no
npecynan, iep cy one xao nocnnn cnare xoia ie y crany na nonesyie cnecr o ernunnm
oanesama ca ynepenem o nocroiany nemona xoin ry nymy npxe marnunnm cnonama
18
, sa

17
Cacnnm y nyxy onnx Hnarononnx pasmnmana, Bepnep Jerep xaxe: Orxaxo ie Hnaron ycranonno rai
npnnnnn, cnaxn uonex xoi nocenyie nncoxy mopanny cnecr nemnnonno ce oceha rpahannnom nnaiy cnerona. (B.
Jerep, Hauoeua, npen. Honn Can: Knnxenna saiennnna HC, 1991., crp. 424) H Xanc Ieopr Ianamep ie cmarpao
rai ronop nannnnnm y meraopn `oprana cnera` xoiy ie cnpononnno anconyrno nonmane y Xerenonoi
4euo+euo)oeuiu ovxa, a na nexn naunn nonpasymenao n Xycepnon enomenonomxn npncryn ncropnicxor
pasymenana ynnnepsannocrn nyxonnor nnxa enponcxe xynrype. Taxohe ie cacnnm ymecna n nanomena xaxo ce ra
cnryannia nacrana naxon Hnarononnx n Apncrorenonnx pasmarpana nae n y xpnmhancxom reonomxom
nacnehy xpos noneenocrn nsmehy xonaune npxane onor cnera n neunor, nennnnnor Hapcrna Foxnier.
18
Koia ie ry xnnxenna nesa ca 3aparxymrpnnnm `Jacua+a`, xao n ca sopnnxom mopanno-pennrnosnnx
pacnpana `Bvuoaxuuu`, na xoiy ie cxperana naxna on nononnne npomnor nexa, nnax nnie no ycnenocrn
onpxnno camo sor xonrpaycranonnnana noimona orona n nemona cynporno nnnnicxom xnnnynsmy
/nena(ara)-acype:cypia(iamra)-nenamrn/, no re mepe na ro cmarpamo ysopom, nero moxna npe onpehennm
33 | a a e

nera nne npocro npnponne. Cnoona nsopa n npnnanna moh pncana cehana na xnnor
paspemana ce nopnm nsopom xoin ne saopana ynnne y rnm onacrnma (upr., 617c), a ro
ie moryhnocr na uonex npa nnacrnry cynnny npnxnaranem oer xnnora xoin ie ncnynen
npnnnom, na n nponeo npanenan xnnor. To na o xpnnnnn Fora y raxnom nsopy ne moxe na
yne peu, xao na ce npomaa n xon nennxnx rparnunnx necnnxa. Vnpxoc nperxonnom
Foxniem ynosopanany, uonex nnax rpemn (upr., 620c), iep ra xao ysnnama norexy crpacrn
ns npena naroncxe cepe xnnora xoin ie nyma npononnna npe npemnnyha, nonnauehn ie
nanone. Forarcrno, cnana n moh ne snaue camn no cen nnxaxny cpehy, na onai xo nayun na
mynpo nsaepe nonyuen n cxpoman xnnor (ne mncnn ce na onpenennane sa eny n yorocr
xao nyxy cynpornocr marepniannom orarcrny n mohn), nanasn mepy onor naioer. Taxo ie
nainaxnnie ono snane xoie ocnocoana uonexa na y npecynnom rpenyrxy nonece ncnpanny
onnyxy, iep nnxome ne cnyxn na uacr nsop norpemnor nyra nnn sacrpanyiyhe opme
xnnena, mro ie n onopyxa onor Hnarononor cnnca. `Crapnx xpnnnna` uonex moxe na ce
ocnoonn axo ce npxn nyra nannme n ycnpannor xona, raxopehn acxercxe merponarnie xoia n
omoryhana cnponohene ncnpannor xnnora. Onrnmnsam upraee npxynn y yeheny xaxo ie
nnoconpane npann nyr na xome ce uonex ocnoaha poncxor craryca cnoie cnecrn xoiom
ynpanaiy crape sanncrn n nparehe uerpcrn, re y oxpery npema ycanpmanany y nyxy ca
npnmenom cpencrana xpnrnuxor nonmana crnapn, nocrnxe ono naxencrno xoie my ie
nonymreno on Cnennmner.
19


npennomxom nnn uax nononom sa nncane `camocnoine npnue`. To n npe onronapano npenanpaxenom
nonrpanany y oxperany n npeoxperany nnnnepenrnocrn snauena y nesn ca raxnnm noimonnma Hnueonor
3apamxvcmpe. Paimoncxa nha cy sa Hnarona rpannnnonanno rennin neecnnnn nnn nemro y pony xacnnier
noima nnxnx ennx nnn nopnx anhena y xpnmhancrny. Hnenrnnxannia ca snnm nnie ymecna ynpano crora
mro nerona namepa n nnie nna na nx raxo nnenrnnxyie, maxap ocraie npnmena na cy ro moryhe
nonmeceuapcxa nha ca nennxnm mohnma rnymena n npernapana na cy nopa, ynocehn ca rnme nenpernenna
ncxymena y yncxn xnnor. `Bnmexparpahane` nnie `pennxapnannia` nn y npennencrounom nn y
nanexoncrounom cmncny re peun, nero npocro `pahane nnme nyra`, re xan ce nexo iennom ponn xao uonex, ne
moxe na ce paha nonono xao yamapa nnn rnncra, xao nn nno xoie annmanno nnn nronnmno nhe. To npe
snyun xao nanreoncxo `uncrnnnmre` neronn xao oniex cypone reopnie xapme ncxonehoi ns nerpnnxyiyher
npymrna npecrnxnnx xacrnncxnx onnoca. Jom ie Hnornn, ca mnornm ncnxonomxnm nennianniama n ca
nonpnnnuno necpehennm ocehaiem sa conniannn xnnor (npoiexranrcxy naxnonocr sa `Hnaronononnc`
ycrpoianan npema 3arouu+a nmn. Ianniena n nerone xene Canonnne, ynycrno ie nemapom), a xoin ie opanno
243. r. y Asnin ca pnmcxnm nerniama y nparnn nmneparopa Iopnniana, nanasno sa cxonno na xaxe Foxancxa
npomncao nnie raxna na cmo mn y onnocy na ny nnmra. Kacrnncxn nopenax ie sa osnna xpnmhancxa
cxnarana naunn conniannor nopoanana uonexone npnpone, a camnm rnm n nemro mro ne moxe na ce ycxnann
ca uoneunomhy xoiy uonex nonia on Fora xao Berona rnopennna na Beron `nnx n nononie`, uax n naxon nana
y amnce esyma ca ncrounnm rpexom.
19
Cnern Ipnropnie Forocnon (ns Hasnianca, 329-389) ynopeno ie nspas Hov:ov Lrxrivo unran nex npe
nononnaronnuapa Hpoxna Pnianoxa ncnenanaiyhn xnmny esmonnnia: O Tu roiu cu c ouv cmpauv ceeea / Karo
oux me opvea:uie c+eo oneeamu? / Karo oa me +vocra pe: noxea)u? / Jep uuieoua Te uehe u;pa;umu. / Karo oa
me v+ cxeamu? / Jep uu ;a ieoau v+ uucu ca;uam+ue. / Jeouuu Heu;peuue, / Jep cu poouo cee u;peuueo. / Jeouuu
Heca;uam+ue / Jep cu poouo cee ca;uamo, / Cee umo eoeopu u ue eoeopu Teou r)u:e, / cee umo +uc)u u ue
+uc)u Teoe c)aeu. / Jep cee ;aieouo re)u, ;aieouo ompn+vie +vre pahana / Teoe paou / Teou ce cee +o)u, u cee
umo ie Teoie ;ua+ene npeno;ua)o / Heea mu ;amux)v xu+uv. / 3ooe Teoe cee cmoiu, ;ooe Teoe ce rpehe, / cee+v
cu cepxa Tu, Jeoau u Cee u Huro. / Hucu uu Jeouo uu Cee, o Ceeu+euu, / Karo oa me u+euvie+ Jeouuoe
34 | a a e

*
* *
PVX 3AKOHA KOP HHATOHA
V crnapnoi npxann raxohe nocroin momenar xoin naxon cneoyxnarnor nperpecana
nonpyuia yncxor xnnora moxe na ce pasyme xao nneannn momenar, a ro ie nyx saxona xoin
cne npoxnma cnoinm erocom, raxo na ce Hnaron y crapocrn oxpenyo cnenniannsonanom
saxononancrny, xaxo n na peannnm ocnonama nsnpmno npnnpeme sa npeysnmane canpmenor
nacnnranana xao nenornopnor. Morno n ce pehn xaxo ono mro ce sone `npaxca` (nenonane,
nenocpennnie noxasnnane onor `arche`, nauena, ry n onne) iecre y naxem, ann n
orpannuenniem nnny nonanane onor mro ie nsneicronano y reopnin, nonpaxanaiyhn neny
ocnonny crpyxrypy na naunn npnnarohanana narnm yncxnm moryhnocrnma.
20


ueu+eu+ueoe? / Koiu ueoecru v+ +ore npooemu rpo; ueoecre ;acmope uao uaoo)a:euouhv? / Bvou +u)ocmue,
Tu roiu cu c ouv cmpauv ceeea/ Jep raro oux c+eo opvea:uie oa Te oneea+? (npenon npema nsnany: OI 1Hl
HPOIKHl HOIHlLOl HAAAIOI HOIH1AI HAN1Hl Aureliae Allobrogum, 1606). Mehyrnm, nn aprymenrannia
Anpexra Jana sa nnaronnuxn xapaxrep re xnmne nnie cacnnm neyennna (Albrecht Jahn, Hymnus in Deum
Platonicus, vulgo Gregorio Nazianzeno adscriptus, nunc Platonici vindicatus, Halis Saxonum, 1891), npemna
npocro ryn ns nnna na ie Cn. Ipnropnie Forocnon n crapnin no ncropnicxoi xpononornin, a n y mnorouem
ecrercxn iacnnin n crnnncrnuxn ycnennin nncan crnxona on Hpoxna:
O, Ceeeuunu, iep uma opveo c npaeo+ oa me c)aeu?
(Karo oa me ee)u:a+ v cee+v npeeacxoouoe?)
Karo oa me oneea pe:? Jep uuieouo+ pe:iv uucu u;peuue,
Jeouuu ovovhu ueu;peuue, npe+oa ca;oau cee umo ce rare.
Karo oa me v+ euou, rao v+v uuraro uucu ooxeam+ue,
Jeouuu ovovhu ueoorv:ue, npe+oa ca;oaieu cee umo ce +uc)u.
Cee me npu;uea umo ie;ur u+a, u umo ie ue+o,
Cee me +uc)ueo npoc)ae+a, rao u ue+uc)ehe.
Jep ;aieouo :e;uv, ;aieouu:ru v;ouue cee rueo
Oro meoe. Cee mu ce ca+o+ r)ana, u meou cee
3a)oeo+ meoiu+ +uc)euu+ ra;vie vmux)e xea)e.
(Ho meou u;ovia cee, a mu ieouuu uucu ;ooe uu:ee)
V meou cee ie +upuo, cee mu ;ouieuo xuma.
H ;a cee oopeouume ouheu u ieoau cu u npunaoau cee+v.
He ovovhu uu ieouo uu cee, +uoeou+euu, raro me ;eamu?
Ouo ieouuo ueoo;oe+ueo? Koiu he v+ ueoecru

V npeoceem+eue maiue oa ;apouu? Mu)ocmue ovou,
O, Ceeeuunu, iep uma opveo oa me c npaeo+ c)aeu?
20
Cam noiam oo;n nonpasymena n `noueno` /enemenrapnocr nexor nonasnmra/, xao n `naueno` /npnnnnn xao ono
mro nnana/, snauehn nsnop n nopexno crnapn. Mana ce nanac pehe xopncrn, ro n noxpnnana peu `ncxon` n ona
n cama no cen ynocnna norocnn pen y pasmarpane acnexre nexor noperxa. Cxnon noperxa xao nerona
xoncrenannia, onynex ie no npnnna (ono mro nne ca ocom yrnphenor penocnena) reopnicxor naunna
npncrynana crnapnma y nnxonoi crnapnocrn nnn enepremarnnn. Tome rpar ne nanasnmo camo xon Xerena xoin
cmarpa na ce cne paspemana na xpaiy y pannn anconyrnor noima, nero n xon Xycepna xoin ie npxao na cnn
npaxrnunn nponemn nanase cnoie nyrene pemanana y nponyenoi reopnicxoi nnmensnin npncyrnocrn, naxne
cacnnm cynporno nncncrnpannma rsn. `npaxcnc nnoconie`. Moxna ie Apncrorenono cranonnmre na ie
reopnicxo mnmene yienno n nainnmn onnx yncxe npaxce iom ynex naioe. On ie no rora nomao y
35 | a a e

V 3arouu+a ce rnme pyxonohen Hnaron norpynno na perynnme cne naxne nerae
rpahancxor xnnora, oasnpyhn ce cne nnme (neponarno non yrnnaiem omrpoymne
Apncrorenone aprymenrannie) na nenocpenno ncxycrno n crnnane snana o noiennnocrnma,
na xoia nnie y upraeu opahao ronnxy naxny. Hponem `xoparona` nnn nyoxor iasa xoin ie
caunnen y mnmeny nsmehy nneie n noiane nnie morao na ne sapnne, axo ie rexna na ce
ycnocrann apxnrexronnxa cncrema nacnnrana nenena npen ounma. H cana ie saxononanan
onai y uninm ce pyxama xao oprannma nyxa nanasn nocranen nennxn sanarax, a ro ie na yne
nacnnrau rpahana. On naa na ocmncnn naunn xaxo na cnpeun npmene nenena, nanexo nnme
nero onai xaxo na nx xaxnana, a mro ce nocrnxe nonnprananem camor saxononannor oprana
nacnnrnom naueny nponncnnanem ncnpannor naunna xnnora n pnrom o neronom snpany.
H ry ocraie nneannsonana cnaprancxa npxana xao nouerno pemene, npemna ce orpannuana
pannia resa na na ypehnnane semacxor xnnora ana nainnme cnerna. Onuainocr xoiy
ncnoana Tnpreiena noesnia, xoia npxynn y mncnn na ie opa cymrnna xnnora, nnie
noxymenrapncrnxa mepnna yncxe npnnne xpapocrn es iennocrpanocrn, na ce naxehe
npennocrn nenncannx npannna nnianexrnuxn npomnmaiy y nyxy nnococxor nonpnnoca
nsrpannn naioe opasonanocrn, xa uemy rpea na ce oxpeny n npnnarone erocna
nacroiana (3arouu, 625d). Axo n ro nno cacnnm raxo, noena n nna iennnn cmncao
nocroiana n ysnnsana rnmoxparniy nsnan cnera, na ie Hnaron xopnryie npyrnm noxymenrom
npannor craryca ns nenncannx saxona, a ro ie cxnonocr mncnn arnncxor necnnxa Teornnna
na ie ro npnnna npanennocrn (3arouu, 629a). Hcxopax ns nopcxor nneana parnnuxe
myxennocrn raxo ie cmeno yunnen y npanny sacnnnana npanne npxane, rne ce xpapocr
noxasyie oom ynpyxena ca npanennomhy, ymepenomhy n orooiaxnnomhy, iep rana
nnie nsnoxena ncxymeny na ce ynymra y nenpanenne parone. Ca rnme ce saienno nocrana n
npann nn saxononancrna na snpane, cnary, nenory n orarcrno nonpenn npnnnama nyme
xao oxancxnm nopnma, oyxnaraiyhn nx pasopnromhy xao npnnnom nyxa (3arouu, 631b).
Cnapra, Aproc n Mecennia cy ce y Henononecxnm paronnma, naxon nrxe ca Teom xon
Heyxrpe, npocro carpne ycnen nome opasonanocrn xoia nnie morna na ce ycxnann y
noxynama n ynnnnma (ysopny nemoxparniy y rom 8.-7. nexy nmao ie nonnc Arnne), na ie
npann npxannn eroc noxasao cnoie nocroiancrno y ypannorexenocrn nyxa, a ne y rnpannin
narona nnacroya n uacroya. Kaxo ornopnocr na crpax on ona nnie ncronpemeno n
nmynnrer na noxyny, ca xoiom moxe na ce nexe n cnanhxa nonycrnnocr, nopcxy
onuainocr nnnnx ncnana npn nnhy na rosama, nennianrnor xomocexcyannsma n cexcyanne
neoysnanocrn cnaprancxnx xena (3arouu, 636-637c, 639a), rpea y nny nacnnranana
naroncxor xnnora nanonynnrn ymepenmhy n camocannanananem. Hnaron ce y 3arouu+a
crporo onpeneyie sa onmre nacnnrane xoie nonpasymena paunn xnnor rpahancrna n ynonn
n xasne sa espaunocr xana ce npohe speno noa. Kynrypa xao onneronancr nonocn noeny,
rnpnn Hnaron, ann cnaxa noena ne nonocn ynex xynrypy nero npe `xanmeicxn xnpnc` n

pacnpanama ca Hnaronom y Axanemnin, cnenehn nainye sacane nerone mynpocrn caspene na rexax n
camocannananannma nocrnrnyr naunn.
36 | a a e

nanmenocr neonpannanor camoysnomena. V upraeu Hnaron nnie npnnanao snauai
ncnnrnnana npencnecnor n nonycnecnor cnoia nymennor xnnora xoi ie npecynan sa
nacnnranane nene n mnanexn, na ce y 3arouu+a nocnehnnao ncnxonomxn nponyenom
ncnpannniem nacnnranany xpos xpanene n onraiane, xao n peaxnnie na on n sanonocrno.
Hoesnia n mysnxa, xoie cy y npnom peny mecro nenocpennor opasonana uonexa on
naipannier noa, onnxornopna cy n naiapcxa ymehe nyme, xao mro ie ro n saxononanan, na
ne one rpea na nonnnase xenonncrnuxom n marepnianncrnuxom yxycy nynnxe n raxo ce
camoynponamhyiy, nero na yny ysopne n na ioi nacnnranaiy yxyc (3arouu, 659a-c). H ysponn
nponanana ce sa Hnarona xpniy y nsonauanany noesnie n mysnxe, sa nnanannne nehnne, xoia
npomonnme pasapymenn xenonnsam n pacnymeny npcxocr nncxnx nopmn snana. V rome
ysnnmennin yxyc rpea na nonpxn saxon npema snpanoi crpyxrypn yncxe nyme, a ne onai ca
naronorniom nacneha nnemencxnx cyxoanana n nyrana.
Pacnananem npxane y nymn ypymanaiy ce n cnoamne mohn, na cypnanane nyxonne
crpyxrype naa na cnpeue saxonn ns nnxonor nocnennor nspasa nocroiana, iep ie sa nopo
nnanane norpeno na ponnren nnanaiy nenom, nnemennrn onnma xoin ro nncy, crapnin
mnahnma, rocnonapn poonnma, on phannma, pasymnn n yuenn neyxnma n nepasymnnm, a
onai xoin ie nsapan xnnpom onnma xoin ro nncy. Cnpxa ie na cnoona, pasym n ynyrpamna
xapmonnia nonnca sannanaiy, xao mro ie nno y Arnnn y 8.-7. nexy, a ne `nneonaxcnia` xao
naromnnanane mohn y pyxama noiennnana. Pa n ce ocrnapno saxon xoin nnie nspas mohn
noiennnna nnn nnanaiyhe xnace xao ycrannn necnornsam, norpeno ie na ce ocnonn na
npnnny npanennocrn n `npano iauer` saonhe xpos nspase nocnymnocrn Fory.
Fesoxan noha nyue sa coom y nponacr n cne ocrane, nox ie camo For mepa cnnx crnapn
n onmrn nn xa xome cne rexn (3arouu, 716a-b). For ce raxo orxpnna n nenyie y xocmocy
npxane iennaxo xao n y xocmocy npnpone
21
, iep ie On nocranno nainnmy mepy ynnnepsyma n

21
Hpema Hnarony, mro ce uynnor xocmoca rnue, nocroie neune n ca nnm neonnuxe neuynne maremarnuxe
crnapn (Ap., Mem., 987

14-18), n on nocrynnme na reomerpnicxo casnane iecre casnane onor mro neh ynex
iecre /Hn, upraea, 527

7-8/, a reno ysero camo no cen /ucmo, 528

1/ npoyuana crepeomerpnia.
Vcranonanane esycnonnocrn xapaxrepa nexe reomerpnie no cen, xoia n onpehnnana mepe npocrnpana y
npocropy (raxo mro n rauxa nna nynxryannn ocnon, npana onpenenn cmep yscronnor nnsana rauxn, a
espoi npannx panan), cacnnm ie nopo ysnpmano neh y Apncrorenonnm pasmarpannma, ns xoinx nponsnasn na
ie ro naunn nnhena xoin saxon nononor pasnora ne opasnaxe nonono, a ne n esycnonnn ocnon. V
nanamnem cmncny nno n ro nocraneno nnrane xnanrnnx opmn /naimannx nenennnx nennunna/, rne n
ce napannrma rpoyrna /xnanrna nonpmnna (xao rerpanna monynannia nouena anexnarna nonesannm
rpancopmanniama npnponnnx enemenara /arperarnnx crana marepnie/), nnneapno cnonnna na nnx xao axrnnne
mnnnmyme. Ounro ie na mn moxemo na onpennmo noxanne xonaune rpyne ypehenocrn n cnpcranocrn y
rononomxe npnnannocrn rpynannia, ann ne n es pannxannnx ayromopnsama xao ennomopnnx monynannia
(Hnaron ie, pennmo, ynpxoc nasnauanany nonexaenpa xoin cnmonnme erep nnax nserao na ra nosnnnonnme
npema nouexnnaunnn nnn rpehem pony nha, iep n mopao na onpenn n xaxnor cy nnxer xapaxrepa moryhe
`nonnpnp rauxe`). Ppyrn cannnhyhn momenar ie cnonnnocr eyxnnnoncxor npocropa na rponnmensnonannocr,
mana ie rerpaxrnc iom sa Hnraropy snauno crannnocr (uernpn nore xoie npxe cro, cronnny, opmane nrn.), iep y
npnponn ie uonexa na sannpn ncnon nnoue crona na n nnneo na uemy ce nore npxe. Ounro na xnneponnuxe,
merpnuxe n exnnnrnuxe reomerpnie nponcrnuy ns raxne norpee sa nnpenem, rne ce yienno mena n
37 | a a e

npxyncxy xapmonniy xoiy saxon mopa na ysme y osnp, xaxo n opasonao sa ornenane
onmepene n pasymne nyme cxonno raxnoi xapmonnin. Bpxyncxa reneonornia raxo nsnocn
noiam Fora xao npnonrnor nenarora cnera (3arouu, 897a), xoin ce ornena y cxnannom
xperany snesna xoie y yncxoi nymn onronapa xperany uncror mnmena, ienna mncaona
xnnemarnxa nneanne cepnune acrponornie (yronnxo n canpemenn mncnnonn sanpxanaiy
yehena o acrpannom xapaxrepy npounmhenninx mncaonnx opmn nsmehy mnroca n noroca
/Karl Heintz Vollkmann Schluck/). V rom cmncny opaha n noceny naxny ypehnnannma
craryca paxa xao n saxonnma nacnnranana n onraiana noromcrna, ncrnuyhn naxnocr nere
(macnpane nene, merne) n xperana rena (yane noienuann, nnonnna, iaxane), re
mennnnncxor casnana na nere ymnpyie nenane a ne rnmnna, xao mro ce y nemy orxnana
nepnosa n pasnnia sanonocrno cnonnm renecnnm xperannma. Hsmehy maxenocrn n
nncnnnnnnonana nere rpea na nocrane nenpo (3axonn, 792b), mro nanasn na xencxnm
pyxama n pacnonoxeny sa nrpy, na n rex on mecre ronnne xpenyno na rnmnacrnxy, nncxoc,
crpeamrno, mauenane, iaxane, noroponane nrn. Vs rnmnacrnxy cnenn mysnxa xoia
oesehyie enpnrmniy nnn crannnocr y perniama necnecnor xoie n npomonnme pasymny
xapmonnsanniy y nacrynany nan naroncxnm nenom nyme, a raxohe n anronornie crnxona xoin
npencranaiy nsop onor mro ie naioe. Teonomxa ynxnnia snana ne moxe npannnno na
ce onneryie yxonnxo nenocraie nacrana ns maremarnxe n acrponomnie, apem na
enemenrapnom nnnoy mepene npannx, pannn, rena, npannnnnx xpyxnnx nyrana (3arouu,
965d). V rom cmncny ce nocnemyiy n crynnicxa nyronana y nnocrpancrno ca nonnomenem

pasmemrai xaxo xonrnnyannnx crpyxrypa npenmera, raxo n cansnunocrn opmn xoie ce naiy noxasarn y
rpancopmanniama na nniarpamnma nyrem xoncrpyxrnnno-nepcnexrnnncrnuxnx nsnona. Vronnxo ie no
rerpannmensnonanno cranonnmre naxna npomena merononomxe napannrme reomerpnicxnx nnepennniana y
npoyuanany cpacrana xpainocrn na nonnpnnm mecrnma, iep ra xonarypanna nnmensnia pannn, nonpmn, npane n
xpnne nnnnie xonopmannnx npocropa, moxe na ce nonene y nesy ca nnranem nocroiana reomerpnicxnx nnxona
no cen, xao nnrane nerenepncanor nnn nenerenepncanor anconyra. Vnora xoiy ry nrpa nncrnyiyhe y crapoi
nnoconin npenasnnasn cne xareropnie n npnnana rpancnennenranniama (camnm rnm onrnuxn craryc
rpnronomerpnie n xao crnap rononomxe anannse xonnexcnnx n xomnnernnx npocropa xao nennmnuno
nnneapnnx nnmecrpyxocrn, xao n rpynne nsomopnie y xpnnronsnnn rensopnnx noa, no cnopenan n
npenosnar xao npcra nerenepncanor anconyra). Pncxperno nporpamnpane monena raxo ienan on nsnasa nanasn y
casnainoxpnrnuxoi nnmensnin opmnpana nncrannnia oneparnnnnx naxena. Tnme n ce cranano y sarpany
nenpnxocnoneno naxene ncxyunno npnponnor /nannnor/ crana, npema xome n onaxane nno neoanesno
ycmepeno na uynno nnnnny npnpony n nponsnono xnarano onai nnn onai nen nsrnen, npenmer nnn noiany.
Pa nema remene cnyrne o npnonrnniem npncycrny yma y camoi npnponn, ne n nno nn raxnnx pasmarpana.
Hpema npennom Apncrorenonom ynnny axryennn ym ie uncra eneprnia mnorocryxocrn ncxasnnana onor mro
iecre, a ona nax oner moxe iennno nocroino na ce onnme xao cnerno. On npann ounrninm noiam nncrnonana
xao npenmer moryher ncxycrna, ca unme ie nnrepec yremeena onronornie npenar ncnynanany moryhnocrn ror
anpnopnor npenmernonsrpahenor cnnrernsonana, a ry ynory nma mncaonn xapaxrep Apncrorenonor noima
eneprnie, nponanaxenem noima ynyrpamne cnpcncxonnocrn nyrem penexcnnne mohn npocyhnnana. Taxo
n ca cxnananem marepnie ns uynnor xocmoca npeocraiana nnmenocr, a ne crpyxypanno ycrpoicro
reomerpnicxnx nnxona, ri. onai moponomxn marepniannsam xoin iom nnie ycneo na ce y pacranany ca
norocom ocamocrann no nauennocrn. Horocnn npncryn npxn na ce npnpona raxo ocnoaha ornenanem y ymy
ynyhenom na nncrnonane, onna xana ie xon cee nnn na neny, y nnacrnroi n xpainoi cnpcn,xao mncaono
eneprernsonanoi enrenexnin. V rom cmncny ie ro oner einercxn momenar n ym ce y Apncrorenonoi ncnxonornnn
n nnnn nornyno yremeeno na nainynm sacanama Hnaronone nanneie, xao `einoc einoca`.
38 | a a e

nsnemraia xoin ce no nonparxy nncxyryie, a ro ie neonxonno na ce npxana samrnrn on nomnx
cnonnx yrnnaia, xao n na ce noomana ca nopnm yrnnainma na ce ne n ocnnnsonana.
O upraeu cy, moxe ce raxo saxyunrn, ncnpenane mnro-nornuxe npnue xoie cy rexnne
na nponnxny y nesy yncxor npymrna n onnxonana uonexa xpos onnoc nerone nyme n
naruynnnx enomena xoie nonesyie nneia Popa. Mnroc o `nehnncxnm ynnma` n
ocnoahany on oxonane npnpone xpos nanopan pan na nonmany crnapn, xao n mnroc o
`sarponom xnnory nyme` Hnaron ie onnxonao ca orpomnom pennrnosnom osnnomhy n ca
ronnxo nsrpahennm ymehem onncnnana, na remxo na moxe na my ce nahe nannan y noronoi
ncropnin nnococxo nonnrnuxe n connianne mncnn yonmre. 3arouu nainnme mecro
oesehyiy sa Fora xao npxyncxe mepe cnnx crnapn, a nonnrnuxa meponannocr ce
xnannnxyie ynpano camepnnomhy rnm mepama y nymn nnanapa. Jenno xoie ie For, a xoie
npemepana cne npyro n npyraunie, ry ie nnepennniannn nnenrnrer xao `Popo no cen`. C
osnpom na xacnnin pasnoi reonornie y ncropnicxoi xynrypn enponcxor nyxa, onaxno
Hnaronono cranonnme moxe na ce oxapaxrepnme xao pynnmenrapno n iennocrpano, iep
nerona nxonomnia n cornpnonornia nemaiy noroc one nornuxe nnmensnie ncropnie, xoin
nacryna ca orxpnnenem n narom nemhy o onannoheny Fora Horoca, ann onpannanane Popa
xao reonnxeinuno npxane nma cne one ocnonne npernocranxe xoie he ce y noronoi ncropnin
reonomxnx nonmana n nornphnnarn. Mornn n na sanpmnmo nsnarane ca resom na ie y
ounrom orcycrny xpncronenrpnsma, Hnaron nnax Moicnie y anrnuxom oneny, xaxo ie ro
nanno xoncraronao nennxn orocnon n nenaromxn mncnnnan Knnmenr ns Anexcannpnie.










39 | a a e

HAC1ABAK H KPH1HKA HBA1OHOBE 0HBOCO0H1E
HOBH1HKE KOB APHC1O1EBA

H Apncroren
22
ie nonyr Hnarona cmarpao na uonex camo y npxann moxe na ce ncnon
xao ernuxo nhe, na cy cna nsyuanana mecra n noima npnnne sanpano nenonn nonnrnxe, ri.
nayxe o npxann.
23
Hpoyuanane ernuxnx oconna xoinma uonex spaun xao nhe npnnne,
nonpnnocn yrnphnnany noxenor mecra y npxann. Hnrane `nainnmer nopa` sa uonexa
onpeheno ie xao `cpeha` /ennaimonna/, a ona onpehyie yncxn oncranax npema npnnannocrn
nopy na xoin ce ycmepana. C rnme ie `naimohnnie mehy nopnma` ono xoie oxyna cne
pasnoncnocrn n mnoronnxa noiannnana, ann raxo na uonex cam moxe ro na noxyun n
nocenyie xao nnacrnro orarcrno /HE, 1096
b
34/
24
. V xnneny xnnora xao ocrnapnnana y
nenarnom xperany npema cnpcn, na onony pasnora xoin noxpehe na nsnpmene, cne xnno n
ocrnapyie cnoiy npnpony, raxo na ce noiam npaxce nonynapa ca naunnom xnnora. Ponaxene
no xpaia nnie narnn npexnn xoin n snauno cnyuainn norahai (caopahainy necpehy, onyinn
ynap na nnehe ryuom), nero ie npe cnera onai, y xom cy nocroiane n npaxca nomnn no
sanpmerxa, iep ce nocrnrno cne ono mro ce morno nocrnhn (ry ce cnpxa camocanpxana on
nouerxa, nonyr yspoxa snpana, xoin ie n pasnor xoin naronn na nsnasax y merny /Mem.,
1013
a
33-34/). Taxo ie nainnme nopo ncronerno ca cnpxom, xoia ce onnocn na yncxy
npnpony xao yxnnocr nanapenocrn n moryhnocrn y cnom nocroiany n axrnnnrernma.

22
Apncroren ce ponno 384/383 r. npe Xpncra y Crarnpn, na rpannnn c Maxenonniom. Oran Hnxomax no ie
nexap na nnopy xpaa Amnnra, ona unnnna II Maxenoncxor, rne ie n xnneo ienno npeme y npecronnnn Henn.
366/365 r., re xao ocamnaecroronnmnax nomao y Arnny, n crynno y Hnaronony Axanemniy na ry npoopann
napennnx 20 nera, no cmprn yunrea 347 r. Haxon ror norahaia xpenyo ie sa Many Asniy, ocranaiyhn
Cneycnny ynpany nan Axanemniom, ynyrnnmn ce y Ac ca Kcenoxparom, rne cy ca Epacrom n Kopncxom
ocnonann mxony non noxponnrecrnom Xepmnie. Ty ce n oxenno Hnrnanom n naxon rpn ronnne xpenyo sa
Mnrnneny na Hecocy, a ramo ie ca Teopacrom nsnonno npnpononayuna ncrpaxnnana. 343/342 r. nosnao ra ie
maxenoncxn xpa unnnn na oyuana y nnoconin mnanor Anexcannpa, mro ie rpaiano no neronor crynana na
rpon 336. r. Tana ce nparno y Arnny n 335/334 r. ocnonao mxony y nnsnnn xpama y uacr Anonony Hnxnicxom,
nasnan `Hnxei` nnn `Hnnei`, a npnnannnxe cy snann nepnnarernuapnma sor uecrnx mernn. 323 r. npe Xpncra,
ympo ie Anexcannap, na ie y Apncroren y rom nonnrnuxom norpecy no opmanno onryxen sa arensam, sanpano
sor rora mro ie caunnno xnmny y Xepmninny uacr, a on ie no npomaxenoncxn nacrpoien. Teopacr ie ocrao na
ynpana Hnxeiem, a Apncroren ce, ne nosnonnnmn Arnnn iom ienno remxo orpemene o nnoconiy, xaxo ie
cam pexao, ynano na Xanxnny, na n ry n ympo 322 r.
23
Ap., Hur. Em. 1152
b
1-3
24
Huro+axoev emurv nsnao ie Apncrorenon cnn Hnxomax, a ro ie ncronpemeno n npna nornyno cauynana
crynnia y ncropnin nnoconie ns onacrn ernxe, na mra n naano na ce nanonexe n cxnarane, na ie ro n
npnn nenonnr nnococxn yremeen mncaonn cncrem y xomnnernocrn nocrnrnyrnx casnana. Vs pannin pan
`Evoe+oea emura` n ca onmnnm ncrpaxnnannma cnponenennm y cnncy `Ho)umura` y ocam xnnra, ca xoinma
ce nonynana nennna nnhena npaxrnune nnoconie, ro ie n iennncrnena nnoconia yncxor xnnora.
40 | a a e

Hpnpona ne onpehyie uonexa nenocpenno, neh ra npnnnaun cnoinm moryhnocrnma n sacanama
nonyr cnpxe y npencranama, xpos xoie on cam cen crnapa nn xa xoiem crpemn onnxyiyhn
cnnxy nopa xao nainnme rexne. Taxo ie ynnn y xapaxrep npnpone npencrana ycnon sa ro, na
cnoiy cnpxy yunnn n cnoinm nnem nenonana, iep axryannoc nnacrnre npnpone ne moxe
uonexy na yne nemro ryhe nnn crpano. To mro ynn mnenaiy n mncne o nopy n cpehn (sa
onecnnxa ie ro snpane, sa cnpomaxa nocen /HE, 1095
a
20-25/), npocena ns xpainer nopa n
onmre cpehe, raxo na nnoconia ry ne rpea na ce nsnnxe nsnan onmrer mnmena, ie ono
yxasyie na ono mro ie ncrnnnro. Taxo ie cpeha xnnene na noap naunn n na crnapn nonase
sa pyxom, na ce sanpmanaiy n noxonuanaiy, a ro oesehyie ynasax y crane y xome ce n rexna
ncnpnyie, n rpaie ne repiyhn na ocrnapnnane nonnx n npyrnx onanpana nnena. To mecro
ocrnapena cnpxe ce nanasn y npxann n npymrny , na ie ernxa npnnana npxannnuxom ymehy
xao `nonnrnuxa nayxa` /HE, 1094
b
11/
Cnoiy npaxrnuny nnosoniy Apncroren ie yremeno npema nnrany y uemy ce cacroin
nopo yonmre. Ono ce cacroin y cpehn, yncxoi naxenocrn: ... nox uacr n yxnnane n ym n
cnaxy npnnny npamo, nonyme, n pann nnx camnx (iep axo n ne ncmo nnmra nnme nocrnrnn,
oner ncmo nonenn cnaxy on rnx crnapn), a npamo nx pann naxencrna, cmarpaiyhn na hemo
am nnxonnm nocpencrnom nmarn naxencrno... Fnaxencrno ce, naxne, noianyie xao
nainehe nopo n camo cen nonono, iep ie xpainn nn cnera nenana.
25
Ennaimonna xao
cpeha naineher nopa nyna ie n neomerana nenarnocr, n ne moxe na ce penarnnnsyie iep ie cne
onpeheno nenarnom cnarom: Tpea, naxne, nsnnoinrn xnnor yxonnxo ce on cacroin y
ncxpann n pacreny. 3arnm n y osnp nonasno uynnn xnnor, ann onaxan xnnor nma n xon n
no n cnaxa xnnornna. Hpeocraie naxne nexn npaxrnuxn xnnor ymom onapenor nha /n
oox:ixn :ic :o\ oyov r;ov:oc/. V nemy nocroin ienan neo xoin ce noxopana ymy, a npyrn
nma ym n pasmnmana, ann xaxo ce n nenarnn / oox:ixn/ xnnor pasymena y nnoiaxom
cmncny, onne moxe na yne peun camo o xnnory y nenany, xao o xnnory xoin ie ounrnenno
naxnnin. Axo, naxne, nocroin cnennnuna yncxa nenarnocr, onna ie ro nenarnocr nyme
npema ymy, ann ne n es yma, na xaxemo na ie npmene panne nexor nocnennxa n npmene
panne onnnunor nocnennxa no npcrn ncro, na npnmep xnrapane xnrapama n xorapane
onnnunor xnrapama, re raxo yonmre y cnnm cnyuaiennma, ca nonananem nsnpmeny panne n
ocoenocrn no npnnnn; na np. oconna xnrapama ie xnrapane, a onnnunor xnrapama onnnuno
xrapane... onna ce yncxo nopo cacroin y nenarnocrn nyme npema npnnnn, a nma nn nnme
npnnna, onna npema naiooi n naicanpmennioi. Tome rpea nonarn na ro mopa na rpaie neo
xnnor, iep xao mro ienna nacra ne unnn nponehe, raxo nn ienan nan nnn xparxo npeme iom
nnxora ne unne naxennm nnn cpehnnm.
26
Onne ce ornena nornpna sa Coxparon n Hnaronon
nncxypc, na ce nonasn on nopa xao npenmera yncxe nenarnocrn y narnm oxnnpnma, rne
nenarnocr nyme npema npnnnn nonn yncxoi cpehn, ennaimonnin, na n naxencrny,

23
Ap., Hur. Em. 1097
a
16-
b
21
26
Ap., Em.Hur., 1097
b
25 1098
a
20
41 | a a e

maxapnornc, y ounrom cynenonany na oxancxom /HE, 1101
a
19, 1176
a
27, 1178
b
9). To ie ono
npxane, npaxrnuxn xanryc, no xome y cnom nonamany uonex nocraie noap, n no xoiem
cnoie neno nopo nonpmana
27
, a noiana sanonocrna ie nonesana ca neronnm nonpmananem,
xao pesynrar xoin nenane cmnpyie. 3a ro nocroie npenopyxe c osnpom na xoncrnryncane
noima npnnne xpos ynnn nnn reopniy onnoca npnpone n npymrna. Ty reopniy saxrena sanpano
cam nonnc xao cnoi ym, a xoin ie canpxai ynnnepsanno nsnenen ns came npnpone uoneunocrn
uonexa. Vronnxo neronane npnnna xoie nonn nainnmem yncxom nopy ncronpemeno snaun n
pasymenane nonnrnuxe reopnie xao cracanana ynnna xoin rom npxany onronapa.
a) Emu:re ep)uue rao npaeu)ua vcpeoomo:euocm u)u cpeouua u;+ehv rpaiuocmu
Bpnnne ie Apncroren nonenno c osnpom na nenone nymennocrn, nmaiyhn y nnny npe
cnera nnxon pasymnn n nepasymnn ocnon. Pasymnn neo uonexone nyme npannnno onomnne n
noncrnue na naioe, a npannonannn ie on rora onnnaun. Hpannonanno nnn nepasymno ie
ono mro ce ynpana npema noxynn n ncxrenannma, onnpanem crynaiyhn y opy ca
pasymom xoin ne ynaxana nponsnonocrn
28
. Kaxo nma ynena y pasymy xon ymepenor uonexa
rai ncxrenaiyhn n nponsnoan neo nymennocrn my ce nonnprana, a xon pasopnror n xpapor
uonexa nornyno. Taxo cy ernuxe npnnne ynpanane npema non
29
, nox cy nnanoernuxe nnn
nornuxe npnnne opnienrncane npema casnanany.
30
Xrene nnn noa caunnanaiy rno na xom
ernuxe npnnne nacraiy, na ce npema cnoonn xao nenom cymrnncxom cnoicrny snna
npnnonenane nno uynnnm, nn ymnnm noncrnnainma. Hpema Apncroreny, uonex ie rai y
xome ce nanasn nopexno n yspox naunnennx nena, xao mro ie, pennmo, ponnre cnoie nene.
31

Kaxo ie nonn nsop y namoi mohn, ernuxa npnnna nocraie ycrannanem rpaina npra
xapaxrepa xao rpaino npxane noe ynexananem creuennx nannxa. Apncroren onnnuno
sanaxa xaxo ie iennn nocrnxy naxo, npyrn rexe, ann na ie nnxo ne nocrnxe es nanopa.
32

Bexa n nannxe ry cy on npecynnor snauaia: Ann mnorn ne pane raxo, nero ce npenaiy
ernuxom reoperncany n mncne na he nnosonpanem na nocrany mopannn. Onn nnue na
onecnnxe xoin, ncrnna, naxnno cnymaiy nexapa, ann yonmre ne nsnpmanaiy nerone
npenopyxe. Kao mro, naxne, raxnn onecnnnn ne mory na osnpane, raxo nn onn nehe cnacrn
nymy cnoinm nnoconpanem.
33
Mennremarnuxn acxecnc nnn pennocno nexane nny
saienno ca ernsmama nnn nannxama
34
, xoie caunnanaiy npernocranxe sa npannnno onpxanane
npnnna. Mnomrno npnponnnx nmnynca xoie pasym rpea na nosnpa, xonrponnme n
remnepyie, cranno nyue npema nenorpenom y nasna cy neexrnn. Hsmehy moryhnocrn na ce c

27
Ap., EH, 1106
a
22
28
Ap., EH,1103
b
11-18
29
Ap., EH, 3., 4., 5. xn
30
Ap., EH,1108
b
10 n nae
31
Ap., EH, 1113
b
17-18
32
Ap., EH, 1099
a
3-4
33
Ap., EH, 1105
b
12-18
34
Ap., EH, 1098
b
4-1099
b
9
42 | a a e

ienne crpane nperepyie n nannnasn cpenna mepa, re npyre na ie n ne nocrnxe, nocpenyie
pasym n ynyhyie cpennnn mehy xpainocrnma.
To ie sanarax yncxe nenarnocrn no npnponn, y xoioi ce noianyie norpea sa
nserananem excrpemnocrn n nocrnsanem npane mepe. Apncrorenonn npnmepn sa
onmepanane npnnne cy poinn. Taxo xpapocr iecre cpennna nsmehy nnamnnocrn xao
nenocrarxa n nomamne cmenocrn xao nperepanocrn. Vmepenocr ce nanasn nsmehy
neocernnocrn n pasysnanocrn, xao mro ie napexnnocr nsmehy mxprocrn n pacnnnocrn.
Hnemennrocr ce nanasn nsmehy cnrnnuanocrn n cxopoiennhcrna, a nonoc nnn nennxonymnocr
nsmehy nonnsnocrn /manonymia/ n nanynenocrn /oxonocrn/. Opas nnn uacr, nanasn ce
nsmehy neuacnocrn /esopasnyxa/ n uacroya /ramrnne/, a narocr nsmehy mexymrna n
nanpacnrocrn /cpnnrocrn/. Ca rnme ce npennocrn xoie rnmoxparnia onanyie npahaiy na cnoie
mecro, a y uemy rpea nnnern n ersaxrno pasymenane n cnohene npannx Hnarononnx ynnna
na axpnnnuny ocnony. Bpnnna yronnnocrn /npniarnocrn/ nanasn ce nsmehy mpsonoe n
ynnsnmrna, a npanocrn /ncrnnnrocrn/ nsmehy camonornennnana n pasmernnocrn
/xnanncanocrn/. Popo nonamane nnn onxonnnocr ce cmemra nsmehy cnennana n
ecrnnnocrn, nerononane nsmehy snypanocrn n sanncrn, npannunocr nsmehy rpnena
nenpanne n unnena nenpanne, a npniarecrno nsmehy nemana npniarea n
mnoronpniareenana. Bpnnna npannunocrn y cen oiennnana cne npyre npnnne, omoryhyie
cpehy y npxannoi saiennnnn n neno nocenonane nonpasymena onmrocr. To npano onmrocrn
iemun ynpano ymna cnoconocr xoiy nonpasymena: Cnoienono unnn uonex cne ono mro
unnn snaiyhn n nenpnmopano. Bro unnn cnoienono ro ne unnn ynex namepno, ann cne mro
unnn namepno ro unnn snaiyhn, iep ono mro nexo naymn, ro on ynex n sna.
35
On nanonn n
cenam pasnora sor uera, npema neronom mnmeny, ynn unne sno: 1. Cnyuai, 2. Hpnponna
nyxnocr, 3. Cnona cnna, 4. Hannxa, 5. Pemenocr, 6. Cpna n 7. Hoxyna. Kana ce onn
orxnone nnn remnepyiy, npnmnpe n ymnpe, nsa nnx ce noiann pasym n ro caunnana neron
rpniym nan ramnom crpanom yncxnx nha. V onnm onpenama npnnne nanasn ce onpes
npema nncrnnxrnma n npennacr pasyma, cranonnmre xoie n morno na ce nasone n cnnresa
nauena iennncxor nyxa xoin on rnomcxnx necnnxa n aopnsama cenmopnne mynpana nna
npennieno y nnraropeicrno n Hnaronono yuene o mepama crnapn.
) Ca;uaea)a:re ep)uueu npuiame+cmeo
Pnianoernuxe nnn nnrenexryanne npnnne ce rnuy casnanana ncrnne, a one cy npe
cnera snane /nayxa/ n ym. Vm xao moh npnnnnna, saienno ca nncxypsnnnnm snanem snpyxeno
npyxaiy mynpocr
36
, iep nma npenmera yma xoin npenasnnase yncxy cepy, xao mro cy snana
o nopexny cnera
37
n casnanane Fora xao npnonrnor n ocnonnor nauena cnera. Vmonane ie

33
Ap., Pemop., 1, 10, 1368
b
6
36
Ap., EH., 1141
a
19
37
Ap., EH., 1141
b
1-2
43 | a a e

yronnxo nainnma nnianoernuxa npnnna, xoia nonnpe no uncre ymnocrn y nnenrnrery
ysaiamnocrn ca penexcniama xao mnmeny cee camor npema mncnnma o mnmeny.
3aiennnuxe xopncrn, saiennnuxa nopa nnn ocrnapnnane ernuxor nopa oxyna
npnnna npniarecrna. Ocrnapnnane ernuxor nopa ie nainehn n nainnemennrnin nn, na
npanor npniarecrna nma nainnme mehy nopnma, a n ro ie perxocr nororono c osnpom na
nyrorpainocr. Taxo ie mepnno sa yan npema npniarey nneanna yan npem cen, ri.
npema cnoinm naionm crpanama (ne y nynrapnom eroncrnuxom cmncny). V npniarecrno
cnana pax, ponnrecxa n neuia yan, cponnnuxe nese, yunrecxa n yuennuxa yan, xao n
npxanna saiennnna y mnpem cmncny. Poponamepnocr, iennonymnocr n nopounncrno iecy
neno neno nopo ypehenor nonnca. V rome c ornena n nsnecna nnoxanncrnxa, xaxo y
ecrercxom cmncny peun, rne ie ro ncnoanane nennx cnoicrana cneheno y nexnm
nnmensniama xnacnnncrnuxe nnoconie 18.-or nexa /philocalliae aestheticae/, raxo n y
cmncny noporoya xoie ono neno nnnn npe cnera xao nopo, a npema caspenom ynnny na
yrnannom nopn ynn mory na yny n npniaren. Besa onuainocrn n erocnnx nopmn raxo
ce sanpxna npenocom n y sopnnxe re npcre, cnenouehn o xnnornom pasymenany ncxonnmra.

HOHHTHKA H uHHOCOuHJA V PPXABV HPEMA PEAHHHM
PPXABHHM TBOPEBHHAMA
/no)umu:ra numana du)ocoduie ua paeuu ocmeapena nparmu:uux ;aieouuua/
Ono mro ie ernxa sa noiennnna, ro ie nonnrnxa sa ynpyxene noiennnana. Ernxa ie
moryha y saiennnnn xoioi ie ocnonnn onnx noponnna, a nainornynnin npxana, iep ie npema
Apncrorenonom ynepeny, uonex no npnponn nonnrnuxo nhe (ouori ov oyov r;ov, ov
oi:ixov). Ko nnie unan npxane, rai ie nnn snep nnn For
38
. Vnpyxnnanem noponnna nacraie
nacee, a nnme nacea rpan (ri. y iennncxom cxnarany nonnc, npxana). Kaxo nennna nne npe
nennx nenona, npxana ce noxasyie xao neonxonnnia on noponnna n onmrnna, iep ona rexn
nainparonenniem n nainnmem nopy
39
, a rai nainnmn sanarax ie ernuxo nacnnrane rpahana,
raxo na ce xnnor no npnnnn saxrena y npxann. Mehyrnm, Apncroren ie raxohe cmarpao na ie
ycranona poncrna nyxna n na ie npano na Jennnn nnanaiy nan napnapnma, iep ie npema nemy
ro neo yncrna xoin ie npnponno nnxn no oconnama. Taxohe naxn xao npenpacyna n resa o
nonecnocrnma n cnoconocrnma na ocnony renecne mace
40
, mro nne n no onpannanana
rnauena na ocnony ycnexa y pary n nocenonana parnnx sapoennxa y crarycy poa. V

38
Ap., Ho)., 1253
a
27-29
39
Ap., Ho)., 1252
a
1-2
40
Ap., Ho)., 1254
b
29
44 | a a e

nesn ca reopniom poncrna nny n cxnarana exonomcxor xnnora. Onacnocr ie xaxo y
npexomepnom crnnany noapa, raxo n y xnnory y ocxynnnn. Horpea sa pasmenom noapa
pasnnna ce no ycnona nocpenonana nonnem, a y camocncn neronor romnnana xoie snaun
orahene xpnie ce n onacnocr ryena axo my ce npomenn naxene. 3a Apncrorena ie
npornnnpnponno n nerono nanane non nnrepecny xamary
41
, xpos mra ce ocyhyie senenamrno.
Ca rnme on pann n noponnunn xnnor n npnnarny cnoinny, iep n saiennnmrno nmonnne
nno nsnop sa ecxpaine npennpxe, a nn npxana ne naa na rexn iaxoi nenrpannsannin, nero
na nonycrn pasnoi ypohennx cnoconocrn noiennnana na nopo saiennnne. Vspox
npymrnenor sna nnie y npnnarnoi cnoinnn, nero y yncxoi snohn, a axo n ce ona yxnnyna
saienno ca nncrnrynniom paxa, necrane n napexnnocr, rocroye n crnnnnocr.
Apncroren ie onanno Hnaronony samncao xomynnrapnsma xao nonecny sa npxany,
nanonehn xao moryha ypehena xpaencrno, apncroxparniy, penynnxy, rnpannny, onnrapxniy
n nemoxparniy xao nnanannny naimnpnx naponnnx maca n nsnprnyhe penynnxe: Tnpannna
ie monapxnia pann xopncrn camonpmna, onnrapxnia pann xopncrn nmyhnnx a nemoxparnia
pann xopncrn cnpomamnnx, ann nopy nene saiennnne ne cnyxn nnienna.
42
Hpoceuno
naion onnx nnanannne ie sa cne n nainonecnnin, a ro ie penynnxa na cpennnn nsmehy
onnrapxnie n nemoxparnie n rne cpenna xnaca nma nomnnanran nonoxai xoin omoryhana
ynyrpamne ycanpmanane n pasnoi. Fynyhn na crpacrn noxnene sa ryhnm nopnma n npcxocr
n nacne nnacronpxana norpecaiy remee npxane: rpaie camo ona npxana y xoioi nnana
iennaxocr no sacnysn n cnaxo nonia cnoie
43

Hnienan rpahannn nnie nopo na pasnnie cnoiy nonnrnuxy moh npexo norpene mepe iep
nouacna mecra xnape uonexa n ne moxe cnaxo na nonnece cpehy
44
, a on cnera ie nainaxnnie
nacnnranane y cxnany c ycranom, iep ce na nera naa nannhn n nocrarn nacnnran y neronom
nyxy.
45
Fannrn ce nonnrnxom snaun nenonarn xao rpahannn, xaxo onai xoin nnana, raxo n onai
xoinm ce nnana, ca unme ce nonnrnuxa reopnia opaha y onmrocr, na ycrannn saxon
omoryhana npannn nopenax nonnrnxe ca xoinm ce iemun cynenonane rpahana y npxannom
xnnory. Honnc xocrnryncan cnoonom rpahana nma sa canpxai yncxo nncrnonane cnaxor
noiennnna, a ro ie onpehene xoie ce nyrem yncxe npnpone nasnauana xao cnpxa xoia ce
ncxasyie aprnxynncannm ronopom n ymom, re nma sa canpxai nerony cymrnny. Honnrnunocr
raxo nonpasymena ymnn npymrnenn nopenax, raxo na ie rpan-npxana, nonnc xao ronoc
nonnrnuxor nncxypca, ncronpemeno ronoc pasnoia yma xao nerona axryannocr./Ap. Ho).,
1253
a
9-11/.

41
Ap., Ho)., 1258b1 (nnnn n cnnce Cn. Ipnropnia Hncxor `Hpomue ;e)euaua`, xao n cranone Cn. Tome
Axnnncxor Contra ususarios)
42
Ap., Ho)., 1279
a
28
43
Ap., Ho)., 1207
a
20-27
44
Ap., Ho)., 1308
b
10-13
43
Ap., Ho)., 1310
a
12-18
45 | a a e

unnn ce na ry Apncroren cryna sa Hnarononnm rparonnma, rnpnehn xpos penexcnie o
renesn crnapn xaxo yncxa npnpona nocraie casnarnna rex xana y ncropniy nyrem nonnca
cryna ymno npymrno n axryannocr yncxe npnpone xao mohn nncrnonana. Cnyrne rne
uonex spnnana n nponsnonn crnapn neh ie npncyran ym, iep uonex ne nponsnonn crnapn on
npnpone (xao xnnornna: nuena, xpana, xosa...), a nn ayromarnsmnma nnn cnyuainnm
norahanem, nero snanauxnm nocrynnnma nnn merononorniom cnponohena, rne na neno cryna
ym. Honnc ie na rai naunn nnhen xao `uonex y nennxom`, y xome uonex noiennnan nocnena no
moryhnocrn na nocrnrne nnacrnro nncrnonane. Hoiennnan ynasn y rpahancrno xao onai xoin
xpos cyiexrnnno onpenennane `yun` n xpos nponec nsyuanana crnapn crnue npnsnane
xoie iemun neron craryc. Kana ie xpos yuene nocneo no onnananana n ymemnocrn ca
crnapnma, nocrynaiyhn ca nnma na osnan n cyncrannnianan naunn, nerono mnmene
nonia rexnny. On nera ce cnyma caner o npannm onnyxama n nennma: V Onnmnnin ce ne
onenuanaiy nonopnxama onn xoin cy npema cnoinm moryhnocrnma nainenmn n naiiaun, nero
onn xoin ce raxmnue. /HE, 1099
a
3-5/ Cpeha ce xoncrnrynme y ymnom snany n mohn
noiennnna noxasyiyhn ce xao naanocr nnn ocnocoenocr sa onpehene crnapn, ri. xao
npnnna xoia ornapa npnnanny moryhnocr nopor nsnpmanana nena, na naan naunn. Taxo ie
naanocr, cnoconocr nnn npnnna, pennmo oxa, cacroin ce y rome na nopo nnnn, a ne na
yne onennneno.
Bpnnna raxo yxyuyie y ycnenocr, onronopnocr, noysnanocr n ocnocoenocr sa npany
onnyxy na ce nenyie y npano npeme, ynomanaiyhn npanennocr, pasopnrocr, xpapocr,
narocr, ynonehn y enemenr onmrocrn xao momenar unpcrnne n camocrannocrn rpahancxor
xnnora. Honnrnuxo nponnnane cmncna oncranxa uonexa xoin ce ncxyuno ns saiennnne n
ceie nonemnunocr n pasnope oxo cee xao nainnnnie nhe, xon Apncrorena nonnaun ynnn na
onnma xoin ne unne nopo, ne moxe nn na yne nopo /Ap. Ho)., 1323
b
31-32/, iep ne moxe na
npnann cen pasymno nnanane, camnm rnm nn crane cpehe xoie moxe na yne nsnprnyro
mohnma cynnne, ann ne no rome mro my ie npyxena naanocr rpahancxor xnnora ca xoiom
ymom moxe na ce nocn n cannana cnoiy cynnny. Hsnpxarn cnoiy cynnny n ymom ie
cannanarn, y rome ce cacroin yncxa ennaimonna, cpeha noiennnna y xoioi on nonasn no cnor
camoonpehena n npyxa pasnor opmnpana onpehenor nonnrnuxor noperxa.
H ry ce Apncroren ynpyxyie ca Hnaronom xoin ie nayxy o npxann nocranno na ocnony
naanocrn y ymehy xao cranemxoi npoecnonannocrn nnn meponannoi npncranocrn y
cranemxnm pasnnxama. Kpos opauyn ca concrnxom on ie orxpno ancrpaxrno nsnprane
nosnnnia, y xoioi noiennnan cnoiom noom moxe cee camor na cynpocrann onmroi non
nonnca, re na n ce xao moh nerannie nonnrao npornn saxona n rpannnnie xoia ra yremeyie.
Apncrorenona npnmena ie na ie cranex cyncymnpao noiennnna onnaiaiyhn ra on nnacnnmrna
n amnnnie, mro on nacroin na nparn ne yxnnaiyhn mynpocr onnaiana npymrna na cranemxe
npnnannocrn: Ha onmre crnapn mncnn ce camo yxonnxo ce rnuy noiennnna /Ap. Ho).
1261
b
34-35/. Tamo rne nnie ysero y osnp ono mro ie moie, ro npecraie sa mene n yonmreno
46 | a a e

na yne moia npxana n orannna ie ramo rne mn ie nopo, xaxe crapa nocnonnna.
Ocrnapene yncxor nncrnonana y uncrom canpmencrny xoin ie Hnaron samncnno na moxe
na nocrnrne nomouy yremennana nneanne npxane, ncnycrnno ie ns nnna neno yncxo
onpehene, nanme npncycrno noiennnana xao nnunocrn ri. nocnnana npne cyncrannnie xoia
caunnana npxany ne xao uncro iennncrno, nero xao iennncrno mnomrna ca pasnonpcnomhy n
orarcrnom nnunnx xnnora xoie unne neno one cpehe. Onpehene nainnmer nopa rnme ce
xepmeneyrnuxn pasnnia ns npencrana o cpehn, na ce nnunn xnnor noxasyie y neronom
xoncrnryrnnnom snaueny sa nonnc, iep ra ycpehyie.
Ono mro onnaia samncao nneanne npxane on Apncrorenone reopnie nonnrnxe ie mncao
na uonex nsnan cnor rpahancxor craryca nnmra ne npencrana, xao na moxe na ce nomncnn
na Hnaron nnie aprnxynncao na nn noiennnan nan ynore nocnona rpahancxor cranexa n
neronor nena nma n nesanncny onmry npennocr. 3aro npniarecrno na xoie mncnn
Apncroren nma ncro snauene sa nonnc xao n npanennocr. Cponcrna n npniarecrna unne
xnnor noiennnna xoin xnnn xao npyr xon crona n ornnmra y xyhn xao saiennnnn
cnaxnnamnnne. Hpniarecrna, sanpyre n canesn pana n xynra, para, norpea n nocmprnnx
nouacrn, unne ro one nnunor xnnora, a rai onuainn xnnor ce y rpany xao nonnrnuxoi
saiennnnn `cnoxene nenonnrocrn` npeopaxana na oe n ycanpmana nnxony cyncrannniy,
iep: ncra ce ymna npnpona xao y rpany nanasn neh y nomahnncrny na ceny /Ap. Ho).,1253
a
18/.
Taxo n nnococxn xnnor nnie nnmra npyro nero ono naioe y rpahancxom xnnory,
noxasyiyhn reopnicxy cnpxy xoia ie camom nonncy nocranena on npnpone, nerono
nepcnexrnnncrnuxo camonncrnonane. Taxo uncra naanocr cranemxe npnnannocrn nnie
nonona sa npymrno, iep ce ernuxa npnnna y nemy onpxana xpos yncxn nopenax
noponnunnm onuainma n npniarecrnom. 3a nonnc ie raxo nainnme nopo onuainn
rpahancxn xnnor xao cyncrannnia npannor n nonnrnuxor noperxa. `Ounncxn onuain` nonase
no cnor ncnynena y spenocrn nonnca raxo na ce y npnxnarany nocena nopa ncxyuyie
cnoamne ysnmane nexor nopa xoie n ce nanpehnnano xao noceno naxehe. Hpano nopo
mopa uonexy na croin na pacnonarany xao nnacrnro nopo sa uonexa /Ap. Ho)., 1096
b
34/, a
ono ce xao nopo no cen onarne noxasyie nnn reopnicxn nsnnaun xao npana ncrnna xoia
npenna xao ncrnna mnornx noapa. 3nauai opasonana ry ie nnme nero ynaxen, iep na n ce
crexao nornen na nennny ns xoie ce nponenyiy crnapn, opasonane ie neonxonno na ce reme
nonene no nonmana /HE, 1095
b
6/. uonex raxo no ocrnapena nnacrnre npnpone ne nocnena no
npnponn, nero ernuxn ca ocrnapnnanem pasnoine cnpxe xoia nonn nonpmeny no nonycrnne
ycanpmenocrn. Bpnnna n naanocr nama ynnma ne pacry on npnpone /EH. 1103
a
19/, a
iennna moryhnocr on npnpone ie onuai nnn nannxa. Taxo ie uonex nainpe onapen
moryhnocrnma, a sarnm nx ocrnapyie nnn nyrem pasnoine cnpxe npnnonn nonpmeny. uonex y
rsn. `npnponnom crany` sanpano ie cano arperar nnn cemenxa, xnnna xoia moxe na ce pasnnie,
na ce ne xaxe rpye, cnponnna xoia nponana axo ocrane es opasonana n opane xoia ra
pasnoinnm cnpxama ynyhyie na ncxonnmra nocroiana. uonex yser cam sa cee raxo ne moxe
na nocne y yncxn xnnor n Hnaronona nanneia nonono ce yxyuyie na n camonone
47 | a a e

momenre uonexa opnienrncana npema ooi cynnnn xoia my npnnana y neo, na `xnnn na
noap naunn`. Jep camo onai xo na rai naunn xnnn n moxe na yne npann npniare, onai xoin
nema y cen nonnoienocrn ancrpaxrnnx cnoamnnx nopmn n nenpennnnnnnx, hynnnnx
nonamana xoia ra nocpamyiy n npen camnm coom, ynocehn nemnpe n pasnope y xnnor.
Hmanennnia nopa moxe raxo na ce yunnn xao emnnpnicxa unnennna, mro ona xon
Apncrorena nnie, neh npe unnennna casnainoxpnrnuxor xapaxrepa, xoia ycnone cnor naxena
noxasyie `no cen` n `sa nac` na ienan naunn onnananana nenom unennunom nnmecrpnomhy
n nnmecnoinomhy. 3a ro nnie nonoan cam `snpan pasym` pyxonohen onaxannma xoie ce
cnaxy y ncxycrno na ocnony xoinx ce xao npnmepa npmn nponena, neh n xoncrnryncane
noimona xoin raxne npnmepe oyxnaraiy y axpnnnin onehnnana, mro camo uyno sa crnapn
raxohe naa na oyxnarn xao ynnn nnn reopnicxo cranonnmre.
Camo yncxo nncrnonane, a ne nenocpenna, ancrpaxrna npnpona uonexa, iecre mepnno
cnera ernuxor n nonnrnuxor nenonana. V cxnany ca onnm, on cnnx onnxa npxannocrn,
Apncroreny ce xpaencrno unnn na onronapa nainnmnm mepnnnma ycnen xpaine cnnunocrn
ca oxancxnm ynpananem cnemnpom. Kao na y nonem perncrpy iom ynex onsnana
Hnaronona nneia Popa unin cy uynapn nnocon, ma xonnxo na ie oxono xana ce nomnma
na ro na camo sor raxnor snana onn rpea na yny n nnanapn xpaencxor panra. Hn Hnaron
nnie saopanao na nanomene, na xana ce rai xpaencxn nopenax nsnprne y cnoiy
cynpornocr, nonia ce rnpannna xao nairopn moryhn onnx nnacrn. Ppxana n raxo morna na
ce ycnocrann xao nncrnrynnia, xoia n sa cne ocrane nncrnrynnie morna na iemun, na y nnma
naisnauainnie yncxe crnapn nmaiy cnoie npano ynaxanana, ann ro n nno nnax nemro
cacnnm pasnnunro on ncropnicxn pasnnienor monena mohn n nnanannne pamnpene y cnery
nanac. yncxa ce npnpona pannoinna y cnercxoncropnicxom nponecy nopenaxa nopexna n
orarcrna nyxa (onuainocr), on nerone ancrpaxrne npnponne norpee xoia ce y npymrny
nnaue ocrnapyie (npocnernrecrno npoecnia n pacrpxyha cyiexrnnnocr cxnonocrn),
unnehn ony nopo nosnary crnncxy nrypy `homo duplex`. Artifex xao npoiexronan n
ncapnxonan uonex iypnnnuxnx nopmarnna y canpemennm npxanama, es yxyuene
penexcnie y meracyiexrnnne npymrnene nponece xoin ra onnaro nannnase, npe ie yunnax
xoin uonexa nonn na ncnxonomxa caneronana n xayu sa neuene nyme, neronn nexn
ymernnuxn `habitus virtu`, rne ce na pasanpe cacnnm mra ie nocena nanapenocr, a mra cy
nymenna crpanana n nocpnyha. Ona nyxornna cnera rpancnennenrannnx amnonnia
noimona, xoin cexy ns nomena nonnrnuxe npaxce n uonexone camonsnecnocrn nnacrnror
nncrnonana, n none no ornapana onnx pana xoie roi ncrpaymarnsonanocrn camo y nepcxn
orpenoi nann moxe na nonynn moryhnocr sanennana, yxonnxo iom nma cnare na ce
yxaxe nonepene rpoinnn xpnmhancxnx Anocrona xoin cy ocnenouenem Foroyncxe npnpone
Cnna Foxnier na ropn Tanop yrnenann necrnopeny oxancxy cnernocr n ocnenounnn Cnery
Tpoinny xao ncxoncxn cornpnonomxn xopnsonr saneena came yncxe npnpone, npnonrno
casnane na nnx n nononie Foxnie.
48 | a a e

Jom ie Kanr ncrnnao xaxo y nocroiancrno uonexa cnana ro na nma pennrniy, no uera ie
on nomao pecrpnnryiyhn casnaine nomere rsn. `uncror yma` na n ocranno npocrop sa
pennrniy n nneie xoie xao moropn nyxa npyxaiy uonexy ncrpainocr y ynepennma n nerony
mopanny cnary. Peannsanniy re nneie cnponeo ie Xeren na pannn anconyrnor nyxa,
nonpasymenaiyhn npenas mopannrera y onuainocr nnn hynopennocr, yremeyiyhn nocnnocr
came pennrnosne nneie ynyrap npymrna n saxona npema xoinma ce ono perynnme y
nnoconin npxannor npana. Cyiexar ce pasymena ncronpemeno xao cyncrannnia, a ro ie
moryhe ynpano na ocnony nneine cnare xoia ra peanno nsrpahyie xao nnunocr n nonpxana y
xnnornnm ncxymennma n nonomnma. Ty ne moxe na yne onopeno nnxaxno nponsnono
nnn hynnno nnepennnpane es yrnphnnana pasnora y nnianexrnuxom xperany , a xoie npn
rome ne n nnianexrnuxo pasoryhnnane on `camocxpnnene nespenocrn` cacenano y xopeny.
Cnaxo nncrnonane xoie ce npymrneno nncxnannnxyie y ncropnicxom n ernuxonyxonnom
cmncny, sanpano ie crnap cyiexrnnnor ocehana n mnenana xoia nonnaiaiy ayrenrnuno
npymrneno nncrnonane n ocamocranno nncrnonane uonexa. Te cyiexrnnncrnuxe
crparernie cnmynannia n cnmynaxpyma cy nneonaxcnie ocpennocrn /npnmep
cpennoenponcxor mannpa nncoxomopannor camonpencranana ca xnnorom `y nnein` n
ncronpemeno cacnnm nnnnepenrne y xomonnin sanemapnnana npnnnnna npema norpen/,
iep ynoce cenexrnnan npncryn npema peannoi onronopnocrn. Pyannsam re npcre ie n sa
Apncrorena nenpnxnarnn, iep ie cama crnapnocr no nemy ycroiena xao iennncrnenn cner
noiana n crnapn .
46
Mennoxpnrercrno camo cnoa nocn n nosnaie npnnny, rpernpaiyhn ie xao
`nonrpeiany nonnny`, ne saro mro ie nonn, nero saro mro ce nnamn xoncexnennn onuainor n
nopmarnnnor nepnnxra, xoier he saro y npaxcn reopernsannie nacroiarn na penarnnnsyie no
xpainnx moryhnx rpannna. Ppymrnenn xomonnrer saxrena n caopaxanane y npannoi
xomonnin, ne rpnehn nn omrpniy xpnrnxy es ocnere, cnycrnmo ce nye y ncropniy, xao y
cnyuaiy xaxnanana n nporona Cn. Maxcnma Hcnonennnxa nnn Cn. Jonana 3naroycror y
Bnsanrnin. Cn. Ipnropnie Hncxn ie nserao ocyny npymrnenor mennoxpnrercrna, ann cranna
onryxnnana sa `nnococrnonane` cnenoue o nenaronn xoia nnana y nrepnperanniama
neronnx mncnn. Connianna reopnia xoia nonpasymena `iax nacryn` npornn `iaxe npxane`
ncnynene nenpanennm crnnannma orarcrna n nannpnnrannm n pacxanamnnm nhnma

46
V cynpornom n xnnor mopao na ce onnnia camopasnnoieno, re n mopao na ocraie y ernuxnm noneonnma
nonnca es rpannna, nonyr `nexapa es rpannna` xoin ecnnarno neue one xoie ie neh ynecpehno
cynepcnrnarypannsonan meranonnrnuxn cyiexrnnnrer (mehynaponnnm npanom nocrnrnyrn nsymn nonnx nopmn
rnoannor noperxa xao mehynannonannn emapro, mehynannonanna xanmena n sarnapana /cnomennmo
ramnnny Inanranamo, Xar/ nnn nncxpennronana unrannx napona n nnxonnx npxannnx ersncrennnia),
npncnaiaiyhn onpeneena n nnacrnrnx nonannxa xoin ce npornn raxnnx axnnia yne, xao xao nerono
mnorocrpyxo cnoiarane npannunocrn, noneyiyhn ro cen no npnnnnny mohn xao excxnysnnno npano /rsn. Lex
specialis, xoin ce npe cnera Cpnma xecroxo ono o rnany/.

49 | a a e

xoinma ie nneonaxcnia n npareha naronornia crnn xnnora, cnaxaxo na remxo nannasn na
onopanane, npernapaiyhn ce axo ne y `rnac canecrn`, a ono y `nanniyher y nycrnnn`.
Mn xnnnmo ncronpemeno n y npymrny, a n ns neronor ncropnicxor nopexna, n xao
noiennnnn nenpncrynaunn cmo saxnarannma y anrnrernuxom nxcnpany npannnx
nopmarnna, npesacnhennx cnopnnm reopniama npana xoie ce ysaiamno nopnuy. To unnn na
romnnane nanncropnicxnx n nannosnrnnnnx npennocrn y nonnrnuxnm sanpranannma n
ocrnapnnannma nnena nnanana nsanyie nonmane nyxonne crnapnocrn y onnoien noiam n
nacryna es nera, xauehn ra sa nexe myseicxe cnpxe y xo sna xoinm xomnnanniama y nanm
cnopennma oxo xynrypnnx crannapna n npennocnnx nnnoa snauena nsrpanne npymrna xao
`nnnepcxe npxane`, `npocnepnrernnx nnsnia` nrn. Hpanna y npany neoma uecro saxasyie, a
npanennocr xao na ie oner nocrano nemro xao ncropnicxn pennxr xoin nnme nnun na
myseicxy nrypy nero na ysop no xome ie noap xnnor moryh y `iaxnm peannnm npxanama`.
Vronnxo ie cnernocr ncnxacrnuxor yuena, xoia ie nonpxana anocroncxnm npeiemcrnom n
npenanem Xpncrone Hpxne xoia ra ie orornopno n xpcronocno npenocnna no namnx nana,
rnenano ns ecxaronomxnx xopnsonara nnarononcxe nnoconie nonnrnxe ono, xoie uonexy
nonono namenyie craryc nnunocrn, ri. ynyhyie ra na na nnacrnry cyncrannniannocr ns xoie
ce nrepaxrnnno ornapa xopnsonr pexynepnnie cnnx semacxnx enemenara npanne npxane n
nene sacnnnaiyhe cymrnne, ynyhyiyhn xa neecxnm pannnma xoie none y cmnpene nyxa n
carnacnocr ca crnapnma.










50 | a a e

II HPEBA3HA PA3BOBA

HOHHTHuKA uHHOCOuHJA H JEHHHHCTHuKA EHOXA

Omrpo cynpocranane iennna n napnapa xoie ie ycnennno xao pesynrar nsrpahene
nnoconie xynrype xon Hnarona n Apncrorena, nnie y ynyhnocrn morno na ce onpxn
ynpano pann rora mro ie nacnnrna ynora noconie cacnnm cnnsnna cnoie xpnrepniyme
pasymenana nsnopnnx enomena. V cnom arannsmy cronuapn cy noxymann na naunne
pasnnxy nsmehy yspoxa na n `nexe crnapn nsysenn ns nyxnocrn, a npyre ioi nonpennnn`,
nocmarpaiyhn camy npnpony xao nanrencrnuxy cnny xoia nounna na mnnocrn oaspnnor
npncrynana. H yncxy cy namer cxnarann xao nonpaxanane npnpone, na xan Cenexa y
npnom nexy nocne Xpncra nnra `Quid est ergo ratio?`, n mra ie ro pasym, naie onronop na ie ro
npyra npnpona xnnora `secundam naturam vivere`, ona xoia nacraie xpos neno nonpaxanane -
`naturae imitatio`. Hpana orannna uonexa raxo ie nniarnocrnnxonana xao meranononncnn
xocmoc, na ie npann rpahannn nsiennauen ca xocmononnrcrnom, ynonehn ancrpaxrny ernxy
connnapnocrn cnnx ynn. Ca rnme ce xperano npema ynoheny nexor `nononnunor poncrna` y
cnenonpehyiyhoi nyxnocrn, xaxo ie ersncrennnia rana noxnnanana, ynonehn xomnpomnce
xoin he nonainnme n na npexnnanaiy. To ie nno cranonnmre narypanncrnuxe onronornie,
ienan nanrensam xoin na cnoi naunn onana crapy Tanecony rnpnny na ie cne nyno orona.
Marepnianna npnpona xao ynex n cnyna npoxera oxacrnenomhy npernapa ce y
xnnepnsnxanncrnuny reonorniy oxancrana xoia renecno opane ynyrap npnpone, iep ie
ona cna renecna. Cne ancrpaxrne noimone onn cy nouenn na nmenyiy renecnnm (n nymy n
nopo n mynocr)anopnsyiyhn rnoceonorniy noxopnnx npnmana yrncaxa o cnoamnnm
npenmernma, mro oner nncy nn nnenmaronomxa renecnocr Cn. An. Hanna, nnrn `reno rena`
Cn. Ipnropnia Haname, nero nanpocro nexe marepnianno nponnennie cymrnne.
Ocnaiana unnnna Maxenoncxor, a noceno ona neronor cnna Anexcannpa, npomnpnna
cy xaxo nonnrnuxe, raxo n nyxonne xopnsonre iennncxor cnera na npyre napone. Knacnuny
enoxy nounne na onmenyie iennnncrnuxa naxon nennxor exymencxor noxona Anexcannpa
Bennxor (334-323 r. npe PX.), xoin ie noneo no pannxannnx npeoxpera y rpuxom nyxonnom
cnery. Vpymnna ce samncao nonnca, xana ie naxon opmannor ynaxanana rpanona-npxannna
on crpane unnnna Maxenoncxor, neron cnn n nacnennnx na npecrony Anexcannap
ecnomrenno rome npernocranno ynnnepsanny oxancxy monapxniy, y xoiy ie oiennnno
npxane, napone n pace. Haxon nerone cmprn 323 r., noianyiy ce nona napcrna y Ernnry,
Cnpnin, Maxenonnin n Hepramy xoie cy nnacr xonnenrpncane y cnoinm pyxama, na ie
ayronomnia rpanona-npxannna onnasnna y npomnocr iep ce pasnnasnna ca nyxom none enoxe.
147 r. npe PX. Ipuxa nocraie pnmcxa nponnnnnia, na ono mro nnie no xpaia ycneno
51 | a a e

Anexcannpy nna oaneno pnmcxnm xononnsanniama. Jennnncrnuxe monapxnie nacrane na
pasnannnama Anexcannponor napcrna nacnnranane cy nonannxe, a ne nnme xnacnune rpahane
nonnca. Crape rpahancxe npnnne cne cy nnme samennnane nonnm rexnnuxnm nannxama;
onmrn nocnonn ce naiy ynxnnonepnma a noinnnn nocraiy xynnn, na nacraiy enomenn
mopanne nnnnepennnie. Kocmononnrnsam sa orannny cmarpa can cner n crana y
sarpane iennncrno uonexa n rpahannna, raxo na ie nno neonxonno rparane sa nonom
nnenrnnxanniom. Hona peannocr nna ie raxo nponahena y aromn-sonanoi ersncrennnin, y
nnnnnnnyymy. Cxonno rome n unan npxanne saiennnne no ie nyxan na carpann cnoi cner, a
nerpanannia crapor rpahancxor nneana nenonparno ie cnponenena uax n y Arnnn. Mehy-rnm,
nponanasax nnacrnre nnunocrn ie ocnoahao, a ca rnme saienno nnn cy nonesann
excnenrpnunn excnecn n nnnnnnnyannsma xao conniannor nnnnepenrnsma. Hnrenexryanna
n npnponna pannorexa rexnne cy na yny ouynane, a necnocne eroncrnuxe crpacrn
ncrncnyne cy y npnn nnan ernxy nesanncno on nonnrnxe. Cyiexrnnno cxnarane xoie ce
ycrannno ca npecranxom nocroiana npymrnene cnecrn o recnom saiennnmrny y anrnuxom
nonncy naano ie na nahe nyrene yxnanana y npxannn nopenax n nahe anexnaran nonoxai sa
uonexa y xocmocy, a na on ne yrpoxana nocroiancrno neronor nyxa. Beh ie Teopacr y
Hnxeiy noiauanao xonopnr cpencrana sa ecrercxy xomnosnnniy ronopnnuxe ymernocrn,
narnamanaiyhn nepannn enemenr nopen Apncrorenonnx saxrena sa iacnomhy n
npnxnannomhy, nonaiyhn raunocr n yxpamenocr. V mysnnn ie nonesnnao monyce ca
nymennnm crannma, ne ynyhyiyhn nnme xao Apncroren na xanryc xapaxrepa n ncnpannocr
npxana c osnpom na npncrany npnnny, saoxpehyhn npema rexnnuxnm anannsama
cnnxonnror nsrnena crnapn, nnme nero npema noimonnnm nnnonnma. Moxe ce pehn na ie y
onom nepnony n ecrernxa n npymrnena mncao crynnna y cran pasnnxe n npema Hnarononnm n
Apncrorenonnm cranonnmrnma c rnme mro ce nomnnanran mysnuxn yxyc onpehnnao xao
cxnonocr xpomarcxoi mysnnn ca cnaenem nese nsmehy mopannor npxana n mysnuxnx
monyca, re ca crananem axnenra na rexnnxy nsnohena, raxohe ce ryn n orannncxn nnn
sannuaino-npxannn ocehai sa npnmapne nonnrnuxe nneie, yranaiyhn ce y ynnnepsannn n
xocmononnrcxn. Jennnnsam cy yonmreno nnme sannmane nnonannie xoinma ce nocrnxy
nsnecnn snyunn eexrn n npareha cnoamna onpehena nonnrnuxor xnnora, neronn cama
nnxona yonmrennia snauena.


HHVCTPATHBHH HPHMEPH EHOXAHHOI HPEHA3A

1.1 Hane1nje ce ponno 185 r. npe n.e. y Hnnny na Ponocy n ympo nouerxom I nexa. 3a
neron xnnor no ie snauaian onnasax y Pnm n nosnancrna xoia ie ramo cxnonno, npe cnera ca
Hynniem Kopnenniem Cxnnnonom Apnxannem Mnahnm n ncropnuapem Honnniem.
Hocnennnx ronnna xnnora opanno ie y Arnnn nomaxyhn Anrnnarepy y nacrann, a sarnm ra
52 | a a e

n nacnehyiyhn, raxo na ie nocrao noha y Cron 129 r., nonocehn cnany cnoioi mxonn. Cmarpao
ie na ie ym ono mro uonexa y nainehoi mepn unnn uonexom, re na n npn nainehnm renecnnm
ononnma naa onpxarn nnacr yma. V rom cmncny merponarnia nma npennocr npen nauenom
anarnie, re enrnmnia nnn nymenno cnoxoicrno nocraie nanexo naxnnia on anconyrne anarnie
mynpana. Hacynpor cnoinm nperxonnnnnma xoin cy onannnann sanonocrno xao crnap
npnmnrnnnor naroncxor momenra ersncrennnie, on ra ysnma xao cacnnm npnponno xana ce
yxnna c mepom, ann ne n xao cnpxy nenana xoia n caunnanana nainnmy panan yncxor
nocroiancrna. Ona ce nocrnxe rex ynpaxnananem anaxonyrnuxnx nnn reopnicxnx, xao n
npaxrnuxnx npnnna, unin ce cmncao nanasn y nnunoi uonexonoi nocrnrnyroi naxenocrn. Vm
naronnma noxasyie nyr onpehyiyhn nm mepy, onpxanaiyhn na rai npnponan naunn npnencrno
n nnacr. Teopniy cnercxor noxapa ie nanycrno, iep ie no cnmnarnsep nneie o neunocrn cnera.
Pyxnocrn ie ncrnnao nsnan cnera n nnie ocranao mecra sa anarniy, samenyiyhn ie yuenem o
enrnmnin nnn nymennom cnoxoicrny, mro ie xpos rpaxrar `O ovruocmu` snauaino yrnnano
na Hnnepona.
47
Kao ocnenouenn npncrannna cronuxe nneie noroca es mxoncxe
ycxorpynocrn, sacrynaiyhn n conniannn nernrnmnrer mohn xao crnap nonepena, npnsnana n
yxasane nouacrn napona, on ce nesyie sa nopo xao npnnnnn onuainocrn, ri. sa nneiy
xymanocrn.
1.2 Hocejaonnje (140/130-51 r. npe n.e.), ie pohen y rpany Anameia y Cnpnin. Haunnno
ie onmna nayuno-ncrpaxnnauxa nyronana no Hrannin, Iannin, Hnrypnin, Bnannin,
Cnnnnnin n Cenepnoi Apnnn, nouenmn xao yuennx Hanernia. Vpso ce npecenno n ornopno
nony mxony na Ponocy, ca oiamnenem na cna ncrnna nnie saxyuena y normama Tpema,
pasnniaiyhn nae cronuxn nnaronnsam, ri. neryiyhn reopnicxa casnana.
48
On, nanme y Croy
nonono npaha npnponne nayxe, n xaxo my ro xacnnin npencrannnnn mxone npeanyiy -
`apncrorennme`. unsnxa ie sa nera nna reno n xpn nayxe, nornxa nen xocryp, a ernxa nyma,
raxo na ie nocneo no ynnna xaxo nayxa rpea na cnyxn npe cnera ernuxom nsrpahnnany n
nocroiancrny cnnx ynn. Hpanoiana nerone nnoconie iecre cam xnnor xoin cnnm nhnma
naie cmncao xpos cnmnose nnn cnmonnie cnmnarnia. Mehyrnm, npema nemy aexrnma nnie
xopen y pasymy, nero y napanornuxnm nymennnm cnnama xoie nananaiy pasym n norncxyiy ra
no rpannna neronor neher nnn maner orcycrnonana. Hnax, na n cnoie sanarxe meponanno
ncnynno, uonexy ie ym neonxonan. Ennapn Henep ra ie ncrnnao xao `naiynnnepsannniy rnany
nocne Apncrorena`, Bepnep Jerep ie y nemy nnneo nperxonnnxa nononnaronnsma, a A. u.
Hocen Hnarona no nynnn mncnn n Apncrorena no ennnxnonennunocrn. V mxonn ie xao
nnuan ecennnx nsamao na noap rnac, na ie xao amacanop Ponoca nocerno Pnm 86. r. n
ynosnao ce ca pnmcxom apncroxparniom (xacnnie ra ie na Ponocy nocerno Hnnepon ca 28
ronnna n 62. r. Homnei, nparnnmn ce ns Cnpnie.) Ponyme, naiyhn npennocr nsnuxnm
nsyuanannma nonyr neronor yunrea Hanernia, on ie reopniy nneia n poiena noxymao na

47
Diog. Laert. IX, 20; Cic. De officiis, I, 106.
48
unnoconia ie no nemy nosnanane oxancxnx n yncxnx crnapn n nnxonnx yspoxa /Seneca, Epist., 85,5/
53 | a a e

oiennnn ca neyrpannsmom cnercxe narpe, a nonycrno na cnery npnnanaiy cepnune
xapmonnie, xao n yuene o ceon nyme. Vs ono yuene on ce ocnanao n na yuena o nemonnin n
manrnnn nponsamna ns rpuxe naponne pennrnie, oiennnanaiyhn raxo reonomxn
nneymarnsam narpe, nnaronnuxy reopniy nneia n yuene o ecmprnocrn nyme. Pemonono reno
ie narpeno n erepnuno, a npopnnane ie moryhe na ocnony cnercxe narpe xoia cnyna nponnpe n
cne npoxnma, re ie npopnnane cynnne nonymreno n na ocnony onmrer cronuxor ynepena y
ersncrennniy aryma, rne nenpomennnn saxon ynpana cnnm noianama y npnponn. Onaxna
cnnresa cnoi nainnmn nspas nnax ie nonna rex y nononnaronnsmy.
1.3 Mapxo Anpennje crexao ie 176. r. n.e. nennxe sacnyre, xana ie nanoxno na ce y
Arnnn ocnyiy 4 xarenpe: nnaronnuxa, apncro-renoncxa, cronuxa n ennxypeicxa ca npxannnm
nsnpxananem on mnpniane npaxmn ronnmne, a mro ie naano na cnponene Hpon Arnx
nononehn naioe na nnxono ueno ca nornpnom rnacana naionx rpahana na Apeonary.
Taxo ie npnn apxncxonapx no nonpnnnuno nenosnarn Arnx (moxna n y pony ca Hponom
Arnxom xoin ra ie ry ycronnuno), xoin ie y mxoncxom nyxy npomonncao nnaronnsam xao
pennrniy. Hpnxnarao ie na nocroin xaocna nyma cnera non yrnnaiem Hnyrapxa, ann ie ro
cronuxn oiamnanao. 3a nnm ie cnenno Xapnoxparnon ca Aproca n Cenep, unin xomenrap
Hnarononom Tnmaiy nomnny Hnornn n Hpoxno. Arnncxa `mxona Iaia` npouyna ce npexo
Annna xoin ie cacranno Veoo v H)amouoee ouia)oee n Vuoeuur n)amouoecre du)ocoduie,
xoin cy no npnponn exnexrnuxn, cacran-enn on nnaroncxnx, nepnnarernuxnx n cronuxnx
yuena Kon ror Iaia yuno ie 150 r. n Anynei ns Manape (pohen 123 r.), nosnar no cnoinm
Mema+opdo;a+a n 3)amuo+ me)emv, a nomnny ce n rpaxrarn O Corpamoeo+ oe+ouv n O
H)amouv u neeoeo+ v:env. Vs Maxcnma ns Tnpa xoin ie nyronao no unranom rpuxo-pnmcxom
cnery, naa nome-nyrn n Henca xoin ie oxo 160 r. nanncao nonemnuxn anrnxpnmhancxn cnnc
Hcmuuumu eoeop, rne nynrapno memao xpnmhane ca rnocrn-uapnma, a na xoin ie naxon 90
ronnna maecrpanno onronopno Opnren cnoinm cnncom npornn nera. Mehy nocnennnm ce
noianno neunnx n nnoso Knaynnie Ianen (129-200), xoin ie cnymao Annnona npenanana
y Cmnpnn n Iaiena y Hepramy. V cnncy Veoo v )oeurv nnnn ce yrnnai Teopacra n cronuxe
nornxe, na anopnsyie Hocninonnia npnxnaraiyhn nnarononcxy rponenny noneny nyme /O
v:env Xunorpama u H)amoua/.
1.4 Hny1apx (46-127 r.n.e.) ns Xeponeie, rpuxn nncan n mopanncr xoin ie npnnanao
Hnarononoi Axanemnin, ann nocenyiyhn raxohe mnoropoine croinuxe, nnraroponcxe n
nepnnarernuxe yrnnaie. V ecrercxom norneny on ymernocr nnnn xao nopy npnnnxy sa
yxnnane y nonpaxanany, a mro ce cnonn na nnnene nyxy uonexa xoin ie xanap na caunnn
nena xoia nsasnnaiy nnnene. To ie n y cxnany ca nonemnxom xoiy ie nonno ca cronuxnm
narypannsmom n nanrensmom, na ie Hnyrapx no cxnon nonmany marepnie xao xocmnuxor
nauena necanpmencrna xoie ce cynporcrana onocrpanocrn Fora, npnraieno ynonehn
nyannsam. Tpannnnonanny rpuxy mnronorniy on ie mnpno ca nnococxnm monorensmom
naimononorniom (renniannocrnma), raxo na ce nocnyna y neronom necncremarnunom
npncryny nanase nsyseha, cnoicrnena n nynrapnoi iennnncrnuxoi mncnn neronor npemena. V
54 | a a e

cnoinm Mopanniama nncrannnpao ce on pnropnsma n noxercxnx ycxo-crn cronnnsma, a n
Ennxyp ie orpneo omrpy xpnrnxy. On ernuxe nopme nnie nnneo xao yronncrnuxe reopnie
nonyr nnocoa ns Tpema, neh xao nneannsanniy npaxce crapor iennncxor nonnca, na ie
mopannnm rpaxrarnma (`O c)oev E v ue)du+a`, `O H;uou u O;upucv` nrn.) npnnonao nnxnyc
Hapa)e)uux rueomonuca snamennrnx Ipxa n Pnmana xoin oiamnanaiy mopannn nnean y
ncropnin. To ncropnicxo nsnarane nno ie nornyno norunneno mopannoi nponemarnnn,
xpos xoiy ie on ocyhnnao nnnnnnnyanncrnuxn n aconnianan nyx nerone canpemenocrn. Kon
nera raxo nannasnmo na nenaromxo onpannanane ymernocrn y cmncny nemrnne na ce
nponahe nopo cmnmena npnua xoia moxe na onunnn n sanece nocmarpaua. uax n y neny o
mysnnn naxno ie mra npe cnera mncne npyrn o merpy, pnrmy, xonoparypn, xoiy xopncre
necnnnn mononnia, a ynesyiy rparnuapn y ymernocr xopcxor nenana. Ono na uemy ie on
nacroiao iecre nanneia, opasonane n nnanrponnia, uonexoyncrno, xoie xao
mopannonenaromxn cranonn unne ocnony iennncxor xymannsma.
Hocne cmprn Anexcannpa Bennxor nacranena ie iennnnsannia ca Ceneyxnnnma y
Cnpnin, Hronemannnma y Ernnry, a iynancrnuxa xynrypa ce iennnnsyie n nocne ycranxa
Maxaneia (166.-163. npe pohena Xpncronor). 175. r. npe pohena Xpncronor npnocnemrannx
Jacon nonnrao ie rnmnasniy y xoioi ce nsyuana Xomep, a pan Iama-nnen ie nex xacnnie
oyuanao no 500 yuennxa n iennncxe mynpocrn n Tope. Hronomei II (285-246 nne P.X.) ie
sanyxno 72 npesnnrepa na npeneny Crapn saner na rpuxn iesnx, mro ie omoryhnno cycper
ienpeicxe pennrnie n rpuxe mncnn. V ernnarcxoi Anexcannpnin pasnnna ce mxona nouerxom
npnor nexa npe pohena Xpncronor unin ie rnannn npencrannnx unnon, a xoin ie ornopno
npara exnexrnuxom nnaronnsmy, neonnraropeicrny n nosnom cronnnsmy, re nononnaro-
nnsmy xoin ie nmao cnoie mxone y Pnmy, Cnpnin, Hepramy n Arnnn. Jenpeicxo-rpuxa mxona y
Anexcannpnin npononenana ie monorensam, a ne narancxn nonnrensam, re crnapane cnera y
npemeny, a ne nerony neunocr nnn nepnonnuna noiannnana. Fnnniy ona ie npnxnarana xao
cnemrenn cnnc xoin ie moryhe rymaunrn aneropnicxom meronom n xareropniannnm anaparom
cronuxor nnaronnsma. Kao ysopan npnmep iennncxor opasonana na cenepnoapnuxom rny,
xoie ie nno npema resn o namepnoi cnpcncxonnocrn crnopenor n onoromenor cnera, y
roronocrn na ce npoxme ienpeicxnm opmama neponana n xynrnom nponemarnxom,
noxasnnana ie y rome cne npennocrn nnococxor pasymenaiyher crana. Ty cy npnnpemene
n ienennsyiyhe opme rpancopmannia ienpeicxor nyxa, xoie he xacnnie necnnnn nepcxor
npenopona na nponye no cacnnm camocnoinnx nnnona xpnmhancxe nepe.
1.5 mnnon Anexcannpnicxn (15 n.n.e.-50 n.e.) nopexnom ie ns orare ienpeicxe
noponnne y Anexcannpnin, iep ie neron par Anexcannap no nncox nnancnicxn unnonnnx,
a nehax unnon npoxyparop Jyneie (46. n.n.e.) n npeexr Ernnra y noa Hepona. On ce nnie
ynaanao on rpuxe xynrype n nnoconie, neh nx ie ynorpeno sa rymauene ienpeicxnx
Cnernx cnnca, naineponarnnie npema npenony cenamneceropnne. Vrnnai raxo onnxonanor
mnmena nnnnn ie y Knu;u npe+vopocmu Ca)o+ouoeux (nacrana y nexy npe Xpncra), xao
n y npnoi n npyroi Euoxoeoi rnu;u (nononnnom nexa npe Xpncra), neponarno na Knuev
55 | a a e

Hponoeeouura, a moxna n na Knuev o Joev n Hec+v uao Hec+a+a. Ty cy iacne rennennnie xa
xoncrpyncany ancrpaxrnnx noimona, rne ce mynpocr nocrnxe npoyuananem npnpone, nneia
Foxnie npomncnn n sarpone xasne, casnanana nomohy cnona, acrponornie nrn. Jom n y
Hpaeu)uurv ;aieouuue Ecena ncrnnano ce: ov:o :o ov:o :o yivounvo, a mro ie
nonpasymenano ancrpaxrno noimeno pasymenane nncrnyiyher, xoie nne ca onnm mro ie
nacrano n npencrana ncropnicxy nnmensniy. Ha rai ce naunn snnano oiennnanane
Moicnienor Hemornuria ca rpuxom nnoconiom, xoia rennennnia ounrnenno nnie nna
camo unnonona, ann ie xon nera naincraxnyrnie younna. Ha rymauene Crapor sanera
unnon ie npnmenno aneropnicxn meron nnaronnuxor rymauena mnrona, ynonehn na rai
naunn rpuxy nnoconiy y reonorniy. Taxo nnnicxe nnunocrn n norahain cnmonnsyiy
mopanne, nyxonne n meransnuxe noimone n ncrnne, na ie aneropnicxa erseresa nocrana ienna
on napannrmn rymauena n xacnnie narpncrnxe. Hcrnna ce raxo npnana cnoamnom
meronom, xpos nocnonno rymauene ncropnicxor napaiana unnennna ri. cnera oyseror
mnmenem xao neponarnohom xoia nocenyie npnnpemen n necnrypan xapaxrep, re nornynnie
sanonia xpos nen ynyrpamnn neo xoin ce onnocn npenacxonno na nyx, nocrnsanan
npnmenom aneropnicxor merona. Mnore craposanerne nnunocrn raxo nocraiy npencrannnnn
cymrnna noimonne ancrpaxnnie, ornapaiyhn na rai naunn nnrane o moryhnocrnma n
rpannnama onronornsannie c osnpom na ncropnicxa nponecynpana crnapn. Hponem
ncropnie xao nocnona ncrnne xoin ie onne ornopen c osnpom na iyneicxo nacnehe nenor
rymauena, raxohe he ypso na nahe cnoie npannnno pasymenane iom y panoi narpncrnnn, ca
pasmarpanem uonexone cymrnne n nnocrasn npema nocroiancrny crnopena, caunne-nor na
nnx n nononie Foxnie. Ca norpeom sa ncxoncxnm yremen-nanem Foxninx Hnna, ca xoinm
ce opmnpa n xpncronornia, camo ie nornphena ona nepacxnnnna nesa ncropnicxor
yremennana y onronomxom ycrpoicrny nncrnonana, rne iennncrnenocr cymrnne unnn
moryhom pasnnxonane npema nnocrasn, nnn npema cnoicrne-nocrnma rnx nnocrasnnx,
cyiexrnnnnx oenexia cymrnne.
unnon ie raxohe nonasno on rora na ie For cner crnopno ns nenncrnyiyher /nnuera/, a na
my ie xacnnie nao opmy, ca ynepenem na ie npe crnapana nsnuxor cnera crnopno
nnrennrnnnnn xocmoc, a on ie Foxnin Horoc xoin axryanno onnxyie cner. V nonynapany
ca Foxniom Peuiy, nnarononcxe nneie nocrane cy nnocras onpehene mncnn Foxnie - `nneia
nneia`. Horoc ie `npnopohenn cnn` on `necrnopenor Ona` n xao `npyrn For` nenarnn yspox n
nocpennnx nsmehy Tnopna n rnopennne. Horoc ie uynap cnera n nocn ernuxn cmncao npexo
xoier For ycmepana xa nopy n cnaconocnom, iep ie neron nmanenrnn acnexr nenonane
nerenecnor na renecnn cner, canpyhn ra n yiennnyiyhn y xocmoc, osnauanaiyhn cnny nopa
n crnapana (Enoxnm) n saxononanny cnny (Jaxne). yncxn nnrenexr raxo n no nemro
cnopenno na For y nera ne ynaxnyie cnoi Pyx (Hneymy), a ro ie n momenar nyrem xora ce
uonex cnaia ca Forom. Pyma ie yronnxo n ecmprna y onoi mepn, y xoioi ie cnocona na xnnn
y carnacnocrn ca nyxom, a ca unme ce n mrnrnna cymrnna none nepe xoia ce naiannna
xpnmhancrno. Knnmenr Anexcannpnicxn (150-216) ie ymnorome ynpano unnony nyronao
56 | a a e

nsrpanny cnoie xpnmhancxe nporpenrnxe n nenarornie, xao n xacnnie Opnren, Amnpocnie n
Anrycrnn. unnoconia ie raxo sacnnnana oxparanem npema rpaxeny Fora, npnxnaraiyhn n
rymauehn orxpnha y nocnehennm xnnrama.

HPEJHH TOKOBH H BHBE3HAuHOCT KAPAKTEPA PHMCKE VHPABE

Pnmann cy ce pasnnxonann n nonnrnuxn n nyxonno on Ipxa. Pnmcxa ncrnna ie
iennocranna peannocr ynn openo cpencrno npornn nyxancrna n cnnerxapena, xaxo ie ro
oiamnanao Hnnepon. Hcrnna ce nocrnsana y npannnm pacnpanama na cyny, raxo na ie
nonpnmana napnnuxn, iypnnnuxn xapaxrep ynorpenor nopa, pennrnosna nooxnocr ie
nsncxnnana npanennocr npema oronnma y onnxy nomronana (norapniara nocnonne
nooxnocrn y npopuyny monnrnenocrn n xprana npema npannny `naiem na n mn nao`), xao
mro ce ncxasnnano nomronane npema ponnrenma, do ut des. Taxo onn nncy nnn napon
nnocoa nero napon ycxnx yehena ca npornamennm yremeennma npnnnnna saienno c
iypnnnuxnm ocnopananem, ri. nnn cy npaxrnuan n nocnonan napon npannnxa (nyxonnra ie
npnmena na cy ce y Pnmy cnexynanniom annnn camo anxapn). V npnnm pasnonma
penynnxe, nosnare `xomnnnie` saxrenane cy pen n nonpranane es yxe n nepnose, raxo na
cy nocrpoianane napon y opene penone xoin ie cnymao xparxe npennore marncrpara n no
npannny es pacnpana rnacao sa nnn npornn npennora. Crnap ce npomennna ca ocnaianem
Jenane y 2. Bexy npe Xpncra, xoia ie npenmenonana y pnmcxy nponnnnniy Axaiy, onaxne ioi ie
ns Arnne crnrna n nnoconia synyiyhn nannxe na nncnnnnnny n noiannocr, raxo na ie ca
cxenrnnnsmom pnmcxy nnrennrennniy saxnarnno ennxypeicrno n cronnnsam, ann n
ncropnicxa mncao.
Jenan on nocpennnxa nsmehy iennncxe n pnmcxe mncnn nnpyror nexa npe pohena
Xpncronor, no ie n Honnnje, Axeian ns Apxannie, xoin ie on raona nocrao xyhnn npniare
noponnne Cnnnnon, n ncropniy oxnannxonao xao rnmnasniy sa nonnrnuxe pannnxe, a
pasnnianem naxne rnenana na ono mro xopncrn ynnma, ro `oxo ncropnie` npnnasn n
ncrnnn crnapn. Fes osnpa na npemencxy nnn nparmarnuny nesy mehy norahainma, ncropnia
ce rpynn oxo rora na cxnarn nnxon onmrn cmncao. Taxo ce non ynapom nxonomnie npnpone
snnaiy perapnannie na npnonrna crana y cnryanniama npncnnnnx nacryna, iennaxo xao
mro nsnecnn norahain noronyiy rpancopmanniama npxana y norneny nnnnnnsonanocrn n
crynany y cnercxy ncropniy, xao mro ie pnmcxy penynnxy npernopno y cnercxy npxany
(xonsyncxa nnacr onronapana ie monapxnin, cenar ie unnno apncroxparniy, a xomnnnie on
marncrpara caunnanane cy nonnreiy). Cnercxa npxana ie n ocrnapena y 3. nexy naxon
Xpncra, xana ie nmneparop Kapaxana npomnpno npano pnmcxor npxanancrna na cne saysere
nponnnnnie, raxo na cy pnmannma nocrann Hrann, Ipnn, Xncnann, Asniarn n Apnxannn.
Horomnn Jennna xao cranonnnnn nponnnnnie Axaie n camn cy orana nouenn na ce nasnnaiy
Pomeinma. Ppxana ie cana nna onne rne ce pnmcxn napon caxynao na sop, na ie `ianna
57 | a a e

crnap` (pec-nynnxa) nna ona saiennnuxa crnap naponne cynepenocrn, xoioi cy cnn nnnnnn
nnn rpahann xao npxanann nyxnn na cnyxe.
3nannune nnunocrn Pnma mncy nnn mnnncrpn nero marncrpn (xon nnx ie cne nno
npeynennuano), a on nerennapnor Hyma Homnnnnia xao xpaa ca reoxparcxnm opeonom, no
Tapxnnnnia Oxonor xoin ie ca cnoiom phanomhy nonpnneo na Pnmann sanpme ca xpaencxom
nnamhy, ayroxparniy ie ycneo na nsneicrnyie rex Oxrannian Anrycr non opmom
nemoxparcxor pexnma xao nmneparop xoin ie oe nponnxao y nonnrnuxy ncnxonorniy
Pnmana. Heorpannuena nynomoh y iannom npany ie nmnepniym, xao mro ie nnacnnmrno y
npnnarnom npany nomnnnym, raxo na cy nainehy nnacr npencranann marncrprn y
xomnnniama, xoinx ie Anrycr ys noiny xomanny nainnme npnxynno n snpyxno imperium cum
potestate. Pnmcxn npnnnenc ce raxo nnie cmarpao napem nero penynnxancxnm marncrparom,
n nonymrana ie npano npencenanana cenarom. Hpanna rnryna onaxnor nohcrna lex de
imperio - naxnna ie y nnrarypama n naxon pacnymrana xomnnnia, a npnnnnnar npemao y
ayroxparniy `orenornopena saxona` ca oconnama narancxe reoxparnie. Bnanapcxa nnunocr
ie nna onymenenn saxon xoin ie oanesnnao na noxopnocr. `Corporalis deus` ie nocenonao n
narainy xoia ce nmenonana `aerarium sacrum`, raxo na cy ce cnernm cmarpane uax n
npocropnie y xoinma ie opanno, a neronn npnxonn nmann cy xapaxrep cnernx napnnana.
Mehyrnm, raxo oxapaxrepncann npnnnenc xao rnana npxane, nocrao ie nrpauxa y pyxama
pyxononnnana nerniama, mro ie namrernno n nanoneoncxnm anernrnma xacnnie, xana cy
snpyxnnann neorpannueny nnacr npxannor nornanapa ca nemoxparcxnm oiamnenem nenor
nsnopa y non napona.

a) H)vcmpamueuu npu+epu npe)o+uux pu+crux uoeia v epe+euv penvo)ure u u+nepuie
Mapxo Tynnje Hnnepon ce ponno 106 r. n.n.e., a 43 r. no ynien on noinnxa Mapxa
Anronnia. Cnnpenn Oxrannianon raxman y rpniymnnpary ca Hennnom, saxrenao ie na ce
nerone onceuene maxe saxynaiy na ynas y uopym. Fecnomrenna opa sa nnacr y crapom
Pnmy n iennor Cenexy ie orepana y cmpr. Mana ie no rpnyn xoin ce anno annoxarypom,
Hnnepon ce y nocnennem nepnony xnnora anno n nnococxnm nncanem. Taxo ie 46 r.
nopen cnnca o npxann nanncao n De officiis (O oanesama), Tusculanae disputationes
(Tycxyncxe ecene) n np. Hnnepon ie no rnnnuan npencrannnx exnexrnnnsma y Pnmy, na
nexn naunn cxnonnin rpynm nonenama on npyrnx. Hpemna nnyxonnxo nnie nonpnneo
anrncxenrnuxoi xpnrnnn, a nn x nosnrnnnom npoannnsmy, raxo na ie on npe xynrypna nero
nayuna noiana, moxe ce pehn na ie on cnoinm npenohenem rpuxnx nnococxnx repmnna na
narnncxn, ys Foernia xacnnie, ienan on naisacnymnninx sa npnmane n pasnoi nnoconie y
roi nnonnnrnannoi cpennnn ca cnoxennm momenrnma nonesanocrn onmrer n noiennnaunor.
Hnnepon ie nonesao rpuxy ca pnmcxom xynrypom, a xao n npyrn npencrannnnn pnmcxe
nnosonie nnie no noceno orar opnrnnannnm nneiama. On ie nonyme unrao Hnarona,
Kcenoonra, Apncrorena, nonemncao ca ennxypeinnma (y mnanocrn ie cnymao uenpa),
58 | a a e

npyxno ce c Hocninonniem n npxao no yrnnaia unnona ns Hapnce n Anrnoxa ns Acxanona,
ann cne ro nnie ycneno na ra noncraxne na oopmn nsnopny cnnresy, nero ie ona nsocrana n y
raxnom ony noxymenrapne rpahe. Mehyrnm, cnaxaxo na croin nponena xaxo ie ynpano on
nmao npnopaspenny ynory y npenocy rpuxe mncnn no nenor rpniyma y enponcxnm
oxnnpnma.
mnnoaeu ie pohen y Ianapn y Hanecrnnn 110. r. npe P.X., n yuno ie xon 3enona
Cnnoncxor 79.-78., unia ie npenanana cnymao n Hnnepon. Hneie Ennxyponor npra saxnnene
cy naxon nponaie seme, rne ce nanasnna ra mxona y Hrannin, xon menene n xonsyna
Kannypnno Hnsona, y nnsnnn Xepxynanyma. Hcxonanana ocraraxa re nnne yxasana cy na
nocroiane nnnorexe ca nennma Ennxypa n unnonema. V Pnmy ie roxom npnor nexa xnneo
n neron cnenennx Tn1 Ayxpennje Kap (95-51 r. npe PX), xoin ie ca cnoiom noemom O
npupoou cmeapu, nnrao n cnoienpcan cnomennx anrnuxom marepniannsmy. Mana ce ne moxe
pehn na cnnc o npnponn crnapn nnie crnncxn ycneo, re na nouapanane aromcxnx crpyxrypa
crnapnocrn xon nera nnie ynxnnonncano, nnax no ecrercxoi cnasn ne moxe na ce nopenn ca
xomnosnnniama xao mro cy Hapmennnon cnen o npnponn nnn Emnenoxnonnm
Ounmhennma. Hpnua ce na ie Hyxpennie cee ocneneo xaxo n necmerano on xencxnx
npaxn morao na ce ann nayxom, a n na ie nonyneo on yannor nannrxa (nanme, sanpmno ie
ca coom y 44 ronnnn xnnora).
Aynnje Anej Cenexa (4. r.npe PX no 65. r.naxon PX.) pohen y Bnannin, y
Kopnon, ann neh ie xao mnan nomao na xnnn y Pnm. Ty ie ymao y Cenar n no xnecrop na
nnopy Kannryne, a ry ie nmao n mra na nnnn y norneny xpaine yncxe ene. Beh ie Kannryna
xreo na my nohe rnane, ann cy ra samrnrnne mohne xene n ro ie nomno sa pyxom Hepony xoin
my ie napenno na nsnpmn camoyncrno y 70. ronnnn. Hainehn neo cnnca xoin cy nsa nera
ocrann nacrann cy nocnennnx ronnna xnnora. Vs nener rparennia ocrann cy necer nnianora o
ernuxnm nnrannma, Hpupooua numana n Huc+a Hvuu)uiv. On crapnx cronxa on ie npeyseo
cxnarane na ie cne mro nocroin renecno n cnonnno na narpy y reneonomxom cmncny (uonex,
or, npnpona) n ounryiyhe y aranncrnuxom xyuy (cynnna, nensexnocr). Hs cpenne croe
nncxo my ie yuene o nanncnxnsmy n sa pasnnxy on Hocnnonnia xoin ie yronyo y acrponorniy
n marniy, re my ie nno nnxe ynyrpamne noxnnanane uncror mopannsma. 3nane uonexa
unnn yuenninm, ann ne n onm, na ce onpenenno sa npnmeneny nnoconiy, na ncrpaxyie
nopo n sno, oncrpanyiyhn ns rora (no cronuxom penenry) reomerpniy, xao n ona on
cnoonnnx ymeha xoie cmeraiy mynpocrn. Fnrn cnoonan sa nera snaun nrn ocnoohen on
renecnnx npnrncaxa na nymy, na ie ncrnncxa nnoconia sa nera opmnpane yncxor
xapaxrepa. On ie nyoxo ocehao yncxy ecnomohnocr n xey sa ncxynenem n cnacenem,
xoie ie moryhe camo xpos oxancxo mnnocphe, saponnnmn y xnnor no nneana ynyrpamne
xapmonnie nyxa. Ono noraino nanane y npornnpeunocrn ie ca neronnm ynepennma na ie or
n renecan xao narpa n nneia, ymna rnopauxa moh, na ie cner camo y npnnm rpenynnma
nacranxa no nencxnapen n na ie neonxonno na npohe xpos cnercxn noxap, na cy saxonn
59 | a a e

cynnne oorornopenn, xao n na ncronpemeno naxe saxonn npnpone n sa narancxe orone
/onn ne mory na menaiy marepniy/, mana oner snesne onpehyiy yncxe cynnne. Mnronorniy
ie cmarpao nemopannom, a no ie npncrannna manrnxe. Kocmononnrnsam ie saxrenao npesnp
npema npxannnm nocnonnma, a npesnp npxane n orannne cmarpao ie rpemnnm.
Cnnrernsonane ynnnepsannsma n nnnnnnnyannsma nnie ronnxo saxnnanano y norneny
ocrnapnnana nneana mynpocrn, xonnxo ce norahano ornapane npema nynnama
cyiexrnnnsma. Ono mro ie y rome naxno ie nonpmxa opn ca npnponnnm aexrnma y
nnxonom npeopaxanany n pasmnmannma o xnnory n cmprn. Hosnnao ie na mopan
npamrana n ocyny rnena, na yan npema nnxnem n mnnocphe, ynyhyiyhn na cmnpene.
Berono camoyncrno nanarana ie n raxo cxnarana nnoconia, a ro ie onopanao n cam
cronuxn xonexc.
Ennx1e1 (50-135 r.n.e.) xao po (`xynen`, `creuen`) pohen y upnrnin y Jepanonncy,
nocneo y Pnm xao po Hepononor renoxpannrea Enaponnra, ca xoinm ie nocehnnao
cronuxa npenanana Myconnia Pya. Hs Pnma ie perynapno npornan 94. r. (ca npyrnm
nnoconma, acrponosnma n peropnma) y ennpcxn Hnxononnc, rne ie ornopno mxony y xoioi
ie ycmeno npenanao, a ro ie sanncao unannie Apnian (96-180 r.). `Enurmemoe npupv:uur` (on
8 cauynano 4 xnnre), xoncrarnnao ie xao sannmnn ncrn Apnian, xoin ie ra npenanana
nocehnnao panoi mnanocrn. On ounro nnie no po Cnapraxonor xona, na rai npnpyunnx
nounne peunma: On cnnx crnapn ienne cy y namoi nnacrn a npyre nncy. V namoi nnacrn cy
nama mnena, rexne namer cpna, name xee n rahena, iennom peun cna nama nenonana. V
namoi nnacrn nnie nam reno, nmane, yrnen, iennom peun cne ono mro nncy nama nenonana.
He naa ce nnamnrn cmprn nnn onecrn na n uonex no cnoxoian, iep yne ne norpecaiy
crnapn nero mnena xoia o nnma nmaiy, cmarpao ie Ennxrer. Xnnor ie nosopnmre a ynn
rnymnn, na cnoiy ynory naa nrparn nainenme mro moxem. Hayxama nnie npnnanao snauai
(mnorn ynn snaiy nornxy, a nnax naxy). uonexon ym ie uecrnna xocmnuxor yma, na onysern
uonexy pasym snaun yncrno. Cnoona mncnn n noe ie ncrnncxn y uonexonoi nnacrn (a ne
reno, nmane nnn cnana), raxo na cy ernuxa snana ono mro uonexy nainnme nomaxe na
oprannsyie xnnor, a nsnuxa camo yxonnxo my nomaxy na xnnor naxme ycarnacn ca
npnponnnm roxom crnapn.
Mapxo Anpennje An1onnn (121-180 r.n.e.) pnmcxn nmneparop xoin ie ocranno naxon
cmprn on xyre cnnc `Ca+o+e ceou`. On ronopn o nponasnocrn n nnmrannocrn xnnora, a c
npyre crpane saxrena na ce yne axrnnan y xnnory. H sema ie camo rauxa y ecxonaunom
npocropy, a cnaxa cnana camo yncxa ramrnna, n ry ce y nenoi ncropnin nnmra ne mena (no
nemy ro sna cnaxo xo nanynn uernpry nenenniy xnnora). ynn remxo nocnenaiy no cnoinx
nnena n pasnaxyhn ce na ocnonne enemenre, on nnxonor xnnora ne ocraie nnmra.
Pasouapane n nnunn samop ycnonnnn cy n na nonycrn naronopy xene n sa nacnennnxa
onpenn necnoconor cnna Komona, ymecro naioer ns cnoie oxonnne, na ce ca neronom
cmphy n sanpmana anrnuxn cner. Hpnnnnnar samenyie nomnnar n cem noiane Hnornna,
60 | a a e

Pnmcxa Hmnepnia npnxnarnhe xpnmhancrno xao npxanny pennrniy, xoia he nnonornopnnm
nacroianem na nperymaun ocnonne noimone na non naunn n oiann enoxy none nnoconie,
one no Iocnony Hcycy Xpncry. To ce npocro n mopano noronnrn ycnen cnnx nanpcnnna n
nanana na ny, xoin cy nsnpmenn on crpane nocrxnacnunnx nnocoa, xao n orxpnnena xoie
ie sacniano uoneuancrny npeiemcrnennm cnenouancrnom Anocrona. Hcropnicxe sacnyre na
yne nomnnan y ncropniama nnoconie Mapxo Anpennie ie crexao ie 176. r. n.e., xana ie
nanoxno na ce y Arnnn ocnyiy 4 xarenpe: nnaronnuxa, apncrorenoncxa, cronuxa n
ennxypeicxa, ca npxannnm nsnpxananem on mnpniane npaxmn ronnmne, a ro ie naano na
cnponene Hpon Arnx, nononehn naioe na nnxono ueno ca nornpnom rnacana naionx
rpahana na Apeonary. Cnaxaxo na ie n ra naponna rexonnna nornphnnana on crpane naionx
rpahana, nna y cxnany ca nacroianem xaxo na crapom, raxo n na nonom opasonany, raxo na
ie neh ry xpenyno pacraiane ca cnponocrnma unpcrnx nnnnnnnyanncrnuxnx nocenonana
snana n cenunnx npncnaiana ymnnx sacana uoneuancrna, raxo na ie nonynnna opasonane
nehnnn onnx xoin cy sa nnm noxasnnann nnrepeconane n rexnnn na panom na cen
noomaiy onmre ycnone xnnora, yrnpyhn nyr xynrypn n nnnnnnsonanocrn.
) Ceooa v:euocmu v Ceeepuv Adpurv u vmuuai ua pu+crv rv)mvpv
Vuenocr ce n nnaue npecennna y Anexcannpniy, re ie n 297 r. npe PX., Pemerpnie
uanepcxnicxn y capannn ca Hronemeiem I Corepom samncnno na ononn nepnnarernuxe
sacane, cxynnnmn xnnre n npnop sa nayuna ncrpaxnnana, ornopnnmn nosnarn Mv;ei xome
ie npnnoiena nnnorexa ca cnnm rpuxnm xnnrama, a xoinx ie sa Hronemeia II unnanena
nno oxo 700 000, ns nenor anrnuxor cnera. 3enonor, xao npnn nnnorexap, npnnpemno ie
npno nsnane Xomepa (y nonnia nsnana cnanana cy ona Apncroana n Apncrapxa) n noueo ie
cncremarnsanniy rpahe, a Kannmax sa Hronemeia II (283-247 r. npe PX.) ie cacranno
"Pinakes", "rannne", nnn xaranor on 120 xnnra ca nmencxnm perncrpom, xparxnm
norpaniama n arpnynniama. Bnma ce cnyxno n Pnoren Haephannn, naxon uera ie cnennno
n nsyuanane Apncrorenonnx rexcrona ca xpnrnuxnm nsnannma. Eyxnnn ( 330-277 r. npe PX)
ie ca yuennma Hnrarope n Hnarona maremarnnn namenno noceno mecro, nanncanmn uynene
"E)e+eume", xana ie nomao y Anexcannpniy. Pncxypc my ie axcnomarcxn, rne crnapn cnene ns
onpehennx npernocranxn, na ie apncrorenoncxa nornxa n ocnon sa nnx. Merona nsnona ie
nparmarnuna opmynannia xoia cnnun na Anaxcaropnn meron npnnnnnnienne nennocrn
reomerpnicxnx crpyxrypa no ecxonaunocrn. Hoxasao ie nsyserny cnocoocr cnnrernsannie
maremarnuxnx opmn.
Ha npenasy npyror y rpehn nex naxon pohena Xpncronor, y Anexcannpnin ie xnneo
Auonnje Caxac (175-242 n.n.e.), xoin ie nacnnran y xpnmhancxoi noponnnn, ann ce saner
nnoconiom nparno narancxoi pennrnin. H neron nannmax `naxonocan` xaxe na ce
nsnpxanao nsnuxnm panonnma n y cnoonno npeme crpacrneno anno nnococxnm
pacnpanannma (mro n nnie nanexo on cronuxor nyxa xoin ie npoxnmao ro npeme). Fynyhn
61 | a a e

na nnmra nnie nanncao, o nemy ce sna npexo neronnx yuennxa. Pasna crpemena n
onpeneena npxana cy Hnaronony mxony no noiane Amonnia Caxaca n neronor uyrenor
saysnmana sa nneinocr xao nnmn pen nncrnenocrn, npexo pasrpannuanana xepmeneyrnuxor
nauena npenmernocrn na cnoamnn n ynyrpamnn cmncao noiana (nona ce xnahenem sanenn,
ann ono no uemy ie nona - nona (nena nonenocr) - nnxaxo). To ie n Hemecniy Emecxom raxohe
no snauaian mncaonn cran, xoin oiamnana npnpony n camor nymenno-renecnor cxnona.
49

Ona Caxacona "noernuxa enomenonornia" nana ie noncrnnaia na ce ononn nsnopnnie
Hnaronono mnmene, npenasnnaxenem emnnpnicxe anannrnunocrn merona ananornie ca
npnponom, xoie ie paspanno Apncroren ca unrannm nnsom mrernnx nocnennna no nncnny
nnococxor nonyxnara, npe cnera xao npnxpnnenn narypannsam n nsnonornsam xoin ie
npyrocreneno n meransnuxn onpemen. Kana ie Hopnpnie crnrao y Anexcannpniy n ocrao
nesanonoan ca onnm mro my ce ramo nynnno na uyie, ornmao ie ca npniareem no Amonnia
n no onymenen neronom nexnniom. Ca nnm ie ry ocrao nennx 11 ronnna, nsnemranaiyhn
raxohe na ie n cam meron ncrpaxnnana, xao n nainehn neo canpxaia Hnornnonnx `Eneana`
xoie ie on npnpenno sa nsnanane, npnen ns Amonniennx npenanana. Vocranom, ry ce na
npounrarn n na ie mehy nnma nnanao cnnuan onnoc xao n nsmehy Coxpara n Hnarona.
Beronn yuennnn nnn cy n Amennie xnnpnx, Honrnn perop (213-273), Opnren nnaronnuap,
xao n Opnren xpnmhannn (185-254). Hnornn (205-271 r.n.e.) ce ponno y Hnxonoy (Ernnar).
V xpyxox Amonnia Caxaca y Anexcannpnin ymao ie ca 28 ronnna, a 243 r. ra ie nanycrno
npnxnarnnmn na xpene ca nmneparopom Iopnnanom y noxon na ncrox. Haxon nmneparoponor
yncrna ynyrno ce y Pnm n ramo 244 r. ocnonao cnoiy mxony. Po 253 r. camo ie npxao
nexnnie, iep ce saienno ca Opnrenom n Xepenniom saneronao na nehe na mnpn yunreene
nneie (mro n nmno y npnnor resn o npncycrny iaxnx nononnraropeicxnx yrnnaia Hymennia
ns Anameie), ann ie nouerxom 254 r. noueo na nnme rpaxrare, mro ie npnpenno ncnouerxa xao
sannce onpxannx nexnnia. Hopnpnie, xoin ie nocrao neron yuennx, capao nx ie saienno no
nener y mecr rpyna. Eneane nnn `ueeemuue` xao cxynnn nasnn nocno ie n npnnar
meransnuxn cmncao, n cnana n nanac y nnococxy xnacnxy. Berone nexnnie nocehnnao ie
nmneparop Iannien n nerona xena Cononnna, a ona ra ie nonpxanana y npoiexry
Hnaronononnca, rne n nno omoryheno na ce ocrnapn iennncrno ca oxancxnm no ysopy
Hnarononnx `3aroua`. Pnopcxe nnrpnre rai cy nnan ocyiernne, a Hnornn ie ympo y 66 ronnnn

49
Nemesius, De natura homini, 3, II: Amonnie, Hnornnon yunre, paspemno ie ro nnrane na cnenehn naunn.
Cne mro ce nonma ymom, xaxe on, nma raxny npnpony na ce n ciennnyie c onnm mro ie cnocono na ra
npnxnarn, cnnuno enemenrnma xoin ce nonnmranaiy ycnen ciennnena n, ciennnnnmn ce, ocraie necnnneno n
nenonpehenocnnuno onnm enemenrnma xoin cy npnnoxenn ienan npyrom. H sancra, ciennnene y reny y
nornynocrn mena enemenre xoin ra ciennnyiy, ynyhn na nx npernapa y npyrarena, xao mro na npnmep, crnxnie
y rennma xoia cy on nnx cacranena xpany npernapaiy y xpn, a xpn y meco ocrane nenone rena. V onome mro ce
nonma ymom nonasn no ciennnena, ann ono sa coom ne nonnaun nnxaxny nsmeny, iep ce ono mro ie ymno ycnen
cnoie npnpone ne moxe nsmennrn no cymrnnn, neh moxe nnn na ce onnoin nnn na ce npernopn y nenncrnyiyhe,
a npomenn nnie nonnoxno.Ono, mehyrnm nn ne moxe na ce npernopn y nenncrnyiyhe, iep y rom cnyuaiy ne n
nno ecmprno. Hpn rome nyma ie xnnor, na axo n ce ona npnnnxom memana menana, ro snaun na n ce
menao n na nnme ne n nocroiao nn ccam xnnor. Bra n y rom cnyuaiy nyma nanana reny, axo my neh ne naie
xnnor? Hpema rome, nyma ce npnnnxom ciennnena c renom ne mena.
62 | a a e

xnnora y remxoi onecrn. Hexapy Jencroxniy ie na onpy pexao nocnenne peun xoie cy nne:
"Crapaire ce na ce ciennnnre c oxancxnm xoie ie ynyrap nac, c oxancrnom, xoie ie
ynnnepsym."
50
Hpna nnocras /nncrno, cyncrannnia/ sa nera ie Jenno xao npno n esycnonno
naueno camonponsnohena camor cee /VI,2,8; VI,2,10;Vi,6,8/. Hopnpnie (232-304 r.n.e.) ie
ns crapoennuxor Tnpa ocrao nainosnarnin y ncropnin ca cnoinm cnncom Veoo v
Apucmome)oee rameeopuie, nosnar n xao `Hcaeoee` nnn `O nem ;ua:ena`. To ie ner snauena
noima xao pon, nnn, nneina pasnnxa, sa xoie ce nocrana nnrane onmrocrn, ri. nmaiy nn
noimonn peanno nncrnonane nan yma, nnn onmre moxe na npenna camo y ymy. Axo
onmrocr npenna nan yma ncrnue npnpony npenmernnx n ponnnx noimona, raxo na ce
nocrana nnnema iecy nn renecnn nnn nyxonnn, xao n ro, nanase nn ce y uynnnm crnapnma
nnn nmaiy cnoie uncro nncrnonane nesanncno on nnx. Henocpennor onronopa nema, ann
Hopnpnie cmarpa na cy noimonn nnacrnrn snax ecmprnocrn nyme (4, 7, 14-20), ca
neranniom paspanom yuena o snany xao nnarononcxom npncehany (4, 4, 1-5), anamnesn
nyma neecxnx cnerana. Hanncao ie xomenrape na Hnaronon Tnmei, Kparnn, Concr,
Hapmennn, unne, uenon, Ppxany n Iosy, ann ie camo 18 rpaxrara cauynano on 77 xoie ie
nanncao. Hncncrnpao ie nnme on Hnornna na npaxrnunoi nnoconin xao yueny o
nonnrnuxnm /merponarnia, onmepenocr/, xareropnuxnm /anarnia, esaexrnnnocr,
nenpncrpacnocr/, nymennnm n napannrmarnuxnm /ymnn ysopn xnnora nyme/ xareropniama.
Moxe ce pehn na ie ys nacryn noropeie npornn xpnmhancrna y aexranniama ca npennocrnma
naranmrnne (nnax ie snao n nennxor Opnrena), crnap ocernnocrn na pasorxpnnane
npenpacyna ca norpemnom peaxnniom, ann naa npnsnarn n na ie no mapnn n npnexan
no sanoniana ennnxnonennicxe yuenocrn y anrnuxom cnery. Onom narancxom npymrny
npnnanao ie n no opasonany, n no noxannin, xao ienan on pannxannnx peopmaropa n
Jynnian Anocrara (332-363), xao nenocpennn Jamnnnxon yuennx, cxnon xynrypnoi npaxcn
nparmarnsannie aneropnicxnx rymauena crape mnronornie, ann ca nnnonamranaiyhnm
onnocom npema Hnornnonom reopnicxom cranonnmry. unannie Knaynnie Jynnian ie sa xparxo
npeme xao nnanap Pnmcxe Hmnepnie (361-363) cycnennonao xpnmhancrno xao npxanny
pennrniy, xoiy ie 323. ycranonno Koncranrnn Hnmnnia, onanaiyhn narancrno y napcrny.
Homro ie cnpao ca cee narancxnm opennma xpmrene n cnecpnno npnrpnno crapy pennrniy
xoioi ce nparno, cnnm cnnama ie nacroiao na narancrny nparn xnnor, y uemy ie na xparxo n
ycneo. Ponyme, nnme y cnoinm pacnpanama, nncmnma n necnnuxnm nennma, neronn y xnnory.
Mehyrnm, xao nexa npcra ecrerncrnuxor nneana pecrayparnnnnx n pecanrnmancxnx
cxnonocrn, ocrao ie Jynnian Oncrynnnx n y oxnnanannma monepnnx npemena nexa npcra
ysopa (xonoxnnianno n ce pexno n cnoienpcnor `rypya`), raxo na ce cnnune npcre cxnonocrn
nonanaiy n y canpemenocrn, a sa npnmep nanennmo cnnunocr ca Hnueonom nnoconiom y
xacnniem nepnony `Anrnxpncra` n `Boe sa moh`, nnn nennmnuno n xon Pmnrpnia
Mepexxoncxor y nexnm asama neronor xnnxennor n ncnxonomxor pasnoia.

30
Porphyr., `Vita Plotini`, Enneadae I, Oxonii, 1986.

63 | a a e

n) Pa;eoi du)ocodcrux uoeia rpo; mv+a:ena u;)aeana caopraia Ceemoe Huc+a
0uaeuje Kuu+eum (nnn Knnuen1 Anexcanapnjcxn /140-216.r./, pohen y
nesnaoxauxoi amnnnin (neponarno y Arnnn) n nono nopo opasonane, a nocne nyrnx
nyronana no Hrannin, Cnpnin n Hanecrnnn, y speno noa nocrao xpnmhannn. Hacnennnmn
Hanrena xoin sa coom nnie ocranno cnnce, oxo 200. r. nocrao npnn uonex Anexcannpnicxe
orocnoncxe mxone, a naxon nporona xpnmhana on cyponor Cenrnmnia Cenepa npecenno ce y
Hanecrnny, rne ie npexnneo n nocnenne ronnne xnnora. On ie nsyserno opasonan
xpnhancxn nnoco n reonor, ca onnnunnm snannma ns anrnuxe nnoconie, xnnxennocrn
n reorpanie, xoin ie xoncrnryncao n nornynno reopnicxn cncrem snana. Tai yspehen ycran
snana on ie ncnncao y nennma Hpompenmur (naronop Jennna), Heoaeoe (o neueny crpacrn n
nannrany nyme) n Cmpo+ama (caop xpnmhancxe mynpocrn n npano snane). Haronop
Jennnnma ie npnnpemno neno xoie ie saoxyneno norpeom na ce ynn onnpare on cyienepia
n npnnnxe nepn, nonasehn no saxyuxa o norpen sa ycxnahnnanem nepe n pasyma. Henaror
nam caonmrana na ie na nyry ycanpmanana nepa npnnpemnn crenen onai xa rnosncy
(casnanany, mnmny), re na ie ncrnncxo casnanane crnapn es nepe nemoryhe. Pasym
nonymra na ce canpxai nepe oiacnn nomohy aneropnicxor merona, rne ie neonxonna
nnoconia xoioi cnyxe ocrane nayxe, a ona nononn no canpana cnyxehn reonornin n ca
rnme caunnana npenas on nepe xa ncrnncxom snany. Knnmenr ie raxo noneo no `Crpomara`
(hnnnma nnn mapennna nnarononcxo cnnnrane noimona nnn nnerennia cnonec xacnnie),
xoie snaue cnnerone n snpane npannx snana, mro nonpasymena casnane Fora. Teonornia ie
raxo nainnme mopanno canpmencrno n xpyna snana, xoia pasyme na ie For nsnan cnera
nocroieher, ecxonauan, nennnnn n nenoxyunn. Mnmonnasehn nceyno-rnocrnnnsam
Knnmenr ce sanaxe sa xpnmhancxy rnosy xoia nosnaie Fora y Cnny-Horocy xoin ie Cnna n
Mynpocr Ona, n xao necrnopen nocroin onynex xao mepnno saxona n pasyma y cnemy mro
iecre n nna. Xpnmhancxn rnocnc rxo ie nainnmn crenen casnana npahen mopannnm
canpmencrnom, y xome ce snane o Fory cnaia ca acxercxom ecnpexopnomhy n ymehem
camopasymenana n rymauena. unnoncxn enemenrn nornxe n rnoceonornie raxo cy xon
Knnmenra ynornynenn y nyxy yuena o Cn. Tpoinnn n ysnnrnyrn n yxpamenn y Cnerom
Pyxy. Hnaronnuxa cnnonrnxa raxo nonpasymena nocmarpane npoxero nainnmom npnnnom
yann npema Fory n nnxnem, nonpasymenaiyhn n mennoaxanemcxn, cronnnsmom npoxern
cran ecrpamha, ca xoinma ce moxe pehn na nnean snana nnn npann rnocrnnnsam
nonpasymena ono mro he ce nmenonarn xacnnie ooxenem uonexa.
Opnren (185-254) ie ienan on noceno nanapennx reonora one enoxe. Pohen ie 185. r. y
xpnmhancxoi noponnnn n on nernncrna ie cnymao Hanrenona npenanana, a xacnnie n
Knnmenrona. Bonno ie acxercxn naunn xnnora no rnpnohe ycxonennmrna xaxo ra ne n
mamnne ynxocrn, a ca 25 ronnna xnnora cnymao ie Amonnia Caxaca xon xoier ie yuno n
Hnornn, cnaiaiyhn raxo iennncxy n xpnmhancxy rpannnniy pasymenana crnapn. Knnmenra ie
na ueny xarenpe samenno Opnren 203 r., rne ie no no 232. r., xana ie npemao y Hanecrnny n
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ramo ocnonao concrneny mxony, nocrpananmn y npeme nporona xpnmhana. Beron onyc ie
orpoman n npenasnnasn camo cnoinm xomenrapnma Ceemoe nuc+a cne no rana nanncane
cnnce, mana ie nanac nehnna nnx nsryena. 3anncnocr on unnonone nnoconie xoia ie
npoxera mennonnaronnuxnm n cronuxnm yrnnainma, xao n nenocpenno on nononnaronnuxnx
cxnarana ns mxone Amonnia Caxaca, nsasnnana ie cymne, na n nerono yuene o
cyopnnnannin ynyrap nnocrasn xon Cn. Tpoinne nsasnano n ocyny na 5. Baceencxom
caopy y Koncranrnnonoy /553. r./ n nerono yuene nno ornameno xao nexanoncxo, raxo
na ce ne cmarpa npannm onem npxne, maxap ie nocrpanao myuennuxom cmphy.
Opnren ie y xpnmhancrny nnneo npxynan rpuxe nnoconie n ysop my ie no (xao n y
nenoi narpncrnnn) Hnaron, rne ie npnao nnrepec sa noxasnnane y nnrnnn n cnmonnnn
poiena, a nnononcxn aneropnicxn meron my ie no rnanno cpencrno erserese. Cnoie ocnonne
cranone nsnoxno ie y cnncy O nauennma (cauynanom y narnncxom npenony), rne ie y npnom
neny ronopno o Fory xao nsnopy cnera nocroieher, y npyrom o crnapany cnera, y rpehem o
uonexy n neronom onpeheny, a y uernprom o orxpnneny n naunnnma nonaxena no Bera. Ca
rnme ie nocranno ysop onnxonana cncremarnsannie normara, xao n meron cnexynarnnne
reonornie o npnnpxanany rnannx normara nepe, xoinx ce, nonyme, nn on cam am n nnie
npnnpxanao. On ie nacroiao na npenene nepy y snane n yremen xpnmhancxy reonorniy xao
nayunn cncrem. Kon nera ie na rpary Knnmenronor pasymenana Fora noimen n Tnopan cnnx
crnapn nenpenosnarnn y nno uemy rnapnom, n xao uncrn Pyx n canpmena `Monana` no
nancymrnncxnm cnoicrnnma, raxo na npenasnnasn cne mro n ce o Bemy morno pehn.
Mehyrnm, xao nocnennna nenpomennnocrn xoia ne nonymra crnapanamrno xoie n ce
ounronano na npomennne crnapn, ynpano ie cyopnnnncane neunor Hnxa nnxe on
camocranne nnocrasn Horoca y xome ce Monana xao `Hneia nneia` pasnnia y mnomrnenocr, a
Cnern Pyx ce onnocn npema Bemy xao n On npema Ony /nenonane Ona npocrnpe ce na cne
nocroiehe, Cnna na cne ymno, a Pyxa na cne cnero/. To nonceha na nononnaronnsam y xome ce
ym cyopnnnannono paha ns Jennor, a y crnapany nan npemena nocroin moryhnocr nocroiana
nnme cnerona (ecxonaunor poia eona y xoinma ce nonanaiy nanonn ca ncxynennma), xao
n npenacnn nyma /ceoe/ nsmehy nnx, na pacxpcnnnn moryhnocrn na nocrany ymne
npnnnxananem Fory, nnn na ce ynyhyiy npema nenhy, raxo na nocroin mopana iepapxnia
rne mecro nha sanncn on ycanpmenocrn y nopy (ca rnme ie nnarononcxa ernxa nonna
onronomxo yremeene). V npnn nnan ie raxo ncraxao noy n nena cymrnncxa cnoicrna
xoinx nnie nno y iennncxnm carnenanannma, nanme cnoony nsopa xoia nonpasymena
nyxonnocr mro ce ne ryn nn npn nainyem nany, a ca rnme ie raxohe orxnanao npnronop
sa moryhy xpnnnny on Fora xao Tnopna n esycnonnor npoyspounrea cnera, nonesany ca
necanpmenom uynnomhy n nocroianem sna. Honparax cnnx crnapn y Fora, anoxaracracnc An.
Hanna naianen y neronnm Hocnannnama, npexo cnoonnor nsopa n Foxnie naronarn y
xprnenom cacrpananany Fora Cnna xao Horoca y noenn cmprn na Kpcry, renecnocr ie xoia
he xpos npeopaxanana na yne npenasnhena n c rnme n cna nyxonna nha ocnoohena.
Cnaxaxo na ie ro nneannsam xoin cnoie rpannne nanasn y peannnm moryhnocrnma cyxoa
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cnaxor noiennnauno ca snom n ncxon ope n rpeano na yne nosnrnnan, mro he n nrn c
osnpom na mopanno crane yncrna iennno moryhe ca oehannm nononnnm nonacxom
Cnacnrea (rome nne y npnnor n resa o cposanany monepnor cnera y xonreinepcxn nyx n
nnrepesnnicxom aneny neronnm ornannma xao ynocnnm nocnonnma).



















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HCTOPH1A COHH1AAHHX H HOAHTHHKHX TEOPH1A
(MOHOIPAuHJA H3 uHHOCOuHJE HOHHTHuKHX HPEJA 2:
Monepne connianne reopnie)












67 | a a e

HPOFHEM PPXABE H PPVBTBA KOJH HACTAJE CA POHACKOM XPHBTAHCTBA

Haxon opmnpana pnmcxe ynpane y npxann Hanecrnnn (nanamnem Hspaeny), nonasn
no noiane xpnmhancrna xoia ie ocrana nonpnnnuno nesanaxena. Hpnnnxom xasnnana o
cynnnn ienpeicxor napona, ncropnuap Tannr ie camo cnomenyo xpnmhancxy noyny, a ienna
na o rome nma nxaxnnx nsnemraia xon yrnennor ncropnuapa Jocna unannia, nox ra yuenn
nnoco unnon Anexcannpnicxn nn ne cnomnne y cnoinm nennma. V iennoi peuennnn Tannr
nomnne xaxo cy xpnmhann nonnn nme no Xpncrocy xoin ie y npeme nmneparopa Tnepnia n
npoxyparopa Honrnia Hnnara no ocyhen n cmpr (Annales, 15, 44). V cnncy Jyneicxe crapnne
/18, 3.3/, Jocn unannie xaxe: Herne y ro npeme ramo ie xnneo Hcyc, mynap uonex, axo n
ce yonmre morao nasnarn uonexom, iep ie on no onai xoin ie unnno sannnyiyha uyna n no
yunre ynn xoin cy pano npnxnarann ncrnny. On ie npnnono mnore Jenpeie, ann n mnore
Ipxe. On ie no Xpncroc. Haxon mro ra ie Hnnar, na ryxy namnx yrnennnx ynn, xasnno
cmphy na xpcry, neronn ra cnenennnn ne nanycrnme...
Hncan xomennia Hyxnian Camocarcxn, xome ie xpnmhancrno nno nonpnnnuno
ompaxeno, ocranno ie sannc: Xpnmhann ce, snare, xnanaiy iennom uonexy cne nocan; iennoi
nanacne ynaxenoi nnunocrn, xoia ie ynena none onuaie n sor rora sanpmnna na xpcry.
(Hyxnian, C+pm nepeepuua, 11) H y Baeu)oucro+ Ta)+vov, xoin ie caunnen 2.-5. nexa naxon
Xpncra, nocroin oneax xoin nsnemrana xaxo ie Jemy /Hasapehannn/ no ocyhen sor
npaxrnxonana uaponamrna n sanohena Hspana, re oemen y npenneuepie youn
npaxrnxonana npasnnxa Hacxe /Hecex/ (Ta)+vo, Cnnenpnon 43a) Vrnen Hcyca Xpncra y
napony pacrao ie na pauyn yrnena nepcxnx noha apnceia n canyxeia xoie ie nsonnuanao
yxasnnanem na ce nnxona yuena n onuain pasnnase ca craposanernnm cnernm cnncnma
(Hvra 11, 38; Mamei 13, 2.20), a sarnm nacrynaiyhn n ca ornopenom ocynom (Mamei, 16, 12,
23; Mapro 12, 38-40; Hvra 20, 46, 47). Jocn unannie ie rnpnno na cy y ienpeicxom npymrny
nocroiane rpn rnanne nepcxe rpynannie caunnene on apnceia, canyxeia n ecena xoin cy
ouexnnann noiany Mecnie (Jocn unannie, Jvoeicru pam, 2,8,2), a Hcyc ns Hasapera ce y
raxna ouexnnana nnie yxnanao, na ie ycrnpnno n na my ie par Jaxon cnnuno ocrpanao (axo ie
mncnno na pohenor, onna ie ro moxna nno moryhe npexo nnnnie Jocna), npencranaiyhn ra
y nanm nsnarannma: Pa sanonon rnnohy cnor cpna, mncnno ie Anan na nma nonony
npnnnxy xana ie uecr ympo, a Annn iom nnie crnrao. On, naxne, casna Bennxo Behe na cyn
n nsnene para onor Hcyca, xoiera nposname Xpncroc, no nmeny Jaxona, ys iom nexe npyre,
onryxn nx xao xpmnone saxona n nane nx ocynnrn na cmpr xamenonanem. To ie iaxo
osnononno n naipennocnnie n saxony onannie rpahane, n onn nocname noraino nsacnannxe
no xpaa n samonnme ra nexa Anany nncmeno nanoxn na ce yynyhe xann raxonnx nena, iep
ie n cana no cacnnm y nenpany. Hexoin on nnx, mrannme, nohome y cycper Annny, xoin ie
nonasno ns Anexcannpnie n onomenyme r na Anan es neronor onoopena nnxaxo nnie cmeo
na casnna Bennxo Behe na cyhene; a no roi xann nanncao ie Annn y iaxoi cpnn nncmo
68 | a a e

Anany, y xome my ie sanperno sacnyxenom xasnom. Hcro raxo ra ie xpa Arpnna sor rora
cnprnyo c uacrn neh sa rpn mecena, re nocranno Hcyca, cnna Pamneiena, sa neronor
nacnennnxa. (Iosephi Flavii, Antiquitates iudeorum, 20, 9, 1). Ppyrn cnyuai rne ce cnomnne
npnmena `xannranne iypncnnxnnie` npnnnxom cyhena y Cnnenpnony, noxpenyror ns nennxe
mpxne y oncyrnocrn nerara Cnpnie Bnrennyca xoin ie cmenen n nosnan y Pnm na ce pann
on onryxn ror ncror Cnnenpnona, iecre cnyuai xamenonana Cn. Creana xoin ie no ienan
on Hcyconnx cnenennxa, xao n haxon y npnoi xpnmhancxoi saiennnnn (Hyxa, ue)a
anocmo)cra, 7, 58-60).
3a xpnmhane ie nno nenpnxnarnno n ro mro ie nmneparop Anexcannap Cenep y 3. nexy,
y cnoiy snpxy npnxynennx nnona ynpcrno n Xpncrocon xnn, mro ie npcra rocroynnocrn
xoia ie snaunna ynpeny cnpcranana Forouonexa y ncrn pen ca narancxnm nnonnma xoie cy
cmarpann neuncrnm nemoncxnm cnnama. Vs oniane na ce napcxnm xnnonnma onaiy one
nouacrn xoie naa ynyhnnarn iennno Fory, xpnmhann cy nanyxnn rnen ynpene nmneparopcxe
nnunocrn xoia ce xnannnxonana xao npymrnenn npecryn, na ie ra pennrnosna cynepnopnocr
nsasnana pycrpannie nnacrn, iep cy ce nnamnnn Fora a ne npoxonsyna, re ie nonnrnuxa
mannnnosnocr ycnonnna nnxona ranamna nporanana n nnxnnnannie. Hnie nenaxno na
cronuxn po Ennxrer, xao nn nap Mapxo Anpennie, nncy ocyhnnann onaxne nporone, ann nn
nonnxncrop Hnnnnie Mnahn, npxehn na ie y nnrany rnpnornana pemenocr na ce pahe
nonnoce myuena, neronn onpexny yehena.
Honoxai xpnmhana y pnmcxom napcrny mena ce rex y 4. nexy, naxon rora mro cy Pennie
n Pnoxnennian ynopno ynexanann nananexo uyneny cyponocr n oxpyrnocr
nmnepnianncrnuxnx crparernia ynpane, xoinma ie yunnno xpai rex np Koncranrnn xana ie
napcxnm ennxrom ns Mnnana 313. r., onopno xpnmhancrno xao pennrniy xoia ie y napcrny
nosnoena. Ono ie ypso, sa Teonncyia Bennxor, nocrano n nnanaiyha npxanna pennrnia, xoia
ie cacnnm nanmamnna narancxe cxnonocrn n onuaie (nsysme nn ce nexonnxo ronnna
narancxor npenpara xoie ie cnponeo Jyunian Orcrynnnx sa cnor nmneparopcxor mannara).
Vocranom, y rom npenasnom noy yrnannom ie n nocroiana nomemanocr narancxnx n
xpnmhancxnx nasopa n onuaia. H cama `narancxa pecraypannia` Anocrare nonpasymenana ie
peoprannsanniy ca npeysernm xpnmhancxnm nneiama xaiana, nopounncrna, monamrna,
cnemrencrna no ysopy na xpnmhancxn xnnp n r.cn. Hncrnrynnia `Collegia funeratica` xao
rnnnuno narancxo `norpeno parcrno` xoie ie nenonano y xaraxomama, nocnyxnno ie,
raxohe, n xpnmhannma pannie, omoryhanaiyhn nm nernrnmno nacrannnane y pnmcxom
napcrny 3ysnpar n xpnmhann cy raxohe nnnenn naiany xpnmhancrna y nexnm narancxnm
nneiama (Jycrnn y Xepaxnnronom norocy Jeponnm y cemennm norocnma cronuxnx onpehena,
a Teprynnian y opmynanniama npnpone nymennocrn), xoie ie y penecancy npenomnnnpano
ca nonepenem npema anrnuxnm npasnonepnnama n npenpacynama no re mepe na cy
npeonnananane nan snpannm nneiama. Xpnmhancxo ie ynepene na npnpona xao `yunrenna
xnnora` rpea n cama na ce yun on Fora, xoin ie Magister ipsius magistrae, na n ce rnm nyrem
69 | a a e

pasnniane npnnne, na n ce pasnnna y nenonnry n iacny cncremarnsanniy npencrana xoie paha
nono noa n nony enoxanny cnecr o crany crnapn yonmre, npeopaxanaiyhn uoneuancrno y
nennnn. Cam For ie orxpno nyn ncrnny cnoiom Peuiy, raxo na ce npenmer ncrnncxe nepe
noxasyie npexo Cneror Hncma, ri. npexo ncrnne xoia ce npenaie uonexy xao reanrpononomxa
xoncranra nenor pasasnanana npexo ror cnenouancrna xao nsnopa rymauena.

a) H)vcmpamueuu npu+epu oe)oeana )u:uocmu moe nepuooa rao npu+epu couuia)ue
rv)mvpe
A1anacnje Anexcanapnjcxn (295-373 r.) ie pohen y Anexcannpnin y xpnmhancxoi
noponnnn, nono nopo nacnnrane y orocnonnnm rpannnniama mxone y Anexcannpnin, a nn
nnosocxo opasonane my nnie nno mano, mro ce nnnn y anonorercxnm nennma. Haxon
opanxa y ernnarcxoi nycrnnn xon Cn. Anronnia Bennxor o xome ie nocne cacranno xnrnie,
nparno ce y Anexcannpniy n nocrao haxon n cexperap Anexcannpa Anexcannpnicxor (313-328
r.), on nennxe nomohn y opn npornn apniancxe iepecn. Tpn ronnne naxon onnyune nrxe na
caopy y Hnxein 325.r., Aranacnie ie nmenonan sa Enncxona (ys ne mane cnnerxe n
nonmerana npoapniancxe crpyie), mro Koncranrnna Hnmnniy nnax nnie cnpeunno na ra
nomae y nporoncrno y Ianniy (Tpniep), iep cy ra na caopy y Tpnpy (335 r.) onryxnnn sa
uaponamrno n na ie mopao na exn y Koncranrnnono, nox my ie ynasax y Ernnar no
sapanen. Haxon cmprn Koncranrnnone (337 r.) on ce nparno y Anexcannpniy, ann ie neron
nacnennnx Koncrannnie Ppyrn nonono oiennnno oa nena napcrna xao yehenn apnianan n
pacnpane oxo rora nonpmene cy rex na Koncranrnnonocxom caopy (381. r.), xana cy naxon
Aranacnienor ynoxoiena npxnenn onn ycarnacnnn onpehene nepe, n nornpnnnn neponane
nnxeicxnx orana. To ie nocrnrnyro sanaranem enncxona ns manoasnicxe nponnnnnie
Kananoxnie, npe cnera Ipnropnia Hncxor n para my Bacnnnia Bennxor, nacroiehn na onone
nynohy xpnmhancxe xynrype. Caopna nsrpanna xpnmhancxor yuena nonpasymenana ie
yrnphnnane remea Hpxne, naxne nsrpanny xpnmhancxe xynrype na exnaranran naunn.
Bacnnnje Bennxn (330-379 r. ie pohen y Heoxecapnin na Honry y nmyhnoi xpnmhancxoi
noponnnn, y xoioi ie on cecrapa nna naicrapnia Cn. Maxpnna, a on pahe Cn. Bacnnnie.
Haxon ouene cmprn 345. r., ynyrno ce y Kecapniy, a sarnm y Hapnrpan (rne ie yuno ca
Ipnropniem Forocnonom n Jynnianom Oncrynnnxom) xon peropa Hnnannia, a 352 crnrao y
Arnny rne ie xon Hmnepnia n Hpoepecnia nsyuanao nnoconiy ca nnianexrnxom, rpamarnxy,
acrponomniy, reomerpniy n mennnnny. 370. Ionnne pyxononoxen ie sa enncxona Kecapnie, a
nanncanmn poina nena n yunnnnmn mnoro nopa cnery y xome ie xnneo, npencranno ce
Iocnony 378.r. Berono naxno erserercxo neno iecre Lecmoouee
51
y nener ecena, y xome on
xopncrn cnoia creuena snana ns npnponocnona onor npemena, xao n nnococxa

31
PG, 29, 3-208
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pasmnmana Apncrorenona, Hnaronona, Hocninonniena n Hnornnona, nacroiehn na
nosnrnnno npnxaxe cycper iennncxor cnera n xpnmhancrna y nyxy nnunor Foxnier crnapana
cnera ns nenha. Crora ie noniao crape xocmonomxe reopnie o neunocrn cnera n
camonononocrn nyanncrnuxnx onnnia. Foronana rnopennna ie nena, iep ce y noi (n ry ie
iennonyman ca Hnaronom n mnorn cy ce nenonn Tu+aia raxo namnn y Becronneny
ycxnahennm), xao xpacnoi noiann moxe naspern n ynosnarn Tnopan. H nynna n nenora
rymauena `nea n seme`, nonenn cy Cn. Bacnnniy nennxn yrnen, raxo na ra ie xopncrno neh
Cn. Amnpocnie Mnnancxn, a neh 400 r. npenenen ie na narnncxn. On nnosocxor ie
nocenor snauaia n nerono nenaromxo neno: Pe: +)aou+a raro oa u+aiv ropucmu oo
ie)uucrux cnuca.
52
Hsyuanarn nena ne snaun n nononnrn ce sa nnma, neh yuene na ce y nnma
pasnnxyiy npane npennocrn, yuehn ns iennncxe nnreparype mynpe n sa nymy xopncne crnapn.
Kon iennncxnx mynpana nma cnenouancrana o nopy n npnnnn, na ro cnaxaxo nonpnnocn
mopannom nacnnrany mnannx, na xao mynpe nuene naa na xyne ono mro nehe na omrern
nnxon xpnmhancxn mopan n cxpene c nyra cnacena nyme. Taxo ie unnno n Moicnie y Ernnry
n Pnnno y Xannein, nsyuanaiyhn cne mro ie nno nopo y ramomnoi cnercxoi mynpocrn, mro
nx nnie onemoryhnno na yny nopn cnyxnren Fora ncrnnnror. On npenopyuyie
npoyuanana Xepaxnnra, Coxpara, Hnarona (xor nainnme nanonn), Apncrorena, Teopacra,
nononnraropeine, cronuape n nononnarononne ne nomnnyhn nx nonmennuno. Taxohe cy
crynnie Xomepa, Xecnona, Ecxnna, Enpnnnna, xao n Xeponora n Conona raxne na nonpnnoce
nopoi opasonanocrn, a no neronom mnmeny, onannnane xao `cnoamner` ie camo snax
phanor nosnanana crnapn. Tai cycper xynrypa moxe na ce noronn camo na oocrpany xopncr
n sanonocrno, iep ie crapane sa nymy pnra nnoconie n nainehe crapane pnra sa nymy y
`nnoconin no Xpncry`. Cnern Bacnnn cem anena nenaromxnm remama, cnoie mncnn
nocnehene npymrny nnneo ie n xao openocr npema senenamrny xoie ra ie pacraxano.
Ipnropnje Borocnon (330-390) ce ponno neponarno 330.r. y Apniansy y Kananoxnin, a y
ro npeme oran my ie no enncxon rpana Hasnianca. Ty ie yuno mxony, ann raxohe n y
Anexcannpnin n Arnnn. On ie nponeo neo cnoi xnnor y mynpoyy, y nnoconin xao
nocenonany n crnnany cnera mro ie nainparonennie, xasyiyhn sa cee na ie npnn mehy
ynrenma mynpocrn uemy ne moxe nnmra npyro na ce npernocrann, na ra xaxo xaxe,
Mynpocr ne n nasnana iannnm xao yunrea mynpocrn n opasonana. On ie eneprnuno
mrnrno opasonane n yuenocr, n ro ne camo npxneny nero n cneronny, ronopehn nan rpoom
Bacnnnia Bennxor: xoie ce mnorn mehy xpnmhannma, sor nomer pasymenana, rnymaiy xao
snexyne, onacne n on Fora ynaanaiyhe. Ho mn nehemo oxperarn rnopennny npornn Tnopna.
He rpea nonnxanarn yuenocr, xaxo ro nexn unne, - nanpornn, rpea pehn na cy rnynn n
nesnannne cnn onn xoin npxehn ce raxnor mnmena xene na n cnn ocrann yny nannx na
nnx, xaxo n y onmrem mpaxy caxpnnn cnoie concrnene nenocrarxe n nsernn

32
PG, 31, 669-810
71 | a a e

pasonnuanane cnora nesnana.
53
Cn. Ipnropnie ie, y rome ce cnn cnaxy, no npe cnera
ecennnx (npeocrano ie 45 neronnx yrnannom xoncranrnnonocxnx ecena). Vs Hoxea)uo
c)oeo Bacu)uiv Be)uro+ uynena ie n Ano)oeuia noeooo+ oeecmea ua Houm xao cnoienpcan
rpaxrar o nacrnpcxom cnyxeny xoin ie no ysop Jonany 3naroycrom sa ecene o
cnemrencrny, xao n nne npornn Jynniana Oncrynnnxa (ca xoinm ie nnaue cnoienpemeno
crynnpao y Arnnn). Hopen nnx nncao ie ncropnicxe n reonomxe noeme, mehy xoinma nma n
ncranuano nnpcxnx nacaxa (crnxonana ayronorpania O rueomv +o+). Hopen rora nma n
243 nncma xoia ce no crnny ysnnxy no nnreparype (51. nsnaxe n ecennnuxa npannna). Ha
rexa mecra ns neronor onyca Cn. Maxcnm Hcnonennnx nanncao ie cxonnie, a naxon nera
Hnnia Kpnrcxn (9.-10. nex), Bacnnnie Honn (10. nex), Hnxnra Hpaxnnicxn (11. nex), Hnhnop
Kanncr Kcanronyn (14. nex). Ha nerone crnxone rymauena ie nncao 3onapa n Hnxonai
Poxconarep, a Mnxaino Hcen ra ie cmarpao xpnmhancxnm Pemocrenom. 3a nera ie For npe
cnera Vm, Bennxn Vm xoin xocmornopno crnapa ymna nha n anheocxe npnpone, a xa xome
crpemn yncxn ym xao nainnxem n cen naicponnniem. Pyma ie `nax Foxnin`, `oxancrnena
uecrnna` ns xoie nsnnpy nansemacxn n naruynnn nnenn uonexonor xnnora, iep ie uonex
`nonn anheo` nocranen na semy na ce ysnece na neo, na ce ncnynn nainnmom cnernomhy.
To ie nyr ooxena xao ounmhena n ysnera yma, nyr ope ca crpacrnma n ycpenorouena,
nyr mynpoynna ca mnoro saiennnuxor ca nneanom cronuapa n nnaronnuapa, npemna sna na
reno craie ramnnna yma camo nocne nana n carpemena uonexonor. Cmprno ie npnmnno xnacan
ecmprnocrn n nocrano nona rnap, ann ne y reonornin es npnnpeme xoia ie onna
ecnpenmerna: Jep axo ym nnie npocneren, nnn ie peu cnaa, nnn cnyx nnie uncr na ne
npnma peu, - sor iennor on rnx yspoxa, xao n sor cnnx saienno, nensexno xpame ncrnna.
For ie sa nera yan n Tpniennncrno ie canpmen nspas iennonymnocrn n ynyrpamner mnpa,
nsnan cnaxe ysacronnocrn n nenana, y nannpemennrocrn oxancxor nncrnonana. V opn
ca narancrnom n iepecn apniannsma Ipnropnie Forocnon ie yxasao connianno nonepene npema
yncxom ymy, raxo na ie neronane pasmarpana n pasmnmana yrpaheno y npymrnene
remee.
Ipnropnje Hncxn (335-395 r.) ie pohen y Heoxecapnin xao mnahn par Bacnnnien on
ponnrea ecennnxa Bacnnnia n Emennie xoia ce xacnnie ca neronom cecrpom Maxpnnom
samonamnna y manacrnpy, on pane mnanocrn crnuyhn xpnmhancxo n xnacnuno opasonane.
Hpoyuanao ie Opnrenona nena, ann n Hnarona n unnona Anexcannpnicxor, a xacnnie y
Kecapnin peropnxy xon uynenor Hnannia. Hocne nonparxa ns arnne 358 r., sanocnno ce xao
uren y Hpxnn n oxenno Teoceeiom xoia ie nocrana haxonnca y noi, ann ie ypso npemnnyna.
On ie ornmao y manacrnp xon cecrpe na nnxonom nmany Anecn na Honry, ann ra ie par
Bacnnnie npornn noe nsneo 371. r. n xnporonncao sa enncxona Hnce (manor rpannha nsmehy
Kecapnie n Anxape), xana ie Banenr nporanao npanocnanne, na n 376. r. no cnprnyr ca
xarenpe on apniancxnx enncxona, na xoiy ce nparno rex no cmprn Banenra 378. r. ca

33
Hnrar npema xn. Ieoprnie B. unoponcxn, Hcmo:uu ouu IV eera, Bpnauxa Fana, 1997., crp. 143.
72 | a a e

rpniymannm nouexom napona. Hncao ie nocra nena nononom nacpraia neuacrnnnx na para
my Bacnnnia (`Hpornn Ennomnia`, `Anrnpnrnxoc npornn Anonnnapnia` nrn.), xoin ce
ynoxoino re ronnne, a 381., rne ie nmao nnnnor yrnnaia na caopy y Koncranrnnonoy. Kon
nera ce nepa ne nonnprana cymnn, ann on nacroin na ie norxpenn pasymom, na no
meronnunocrn n cncremarnunocrn nainnme nnun na Opnrena iep ie neponao na nayuna snana
mory na nocnyxe orxpnnany Foxnie ncrnne, na ie npxao na cy crpore merone nnianexrnxe
nesamennne y reonomxnm pacnpanama. To ie npnmeneno y neronom erserercxom neny O
cmeapanv :oeera
54
, xoie ie samnmeno na nonyna `Fecena na Becronnen` para my
Bacnnnia, npercranaiyhn ncnxonomxo, anrpononomxo n reonomxo rymauene npne xnnre
Moicniene (1, 26) For ie crnopno npno anheocxn cner a sarnm semacxn, a na xpaiy n uonexa
ca xoinm ce ono nonpmana. On ncrnue xaxo cy nesnaomnn ronopnnn na ie uonex
mnxpoxocmoc n na ce cacroin on ncrnx enemenara on xoinx ce cacroin n cner, nouacrnyiyhn
raxo uonexa cnoicrnnma xomapana n mnmena, nonaiyhn: 3ap ie ro raxo naxno na ce nomryie
uonex xao cnnxa n npnnnxa cnera, xana n neo nponasn, n sema ce mena, n cne mro ie y
nnma nponasn. Ha y uemy ce onna, no xpnmhancxom yueny, cacroin nennunna uonexa? He y
cnnunocrn ca rnapnnm cnerom, nero y rome na ie uonex no nnxy cnora Tnopna.
55
uonexono
nocroiancrno ie y cnnnn Foxnioi, y xnnom nnxy Hnunor Fora, xpos mra n xocmnunocr uonexa
nonia cnoi cmncao. Tex xao xnna cnnxa nnn einoc Foxnin uonex nma snauaia sa cner, iep
nocraie npononnnx oxancxnx eneprnia y rnap. Cnoi npxynan ro nocrnx y onannoheny
Xpncra Horoca, xoin xao For nocraie uonex, no xome n semacxa crnxnia nonia yneonnmrno
y nyxonnom n oxancxom xnnory. Hpn crnapany uonex ie nocrao `no nnxy Foxniem`, a y
Onannoheny ie nocrao ciennnen ca Forom, pasnaiyhn cana n npyrnma on Foxnier nnxa,
nocraie cpennmre onaronahenocrn n oecmphena n ooxena cne rnapn. Ta ie cnnxa Foxnia
y uonexy nnmennmensnonanna, nainpe xao ymna n nyxonna crpana, ann n ocnnxanane
canpmencrana Foxninx, nexo nonpaxanane Foxnie npnpone, ann noxperno npema nopom
nnn nomem. Vxonnxo uonex nornynnie onpaxana y cen oxancxa canpmencrna, ro ce n nnx
mena na oe n nocraie cne ornopennin, na ie cnaxn neo yncxe npnpone, cnoconocr, nap
sanpano onpas cnnxe Foxnier canpmencrna y nemy. Cn. Ipnropnie ie cmarpao na ie uonex
crnopen sa ecmprnocr, iennom nncnosnnniom no xoioi n yonmre n morao na xenn neunocr
Foxniy. Taxo ie on nanonynno rymauene Becronnena neronor para Bacnnnia Bennxor
(331-379 r.), raxohe ciainor reonora n xnacnuno opasonanor mncnnona. Cem pacnpane oxo
npcre npnxnarana Opnrenonor yuena o anoxaracracncy, nanexo ie sannmnnnia nerona
excrarnuna reopnia o oronnheny Moicnienom: iep nponnxanmn y raiancrnenocr Foxancxor
rainononcrna, neh n cam nennnnn, npenna saienno c Hennnnnnm... a pasym nnnn Fora y
nexaxnom cnerosapnom npnmpaxy. Foxancxa npnpona ie nenoimnna n ynnnn cy nencxasnnn y
noimonnma, raxo na cy rpannne casnana Moicniy nare ca nnhenem nepyxornopene cxnnnie,
npemynpe cnne xoia npxn cny naceeny. For raxnnm nononiem moxe na npenna y nymn, a

34
PG 44, 124-256
55
O cmeapanv :oeera /PG 44/, 16, 180
73 | a a e

nyma ce yceana y Fora n y rome ie nena naxenocr. To ie reopnia xoia ie nponyxrnnno ymna
y mncrnuxo nacnehe ns cnnca O Moicuieeo+ rueomv, a y xome ie on n nenocpenna npereua
Mucmu:re meo)oeuie Cn. Pnonncnia Apeonarnra. V coniannom norneny Ipnropnie Hncxn
nacranno ie opy cnor para npornn senenamena y nnsanrnicxom npymrny, sanpranaiyhn n
uonexon ysopan nnx ca nenom o crnapany uonexa y naronopy ornapana npema Popy camom.
1onan 3na1oyc1n (350-407) nnn Jonan Xpnsocrom, ponno ce y Anrnoxnin 350 r., nornue
ns opasonane noponnne, a mxononao ce y Anrnoxnin xon nnosoa Annpararnia n nosnaror
peropa Hnannia. Hperpneo ie n snaran cronuxn yrnnai xoin ce penexronao y neronnm
mnoropoinnm `snaroycrnm` ecenama. Taxo ie pennmo nnmyhn npornn cranonnmra
neonarannsma napa Jynniana Oncrynnnxa ncrnnao xaxo nnie po onai xoin ie connianno
nornauen (nmaiyhn y nnny cronxa Ennxrera), neh onai xoin poyie naxasnocrn rpexona.
3amonamno ce naxon cmprn maixe 371., a on 381.r. ie cnemrennx y Anrnoxnin, nocranmn n
enncxon y Koncranrnnonoy 398. r. 3or nnrpnra mecnor cnemrencrna sapaneno my ie
oanane npxnennx ynxnnia, a 404. r. naxon ynana noicxe y npxny xoia ie nony sa
xpmranane pyranno ooinna xpny noniennx, npornan ie y Jepmenniy, y mecro Kyxys,
onaxne ie ysanyn anenonao nyne rpn ronnne, a sarnm no nporepan iom nae y Hnrnynr, a na
nyry sa ro nnne mecro npemnnyo ie y mecry Komany 407. ronnne. Behnny neronnx nena
unne npononenn xoie cy saenexnnn cnymaonn, n onnoce ce na rymauena Crapor n Honor
3anera y pasnnm nononnma, xoia cy ecennnuxom nemrnnom ocrnapeno rymauene xoie ie
ycmepeno na pasnniane npaxrnunor mopana. Beron ypan conniannn n nonnrnuxn xnnor xao
na ie na nexn naunn onanao npernocranxe coxparoncxe xprne pannie.
Mnnynnje mennxc (2. nex) nsnarao ie y nnianory Ormaeuie xpnmhancxo yuene y nyxy
ernuxor pannonannsma. V nemy ce saysnmao sa nonmane uncrohe n nyxonnocrn
xpnmhancxor mopana, ncrnuyhn nonnrnuxy noiannocr xpnmhana. Fpanno ie xaxo nnxony
cnpemnocr na n ympy y nme nepe, xao n panoxpnmhancxn nnean cnpomamrna, nananaiyhn
amopannsam n nnnemepie oraror xpnmhancxor cnera. V onpann xpnmhancxor yuena o
nacxpceny nocranno ie resy na ie nanexo rexe crnopnrn nemro ns nnuera nero nacxpcnyrn
ono mro ie neh nno. V rom norneny nns aconniannia ca noimonnma ycraiana n nonor
nacraiana on ie xopncrno xao n npyrn anonorern, nosnnaiyhn ce na nononnnocr n
nnxnnunocr npnponnnx noiana. Ma xonnxo y nenom noxasnnany ro nsrnenano nannno, ca
rnme ie yxasnnao na nnmn cmncao Foxnie cnemohn, yrnphyiyhn n na rai naunn anocroncxo
npeiemcrno xoie he Hpxna na cnoinm caopnma rex nex xacnnie n xanonnsonarn.
Knnnr Cenrnmnie unopenr Tep1ynnjan (160-220 r.) ie Kaprarnnannn xoin nma snauai
sa nosnniy narnncxy narpncrnxy nonyr Opnrena sa rpuxy. On ie nono nopo opasonane,
nororono y npannnm nayxama ca uninm ocnananem ie no y npnnnnn na ycnocrann
pannxanno anrnrnocrnuxo cranonnmre, cranaiyhn axnenar na uncro pennrnosno
cranonnmre, nnyhn no remea nnune nepe. Cranaiyhn napanoxcannocr xao noceno
74 | a a e

meroncxo cranonnmre y cpennmre naxne, on nnme oiamnana Foxnie ianane, na pnenn na
nepyie ynpano saro mro ie ro ancypnno. 3a nepnnxa ne naxn noxasnnane o neonpxnnocrn
neronor neponana, neh camo maxcnma na ie pasym sa npano cxnarane necnocoan. Beron
yrnnai ie orpneo xaxo cn. Anrycrnn, raxo xacnnie n Hacxan, Kiepxerop n Han Becron y
nonmany nepe xao ancypna sa pasym, a xoin xao pesynrar nponcrnue ns camor unna neponana.
Cnaxaxo na xana ce nepa camonsonyie y roi mepn, na ry nnme nnxaxna penexcnia naema mra
na rpaxn, ry cnaxaxo nema nn xaronnuancxor (caopnor) cnoicrna. Hnmra ne nomaxe mro ce
nopnue ennrnn nnrenexr, a nanonno nonpxana snpan pasym y mnpoxnm naponnnm macama y
nymn npocror cnera, iep rnocrnuxa snoynorpea ne snaun na cy nnoson `narpniapcn
iepernxa`. 3amepxa Apnroreny na ie pasnyuen n nocanan, a na nnie noap iep ie nerona
nnosonia naopyxana iepernxe nnianexrnuxom nemrnnom xoia nperennyie na cne, a peanno
ne pemana nnmra, ncronpemexo ie n xapaxrepncrnuna npra nnnnsma sanannor yma xoin ca
ounrnm nonmerannma n samenama resa cmarpa na ie nemro nocrnrao. Honparax y npnponno
crane xoie on saxrena, neoma nnun na nan y napnapcrno xoie ie nnanecern nex n ocrnapno, es
aneropnsma n es nnosocxnx oiamnena, nero yxnanno n nnnnuxn oroeno. Cnoi
anarnuxor marepniannsma ca censyannsmom n pnroposnnm xpnmhancrnom nanasn ce n xon
neronor cnenennxa Apnonja (260-327), xana nanana onrnmncrnuxn pannonannsam xao
nanonno neocnonany nepy y neorpannuene moryhnocrn yncxor pasyma, a rome cynpocrana
censyannsam n emnnpnsam. Komnnexce npen anrnuxom nnoconiom ounro ie na nnie naxo nn
cxnarnrn, a iom mane onpannarn.
Iai Mapnie Bnx1opnn (300-370. r.) ie pohen y Apnnn, a oxo 340 r. npecenno ce y Pnm.
Ty ie xao opasonan ronopnnx npxao mxony sa nsyuanane peropnxe, nsa xor ie ocrana ienna
nosnara narnncxa rpamarnxa Ars Grammatica, xao n npenonn Hnarononnx n Apncrorenonnx
nena na narnncxn iesnx. Haxon npnmana xpnmhancrna nanncao ie rpn xomenrapa na
nocnannne Cn. An. Hanna /Kopnnhannma, Ianahannma, Eexannma n unnnnannma/.
56
On ie
y xpnmhancrno npemao ns onmno cnponenennx ncrpaxnnana na nonpyuiy nnaronnsma, o
uemy cnenoun n ienna neronom pyxom neoma neno nanncana xnmna: In tribus/ Tergemina /
Sed una actio, / O beata Trinitas. / Existentia / Vita / Cognitio,/ O beata Trinitas./ Verum lumen,/
Verum lumen ex lumine, / Vera illuminatio, / O beata Trinitas. / Status, / Progressio, / Regressus,
/ O beata Trinitas. / Ab uno omnia,/ Per unum omnia, / In uno omnia, / O beata Trinitas.
57
Ornenao ce n y nononnaronnuxnm crynniama on xoinx ie ocrano camo Explanationes in
Ciceronis Rhetoricam, xomenrap na Hnneponone De Inuentione. Hoxymao ie na ycxnann
nononnaronnuxo mnmene ca xpnmhancrnom Liber de generatione divini Verbi, noxasyiyhn
ce n xao cpuann npornnnnx apniannsma, Adversus Arium. Mehyrnm, ro xon nera nnie
pasyxranano anarnuxe cxnonocrn na no re mepe ocnopn nnoconin npano na nocroiane,

36
PG, 8, 999-1294
37
M. Victorinus, Hymnae, III, 34/41, 636)
75 | a a e

na yne nornyno ncrncnyra ns cnnx cepa nyxa, xao mro ie narnncxnm anonorernma ymenano
na yne nncxo.
Panac ce ynaxana xao neoma snauaina nnunocr xoia ie ycnemno nocpenonana nsmehy
nnosonie n xpnmhancrna, yxasyiyhn na ro na ie nnme pasnora sa carnacnocrn nero sa
ocnopanana, na mra nyx ysaiamnor nomronana n yann cranno ynyhyie. On nera ie ocrano
n ienno ncnonenane nepe, xoie npenn nanecrn: Hcnonenamo Fora Ona cnenpxnrea, n
ncnonenamo Cnna iennnoponnor Hcyca Xpncra, Fora on Fora, Cnerna ncrnnnror on Cnerna
ncrnnnror, Hnx Foxnin, xoin nma cnoiy cymrnny (substantiam) on Foxnie cymrnne, Cnna no
npnponnom poheny, iennocymror ca Onem (cum Patre consubstantiatum), nnn rpuxn
ouoouoiov, pohenor npe crnapana cnera n npe cne rnapn, npnopohenor ns mprnnx, Peu
(Aoyoc), Koia ie cneonmrn Pasym (universalis Aoyoc), Peu on Fora (ad Deum), nanocnerxy
onannohena n na xpcry noennnmn cmpr n cne rpexone, namer Cnacnrea, Cynniy cnnma, on
neunocrn iennocymrnm c Onem (cum Patre consubstantialem et ouoouoiov), nenarny cnny
(potentiam activam), xoia nponcxonn on ounncxe cnare (a patria potentia), xoia nopaha n crnapa
cne, cymrnny (substantiam) nocroiana cnera, pahane n xnnornopnocr, iep On ie neunn xnnor
n Foxnia cnna n Hpemynpocr, nenpeoxpenyra, nensmennna, no uemy n iecre Peu (Aoyoc) n
ynex ie n no Peu (Aoyoc), y cxnany c xoiom ie cne crnopno, ecrpacan y crpanannma,
noceno npn nenonany y rnapn, xao nensmennnn nsnop none, neocrpamhen n nsnan cnaxor
xperana xan ncrnue nony n nperaue y pexy, na maxap ce n xaxe na ce pexa mena saienno ca
xopnrom n pononnma n oconnama nonnore, ann ona nasna y cen ouynana cnny none. H xao
mro pexa nnaxn semy, ne ocehaiyhn nnxaxan nenocrarax y rome mpo ce rnue cymrnne none,
raxo ie n Xpncroc pexa, xoia onnaxyie n nynn cny semy, xaxo xasa npopox (Hocm. 2:6). Jep
On onnaxyie n nnnnno n nennnnno, re xao pexa xnnora napyie cnnm nhnma cnaxy
cymrnny. H no uemy ie xnnor ry ie Xpncroc, n xora On opocn, y nemy ie Cnern Pyx, n y
xome ie cnna xnnora, y rome ie For Oran, n can ienan For (totum unus Deus). Hcnonenamo n
Cneror Pyxa, xoin nma cne on Fora Ona saxnayiyhn Peun (: Aoy), ro iecr Hcycy Xpncry,
Koin My npenaie cne, mro Cam nma on Ona. Ha rai naunn ncnonenamo na ra Tpoinna nocroie
ncronpemeno, n iecy Jenno n Jenan For, n na cy iennocymrn (ouoouoio), n ynex saienno
nocroie Oran, Cnn n Pyx Cnern. H Hcyc Xpncroc ie Cnn Foxnin sor nenspennne cnne n
nencxasnnor pohena. Peu, xoia ie on Fora, Hnx, Hsrnen, Opnc n Oneronane (refulgentiam)
Ona, Cnna n Hpemynpocr Foxnia, xpos xoie ce For iana n onpema y cnnm cnnama; nocrnin,
npenna n nponsnonn cna neicrna xpos npyronenarnocr Cnna (secundum actionem Filii), ro
iecr Peu, Hcyca Xpncra, Kor ynex ncnonenamo xao onannohenor, pacneror, nacxpcnor ns
mprnnx, n ysamnor na neeca, Koin cenn snecna Ony n nne xao ynyhn Cynnia xnnnx n
mprnnx, xao Oran sa cne rnapn n Cnacnre.
Aax1annnje (4. nex) ie no yunre peropnxe y Hnxomennin, rne ie Pnoxnennian npeneo
npecronnny napcrna n nmenyie ce npnnm narnncxnm nncnem `rpniymannor xpnmhancrna`. V
xnnsn nocnehenoi napy Koncranrnny Hnmnnin De divinis institutionibus /O oxancxnm
76 | a a e

ycranonama/ on nsnaxe xpnmhancxo yuene o mopany y cenam xnnra. On ra onpannana
nesnnanem sa anrnuxe npennocrn , na ie sor cnare na iesnxy n nspaxainom orarcrny
ecennnmrna nono nannmax xpnmhancxor Hnnepona. Ocnanao ce npenacxonno na nera
xora ie cmarpao naionm ecennnxom n nnosoom, xao n na Mnnynnia uennxca,
Teprynniana, Knnpniana, naiyhn xpnmhancxom yueny ciai anrnuxe opasonanocrn n
nocrnxyhn iacnohy n npaxecr xoiy neronn nperxonnnnn nncy nmann. On ie noxasnnao na ce:
nnxaxna pennrnia ne moxe nonpaxanarn es mynpocrn n nnxaxna mynpocr ne moxe na ce
nocrnrne es pennrnie.
58
Anrnuxa nnoconia ie rpaxnna mynpocr nan pennrnie, a es
nnococxnx enemenara cama narancxa pennrnia nna nyna npenpacyna n cyienepia
(Haxrannnie ie noxasnnao n nexe cnmnarnie npema xannensmy n xepmernsmy), onoconia ie
ocraiana rexnom sa mynpomhy n nnie ie ocrnapnnana. Mynpocr n xpaina ncrnna o
oxancxnm n yncxnm crnapnma cnoi unpcr ocnon nanasn rex y xpnmhancxom orxponeny,
xao ncrnna xoiy ie uonexy orxpno cam For. Taxo ie y mynpocrn canpxana nepa, a y nepn
mynpocr
59
, raxo na y xpainoi nnnnin nnoconia ycryna xpainn nonoxai pennrnin, ann ne
nno xoioi, neh onoi no npenmyhcrny nan ocrannma, a ro ie xpnmhancrno. V rom cmncny ie
monno Iocnona na ynyhn na yme na ce uyna nenpniarea, na cnare na ce cauyna on
npniarea xoin nrexaxo ymeiy nerarnnno na ce npomene n `oxpeny hypax naonaxo`. Fnhe na ie
ra mynpocr cnnuna npnmenn E. Xnncona, na ie moryhe na nnie nnoconia cnacna
xpnmhancrno, neh cnoiom iennnnsanniom xpnmhancrno nnoconiy on nponacrn.
1onan mnnonon (5. Bex) ie no yuennx Amonnia Jepmnienor, xoin ie noxasao cnnan
nanop y rymauennma Apncrorenonnx nena y Anexcannpnicxoi nnococxoi mxonn. On ie
nanncao onmne xomenrape na nerony 4u;urv, Kameeopuie, Aua)umure, Cnuc o ovuu, O
uacmaianv u nponaoanv, noxasyiyhn y rome ouynane cmncna sa nornunocr n nayunn nyx.
Kana ce ns nesnaomrna npeopasno y xpnmhannna, iep ie xpnmhancrno nonymrano
npnxnannnie rymauene ycrpoicrna xocmoca sa nayuno cxnarane, on ce narno pacnpanana o
xocmonomxnm nponemnma. V neny O ee:uocmu ceema, unnonon ce ocehao cnoonnnm na
ynyrap crnopenor cnera rpaxn pannonanne onnoce, oyxnaraiyhn nerarnnny crpany nnrana,
ynepeny npornn Hpoxna xoin ie narancxy resy o necrnopenoi ecxonaunocrn cnera nspasno y
nonoi opmn. Cnnc o neunocrn cnera ne camo na nonceha na crnapn mory na yny crnopene
nn ns uera /ns nenha/, neh ie sannmnn n y norneny nnxnx pasmarpana cnexynarnnne
ncnxonornie. unnonon ie cmarpao na nyme nemaiy nhe n cymracrno camo no rome, mro
npencranaiy npnnnnn xperana, a n no mepn yxonnxo ra npencranaiy (269,4), iep pennmo
cama noiana cynna na ney ayromarcxn snaun n oacianane n sarpenane cnera, na rpea
cmarparn na ie cnonecna/pasymna nyma ramo rne ce noiann, raxo na camnm cnoinm nhem n
es nonyncxe noe noyhyie xnnor n xperane. Ha rai naunn xperane ne caunnana cymrnny
nyme, neh ioi ie npncycrno omoryheno onocrpanomhy ncxonnmra onaxne cexe nopexnom. On

58
Lact., De div., I, 1-2
59
Lact., De div., IV, 4
77 | a a e

rnpnn na ie cner neuan na n ce necnno na nmamo nocna ca ecxonaunomhy xoia ie crnapna n
onpennna, a mro ie nemoryhe, na ie resa o neunocrn cnera ecmncnnna. He moxe ce cnaxn
onnx eneprnie cmarparn xperanem, iep ce crnapane snna Foxniom noom xoia ce noianyie
ne norpeyiyhn nn npeme nn nnmensnonncane, na n ry xperany nno nemoryhe na yne,
mro ie oner ecmncneno. Bemy ie ananorna camo nyxonna eneprnia xoia ie raxohe
esnpemena, n ecmncneno ie npxarn ie sa xperane y rnopennnn xao nonynn crnapana, iep ie
ananornia cnernocrn n cynna xao nsnopa nenpnmennna. Tnap ie nornyno nsnan oxancxor
cymracrna n For ie canpmen, n no n canpmen cne na rnap n ne nocroin, iep ie xon nera
moryhnocr ncronerna ca nenom. Hnie ncrnna nn na ie cne mro ie crnopeno y npemeny
nonnprnyro nenpecranom nacraiany n npomenn, iep pennmo nexn rpoyrao nma cnoi nouerax y
Hnarononoi nymn, xana ie on noueo o nemy na mncnn, ann ro camnm rnm ne snaun na nerona
rpn yrna nehe nanarn snp nna npana yrna. Inenaiyhn y Hnarony, nonyr Knnmenra
Anexcannpnicxor, yuennxa Moicnienor, cmarpao ie na on nma ncnpanne nneie o Fory, ann na
ra ie no crpax na ne noxnnn cynnny Coxparony, mro ra ie raxo cnyrano na ie nao y
sanyny, a Moicniy cy cnenonann raxohe n Hronomei n Xnnapx, na ce ca rom rpannnniom
noxasyie xonnxo ie naxno ocnoahane on sanyna n nenocpennnie pasmarpane ynpano xnnre
Bumuia, es narancxnx pesepnn. Tome ie nocneheno neno O oe+uivpeuiu roc+oca.
Apncrorenoncxnm aprymenrnma ce cnyxn na noxaxe na ie nyma ecrenecna, iep nema nnuera
nsmehy ecrenecnor n renecnor, ynyhn na nnienno reno ne moxe na nponpe y npyro reno
(25, 1-6). On seme ie, npema Hocmanv, naunneno reno, ann ne n nyma, xoia y nera ynasn
cnoa naxon yonnuena, na ynasax rena y nymy nnie nan, xaxo ro npencrana Hnaron, neh
narocnon Foxnin. Camo nyme nepasymnnx nha nmuesanaiy ncronpemeno ca nnxonnm
rennma, iep n ne oanaiy nnxaxno nenonane onnoieno on rena, na ce cnexonnxo nnxono
xperane onnocn ncxyunno na renecnocr. Camo uncrnm ymom uonex n morao na cxnarn
nyxonne crnapnocrn, a ro n ra unnnno orocnnunnm, ynyhn na cy xareropnsannie nyxonnor
cnera uecro cnohene na penannie mecra n xnannrera, a one nncy penannone. H xao mro ie
rama nnmenocr cnernocrn, raxo ie n ono mro ie nopo neno, ann ono neno nnie camnm rnm n
nopo, na npema unnonony, sa xpnmhancxn mopan npnmar ecrercxor ne naxn. Ponyme,
nonyr one uynne onoinocrn npema necxnahenom noimy nenore (nsrnena na ie ro
mnnenniymcxn nayunn ycyn), on nnie ycneo nn na ne yne xereponoxcan yuehn na crapo reno
ne moxe na yne ncronerno nacxpcnom, mro n camy nneiy nacxpcena nerarnnno
xapaxrepnme. Ca rnm yuenem ie yneo n spxy oxo noimona npnpone n nnunocrn,
npnmenyiyhn na Cn. Tpoinny noimone Apncrorenonor yuena o cymrnnama, na ie y
saiennnuxoi npnponn onnaiao nnunocrn sa cee (ananorno onnocy nnnnnnnya n npcre), a mro
ie sa nocnennny nmano xpncronomxn mononsnrnsam. Ty ie on ocrao neonuan rpuxn
nayunnx, xoin nnie ycneo na ce ysnnrne no nnianexrnxe cnoicrnene oroorxpnnennm
ncrnnama. Moryhe na ie ro n oryn mro ce nennxnm nenom ocnanao na npenanana cnoinx
yunrea, xoin cy npnnnuno xonsepnarnnno penponyxonann nneie Amonnia Caxaca. Mehyrnm,
xao nayunnx on ie nsnamao n xnnoresy o nmnerycy y pacnpann o xperany cynna nnn
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acrponay, a ra resa o nsauaiy rena ie excnnnxarnnno oiamnena y neronoi reopnin
xperana, xoia ie nocne nocnyxnna xao ocnona Fypnnanonoi nnnamnnn. Taxohe ie npnpenno n
cxpaheno nsnane nena Pnonncnia Tpauxor, Anononnia Pncxona n Hponnianaca nponparnnm
xomenrapnma, xoin cy nocnyxnnn xao ynennnn y mxonama, no uemy ie ynamhen y ncropnin
xynrype.
Heuecnje ns Euece (4-5. nex) ie y uernprom nnn nerom nexy no enncxon rpana Emece /cana
Xomc y Cnpnin/. On ie npenacxonno pasmarpao uonexon nonoxai n nerono mecro y xocmocy.
Kaxo yncxa npnpona nma n one cacroixe xoin cy cponnn ca nexnnom npnponom, nem,
xnnornnama, on ce y pasmarpannma ocnanao na yuena Hnarona n Apncrorena, croinxa,
nononnaronnuapa, ann n na cnor nperxonnnxa Ipnropnia ns Hnce. Pyma ie sa nera nernapna
cymrnna n naueno xoie onpxana reno, ri. ciennnyie ce ca renom onaxo xaxo ce Foxancrnenn
Horoc ciennnyie ca yncxom npnponom, a ro snaun necnnneno n ne nnaiyhn nome oyser.
Ona ananornia ie nnme nero nperepana ann nma n cnoiy penarnnny onpxnnocr. Kao
npocnehenn enncxon xoin ie npoyuanao nena anrnuxnx nnocoa (mro ie pannie
npenopyunnao n Cn. Bacnnnie) on ie nsrpanno cnnresy iennncxe xynrype n xpnmhancrna,
nonyr Opnrena ynyhn n orocnon n nnoco. V mecroi rnann cnnca, xana pasmarpa noiam
yopasne xopncrn ce npenacxonno cronuxom repmnnonorniom, ann onanyie mannxeicxo
cxnarane cnercxe nyme xao ienne n saiennnuxe sa cne, rne n ce cne one npahane, mro he pehn
na nymy ne cmarpa no cen ecnouernom n nenacranom (ona camo nacraie npe rena).
Hepconanna npennocr nyme ce y neronom cnncy ne nonnmrana, a uecro ncrnue ienpeicxo
cxnarane na uonex y nouerxy nnie crnopen nn xao nornyno cmpran, nn xao cacnnm ecmpran.
V rom npanny on pasnnia mncao o uonexonoi crnapanauxoi cnoconocrn, raxo na cy
rnoceonomxa n xynryponomxa nnrana ona xoia unne Hemecnieny ocoenocr npema cnncnma
xoin cy ce annnn cnnunom remarnxom y ro noa. uonexona ie nennxa npennocr ro mro
nocenyie ym n nyrem cnoconocrn yuena on nocraie yuecnnx y nayxama n ymernocrnma,
crnuyhn ca rnme npenmyhcrno na npema cnom nasnaueny na nouerxy crnapana yne xao n cne
y npnponn crnopeno, ann na ry cnoiy oxancxy norennniy crnopenocrn na nnx n nononie
Foxnie n cnpononn y neno raxo mro he n cam na crnapa y manom, ca yne xocmonoiernuan.
Conniane n nonnrnuxe nneie npemena npernanrnnie ie nsneo Anpennje Anryc1nn (354-
430 r.), xoin ce ponno y Taracrn (Hymnnnia), a npanne nayxe n ecennnmrno yuno y Manapn
n Kaprarnnn, sannrepeconanmn ce sa nnoconiy unranem Hnneononor cnnca Xopmeu;uie
(373 r.), raxo na ie on crpacnor mannxeicrna npemao na onymenanane axanemcxnm
cxenrnnnsmom n nononnaroncxnm noxrpnnama, a xana ie xao nacrannnx rpamarnxe n
peropnxe y Kaprarnnn (375), y Pnmy n Mnnany nocneo na pasronapa n ca mnnancxnm
enncxonom Amposiem xoin ra ie yneo y xpnmhancxy nepy, a ca naronopom maixe, nocrao ie
xpnmhannn 387. r. Pecerax ronnna xacnnie n cam ie nocrao enncxon y Xnnoy rne ie n
npemnnyo 430 r. On nnme Hcnoeecmu (398) n cnnc O opraeu Boruioi (413-426 r.) rne ie
nnrana nepe, a n ca nome nonesanor cnacena npeneo na yncxy noy xoia ie npema neronom
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mnmeny Foxnie neno, xoiy on nocrana xao cymrnny uonexa nsnan nnrenexra. Cne ie noa
iep ce ona ncnoana y cnaxom yncxom nocrynxy no on noap nnn nom, na ie cnoonna
noa nosnrnnna camo axo cnyxn xpnmhancxoi nepn. Foxnie crnapane Anrycrnn ie raxohe
oiamnanao nonnm axrom npexo nnaronnuxnx nneia xoie ie npeneo y Foxnin ym n cxnarno
nx xao crnapanauxe mncnn. Kaxo ynn camn nemaiy y cen nonono cnare na ce oxpeny n
npeopase, y npnnpemannma sa nnxon cnac nomaxe nm Hpxna Foxnia xoia ie n ocnonna
connianna nncrnrynnia na xoioi nounna npxana. Tom cnoiom reopniom nao ie nehe npano
Hpxnn nero nerannoi nnacrn n npxann, a ro xao na ie npnnpemnno noa cpennonexonnnx
nporona nencromnmennxa n norpoma y anarnsonannm noianama (Bannyprnicxnx nohn,
Canemcxnx nemrnna nrn.) Moxe ce cnoonno pehn na Anrycrnnono neno caunnana ocnone na
xoinma nounna nnoconia xpnmhancxe npxne, a no cnom xapaxrepy ona ne nsnasn nsnan
noimonnor cnera iennnncrnuxe nnoconie, xao nn pannin anonorern, nonpasymenaiyhn
npornnpeunocrn xoie nnanaiy nsmehy yuena npxne n nnaronnsma, xoie nnonno nonynana
npernocranxe nepe c npyre crpane n nomaxe na ce npxneno yuene nsnoxn xao cynncao
nayunn cncrem (rnm nyrem pasnnna ce nosnnie cxonacrnxa). Taxohe ie younno na Anrycrnn
npenasno xopncrn nononnaronnuxe noxrpnne sa norpee xpnmhancxe normarnxe ynonehn
raxo nnoconiy y xpnmhancxn cner, maxap n y rom cxpahenom onnxy.
Anrycrnn ie xpnrnxonao noiany orahena iep ie y noi nnneo nponem, nanme na onai xoin
nma npennme nocenyie ryhn nmerax, n mnoro orarnx snaun manax cnpomamnnx. He npxehn
xao noranamna iypncnpynennnia na ie ro nocen nnuninx crnapn, npxehn na ce npnnarno
nnacnnmrno ymnoxana snoynorpeom npana y nnmecmncnennm nocranxama yncxnx
nncrnrynnia. On ie uax nanonno na yxonnxo n ce nonnmrnna npana nmneparopa, xo n ran
cmeo na nsiann `onai nocen ie moi, onai po ie moi, nnn ona xyha ie moia`. To n
npernocranano npyraunie ycrpoicrno xoie n nounnano na carnacnocrn Hpxne n Ppxane,
nanme casnyuie npxnennx yuena n cneronne mohn, ca unme n ce xpnrnxa cneronne ramrnne
ncnynanana noxasnnanem npnmepa onronopnocrn sa nocranane nna n nohcrno xa nemy.
Anrycrnn ie ca rnme opmynncao reoxparcxo naueno, rymauehn na ce nponacr pnmcxor
napcrna noronnna no Foxnioi non y noa nerone nemohn, ynyhn na raxna npxana
sacnonana na nauxn n nacny nnie morna na pauyna na Iocnonny naronar. Kaxo ce ra
npxana mnpnna na snounnnma n ycnennna ie sacnyxena nponacr nounnennx snonena, na
Anrycrnn cmarpa na npemna snonycn n nemoncxn yrneraun mory na onnoce npnnpemene
noene, noena nopa ie xonauna. Teoxparnia xoia ce y Hpxnn npnnpema xao rexna na
Hapcrno Heecxo sannana na semn ie onai nnean, npe xoinm cy Anapnxone xopne nemohne,
iep ny nonpxana n uyna cam Iocnon Xpncroc: non tollit Gothus, quod custodit Christus.
Pecrnnannia xoie snaun nenonane Foxnie Hpomncnn ie sa Anrycrnna noxena xopexnnia
mncnn pnrancxor xanyhepa Henarnia, xoin nnie sa osnno ysnmao nanocr yncxe npnpone
npxehn ie nenaxnom, re ca xperanem on cranonnmra nopa y yncxoi npnponn nsneo
saxyuax o camonononocrn neronor cnacena. To n morno na ce nasone narypanncrnuxnm
yronnsmom, xoin ie on Anrycrnna orpneo xpnrnxy axrnnanniom no openocrn. Hpxna oryn
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ne rpea na npesa nn on cnercxe cnne xaxo n y Forom sacnonan nopenax cnera yxyunna cne
yne, cnpcranaiyhn nx y anhennma nohen iepapxnicxn nopenax. V rome ce noiana cneronne
npxane npocro pacraue, raxo na e nnnn xao npnnpemenocr xoia moxe na rpaie n nexonnma no
xonaune ocyne na nponacr, nn no cranana ca Hpxnom xoia ce crapa o xnnory ynn na semn
n nenn onronopnocr ynpanana. Pnropnsam xoin ce ry nonpasymenao, noxasao ce ncropnicxn
nenpnxnarnnnm, na uax n xonrpanponyxrnnnnm, iep ie npexomepno sannpao y cnoony
nnunocrn. Ta cnoona nara ie uonexy on Iocnona n nena ysypnannia ie xaxnnna, ann
nonpasymenane npeopahena uonexonor xoin my namnpe ymna noa xpos remeno
opasonane y nacroiany na ce nyxonno ysnnrne n xpos noimonno nsmnpene ca npnponom
nocrnrne cnary n onnyunocr na raxo ycmepanan xpene npema ncrom rom nyry, cacnnm
uynaiyhn yncxy cnoony, nna ie crnap nanpenonana y nnococxoi nenarornin n nennxom
pany na pasmarpany xpainnx cnpxa xnnora n yrnphnnany npannx npennocrn nyxonne
ersncrennnie. Hoxena Civitas Dei nspacra ns cnponocrn Civitas terrena, ann nneina
nenpnsemnocr iom ynex camnm rnm ne orxnana n snoynorpee, uax ryn n ornopnocr na
nncrpymenrannsanniy npexo nacna, pasoinnmrna, nauxe n ypehena onosemacxnx nesa.
3a Cn. Bnonncnja Apeonarn1a (5. n 6. nex) ie xapaxrepncrnuno, na ie no cnom yrnnaiy
sapana npexopauno oxnnpe pacnpocrpanenocrn rpuxor iesnxa, raxo na ie neh ncror mecror
nexa naxon pohena Xpncronor nerono neno nno npeneneno na cnpnicxn iesnx, y ocmom iom
iennom na cnpnicxn, re apancxn n iepmencxn (718.r.), a y cnenehem na xonrcxn n narnncxn
(835. n 860.r.). Kpaiem ienanaecror nexa npenenen ie na rpysnicxn, uerpnaecror (1371.) na
cpncxocnonencxn no nanory Hapa Pymana, re y cenamnaecrom n nenernaecrom nexy na npyre
cnonencxe iesnxe. Hnox Hcania npeneo ie xomnneran onyc saienno ca xomenrapnma na ra nena
ns nepa Cn. Maxcnma Hcnonennnxa, re rnme cnonencxom cnery omoryhno iesnuxn ynas n
npncryn no nairananninx mncnn one cynrnnne pane reonornie. Pasnniena nnococxa
repmnnonornia y cnoi cnoxenocrn nennx canpxaia y ue)u+a Cneror Apeonarnra, cacnnm ie
nsmennna nopme xynrypnor npncryna, xaxo crnapnma orxpnnena y xpnmhancxom yueny,
raxo n npncryn npocyhyiyhnm cranonnma xpnmhancxe reonornie yonmre, xaxo na
(Jyro)Hcroxy, raxo n (Cenepo)3anany.
V xnnsn Taiaucmeeuo ooeoc)oe+e, saienno ca enncronapnom ocranmrnnom
nsnoxena cy nerona reonomxa yehena, y xoinma ie on nepan xananoxnicxoi rpannnnin
xpnmhancxe orocnonnie, xoiy ie npenneno nonesao ca npxynnnma nnaronnuxor
cnexynarnnnor crana. Mehyrnm, xao na ce neron nanop na npnxaxe nennunny xpnmhancxor
yuena nexpnmhancxnm nnoconma ynexonnxo n nanac ne cxnara cacnnm anexnarno. On ie
nmao nyrem anoarnuxor nacneha mnmena nnaronnsma, rne ie nainncrnyiyhnie
nncrnonane necasnarnno camo no cen ycnen nanocrn name yncxe npnpone (ryena
npnopaspennnx snana ns npnonrne nonesanocrn c Foxancrnennm), na xaxo ie y roi
rpannnnin Iocnonna rpancnennenrnocr penarnnna, xpnrnuxn npncryn ie xon Apeonarnra
nonycrno npeopaxai nsnopnnx noimona y nonosanernom nyxy, a ne pennmo npema rpannnnin
erserese Xanneicxnx npopouancrana xoioi cy ce nonnprnn Hoprnpnie n Hpoxno. Mehyrnm,
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xaraarnuxn oxnnp nosnrnnnor yrnphnnana crnapn nnie nonymrao yncxn ynnn y camy
Foxniy cymrnny, a ro ie nocean nonpnnoc xpnmhancrna, casnane na uax nn ncxynen,
ounmhen n ooxen uonex nnie y crany na casna cymrnny Foxniy: Ann rnenai na nnxo on
nenocnehennx sa ro ne uyie, xaxem sa raxne xoin ce npxe npnnesannm sa cymrnny, n
samnmaiyhn na nsnan rnx cymrnna ne nocroin nnmra nancymrnncxo, nero cmarpaiy na
concrnennm casnannma snaiy Onor, xoin ie nocranno ramy sa noxpnnannmre Cnoie (Hc.
18/17/, 11). Axo nn cy oxancxa rainonohcrna nsnan onnx /onaxnnx xpnmhana/, mra n onna
nexo pexao sa one iom nenocnehennie y raine /sa nexpnmhane/, xoin cne npenasnnasehn Vspox
oenexanaiy xao nocnenne on nocroieher, re xasyiy na On nnnouemy ne npenasnnasn
esoxna npanena on nnx, n mnoronpcna onnuia. Bemy npnnana, xao cneonmrem Vspoxy,
na ce npnna n nornpnno ncxaxy cne nornpne nocroiehnx nha, n cne nx iom nnme nopnue,
xao Hancymror nsnan cnera; re na ne mncnn xaxo cy nopnnana cynporna rnpnnama, nero na
ie On rnm npe nsnan nnmanana, nncrnyiyhn nsnan cnnx onysnmana n yrnphnnana
/nocranana/.
60
Ho peannoi ysnpxanocrn nocroiancrna casnana npen Iocnonom Pnonncnie
ce pasnnxyie n on narannna Hnornna, xoin ie excnenrpnuno cmarpao na on no cnoioi
camocrannoi xomnerennnin nnn ecrernsmy renniannocrn moxe na nonycrn cen na rnpnn na
sna mra Iocnon namepana, xohe n mncnn /Euu. 3,6/, xao n on nemy nanexo naxnnier
nnocoa Hpoxna, xoin Jennom rpniannuxom Fory cyrepnme mnronomxe narancxe
npernocranxe xoie n rpeano na cnenn, na n no na ynnma cxnarnn naunn anconyrno
nornuan n c rnme noxasnnao canpmencrno.
Hamepe n mncnn Iocnonne moxe na ncxaxe rex npopouancxn nnno onnoca, sa xoin
Apeonarnr npxn na nspaxana Cn. Hncmo, raxo na ra xopncrn n xao cnnonnm sa
npopouancrno: ... saro mro ie On nancymracrneno nsnan cnera, re ce nenpnxpnneno n
ncrnncxn iana camo onnma xoin npenasnnase n cne neuncro n cne uncro, re nannnase cnaxo
noxohene cnnx cnernx npxona, re ocranaiy cne oxancxe cnernocrn n rnacone n peun
neecxe, crynaiy `y npnmpax`, rne ie, xaxo xaxy peun /Cn. Hncma/(Hocr. 2.Moic. 29, 19-21;
19,9), Onai Koin ie c ony crpany cnera /Cnennmnn/. Jep n nnie nanpocro sanoneheno
oxancxom Moicniy na ce on cam nainpe ouncrn n sarnm na ce onnoin on neounmhennx, n na
ie rex nocne cner ounmhanana uyo mnorornacne rpye, rnenaiyhn mnore cnernocrn xoie spaue
uncre n mnoronsnnnaiyhe spaxe, a na ie sarnm onnoien on ocrannx n ca nsapannm
cnemrennnnma nocrnrao npxynne oxancxnx ycxohena. H y nnma ce nnie cycpeo ca Camnm
Forom n nnie nnneo Bera, iep ie nennnnn, neh mecro rne ie On (2 Moic. 33, 20-33). To
mncnnm na snaun na ono naioxancxnie n naixpaine xon nnnnnnx n ymnnx, iecy nexn
nonnexehn pasnosn /norocn/ nonnoxia cne Hpenacxoneher, xpos xoie ce noxasyie Berono
npncycrno nsnan cnaxe samncnn, xoie sacena na ymne npxone Beronnx naicnerninx mecra.
61

Onne ie nornyno ennnenrno na Apeonarnr cnenn nsnopnn cneronncamcxn rexcr, n na ce

60
Bnnn moi npenon: Cnern Pnonncnie Apeonarnr, ue)a, (2010) Feorpan: Mnpocnan, crp. 179-180. (`O
maiaucmeeuo+ ooeoc)oe+v`, rn.1, npr. 2.)
61
Cnern Pnonncnie Apeonarnr, ue)a, Feorpan: Mnpocnan, crp. 180. (`O maiaucmeeuo+ ooeoc)oe+v`, rn.1, npr.
3.)
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Hpoxnone mncnn camo cnaxy ca neh nsnoxennm cnncom cn. Ipnropnia Hncxor O rueomv
Moicuieeo+, maxap ro nno n npnxpnneno. Pyx, rpehe Hnne Cnere Tpoinne nyna rne xohe n
nema naunna na nno xaxan ymnn saxnar on crpane ma xaxo ycanpmenor uonexa ro ycmepana
nnn npeycmepana nno xoinm cpencrnnma, na nn mncaonnm. On enenryanno moxe na yhe y
caneicrno, xoinm ce ne pemere raxna xperana n nyrenn, neh ce na nnx ocnana n ca nnma
ycxnahyie. V cynpornom, nponsnonn ce ysypnannia nannexnocrn, xoia nnrn apymenranniom
xoncrnryncanom npema nexoi nnoconin npnpone xao narypanncrnuxnm cxemarnsmom, a
nnrn mxoncxnm nameranem nexor nanonno nyer cxnarana, ne moxe ro na onpanna.
Baa pehn na na pannn ornapana xopnsonra npema nesnanom n nencxasnnom,
Pnonncnie Apeonarnr ynonn na mnpoxa npara orauxo xpnmhancxo npenane pyxonoheno
craposanernnm npopouancrnnma n npannnnnm cxnaranem peun Iocnonnnx y Jenanhenma,
no xome ce casnane Fora nonymra y onoi mepn, y xoioi ce Cam For orxpnna uonexy, y
cymrnncxom nnunom cycpery. Pa on n Moicnieno npenane ns Heroxnnxia nparn
naineponarnnie cnenehn n mncnn ciainor cnnca O rueomv Moicuia ;arouooaeua, u)u o
caepueucmev ep)uue, Cn. Ipnropnia Hncxor, moxe xao nnycrpannia na nocnyxn n onai neo,
xana on sa nerono ynaxene y oxancxy ramy xaxe: H na rai naunn neh rai, xoin ie sa nyro
npemena yrnxno yno mynpocr o ysnnmennm npenmernma, ienna he na cxnarn mra ie ro y
crnapn nocroiehe, xoie no cnoioi npnponn nma nncrnonane, n mra ie ro nenncrnyiyhe, xoie
nma nncrnonane camo no nnnnnocrn /nansrnen/, xao mro rana npnpona nn cama no cen
nnie nonpmnna. H am ro, unnn mn ce, casnao ie rana nennxn Moicnie, nayuen
naroiananem /tn 0coouvc|c auiocu0c|c vvvui/, a ycrnapn, na on cnera oyxnahenor
uynnma n nocmarpanor ymom, nnmra nnie nocroiehe y npanom cmncny, cem onor mro cne
nncrno npenasnnasn, xoie ie cnemy yspox, n on xoiera cne sanncn. Jep axo mncao n nemro
npyro ypaia y pen nocroiehnx, ran nn y iennom on cnnx nocroiehnx ym nehe nnnern raxno
xoie ne n nmano nyxnocr y npyrom, n xome n nno moryhe crnhn y nncrnonane es
yuecrnonana na ncrnncxn nocroiehem. Cnarna ienno n ncro xoie ce ne nonehana n ne cmanyie
y cnaxoi npomenn, y ooi nnn y nomnioi, ynex nenoxperno, saro mro my ie nomnie crpano, a
oer nema; nemaiyhn nyxnocr nn y uemy npyrom, ienno y cnemy nonehe, iennno, na uemy cne
yuecrnyie, iennno xoie ce yuemhem na yuecrnyiyhnma ne ymanyie, ro ie sancra y npanom
cmncny nocroiehe /tovt sotiv cn0c to ovtec v/, n nonmane o rom nocroiehem ie snane
ncrnne. V rome xaxo ie rana onai nocrao, cana ie n cnaxn noiennnan. /2.23 -2.26/
Kapaxrepncrnuno ie sa nnarononcxy noneny ananacrnuxor nyra na rope n xaranacnie
nyra na none, na ie ro noxymai onmepanana nnmensnonncanocrn nennunna n y nenocpenno
noiannom, n y nncxpennonncanom cmncny. H ry ie neonnmrno na rymauennma npne xnnorese
noima Jennor ns Hnarononor nnianora Hapmennn cacnnm younno xao nnrnuxa merononornia
xoia ce npnmenyie xpos cxnarane cymrnne ncnpannocrn pasymenana. V rom cmncny ie
Pnonncnie npnxnarao nnarononcxo nacnehe, a ro snaun n camocanpxanane nneie xoie n
omoryhana reopnicxn npncryn. For nocroin nancymracrneno, saxnayiyhn nnacrnrom naueny
n npnencrny, raxo na ie y cnoioi cymrnnn sa crnopene ymone necasnarnn, ann ra ie moryhe
83 | a a e

casnarn no neronnm cnnama n eneprniama xoie cy npe cnera ennnenrne y oxancxom
orxpnnany xpos Foxnin noroc. C rnme n anoarnuxn n xaraarnuxn monen xperana
mnmena (no nopexny nnarononcxn y perynapnom opranony mnmena), raxohe nma
mncaono naan ysop.
Hcropnococxn npncryn Cn. Apeonarnra nmao ie ornopen xopnsonr n panan npanan sa
paspany reme ca namennanem oiamnena nspymennx no xpncranne iacnocrn. V rom
cmncny n cnnc Xpncra Janapaca Apeonaeum u Xaioeeep, yxasyie na enomenonomxy
nnmensniy y xoioi ce cycpehy mncnn xoie nene nexonn, nanme na ne am anocrponpany ann
nnax iacno nsnnoieny nnmensniy xycepnoncxor npenasnnaxena ncnxonornsma, rne ie sa
ycnemno ocrnapnnane nsnopne namepe neonxonna ennnennnia xoia ocnerana npnmnrnnno
rpahen cmncao
62
3a Apeonarnra Foxnia noiannnana cy reoannie xao ncrynana,
nanpenonana n npahana y peny npomncnn, rne ie c yncxe crpane npncryn rom Foxniem
`nenpncrynaunom cnerny` nyr npnnne nnn snana xoia cy oxynena oxo nopa. Popo ie npe
cnera crnapane onor `mro iecre nainenme`, a ro ie xpearnnna cnara nneinor ycrpoianana
cnera, xoia ie Fnarocnon Henore, ns xoie nenocrnnocrn nornue cne mro moxe na ce nonn n
ocmnmana cny ersncrennniy xnnora y cnery.
63
Henora ie nosnnane Foxnie na ersncrennniy
(xao xon Hnarona nnn Hpoxna) n ro xpos nonanane cnare npnnnaunocrn nnaronnuxe nneie

62
Ennnennnia ne ronopn nn o uemy npyrom nero o saxnarany nexor nha (Erfassen eines Seienden) y cnecr
neronor opnrnnannor concrna xoie ie ry (Selbst-da). Vcnemno ocrnapnnane nexe namepe ie sa nenarnn cyiexr
ennnennnia y xoioi, ono mro ie ocrnapeno iecre ry, opnrnnannrep, xao ona cama. /Edmund Husserl, Ogled o
izvoru geometrije, Osijek: IC Revija, 1982, str. 8/ Cnaxaxo, ro ie ona crpana xoia ce onnocn na merony nsrpanne
npne nnoconie xao nnrennnonanne nnn rpancnennenranne enomenonornie, ann na nn cy cymne orxnonene
ca nocrnsanem pannn npenasnnaxenem cymne y iacnocrn n pasronernocrn cynona, ocraie xao ecxonauan
sanarax onronapana y ncropnococxom npncryny nyxonnom nacnehy uoneuancrna.
63
V onom norneny, neron nnaronnsam ie cacnnm npnponno yxnonen y nnococxy rpannnniy: Hpennnno n
Henora ne mopaiy na ce pasnnxyiy y Bnxonom cne y ienno canpyhem yspoxy. Jep nenehn nx npnmennno na cne
nocroiehe, na yuecrnonane n yuecrnyiyhe, npennnnnm nasnnamo ono, mro yuecrnyie na Henorn, a nenorom
yuemhe na yspoxy xoin unnn nennm cnaxy nenory. Hpecymracrneno nax npexpacno nasnna ce Henorom saro,
mro ce on nera npnonmrana ono nnacrnro sa cnaxo ouapanane cnera nocroieher; n saro mro ie ono yspox
naroycrpoienocrn n npeona cnera n cnnuno cnernocrn nsnyuyie sa cne nennm nenarne npenoce ncrnuyher
cniana; na oryn mro ono cne cen npnnnaun, orxyn ce n nasnna nenorom, n saro mro ono y cnemy nanonn na
ncronpemenocr. Hpexpacno ie ono xao npenenora n neuno nocroiehe na ienan n ncrn naunn n nasna neno; ne
nacraiyhe n nenponannno, neyspacraiyhe, nenpecraiyhe, ne y neuem npeneno, a y npyrom esnnuno, nn y iennom
npemeny raxno, a y npyrom npemeny npyraunie, nn no onnocy npema iennom npeneno, a y onnocy na npyro
esnnuno, nn onne ienno, a ramo npyro, nn nexom npeneno, a nexom nnie npeneno (Hnaron, Io;oa 211c.), ann
xaxo ie camo no cen n camo ca coom iennonnnno, neuno npennaiyhn npexpacnnm, n xao npensonnno n
onpannie y cen nmaiyhn on Bera ncrnuyhe ouapanane cnera npenenor. Taxo y npocroi naruynnoi nenorn cnaxa
nenora n cnaxo ouapanane n cne npennnno iennonnnno npennocroie xao y yspoxy. Hs ror npennnnor cnemy
nocroiehem ie naro na yne neno y onronapany ca nnacrnrnm noimom, re saxnayiyhn npennnnom nponcxonn
cxnarane, yan n onmrene cnnx, n cne ce y npenenom oiennnana, a npennnno ie naueno cnara xao
crnapanauxn yspox, xoiy n noxpehe cne yonmre ciennnanaiyhn yany npema nnacrnroi ouapanocrn; ono ie n
onpehene cnera n yeno, xao yspox xoin nononn no canpmencrna, iep ce pann npenenor cne noianyie, n
ysop, iep y carnacnocrn c Bnm cne ce pasrpannuana. 3aro ie Hpennnno ncronpemeno ca Popom, mro cnaxnm
nononom cne crpemn Hpexpacnom n Popy, n nema nnuer y nocroiehem, mro ne n yuecrnonano na Henom n
Popy. /Cnern Pnonncnie Apeonarnr, ue)a, (2010), Feorpan: Mnpocnan, crp. 130-131. (`O ooraucru+
u+euu+a`, rn.4, npr. 7.)/
84 | a a e

nenore xao neunor npenmera npnnnaunocrn,
64
c rnme mro ie n ona crnap Foxnie noe n
Beronnx ycranonnnana. Tnm naunnom ie nrnie y nainehoi mepn nocroino yann xao ono
xoie nocn cynepnarnn ersncrenrnocrn, mro nennunnom n cnarom npenasnnasn cne nacrano n
nponannno, raxo na nainncryiyhnie nncrnyiyhe nonesyie cnarom iennncrna xpos
nocroiancrno nainnme yann ynyrap casnannx ocnona n npaysopnocrn xoie ynanpen
npnnpemaiy moryhnocr cyouanana n cycpera c Bnm, xaxo cxonniacr xaxe - `canpmene n
neune mncnn neunor Fora`. To ie mncaona cnnxa cnera y Fory xao snax nerone noe xoia ce
noxasyie y cnery xao spann n eneprnie xoie opmnpaiy nena n nsrnenana crnapn, ann ne raxo
na npaysopn ocraiy c ony crpany crnapn, nero na onn xao cnpcncxonnn nnaiy neo cnera xao
neronn nocrnsanann nnenn n nocrnrnyha.
Cner n xnnn oryn mro ie For Xnn n ersncrennnia ie Beron oxancxn noxnon xao npnn
on napona. Mehyrnm, sor rora For nnie mnomrnen nero cymrnncxn Jenan n xao Onai xoin ie
ynanpen cnaxoi ersncrennnin ncronpemeno n Onai xoin ioi omoryhana na yne y iennncrny,
xoin xao nncrnonane orpanaiyhn cne omoryhana nrncane yonmre (xao n y rpehoi
Tpniann Cn. Ipnropnia Haname).
65
V rom cmncny ie Foxancxa Henora ysnnmennia on cnera n

64
Pymn ie nax cnoicrneno, xao npno, xpyxno xperane, naponana ioi ie cnoconocr na nsnasn ns cee nanoe n
ncronpemeno na caopasn cnoie ymne cnne xao no nexom xpyry, mro ioi naie ncrpainocr, re onnpaha on mnomrna
rora, mro ie ynyrap ne, n ornouerxa ycpenorouyie na cee, a sarnm, no mepn onor, xan nocraie iennonnnna,
oiennnana ca iennncrneno oiennnanaiyhnm cnnama n na rai naunn nononn no Henor n Popa, Koie ie nsnan
cnera nocroieher, Jenno, ncronpemeno, ecnouerno n ecxonauno. Pyma ce xpehe no cnnpann xana ce na noi
onronapaiyhn naunn osapn oxancxnm snanem xoie nnie ymcrneno n oiennnanaiyhe, neh pasymno n
nsianyiyhe, nonyr nomemannx n npenasehnx eneprnia. A no npann, xana ne nsnasehn ns cee n ne ynyhn
noxperna ca oiennnanaiyhom pasymnomhy (ri. xao mro pexox, no xpyry), ona nsnasn nsnyrpa xa rome, mro ie
yoxpyr ne, a sarnm cnoa, xaxo n on mnoxnne nexnx pasnonnxnx cnmnona, nna nohena xa iennocrannom n
nenonnrom casnany. /Cnern Pnonncnie Apeonarnr, ue)a, (2010) Feorpan: Mnpocnan, crp. 131-132. (`O
ooraucru+ u+euu+a`, rn.4, npr. 9.)/

65
Hnn ie cnaxa oxancxa cnna ecnouerna, nnn ro nnie nnienna! Hasnnaiyhn n nonnniaiyhn necrnopenocr camo
non ienny on nnx, n npyre nsanyiem ns necrnopenocrn, a oianyiyhn cne crnopennm, nsanyiem ca cnnma n
ry ienny, raxny na yncrnny camy cee nornpe n noncena, n cnana ioi y neo ononpranane, xaxo ie cama no cen
ncrynnna n cama ce no cen onpnnnnena. He xaxe nn on, na ie non cymrnnom ono ronopnrn, xoie camocranno
n iennncrneno nma cne camo y cen n re cnne? Ann, npe cnera, Bera n cnenonano na ce nasnna Forom, xaxo
nam ie ro nme npenaro no Hpxnn. H Moicniy, ecenyiyhem c Forom, nnie pexao Ja cam cymrnna, neh Ja iecam
cymracrnyiyhn, na nnie on cymrnne, Koin iecre, neh ie on iecrnyiyher cymrnna: iep ie Onai Koin iecre y cen
oxynno cne nrn (nncrnonane). 3arnm, axo n ce ymecro cymrnnom Fora on nocnyxno snyuno
onronapaiyhom no npnponn, n yronnxo no naronarn n naronarnnm oronnma, sa xoie Cnern raxohe xaxy na
cy no naronarn ecnouernn n necrnopenn, nna n ro cymrnncxa npernocranxa ronopa. Bemy ie naxne
cnennno na xaxe Jennnn no npnponn ecnouernn For. A on, samennnmn ro For n onannnmn no
npnponn, nnie Onor nasnnao iennno ecnouernnm, xoin ciennnyie cnexonnxo mro nocn n saxnara. Jep nnie nn
ro pexao, na n noxasao xaxo n y Onome npnponne cnne omanyne crnopene? A na rai uonex cmarpa Foxnie
cnne crnopennm, uyi npexo neronnx nnacrnrnx iacnnx peun. Hanonehn nennxor Pnonncnia, xoin nmenyie
nonycrnna npnonmrena /nsnacxe/ xa cen camonrnocrn, camoxnnena n camooxancxor, xoie on Fora
ncxone necaonmrnnnm cnnama npomncnn, a xa xome ce no cen npnonmrana cymro n ounryie ce n nmenyie xao
cymro, xnno n oxancxo, crora ce n ronopn na nm ie npnosacnnnare Poap, on onarne cxaue na ymnn
saxyuax: Cnenn na napeueno camooxancrno n npyro, xon nennxor orocnona iacno nmenonano cnnama, ne
nocroin neuno, neh na nmaiy Vremennaua, Popor; n oner: Peueno ie o nocroiany nexor oronauencrna n
oxancrna, nan xoinm ie nanneceno naueno cnera, ann nn na xoin naunn nnie peueno o nnxonoi neunocrn, xaxo
85 | a a e

nocn nenoxynny cnernny omoryhanaiyhn n cne cnemrene panne, xao n xperane npema nsnopy
cnerna n canpmencrna xa xoinma crpeme cnemrenonenarne panne xao xa nauennma
cnemrenoycrpoicrna n Cnere Tpoinne. Ho nenorn ycxnahenocrn cna nha rexe roi Jennoi
rauxn caxnmana, cne ce spaxe cxynaiy ns pasnnunrnx npanana n cynpornnx namepa
xperana npema cpennmry y xom ce oxnanaiy n ycxnahyiy. V rom cmncny n cama ersncrennnia
sna ie ienna nmnorennnia n neexr xoia nema nesanncno naueno (cnnuno Hnarononoi
`acrennin` phanor n nenpnxnannor axo ce ne rnena na nennnocr Hnornnoncxe xnnocrase
`nenpooinocrn marepnie`), npocro yrpynax n ooraenocr nncrnonana xao oncyrnocr
nopa, xoia `ce neun`, nanaie `repaneyrnnn` y rnm nainnmnm nnmensniama ouynana on
crponomranana y nepen nornynor xaoca n esnaha, xaxo ie ro nnneo n Cn. Ipnropnie Hncxn.
Anhenn nponoce cnernocne Foxnie spaxe xpos neo ynnnepsym n cnemrenonauenno cnyxe
cnemy oxancxom sa ynanpehnnane n ycanpmanane, raxo na ie nnxono npncycrno
ncrnnpemeno n cnynanpncyrnocr Foxnia, xoia cne nnnn n sna es yunranana n nxaxne
nacnnnocrn. Pasnor xoin Apenarnr nynn nsyserno ie nornuan n iacan: Hernapnn unnonn
npencranenn cy y pasnnunrnm rnapnnm onnuinma n ynononnnm nsopaxennma ca
cnpxom, na ncmo no mepn namnx cnara, on naicnerninx nspana ynasnnn npema onome, mro ce
c nnma nasnauana, onom iennocrannom xoie nema nnxaxnor uynnor nnxa. Jep nn nam ym ne
moxe na ynasn y nnsnny n nocmarpane neecxnx unnona, xao nn nocpencrnom nemy
cnoicrnenor nernapnor pyxonohena, ri. npnsnanana nnnnnnx yxpaca sa onpase nennnnno
naronenor, uynnnx nopnx ysnana xao snamena nyxonnor pasnanana napona, a rnapnnx
cnernxn xao nnxa nernapnor oaciana, npocrpane y xpamonnma npennarane nocranxe xao
nsopaxena ymcrnenor sacnhena nyxa, nopenax nnnnnnx yxpaca /ouivocvu kun/
yxasnnanem na nsrpahen n nocroian nopenax na neecnma, npnxnarane oxancxe naronarn
/tnv tnc 0ciotutnc cv,upiotiuc ctunuiv/ onmrenem c Hcycom; yxparxo, cna neicrna,
npnnanaiyha neecxnm cymrnnama npema camoi nnxonoi npnponn, npenanoi nama y
cnmnonnma. Oryna, on cnera sa nac moryher oroynonoena, ca ycranonananem sa nac
naronarnor rainonauencrna, xoie n orxpnna neecxe unnone namem norneny, re n namy
iepapxniy npencrana xao moryhe ynononnane Foxancrnenom n y nnxonom
cnemrenocnyxeny cacnyxnrenma neecxnm unnonnma, non uynnnm nnxonnma

onn nmaiy yremeyiyhn yspox cnera; n iom: Hecaonmrnna ie cnana Foxnia neuna n nnie npyro on Berone
cymrnne, npnonmrnna nax /xao/ npyra oxancxoi cymrnnn mro nnie neuna, npemna nma nnocras cneonmrer
yspoxa. Pa ie nerauno xaxo ie neuna oxancxa cnana oxancxa necaonmrnna cymrnna, noxasao ie Cnern,
nasnnaiyhn anhene onnma xoin carnenanaiy neuny cnany, xaxo cam pannie cnomnnao, na ncronpemeno cnenoun n
sa npnonmrnnocr neune oxancxe cnane; xana ie ono y Fory carnennno onaxo nnn onaxo n npnonmrnno. H
nennxn Pnonncnie xaxe na ce: Foxancxn ymonn xpehy no xpyry, ciennnanaiyhn ce ca nesanounnyhnm n
ecxonaunnm oacianannma Hpennnnor n Fnaror. Kaxo na ra ecnouerna n ecxonauna oaciana ne yny sa
npyre nenpnonmranaiyha oxancxa cymrnna, xao nemro pasnnunro, axo ne n onnoieno on ne? Kao npno
cymrnna ie ienna, a ra cy oacianana mnora, may ce caopasno cnoicrnnma onnx xoinma ce npnonmranaiy n
yspacraiy y mepn nnxone npnmaiyhe cnoconocrn. Oryn n nanana Cneror Pyxa no Hanny (Jenp. 2, 4); a
sarnm, nnxo nehe na sanoune cnop, na oacianana re nancymrnncxe cymrnne iecy nene eneprnie nnn eneprnia,
re na cy one npnonmrnne, a ona nenpnonmrnna. /Cn. Ip. Hanama, C)oeo v ooopauv ceeumeuux ucuxacma, III, 2,
11-12/
86 | a a e

npennanprane npeneecxe ymone y cnemrennm nncmennma, ne n nn xpos uynno ysnasnnn xa
nyxonnom, re xpos cnmnonnuxa cnemrena nsopaxena xa iennocrannoi, nnmnoi neecxoi
iepapxnin.
66
Hornxa ie na rai naunn n cama nena, nocehn nomocrpoinn n cnaconocnn cmncao,
raxo na penexcnnnocr ne napymana nonpaxanane Foxninx ncxohena n nenornopnocrn, neh
ce ca nnma ycxnahyie n cnenn nnxon cmncao no nonpmena y ocnonnnm nnnniama nporesana
n cmemrana y oxnnpe mncaonnx npnsopa xoin ce reopnin noianyiy xao npnonrna narocr.
67

Apxanunocr Apeonarnronor crnna, nopen ymne orocpnaunocrn (nnn
noroconornuxor, pasymom n cpnem snpyxeno onapenor mncaonor nohena), nonymrana ie na
ce nnnn n cna nnnnnresnmannocr nncxpennonncannx nennunna, a npe cnera Foxnia
orpomnocr, xoia ie y ronnxoi mepn xnnepnarnuna (/npexoesnana, npenacxonna/ sa yncxa
nnrepeconana, na n ouexnnana n nanana, na nnmnrannie yncxor yma nnie naxo orxnanarn,
a nn cxyuene npencrane nonpanarn n nonynanarn), ynyhn na y nnma nperexno mecro
saysnma onai renepannn cran xoin ie Xycepn onncao xao nannnocr cnecrn n onenno xao
nainehy cxnonocr cnaocrnma n ncnpnnnannma. Xnnor, Hyr n Hcrnna nonpasymenaiy
crnapnocr cnera xnnora. Mecro rne ce ra nennunna nacrannna on ie nasnao `nancymracrnenn
npnmpax`, xoin ns cee nsnocn snane cnoicrneno nyxy ncnxasma. Ca rnme ie sacnonao
xaraarnuxn cmncao nmenonana n onmrena ca Hcxonom, a nme n onnoc y iennncrny
noimnnor n nonmana cauexahe nnoconiy y opmn anconyrnor nyxa, xoia he ocrnapnnane
ror sanarxa na nnnn xao ocnonnn cmncao nnacrnror nocroiana, nponiaiyhn ce xpos remxe n
nouecro n sampmene crase xpos sanyhnnana neronnm rparonnma y ocnoanaiyhnm mncaonnm
ocrnapennma na cnercxo-ncropnicxoi nosopnnnn ianno ncrynaiyhe noiannocrn. Mncnnrn ro
nancymracrneno cnerno xao snane y nnenrnrery ca `nnmra` n norpynnrn ce oxo npnonrne
uncrohe ynnna na nemro iecre, ro ie no rpannnosnn nonyxnar saxnarana `nnuera` xao
nnoconin cxonnor cncrema y xome ie nnacrnro ynyrpamne pasnniane mncnn y cen no n

66
Apeon., O ueo. (xu)iepapxuiu, 1, 3
67
Kutu vup tov cvuv Aiovuoiov ku kuov ovk svuvtiovtui, t nttovi to kpc|ttov, sve o' 6v ouinv c ovoc
cuvctui ao0' va' cnev tu vc vontu, apoo0cinv o' 6v oti kui tnc suutov kuovnc skuotov saioooiv
uuvci tn tov kpcittovoc saiouvcic. Ti o' 6v c|aoi tic, uvtnc tnc kuoaoiov ouvcec saiouvcionc; Ovoc vup tu
ocutcpu otu, tuc vacpkooiouc cve ouocic, vao tov apetou oetoc c,pciovo0ui ouin tic saiuaovtoc
uvto|c ovoc to aou toutev caoocov, oc o' oec ov, to ku0' n6c cve ovikov kui vocpov, okotoc vcvovc, tov
0ciou oetoc saiouvcvtoc, kui tuvt' c|c to oetioui auvtu 6v0peaov sp,ocvov, c|c tov kooov. o'
cvtituttocvoc tout, c|t' 6vvcoc, c|t' 6v0peaoc, c suutov skev otcpnouc tov oetoc, svkutucio0cic okotoc
cvuaconvcv. /Ipnvopiou to\ Huuo\ AHANTA TA EPIA, 2. oAyoi uro :v iroc rou;oov:vn, (I, J,
J2), OLllAAONIKH HA1LPIKAI LKAOlLIl oIPHIOPIOl O HAAAMAl, 1982.: I, 1, 12/ [Moi nepenon:
Ho nennxom Pnonncniy nopo nopy, nehe manem, ne cynpocrana ce, a ia nx pexao, na ymne crnapn ne
saramnyiy ienna npyry, re nonao na cnaxa nspacra y cnoioi nenorn, xana ce noiann npyra iom nnma, na rnm nnme
ys noiany came oxancxe cnne, xoia crnapa cnaxy nenory. Bra n nexo pexao na ce noiann cama neonornopna
/kallopoio/ moh? Hnrn n nexo morao pehn sa `npyra cnerna`, /ry/ mncnnm na nancnercxe npnpone, na cy
ncxnapena xana cy oaciana on npnor cnerna. Hn ro mro ie mnoro nnxe on rora, a mro ie nnax cnerno, mncnnm
na nam pasym n ym, nnie nocrano rama xan ce noiannna oxancxa cnernocr, n ro ona xoia ie y cner nomna na n
oaciana cnaxor uonexa xoin nonasn y cner. Tex onai xoin ce cynpocrana rome, no anheo nnn uonex,
nnmanaiyhn cnerna cam cee, nocraie oyxnahen ramom. |Cnern Ipnropnie Hanama, C)oea v ;aumumv
ceeumeuo muxvivhux (TPHJAPE), I, 1, 12|]

87 | a a e

xpcronocnn nyr n oacianane cnanom orouoneuancxor nyxa ncronpemeno, apem xao
samncao xoiy ie I. B. u. Xeren cnpononno xonnxo ron cy my ro cnare nonymrane.
Fes onmrena na nnnoy nenonnrocrn noiennnaune nnunocrn (nnocrasnunocrn xao
cymrnncxe moryhnocrn nocroiana, nyxonne nonmernocrn nnn raxonncrnyiyhe cyiexr-
cyncrannniannocrn (ne camo xon Xerena y nnianexrnuxnm npenasnnaxennma
orpannuenocrn, nero n npema Apncroreny, npna cyncrannnia ie enrenexnuno nnuna xao
Kannia, Coxpar, Kopncx
68
n ne ycnocrana ce naxnanno npexo napannrme caunnene onnexyn
cnoa), naxne es nornyne cnecrn o nynncxoi npncyrnocrn Fora ncrnne y nama, remxo na
on nrne npyrne moxe na nahe cnoi yncxom ymy nocrynan cmemrai sa pasymenane.
Henocpenno `mncrnuxo onmrene` xoie yxyuyie n reyprniy y nenonany npxnene iepapxnie y
nnny mnoropoinnx nocpennnxa xao xerenoncxo `nocpenonane nenocpennor`.
Xapnsmarnunocr pyxonohena, moxe na ce saxyun, nanasn ce y nponyenoi nesn ca
exnncnonomxnm nerannsmom, ne mopaiyhn nyxno na snaun n pasnniana xnepnxanncrnuxnx
opmn, nororono ne y xpaine mxoncxnm nnn excrpemnnm nnnonnma, rne n npxnenocr
nnana ycrpoianana n npe n nesanncno on Honor 3anera. Cnaxaxo na ie `Hpxna` nenocpennocr
anocroncxor npeiemcrna, re na ie ona cyiexr osnannnana Orxpnnena, ann ynyhn na ie
Boi xao `Teny Xpncronom` cymrnncxa nonosanerna nyma, morno n ce Apncrorenonnm
peunnxom pehn na ie Ceemo Huc+o ono mro ioi ie nno na yne. Vmny uynnocr pyxononn
cpne, ne camo xao noxpehyhn renecnn opran n cpennmre uyncrana, nero xao cymra renecnocr
rena npociainnane onor nnunocno ncrnncrnyiyher, cnernxa renonnxor cymracrna
nncrnyiyher xoie ce ns cnoie npnonrne on Iocnona nare cnoone naronarno nonnprana
monnrnenom npannny n cxpynynosnom npoyuanany (unrany n nenany Ceemoe Huc+a), nnn
xpos youanane norpee sa Fory saxnannom epornunom excrarnunomhy ca xoiom ce ns-craie
ns ynyrapcnercxnx nesa n ycnonenocrn na rne nncxocrn esycnonnor, ri. onom mro npe-
ymnnanem npnnasn ncxony cneronana nacnenor cnera xao neronom ncxonnmry n y nemy
pasorxpnna cnaconocny Foxniy nopyxy. Henoxyunno nancymrnncxo Foxancrno ry ce nnnn
xao eneprnino orouoneuancrno, a Xeren npxn na ie xperane yma n pasyma y Fory neuno, iep
nema rpannna onne rne nema npocropa n ymnorome nn npemena y nnianexrnuxom cannnany

68
V xnnmopnoi xocrnrynnin yspounnx nauena Apncroren ie ycranonno `raxonncrnonane` xao nenocpenny
onpehenocr cxnona crnapn y noiann: A ro nenonnro /yxynno/ ono, Kannia nnn Coxpar, iecre xao ona ry mienena
nonra, nox cy uonex n xnnornna xao mienena nonra yonmre... Kao mro ie ounrnenno na nnxaxo ne rpea na ce
npnpehyiy /ynpnnnuyiy, nonnxy, cnpanaiy/ onnnn /nnxonn, einocn/ y cmncny npaysopa (a onn n nonainpe ry
mornn na ce rpaxe iep cy rn nonainnme cymrnne), nero ie noysnano nponsnecrn ono on pahaiyhnx n
nncrnonane yspoxa onnxa /einoca/ y rnapn. A raxan onnx /einoc/ neh eme nenonnr y rnm raxnnm xocrnma n
mecy Kannie n Coxpara. H ro ie npyraunie ycnen rnapn (iep ie ona npyraunia), a ncra no nsrneny /nnxy, onnxy,
ennen/ (iep onnx /einoc/ ie nenenn). /Ap., Mem., 1033
b
25-1034
a
9/ Hoiennna nnunocr ie naxne ono mro xao
nenonennocr, nnnnnnnyannocr einoca /nnxa/, cnaia Coxpara n Kanniy es osnpa na ro mro cy no onmrem
nnxy npcra ynn, raxo na ie pasnnunrocr rnapn ono mro npnpehyie pasnnunrocr. H onne ce noxasyie nncxocr
Apncrorenone nporoenncremonornie n yuena ncnxasma xon cn. Haname, na ie reno n renecnocr ono mro
xapaxrepnme nnunocr, a na nsrnen n snane nmaiy cymrnncxn snauai no ny. Tenecnocr ie ono mro onpehyie
xapaxrep nnnnna snana ca xoinma uonex pacnonaxe n onnxyie ce, raxo na ce nyrem nnx on npeonnxyie n
ycanpmana, meramoposnpaiyhn cam cnoi ncnxonsnuxn cxnon on nnxa n rnapn, rena n nyme, ns nexa y nex,
xaxo ie n nanarao cn. Anocron Hanne.
88 | a a e

xonaunocrn y ecxonaunom n ecxonaunocrn na naunn xonaunor.
69
Vnpxoc cnom
npnonrnom nany y nesnane npaponnrecxom rpexonnomhy, uonex nnie nsryno nornyno
nenonnrocr cnoie cymrnne, n na ocnony rora ie moryhe ncxynene xpos rparane sa rnm
momenrnma xoin my nonymraiy perenepanniy, onony xoia npenasnnasn ry renepanny
reonomxy npenpexy y cnannnany nonosanernor cnerna n re nainehe nonocrn crynana y nono
reno n nono oneno, mro onna n caunnana nerony npany npnpony.
Cnerorpoinuna nnocras iennncrnene npnpone nnn cymrnne y Tpn Hnna, a xoie he
reopnicxa cnara npanocnannor ncnxasma na ueny ca cn. Ipnropniem Hanamom na npenosna
xao Foxniy nancymrnncxy nenpncrynaunocr, crporo cnenehn anoarnuxe ynnne Pnonncnia
Apeonarnra, yuehn xaxo ie Fora ncrnne moryhe n noxnnern (uyncrneno nyrem `rena rena`) n
casnarn xpos Berony nnnamnxy nsnasaxa n necrnopene eneprnie y rnopennnn,
oronoiannnana y cnery.
70
Hcrouna ie Hpxna npnsnana n npyre nennxe nonnnxnnxe sa

69
Hornuxo ocmnmanane one anopnie xonaunocrn iom ynex ie naioe nsneneno y rpehem romy Xerenone
`Be)ure )oeure` xao nporonnococxe nayxe camoonnoceher ce snana nnn nocrnsana xonxpernocrn Anconyra
Fora n uonexa nyrem `penexcnie-y-cee`, mana nn y 4euo+euo)oeuiu ovxa, xao ncxycrno mnmena xoie ce
ynyyie y nnacrnre npernocranxe penexcnnnocrn, nnn y Euuur)oneouiu du)ocodcrux uavra, xao y cee
saoxpyxanaiyhe snane nenonnrocrn ncrnne nyrem concrnenor pasnoia, xoie ie yunneno nnnnnnm sa noiennnna
on mncaonor nyxa, nnie nsocrannno cnoiy excnnnxarnnny cnary opasnarana.
70
Ha rai naunm nam ie ornopno onai `cranaiyhn xopnsonr` xoin nam omoryhana na n nanac ncxycnmo nemro on
one Cnane xoia onnonn y Hapcrno Foxnie, noehyiyhn cmpr n nacxpcanaiyhn opas Iocnonnn y nama. Cn
Hanama ie sanpano nopaxanaiyhn pannonanncrnuxy ycxorpynocr n xpyrocr y cnoioi snauainoi pacnpann ca
nacrynaiyhnm nyxom nnnnnnnyannsma xao necmnpnnnx enemenara npenpenecancnor narypannsma n
penecancnnx oiexrnnannia xoie cy cner xrene na npernope y cner oiexara nasna pacnonoxnn uonexonoi
camonnacnocrn yxacnyroi on norpene nncnnnnne n camoxonrpone xoia ie neonxonna sa ysnnsane nyxa y
npeopaxanannma n ycanpmanannma xao nerono nacnnranane y ynaxanany n yrnxnanany noynennx
narona nnn rsn. `crape npnpone` uonexa, sa ono peme nnme nero onnaxno, rorono xerenoncxn sanncao y rpehoi
Tpniann, npyro nornane, 24 naparpa: Cana ie ounrnenno na nam naa rpaxnrn npyror Fora, ne camo
camonononor, camonenarnor n cee ooxanaiyher xpos cee, nero iom n nopor, na ce ne sanonoana npocrnm
xperanem camonocmarpana, ne camo nenorpenror, neh n ncnynenor nsonem, na no cnoioi narocrn xenn na
rnopn nopo, es ocnaenor npxana, ne camo nenoxpernor, nero n onor xoin ce xpehe, na he rana pann cnnx na
npncycrnyie cnoinm rnopauxnm n npomncaonnm ncxohennma n eneprniama; na nam ie npocro norpeno na
rpaxnmo Fora xao yuecrnyiyher, na n My ce cnaxn na cnoi naunn npnonmrno, re na n y mepn namer yuemha
nocroiann, xnnenn n nnn ooxenn. A na npasnnx Bennune Pyxa, Bacxpc Iocnonnn, xoin nac xpapn na ce
opanyiemo Cnann mro nonnpe no Hapcrna Iocnonner, mro ce npoiannna na Bacxpceny, neno ie xana xon ror
nennxor npanocnannor reonora npounramo na ie nmanenrna onocrpanocr cymrnne sa uonexa ynex ornopena ra
naronemrencxa n naronana moryhnocr uonexa y neronoi yncxocrn: H xao mro ce cpennmre xpyra xoie y
cen canpxn cnny na ns cee ncnymra cne npeunnxe xpyra, ne cacroin on nne nnn mnomrna rauaxa, ro rnm oe
For ononprana cnaxy nnoicrnenocr, npeonnananaiyhn y Cen nan cnnama n npnmepnma onor mro nacraie. Te
cnne n npnmepn nocroie n onpannie, ann ne xao cymrnne n ne xao camonnocrasne; ne cacranaiy one
caonmrena nncrnonana Foxnier, neh ie On nnxon yunre, a ne ro na ce On on nnx cacroin, na maxap
nocroiehe ys Fora n ne nna Berona cymrnna, neh ie On Cam cymrnna cnera, mro ie ca Bnm. C ienne crpane On
ie nancymracrnena cymrnna, nencxasnna n nenomncnnna, neynonnna n necaonmrnna; a c npyre, cymrnna
cymror, xnnor xnnor, mynpocr mynpor, yonmre cymracrnenocr n nopornopna cnna cner nno xor nnxa
cymrnne xoiy mncnn, xasyie n na xoioi yuecrnyie crnopeno. Axo ce no nennxom Pnonncniy ne camo xpos
nesnane, neh n xpos snane casnaie For n Berone cy n nomncnn n peueno n nayxa n rnnane n uyno n mnene n
yopasna n nmenonane n cne ocrano, ro snaun n na ie yuecrnonane na nemy xao xpos ro, mro y Bemy
nocroin xao ymy nocrynno, ocehai n nonnp, a raxo n xpos xacnnie ianane onor mro ie ca peuiy oyxnaheno.
Henpncrynauan ie, a oner n yuecrnyiyhn cam For, nenpncrynauan xao Hancymracrno, a Vuecrnyiyhn xao Onai
Koin nma cymrornopny cnny n cnenpeopaxanaiyhy n cnensnpmanaiyhy eneprniy.
89 | a a e

Bene Cnere One /xao mro cy npnoopnn nyxa xpnmhancxe xynrype Cn. Tnpnno n Meronnie
n Cn. Cana Cpncxn naxon nnx, re Cn. Ceprnie Panonemxn, xao n mncaonn xonocn Cn.
Ipnropnie Hanama n Cn. Ipnropnie Cnnanr, ca unrannm nnsom cnoinx cnenennxa y
Fyrapcxoi n Cpnin Cn. Pomnno, Cn. Cncoie, Cn. Hnxonnm nrn./), a ro nnie ymannnano
axryannocr onnx pannn mnmena xoie ie nocrnsanao y cnoinm nennma Ipnropnie ns Hnce,
Pnonncnie Apeonarnr nnn Maxcnm Hcnonennnx. Ponyme, n na 3anany cy ce ys Cn.
Anrycrnna n Cn. Jeponnma, nouenn nomronarn Cn. Amnpocnie Mennonancxn, Cn. Anepr
Bennxn nrn., ann ro mro ie on xpenyo cnoinm nyrem pasnniaiyhn crapa n iennocrpana yuena
unin ce cmncao am n nnie cacnnm pasymenao, xoia cy y ocnonn nna n norpemna npema
mnmeny mnornx reonora, nnie mnoro nonpnneno cpehn uoneuancrna. Apeonarnrnxe cy
snpxa rexcrona nan rsn. `nonnrnuxor xpnmhancrna` xoia ie ymena na ce nonece xaxo ca
nosnonarancxnm nncxypcnma, raxo n ca samorannm penexcnnnnm cranonnmrnma xoia ynase
y xynrypy enponcxor nyxa, raxo na es ynex nonono nanohenor oiamnena raxne npcre
paspemanana nairnphnx anopnia mnmena, ocraie nennxa moryhnocr narypannsannia n
oiexrnnncrnuxnx acnexrannia no anapxnunnx ncxonnmra, ri. onor nanana y napnapcrno
xoie ie Xycepn onncao y Kpu;u enponcxor yncrna xao yrpoxanaiyhn momenar xoin ymapa n
ncnpnyie cymrnny enponcxor nyxa, raxo na n nan nanac unne snauaian mocr nsmehy Hcroxa
n 3anana, nnaiyhn na oe crpane pasmarpane n ynaxanane xan ron ce nyx ysnnrne na
norpaxn ono mro ie snainocnn yneo onnuia neponana, a mro ie n nporonnococxn
cymrnncxo, ri. naxno sa reonomxy nayxy xana ona rexn ocasnanany Fora ncrnne.



















90 | a a e

CPEPBOBEKOBHH HOJAM PPXABE H BEHH HPOFHEMH
ueynanno npano uax nonpasymena n npxanny nenenrpannsanniy, na raxnn onnocn
nounnaiy na saxnernn, openy, noxnony, nauxn n cnaxom npyrom onnxy nacna xoin cy
nponsnonnnn nnemnhn, xpaenn, npxna n mane rpyne rpronana, nnxnapa n sanarnnia. H
Toma Axnnncxn (1225-1274) ie cacnnm nopo nnneo na ie cnaxa nnacr sacnnnana on Fora
npema napony, a cmarpao ie n na npnnarno nnacnnmrno nnie npornnnpnponno, neh na ce camo
npnnonaie xao nponanasax yncxor pasyma. Ann, uonexona npnpona ie necanpmena raxo na
ne moxe nn na ce nomnma xaxo n npxannn saxonn nnn y crany na sapane cne rpexone.
On ie cynncno nsnamao na nam pasym nnie y crany na nenocpenno carnenana nainnme nopo,
ynyhn na ie orpannuen rnme mro ie npnnyhen na cranno npa nsmehy noiennnnx noapa, re
na cnaxn nyr na cnoi pnsnx nponenyie na nn cy ra nopa nponasnn nnenn na nyry xa
nainnmem nopy, a ro n unnn yncxy cnoony iep ie npaxrnuxn ym y crany na ns onor
ncxycrna nsnene onmra nauena mopana xoia cy sacnonana na Foxniem saxony (Lex divina),
xao na npany xoie nocraie iypncnnxnnono naueno pasrpannuena naxena crnapn. V rom cneny
npanehn noimonny pasnnxy nsmehy xamare n sapane, on ie crao na crpany sapane nno panom
mapnnomhy cnpomaxa, nnn nax ynpyxnnanem rpronana, sanarnnia n anaxa xoin cnoiom
nponsnonnom cnoce pnsnx sa cnoie nnacnnmrno n nonehanaiyhn nponsnonny rexe xa
saiennnuxom nopy. Oryna ie mopannnie na ce nonan ynaxe y nponsnonny nero na ce
sanpxana n nnacnpa y cepy npomera. Hmaiyhn ro y nnny, nnie nperepano pehn na ie Toma
Axnnncxn ornopno nnepn nononexonnom npemeny n no nnrany saysnmana onnyunor crana
xoin ce ornena y saxreny o mopannocrn came nponsnonne, xoin c npyre crpane n nnie nmao
nexn onnyuyiyhn yrnnai, ynyhn na ie cne unneno na ce on nsnrpa.
Cnaxaxo na Kanrona nneia cnoone xoioi ie ycnon nocroiana nomronane mopannnx
saxona camo na npyraunin naunn opmynnme ncrn canpxai, ynpano ns noymenanne cepe
npaxrnuxnm maxcnmama, ann n nnxona xareropnunocr nnie necnopna. Kaxo, npema iacnom
Kanronom ynnny, xee n norpee xynrype snarno npennaue ncnpen mopannor nanpenonana
n cracanana, uecro nayuna nocrnrnyha n penarnnno naxna casnana nnaiy npnmennnana na
mrery ernxe n uonexone ynocroienocrn npnnne, ynyhn na ce necmorpeno saopana xaxo
moxe nome na sanpmn onaxo onanane cxnonocrnma y nonymrannma ynyrpamnoi npnnynn
xoia ynyhyie na npnnncxn xnnor n cmncao cnoone xoin ne nonpasymena xaracrpoanne
xapaxrepe n y cepn nncrnrynnie neponana. V cnom onuainocnom xopnsonry npaxrnune
nnoconie ro ie cnoona ycrannnx oesehnnana yncxor xnnora ca npernocranxom
nerone ymnocrn, a y reopnicxom nnn onronornuxom (meransnuxom) xopnsonry, ro ie nyna
cnecr o npemenonany y nocrnrnyroi pannn cen cnoicrnenor camoonpehena ymnocrn. Tnme ie
nsopena necnonnnocr na nparmarnsannie n yrnnnrapne xonnenryannsannie ynorpee uonexa
n yma, ma xaxo nomnesno snyuana sanarana sa rsn. snpan pasym (common sence),
nosnrnnan nayunn npncryn /cnnienrnsam/, nnn rsn. pasnoxny-/emnnpnicxy/
pannonannocr xoia n cama cen nna nonona xao cyiexrnnnrer, xoin sa cnoie
91 | a a e

npernocranxe ne ysnma nnrennnonannrere cnecrn y nnrepcyiexrnnnocrn xomynnxarnnnnx
pannn came re cnecrn, a xoia xao xnnn canpxai cama onnxyie rsn. pannonannn cran, xoinm ie
opmynncao resy na ce reonornia opaha sa nomoh nnoconin, xaxo n cranone nepe
yunnnna cxnarnnnm n yennnnm, raxo na ie ysopno nocranena c osnpom na rnannn nn
xpnmhancxor yuena o cnaceny.
Cpennn nex ie cxonacrnuxn nsiennauanao eynanne noimone ca pnmcxnm
nmneparopcxnm n reoxparcxnm, npxehn na ie `nnacr iennaxa nocenonany seme` y cmncny
npnnarnonpannor `dominium`, a mro cy oesehnnann yronopn xoin cy onpxanann nepnocr, n
xao npxanancrno n xao nonannmrno. Ernxa uacrn raxo nnie nonymrana neponomcrno y
snaueny noiannocrn xao nocnymnocrn saxonnma. Cne ro iom nnme xomnnxyie nneia `cneror
pnmcxor napcrna`, xoie ie iom y 4. nexy nno ysnpmano npenocom npecronnne ns Pnma y
Bnsanr nnn noronn Koncranrnnono xao npyrn Pnm, ca unme ce napcrno nmneparopno
nynnnpa (no mecniancxo-npanocnannoi noxrpnnn monaxa unnoreia /1465-1542/
npopouancrno xaxe na cy oa Pnma nana, a na croin Tpehn Pnm xoin ie Pycxo Hapcrno, re na
uernpror nehe nrn).
Ca Arnnnnnm noxonom na Karanonniy (451) noxpenyra cy nnemera xoia cy xpenyna ca
naceananem ocnaenor /npnonrnor/ pnmcxor napcrna. upanauxn xpa Knononnx ie no
nonocan na nnsanrnicxy rnryny xonsyna n narpnnnia pnmcxor napcrna n npnexno ie
opahao napon y xpnmhancrno, opmnpaiyhn xynrypy rpynx ann iaxnx. Kana ie xpaiem ror
nexa (476) Onoaxap nnxnnnnpao ca cnoinm Bnsnrornma sananno pnmcxo napcrno, snamena
napcxe nnacrn nocnao ie y npyrn Pnm, a cam nacranno npema Bnannin na ramo rpaino
sannana. Beh Tomnn yuennx Xan Knnnop nnie nsnonno npnarno nnacnnmrno ns
nmnepniannor, neo ns oxynannonor npana, raxo na ie nmneparop nocrao xon nera onmrn
orxynnnau n ynpannnx, nox cy ocrann ynn Foxnin capannnnn. V cneronnnm crnapnma
npxna ce noxasyie xao nexomnerenrna, iep Xpncroc nnana y cpnnma a ne ca orarcrnom ynn,
na nana xao npnn enncxon npema npnencrny xapnsme rpea na cnyxn (ministratio) a ne na
nnana (dominatio), iep ie n npxnenn caop nnmn on camor nane, uax n xana crann xpyny na
rnany Kapny Bennxom (800r.) nnn Orony I (962 r.) xao napy Cneror pnmcxor napcrna
nemauxor napona. Ca nannnnm nnrepnnxrycom xpynncann xpa ie morao na ce npernopn y
oecnpanenor npornannxa, xome ie npeocrano camo na noxainnuxn xneun n monn sa
onpomrai. Ponyme xypnianncrnuxn cnop oxo cynpemarnie cneo ce na npemoh napcxe nnarn
xoia ie oxapaxrepncana xao ysypnannia xapnsme cnemrencrna. Fonnannie VIII, yneo ie
ayroxparcxo naueno nyxonnor cynpemarnsma npxne n cee na nenom ueny y nonenn nnacrn y
npymrny (yna Una Sancta, 1302.) ca saxrenom sa nacxonnxom noxopnomhy npxnn, mro ie
cem cneronnor ornopa on unnnna IV Henor, pesynronano peopmanniom n nennm nenanem.
Kana ie y Ppyrom Pnmy, y Bnsanrnin, caspena nonnrnuxa cnecr na ce npxana nehe onpannrn
es nomohn pnmo-xaronnuxnx semaa, noxymano ie ca npenasnnaxenem mehynpxnenor
xpnmhancxor pacxona ns 1055. r. ca saxyunnanem unpenrnncxe ynnie ca narnnnma 1438.
92 | a a e

(non napcxnm noxponnrecrnom Jonana Haneonora ry cy nnn Mapxo Eecxn, Bncapnon
Hnxeicxn, Hcnnop Koncranrnnonocxn /Kniencxn n xacnnie Hpnoiepapx Pycxn/, Ipnropnie
Iemncr Hnnron...), ann nn ro nnie nomorno na Bnsanrnnnn ne yny cypono xaxnenn
nanaiyhn 1453. r.. non rypcxy nnacr, naxon uera ce cpennmre npanocnanne nyxonnocrn
nomepnno na nanexn cenep, y npecronnny Tpeher Pnma, Mocxny. V Pycnin ce Hpanocnane
cacnnm onomahnno n nyoxo yxopennno, mana ie menrannrerno npxane mepe n xperane
cpennmnnm nyrem nno necrannno n cxnono xpainocrnma. Ha iyry Enpone, y onnamnoi
noneenoi n pacnenxanoi Hrannin, rexao ie n npanan pasnoia xoin ie snauno oxper npema
anrnuxnm ysopnma y penecancn, iep cy cmarpann na crapnncxa xynrypa nnie nonono
ycnoiena. To ie nocrao n unran noxper xoin ce mnpno saxrenom sa nponnananem nesnana n
nnnamrna n nanymrane cnponnx onnxa xynrype, nsnenpnnmn nsmehy ocranor, n `iaxe
yne`, xao mro cy nnn upanuecxo Copna nnn uesepe Fopnnia xoinma nnie nno crpano
nnuene ca `rnpanniom`, nocraiyhn raxo ysopnma sa Maxnianennieny xnnry Bnananan.
Kana ie pan nennmnuno nsryno reper npoxnercrna n exonomnia ce nonpennna ernnn xao
connianna ynxnnia, raxo na cy n sanarn sa sanonoanane marepniannnx norpea nocrann
npnxnarnnn, a ono mro ie nacrano xao nonospnnocr npema rpronany n ncxannnm
nocnonnma ymnpeno, iep cy nene sapana nne crnap nncrpnyrnnne npanennocrn, ynpano
onarne n ncxaue rai penecancnn `mohnn noiennnan`, xoin nanaxe nonnrnuxy rpuennrocr.













93 | a a e

HPEJE XV, XVI H XVII BEKA: XVMAHH3MA, PEHECAHCA H PEuOPMAHHJE
a) Xv+auu;a+
Cxnahen y mnpem cmncny, xymannsam ie norexao on narnacxa na aneny yncxnm
crnapnma, sa pasnnxy on oxancxnx, n npencranao ie rnomasno samnmen nporpam. uonex
ie npecrao na ce cmarpa nponsnonom npnpone nnn Foxninm crnopom n noueo na ce rnena xao
camocrnapanan. On uax moxe n y mepn y xoioi my ie norpean na crnapa concrnenor ora, na
norunnana npnpony sa cnoie nnene n camocranno opmnpa npnnarnn n iannn xnnor. Kao
yncxa ymeha n nponsnon uonexone crnapanauxe eneprnie rymaunnn cy yuenn nnonosn
xymannsma n pennrniy n nnoconiy, nayxy yonmre, ymernocr, npano, npxany, npnnpeny.
Hpoyuanaiyhn xnnor crapnx n anrnuxn xymannsam, onn cy ra pasymenn xao ypanocr,
cynpocraneny ceamrny. Ho nnma ce rpahancxo nacnnrane ncxasnnano nennm mannpnma
(napounro y xnnxennocrn), a nesy ca cpennnm nexom onn cy onannnann xao `rornxy` (Iore
n c nnma nonesano napnapcrno), xoncraryiyhn na ce ry nanasn mpax, nesnane n saocranocr.
Hperennnosnocr n orcycrno noe sa pasymenanem nno ie raxo yrpaheno y norpey na ce cne
cnene na uonexa n neron cner, mro n iennno y ecrercxom cmncny morno roi mnahoi cecrpn
nornxe na nonynn onpeheny rpahy sa `nnnnnnnyannn cner` xoin y cen nocn nemro nernne
npxocno, xao cnoiencne `noxnane nynocrn`. C npyre crpane, ry ie ounrnenno oncycrno nno
xaxne cnaxnnie penexcnie o cnery xnnora n neronoi ycnonenocrn na ncropnicxom
xopnsonry. Meraopnuan ycnex nmao ie sa nocnennny nnsone nopasnnx mncaonnx
xonnennnia, xoie n ce morne nasnarn n nespennm nneiama y orxpnnannma cyiexrnnnocrn.
) Peuecauc
Penecancnn ynn narnamanann cy npahane panocrnma `onosemacxor xnnora` n
sanarann ce sa cnaxny renecnocr n ernxy camocrannocrn (nacynpor acxernsmy), xoia he
nanonno na yne npenycnon sa anpmanniy rsn. `iaxnx nnunocrn`. Aromnsannia noiennnna y
orxnony on rsn. `nepcxnx normn` (ry ce mncnn na normare nnn yuena Jenne Caopne n
Hpanocnanne Anocroncxe Hpxne naxon pacxona y noi 1055.r.) ie y narypannsanniama n
xenonncrnuxnm momenrnma xnnora noxasnnana cnoi conniannn ornop, npe cnera y nomeny
xynrype, a sarnm n nananem y napnapcrno ca npnmepnma nyxparnnnocrn y nonnrnuxnm
mannnynanniama macama, xana ce rpronnnom n anxapcrnom exonomcxn nonnrao cnoi y
nonehannm anernrnma sa nnamhy. Fnna ie nananexo nosnara noxnena n ecxpynynosnocr
merona opauyna ca cnnme mro ie craiano na nyry noponnna Copna, Mennun, Fopnnie, ann
n nnxono noxponnrecrno ononpemenom cnonsmy onanana nononnaroncxnx yuena,
necnnuxnx sanoca ca anrnuxnm nneannma n penpesenrarnnnnm ymehnma, napounro onnm
nonesannm ca nnsyennnm ymernocrnma. Mehyrnm, ro ie n noa noiennnaunnx ycnona y
npnponnnm nayxama (Konepnnx, Iannnei), xao n ynohena peanncrnuxnx rnennmra y
crpyxrype conniannnx pasmarpana (Cananapona, Maxnianenn, Fonen), xao n nspaxennx
94 | a a e

conniannnx xonnnxara xoin cy nonpasymenann n onpeheno pemehene ycraennx nornena na
npnpony n npymrno.
Pa n ce yonmre onaxo pasmnmano, xao na ie rsn. `npnponna nnoconia` c rnme
nemro nsrynna on onora mro ie nmana npe rora. Pasmarpaiyhn merononomxe ocnone
noranamne narypnnoconie, Hnxona Konepnnx (1473-1543) ie noneo y nnrane naxehe
npernocranxe eyxnnncxe reomerpnie n Hronomeien acrponomcxn cncrem ca Apncrorenonom
nsnxom. Apncroren ie xaxo y nsnnn, raxo y xocmonornin nonymrao rex norennnianny
ecxonaunocr nennocrn nennunna ynyrap xonaune renecnocrn, ann ne n axryanny
ecxonaunocr nennunne renecnocrn. Kysancxn ie na reonomxn naunn paspahnnao nonmane
ecxonaunocrn, ynyhn na ie For xon nera ono ecxonauno, a y nnny yuena o maxcnmymy n
mnnnmymy ecxonaunocr ynonn n y maremarnxy. V Manom xomenrapy xoin ce onnocn na
ycranonene xnnorese o neecxnm xperannma
71
, neronn saxrenn sa ynohenem npyrauninx
npernocranxn on reonenrpnuxnx cy cnenehn: 1. He nocroin ienan nenrap sa cne neecxe
opnre nnn cepe; 2. Henrap seme ne noianyie ce xao nenrap cnera, neh camo xao nenrap
rexe n nenrap meceuene opnre; 3. Cne ce cepe xpehy oxo cynna, xoie ie nocraneno y
cpennmre cnera, raxo mro ce oxo cynna nanasn cpennmre cnera; 4. Pasnanna, unie
pacroiane nsmehy cynna n seme nma npema nncnnn neecxor cnona, mana ie on onnoca
panniyca seme npema nenom pacroiany on cynna, raxo na ie ynopeheno ca nncnnom xane
neh nsmaxno uynnma; 5. Cna xperana, xoia ce npnmehyiy na neecxom cnony, ne npnnanaiy
nemy, neh semn. Ha rai naunn sema ce ca noi nncxnm enemenrnma cna npaha y sanasehe
oxpyxene xperana cnoinx nenpomennnnx nonona, nox cnon n camo nnme neo cne npeme
ocraiy nenoxpernn; 6. Cna on nac npnmehena cnoicrna xperana cynna nncy cnoicrnena nemy,
neh npnnanaiy semn n namoi cepn, saienno c xoiom ce mn npahamo y oxpyxene cynna, xao
n cnaxa npyra nnanera. Ha rai naunn, sema nma nexonnxo xperana; n 7. Hpana n nponparna
xperana nnanera o xoinma ce ronopn ne npnnanaiy nnma, neh semn. Ha rai naunn, ro ienno
neno xperane ie nonono sa oiamnena nennxor poia nepannomepnocrn nnnnnnx na
ney. Ty ie iacno na ce Konepnnx cnaxe ca Hronomeiem na neo n sea nmaiy cepnuny
opmy, ann ce ona ne nanasn y nenrpy cnera n nnie nenoxperna, neh ce oxpehe oxo cnoie oce,
y ronnmnem nnxnycy oxo cynna n nexnnnannono y onnocy na npanan xperana ror nnxnyca.
Henrap xperana nanasn ce oxo cynna nacynpor Hronomeiy xoin y A)+aeecmv nnme: V
cnoicrny onmrer sacnncanana nyxnn cmo na npnxnarnmo na neo nma cepnunn onnx n na
ce cepnuno xpehe, sarnm, na ce no nsrneny sema noianyie xao cepnuna axo ce rnena ca
cnnm yxynnnm nenonnma, re no cnom nonoxaiy nexn na cpen nea, noianniyhn ce xao neron
nenrap, a no nennun n pacroiany caopasno cepn nenoxpernnx snesna xao rauxa n ne

71
Commentariolus relatio hypothesis de coelesti motiones, 1514. Kannn n Eynoxc ynenn cy y anrnuxy
acrponomniy excnenrpnuxe xpyrone n ennnnxne, a Hronomei n xpyrone xoie ie nasnao exnanrnma, raxo na ie
Konepnnx nanasno xaxo npnmene na raxny reomerpnsanniy npocropa, raxo n na neo Hronomeien A)+aeecm
xoin ie nonpasymenao reonenrpnuny reopniy. Hnxona Konepnnx ie youeny nepannomepnocr xperana neecxnx
rena noxymao na oyxnarn ca cenam nocrynara xoin cy y crany na nx oiacne.
95 | a a e

nocenyie nnxaxna xperana n npomene mecra
72
, Konepnnx ie cmarpao na ie iennocrannnie
samncnnrn xaxo ce xpehe sema xao rauxa y cnemnpy, npe neronn orpomna rpomana cnera
nensmepno on ne neha: Bnme npncraie na ce nonycrn na ie xperane seme nanexo
npnponnnie n na onronapa nenoi opmn, nero mncnnrn na ce xpehe can cner, npocropn xoin
cy nensnecnn n nenocrnxnn.
73
3nesnane cepe cy y nnmem creneny cnnune n nonone
ecxonaunocrn, re ie cner cepnuan, nensmepan n nannx ecxonaunocrn...
74
, na ie n
pacroiane seme on neecxor cnona ecxonauno nennxo, no nennunnn ynopennno ca rauxom
y reny xao xonauno y ecxonaunom. Bacnona Konepnnxa ce mnpn no ecxonaunocrn y
onnocy na samncao nacnone xon Hronomeia, nox pannyc seme ocraie ca xonaunnm poiem,
iep ie sa Hronomeia naxno npaxrnuxn ycranonanan onnoc y sanncnocrn on npnopa xoinm
ce onmepanao.
Cner ie nanexo nehn nero mro ce ro yonuaieno nonma, ann nocroin n Apncrorenona
aprymenrannia npornn ecxonauno nennxor rena npema xoioi n npernocranxa ecxonaune
nennunne neecxor cnona onemoryhanana nerono oxpyxnnane seme. Taxno reno ne n
morno nn na ce xpehe nn na mnpyie, n onniano n nno xaxny arpnynniy xonaunnx rena, na
sa Konepnnxa xonaunocr cnemnpa nma cnopnn xapaxrep nenoxpernocrn. Ca rnme on ne
noxasyie na ie nacnona ecxonauna, neh ro nonymra xao cnopny xnnoresy nnraropeicrna n
nononnaronnsma ca xoiom ycrpainnie ana cnerno na samncao na ce sema xpehe.
Kareropnuxo sacrynane raxne rese moxe ce nahn rex xon Topnana Fpyna, mro ns xopena
nonpnna npnponocnonna yuena o xperany rena n apncrorenoncxy narypnnoconiy ca
nenrpannnm nonmanem na ce nenrap seme noxnana ca nenrpom cnera. Hpema Apncroreny
npnponna xpyxna xperana nmaiy camo nannynapna neecxa rena sa pasnnxy on npnpone
nonnynapnnx semacxnx rena, iep cy mane marepnianna nnn erepnuna. Kaxo npema
Konepnnxy cna semacxa rena nmaiy npanonnnnicxo nnn xonauno xperane, cama sema ce
xpehe xpyxnnm nnn ecxonaunnm xperanem iep nnun na mnpyiyhe, na ro napymana
apncrorenoncxy noneny nauena xperana npema cepnnm ynorama, nauena nepnnarernuxe
xnnemarnxe.
Beh cmo narnacnnn na cy ce npyrn npencrannnnn penexcnie y noa penecanca annnn
npenacxonno nnranem nonoxaia noesnie n uonexonor nocroiancrna. To ie cnaxaxo
onronapano Mennuninma n Fopnniama, xao n cnnunnm xnanonnma ecxpynynosnnx
nnancnicxo-nonnrnuxnx mohnnxa, xoin cy ce ca narernxom menenarcrna nonnopanann
mnpoxnm naponnnm macama, anaiyhn ca cnoinx pacxomnnx cronona noxoiy mpnnny n
nonexom nanapenom ymernnxy nnn apxnrexrn onor npemena. Te cy reopnie nne maxom
pasmarpana aconniannnx ynn xoin cy oorornopanann noiennne xynrypne enomene, iep ie
ro no nsnpcran naunn na ce saonhe, na n yhyrxa remarnsannia onnx ocnonnnx, a xoin cy

72
Almagest /Syntaxis mathematica/, 100-141 AD
73
De revolutionibus coelestis, 1515.
74
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, 1543.
96 | a a e

nanann y cne nehy ramy n sa nocnennny nmann norainn pacr napnapcrna mro nnie cmeo nn na
ce npnmehyie.
Ayaonnxo Kac1enne1po (1505-1571) ie nncao xaxo necnnnn, ne oasnpyhn ce nnmano na
npyre, orxpnnaiy nemro nono y norneny marepnie n y norneny cnnxonnror ronopa, nox npyrn
ne ymeiy na ce onnoie on marepniannnx nsmnmana xoia cy neh nna nponahena. On ie ry
nnao na yxnnane y nocenocrn n xenonncrnuxn cran, pann saane n na `ocnexn nymy
naponnnx maca`. Vuene y saann n npyxane nacnane yseno ie ronnxor maxa, na ie n
Cxannhepo nspnunro rpaxno na yuene yne nponpaheno yxnnanem, npxehn na npema
cnoconocrn orxpnnana npnpone nsa nnnnnnx noiana necnnx n nnie npyro nero: `npyrn
For`. Ono oroxyene penecancnnx nyxona xpos saanane n nponsnonny neponarnor xao
npnnnna nenore ca xpainnm nnem nepasymne nacnane, npeneno ce na nnoconiy npnpone,
a ro nocpenno snaun n y onmry npymrneny cnecr, xoia ce nonmana ecrernsonano n
cexynapncrnuxn. 3a nnx ie naxnno na marepnia cne nponsnonn ns cee n na ie ona nsnop
opmn n cner xnannrarnnno pasnonpcnor nha, raxo na ie cner oxnnen cnyna n nyma my ie
nainnxn opmannn yspox, nox ie erep ocnon na xome ie pacnpocrpr, n ro y ecxpai mro
nnmra ne npexopauyie. Fnncrnonane ie nocroiano cnyna, re ma xonnxo nno nenornyno y
nocennm nenonnma na cnaxom mecry n ynex. Moxe ce pehn na ie ry npncyrna onona
xnnosoncrnuxor cxnarana y anraxonany sa crnapanauxe cnare xnnora y xonrpanosnnnin
npema rpannnnonannoi anrnuxoi n cxonacrnuxoi nnoconin. Ta xonrpanosnnnonncanocr
nemna ie npry ca iannnm ncrynannma, npernapaiyhn ce n y `napany nonoca` ca ncmenannma
caopnnx n naceencxnx yuena, raxo na ie npernopena y cnoienpcny mononpamy y xoioi ie
rnannn rnyman na nmnponnsonanoi cnenn rne n maca ynn ornosnpana cne nehnm
cxapennocrnma, npocro yxnonen. Onn cy uecro n sa noesniy npxann na ce ne paha ns
npannna neh na nx nocrana, na na npann necnnnn onpehyiy ponone n npcre noesnie n nena
npannna (neponarno npoiexryiyhn y ro n nonynapny y ro noa napannrmy `camoxnne
noiane`). Taxna nenpnxocnonenocr ie npe cnera ienna iennncrnena cyiera n nenonnomnna
ncxyunnocr, a Cnepone Cneponn (1500-1588) ie rana nanncao n uuia)oe o oeceouuumev y
xome noesnia raxohe nema npyrn nn cem na saann, a nposa n na yenn. Tnponauo
mpaxac1opo (1483-1555) ie nncncrnpao na eneprnin ymernocrn xoia npexo uonexa crnapa n
nanaxnyie sanoc, a necnnnn ce nasnnaiy oxancxnm iep cy nonnpnyrn rnm oxancxnm
nynnnom. Connianna cnnxe xynrype ror nepnona nnie napounro nnuna, mana cy ycnenn
panonn y naiapcrny n cnnxapcrny on npnopaspenne npennocrn (Tora, upa Anhennxa, Hiepa
nena upanuecxa, Masaua, Fornuennia, Mnxenanhena, Heonapna...).
Penecanc ie nsnenpno n yne xao mro ie Iannneo Iannnej (1564-1642), xoin ce nnie
onanao iennno ecrerncrnuxnm cxnonocrnma, mana ie nponyxno rpannnniy anenonana na
Hnaronony nnoconiy xpnrnxyiyhn Apncrorenony. On ce uecro nosnna na Konepnnxa n
nerony paspany xennonenrpnunor cncrema npnpone, re Apxnmena n anrnuxy maremarnxy a n
naueno nonynapana cynpornocrn Hnxone Kysancxor. Onanyiyhn nnnamnxy Apncrorena
97 | a a e

xoia ie snaunna onmry reopniy npomene, orpannuno ie ry nnnamnxy camo na reopniy
npememrana, ann raxohe ce ynaana n on Hnarona no pasmarpany nponema ecxonaunor n
nenennocrn. V Fecenama o maremarnuxnm noxasnma xoie canpxe nne none nayxe
75
,
Iannnei ie nocranno xnnorese o ycrpoicrny marepnie nesane sa nponem nnrana
xonrnnynrera. To ie nnrane pona uecrnna xoie cacranaiy reno, ann sa pasnnxy on
Pemoxpnronor anrnuxor aromnsma rpraiyhn xpos nenoymnne oxo yspoxa npasnor. Ho
Apncroreny npnpona ce oin npasnnne ca unme on oiamnana unran nns nsnuxnx noiana
xoie n Iannnei cnenn y mexannnn nynna, ann y mexannnn unpcrnx nsnuxnx rena on ynnha
nyxnocr ynaxanana nepoiene xonnunne sanemapnno mannx npasnnna, ecxonauno
mnomrno ecxonauno mannx npasnnna xao cnna cynpocranana (nncxpennonncann xapaxrep
cymnpana momenara npemena, nenona npocropa, momenara xrepana nrn.).
76
Taxo ce ca
ynehananem poia crpana ymanyie poi ornopa nonyr npasnnna (maremarnuxnx aroma)
nponopnnonanno nnxonoi sacrynenocrn. Kana ce mnoroyraonnx npernopn y xpyr nnxona
npomena nnie uac noxnonnna a uac ne, neh ce xao na ecxonaunoi nnnnin saysnmaiy cne rauxe,
mro nnun na axryenny ecxonaunocr Kysancxor, nemoncrpnpaiyhn naueno nonynapana
cynpornocrn.
77
Jenno n ecxonauno noxasyiy ce iennncrnennm, na ie ienno na rai naunn
ncronpemeno n ono (axryanno) ecxonauno. Konauna nennunna ne moxe na ce npeopasn y
axryanny ecxonaunocr nyrem nocrenenor ynennuanana, uax nonpnnocn cynpornom na ce
crnap ynaana on axryanne ecxonaunocrn (ecxonaunn pannyc xpyra nopaha ecxonauny
npany), rne ce ynaxana npenas y npyrn pon no cymrnnn, a ne no no xonnunnn, ie ce
xonrnnyym cacroin on nenennnx aroma. Cpennonexonna nsnxa y pasmarpany noima
xperana nponsamna ie ns nna ynnamenranna npnnnnna apncrorenoncxe xnnemarnxe, a ro ie
na cnaxo xperane npernocrana noxperaua (omne quod movetur, ab aliquo movetur); re npyro
na cnaxo reno npyxa ornop xperany (resistentia est causa successionis in motu
cynpocranane ie yspox nacranana xperana). Hsmena mecra npornue y npemeny (motus), a
narna npomena (mutatio), xoia ce snna ynyrap npemena nonpasymena cnopocr. Taxosnann

73
Discoursus et mathematica demonstrationes contentio duae novae scienties, 1630-1640.
76
Iannnei nanasn aprymenr Apncrorenonor rouxa xoinm cy ce annnn cpennonexonnn yuenn ynn xao
xauenem xonnenrpnunnx xpyrona, a Iannnei ie noueo on pannocrpannx n pannoyraonnx xonnenrpnunnx
mnoroyrnona, ca pemenem: axo ce yxyun y npocrop, xoin ie npomao mann, raxohe n nnrepnann non rpacom,
nehe ce saycrannrn na neny nnxaxnor nepnmerpa maner mnoroyraonnxa. /Discoursus et mathematica
demonstrationes contentio duae novae scienties, 1630-1640/
77
Maremarnuxn aromn xao nenenne npasnnne noxnanaiy ce ca noimom anconyrnor mnnnmyma Kysancxor, a
noiam ecxonauno nennxor ca onnm anconyrnor maxcnmyma, ca saxyuxom: "...nponyxanaiyhn nenene n
ymnoxanaiyhn poi nenona y xreny na ce npnnnxn ecxonaunom, mn ce y crnapn ynaanamo on ne...xana
npenasnmo xa nehnm poiennma, nnxonn xnanparn iaue onanaiy a iom iaue xyonn, onaxne ie iacno na npenasehn
xa nehnm poiennma nnamo cne nnme ynaenn on ecxonaunor poia. Oryn ie moryhe nsnecrn saxyuax na axo
ie nexn poi moryh na ce noiann xao ecxonauan, ro ie nyxno na rai poi yne iennnnna; na y crnapn mn y noi
ycnone n neonxonna oenexia, xoinma ie nemnnonno ynononrn sa ecxonauno nennxn poi, yxonnxo on y cen
canpxn xonnxo xnanpara, xyona n poiena yonmre. /ibid./

98 | a a e

`saxon nnepnnie`
78
nonpasymena na ce rena nopmanno xpehy y rsn. motiis coniunctus, ca
cnoinm noxperauem ca psnnom ynpanne nponopnnie cnne noxperaua n opnyre nponopnnie
cnne ornopa cpennne. Taxo ie sa reno y xperany npema Iannneiy neonxonna mana cnna
ornopa xoia he ouynanarn reno y xperany vis minor quam queris alia vis cnna mana on nno
xoie npyre cnne nnn iesnxom Kysancxor peueno, ecxonauno mana cnna.
79
Ha rai naunn na
xopnsonry ce noianno moryhn pasnoi xoncrpyxnnie reopnie xperana xpos excnepnmenranno
youene cnrne nomaxe xoin npnnnxanaiy cmncao xperana n mnponana. To nonpasymena rsn.
excnepnmenranno-rexnonomxn crnn mnmena xoin peannocr npocyhyie onrnxom mncaonor
excnepnmenrncana, o uemy cnenoue n ocrann apncrorenoncxor nonmana cnne xao "vis
impressa" y nocmarpannma nnrensnrera mace rena y xperany, neronnm crananem y
ecxonauno mane momenre npemena.
Po npemena Konepnnxa acrponomnia ce on Eynoxca no Hronomeia pyxononnna
enomenannrnuxnm nauenom cnacrn noiane pehaiyhn o nnma ynone maremarnuxe nxnnie
xoie nncy nmane oanesy npema rnnonorniama axrnnnrera. Iannnei ie na ro onronopno na
nerona neecxa mexannxa naa na yne npnmenena na xomnnerny mexannsanniy xocmoca,
iep nnie npenno rpyna saxrenane npyraunier nnna nsnuxor cnera rne ne n nocroiana
oanesa npema maremarnuxnm noxasnma. Ha rai naunn ce nneannsannia oiexara panna npema
npnnnxanany maremarnuxnx npenmernocrn ca nsnuxnm no oiexara emnnpnicxor cnera.
Hpnnnnn mexannxe Iannneia cacroin ce na xpaiy y rome, na ie on npennoxno na ce crnapnma
npnnncyie camo ono mro neonxonno cnenn ns onor on nac y nera ynoxenor, xao naueno
xoncrpyxrnnnocrn. Hmaiyhn y nnny moryhnocrn mamnna n nnma caopasnno nsnenenor
mnmena, Iannnei ie npennoxno n na ce nsmenn onnoc npema nonmany marepnie xoin ie
nnanao y anrnnn, re na ce neno cnoicrno nensmennnocrn nnn crannnocrn nanycrn, xao
neoma naxna cranxa sa maremarnuxe monene ocmnmanana crnapn, na nona mexannuxa
nsnxa nonpasymena n npeocmnmanane n camor noima marepnie xpos neny nnxenepcxnm
npennocrnma noxasany nomnnanncrnuxy pexannnranniy.

78
Kaxo ce y cpennonexonnoi nsnnn na npnom mecry iana pasymenane ecxonauno nennxor rena, ecxonauno
ynaene rauxe n y norneny npnnnnna xperna excrensnnne n nnrensnnne nennunne npyraunie oiamnene noima
cnne nsauaia y norneny onor mro noxpehe nacnnno nero y Apncrorenonoi nsnnn (npenoc xperana xpos
cpennny). Teopnia nmneryca xoiy ie cnoinm xomenrapnma na Apncrorenony nsnxy nocranno xpnmhancxn
reonor Jonan unnonon y 6. nexy naxon pohena Xpncronor, noxnnena ie cnoi pasnoi y nosnocxonacrnuxoi
narypnnoconin 14. nexa y napnmxom xpyry n mxonama y Oxcopny, a xpaiem 16. nexa xao nsnxy
nmneryca opmynnme ie Iannnei nonehn orxpnnany n opmynncany saxona nnepnnie (De motu, 1589.).
79
Cnna ie raxo yspox psnne xperana a ne nenor ycnopanana (sa mra moxe na ce npopauyxa xperane y npasnom
npocropy xana cpennna ne npyxa ornop), xao y pannioi mexannnn. Tennennniy x mnponany cxonacrnuxn
nsnuapn nmenonann cy inclinatio ad quietem, nonyme iom ynex ne cacnnm pasnnxonano on rexene rena xoia ce
nmenyie semnnom rexom - gravitas: nomohy xoinx reno rexn ocrnapnnany nonoxaia cnor npnponnor mecra. 3a
pasnnxy on motus coniunctus reno onnoieno on cnor noxperaua xoie ncnynana motus separatus, nonpasymena
nocroiane nacnnnnx xperana, nsauaia mnmo yrncxyiyhe cnne xao noxperaua xoia nne ca renom y xperany vis
impressa xao nonyncxa moryhnocr nenonana na ro npnponno xperane xoie ra xomnnnxyie (multitudo vis
infatigabilis) npema vis fatigabilis xao opyha rpaine noxpernnocrn.
99 | a a e

Enoxa penecanca ie ounro nmana cnoinx ycnennx momenara y xnnxennocrn (Herpapxa,
Foxauo), yonmre y ymernocrn cnnxapcrna n naiapcrna (Heonapno, Mnxenanheno, Fornuenn),
ann ie cem penexcnia o ymernocrn nnococxn y noi snauaina nayuna paspana
acrponomcxnx resa. Herpapxnn yunre Bapnaam ns Kanapnie, nopaxen y ncnpnyiyhoi
pacnpann oxo cmncna nnoconie ncnxasma, ca nennm reopnicxnm pononauennnxom Cn.
Ipnropniem Hanamom, n y Bnsanrnin n y Hrannin ie cnoinm nomnnannsmom y reonornin n
narypanncrnuxnm oiexrnnnsmom y norneny renese pasmarpana nopexna crnapn, ornopno
rsn. `anrepnarnnnn nyr`, nocraiyhn ca rnme n npann npereua penecanca xome naronemrana
`anoxannnrnune rpuene` (A. u. Hocen), ca unme ie yienno iacno n mra he n na namenn
xacnniem enponcxom yuenom cnery. Hpann ncropnicxn norpec nsasnao ie peopmaropcxn
noxper 16. nexa xoin ie nponsneo nonnrnuxy n connianny xpnsy y neh nauerom nyxy, a xoia ie
rpaiana no npyre nononnne 17. nexa. Tex ca Becrancxnm mnpom 1648. r., nomno ie no
nonene xaronnuxnx n nporecranrcxnx nnrpennnia n noapa (xao n conniannnx n npnnpennnx
onnoca), xana cy ce noiannnn n ymonn xanpn na ce cnahy y merexy nonnx nneia. Hpnnnxe
ysyannx npennocrn n nonoorxpnnene noiane (orxpnhe Amepnxe xpaiem 16. nexa)
nonpnmaiy crannnocr y reopiama xoie rex onn ycnenaiy mncaono na oyxnare n cnnrernsyiy
y pasymenany.
n) Pedop+auuia
V npeme pane penecance npanna ocnona nnacrn y cpennoenponcxnm semama nnie nna
enexnnia xnesona, nero `xpynncann napon` xoin ce ycronnuanao pyxom pnmcxor nane y Pnmy,
onaxe ie narao cnop oxo cneronnor n nyxonnor npnmara nnacrn nan cnerom. Ca nancxom
ynom Fonnannia VIII (Una sancta, 1302.), oianeno ie na ce pnmcxom npnoncxyny
nonpehyie cnaxo crnopene (uax n nenepnnnn, Jenpein n narann), re na ce saxrena nacxonnxa
noxopnocr npxnn noncronehenoi c xnepom n camnm nanom. V iennom xpny npxne nomno ie no
nneia npomene n npeonnxonana (reformatio capite et membris), mro ie nsnynnno caope y
Koncrannn n Faseny y 15. nexy, xao n Tpnnnencxn nouerxom 16. nexa. Mehyrnm, Map1nn
Ay1ep (1483-1546) ie noxpenyo opy sa mopanne npennocrn y npxnn 16. Bexa, ann ona nnie
nocnna ony cnoony mnmena xoia ce onuno narnamana. On ie pannonannsonao `cnere
raine` na mopannn noncrnnx n penarnnnsonao anocroncxo npeiemcrno cnemrennxa y nyxy
`npocnernrecxe npose` xaxo xaxe Xeren.
80
V nonpnnnuno ecnomrennoi opn neron

80
Vnexonnxo ce moxe nnnern n neycarnamenocr oxo npxnenor yuena o enxapncrnin /naronarn cnernx rainn/,
xao nyxonnom npeopaxanany npocope nnn npnnomena xnea n nnna na nnryprnin, xana on Hyrepono
peopmaropcxo rymauena nnnn xao npocnernrecxy nposy, ann ne xopncrn nomnmarocr yma na ro
rymaun y nyxy `xnacna noima` nnn anocroncxor npeiemcrna `cemenor noroca`, xao mro n nnme y Cnerom Hncmy
Honor 3anera /4u). pe). II, crp. 319/, a raxohe nn xpnrnuxn cran npema unnennnn na nnie Hyrep npnn xoin ie
npeneo Cnero Hncmo na naponnn iesnx /c. 282/, nero camo npnn xoin ie ro yunnno npenonehn na Hemauxn iesnx.
Cnonencxn Anocronn Cn. Knpnno n Meronnie non noxponnrecrnom yuenor n naroponnor narpniapxa uornia
npenenn cy ra na cnonencxn iesnx mecr nexona pannie (nnnn n moi pan - University in Constantinopoles IX, and X
100 | a a e

noopnnx Kannnn ie y Xenenn noryno anrnrpnnnrapna Cepnera n rnme nao no snana na
For ocraie `nsnop cnnx ncrnna`, ann xaxo nn Menanxron nn ocrann reonosn ca re nnnnie
(pennmo, Marnia Bnaunh Hnnpnx ca cnoinm Kyuem) nncy ycnenn na caunne nannan
xaronnuxoi normarnnn, nnxona ie cxonacrnxa cxpenyna y nyx pannonanncrnuxe xpnrnxe n
cyiexrnnnsma. Beponayxa n pennrnosna ernxa noxasnnana nx ie xao `Bonreponne y
nacrnpcxnm onopama`, na n xon Bnaiepmaxepa noxnnena penyxnniy na `nooxno ocehane`
/fides qua creditur/ pannonannsma es yncrna. Hyrepono ycraiane npornn `onpomrainnna
rpexona` (rne ce sa nonan ynncnnano iom camo nme na nannp n rpexonn cy nnxnnnnpann)
rpacnpano ie nyr `rpnynany xaiana` xoin cymne y unnene nopnx nena ycnocrana y nesn c
namepom, sacnonaiyhn `npoannnsam`, raxo na ce rexnmre mopannnx nnrana npemecrnno y
yncxy canecr, na ce cyiexrnnnn nmnync npema oiexrnnnnm mepnnnma samenyiy
ncnynananem rannne mopannnx nyxnocrn. Honocrnopen npxna nocrana ie `npymrno
iennaxnx` es iepapxnie, a ro cnaxom nepnnxy naie npano na yun, xao n na ynpaxnana
orocnyxene y nopononom canesy ca nyxonno-nacnnrnnm nnennma. Cynepennrer
npxane yxyunnao ie n cynepennrer npxne xoin iy ie nonpxanno c `nonnnniom rpahancxe
noponrn`, nacynpor Anrycrnnonoi rexnn na ce `nonpxonn npxana`. 1530. r. noinona
Anpexr Hpycxn nsianno ie xaxo ie npnmopan na npeysme ncxyncxe nyxnocrn (officium
episcopale), mro npencrana nporecranrcxn nesaponannsam, rne monapxy nnie nonymrena
rex `npxnena annoxarypa` xao y ncrounoenponcxom apeany, nero n opnnnapniar ycnen
oncycrna npxnene iepapxnie, xoin ie ymenao na nne n no menana nepcxnx normara.
Anrnnxancxn cneronnn n npxnenn nornanap Xenpnx VIII nonnprao ie canpxai monnrnennxa
xonrponn napnamenra, a y 17. nexy Heimc I ie ncraxao na ie xpaencxo npano na mena
`ycranonene norme`.




century with a prepositions of culture work in Byzance of that period, Duchovne, intelektualne a politicke pozadie
cyrilometodskej misie pred jej prichodom na Velku Moravu, Monografia prispevkov z medzinarodnho sympzia
Nitra, 2. Jl 2007, str. 22-33, Nitra, 2007. ISBN 978-80-8094-240-3; a raxohe n - Koucmaumuuono)icru
vuueepcumem u CHOBO Koucmaumuua 4u)ocoda rar eeo er)ao e c)aeucrvm ovxoeuvm mpaouuum; n -
Cuuepeemura oopa;oeauu: Rxnoe onenenne poccncxo axanemnn opasonannx, (ntnycx nnenannart),
Mocxna Pocron na Pony, 2008., crp. 410-424.; ISBN 5-8429-00-80-7). Xeren ncro raxo rnpnn: Ho cymrnnn ce
xao opmooorcua /npanocnanna/ cana noianyie du)ocoduia ne camo ona, ann ona na nonainnme, a ynyhn na
ona sacnnna n oesehyie ra cranonnmra, re ocnonne ncrnne xpnmhancrna, xoie cy ynex nmane cnary... (ro cy
ncrnncxa onpehena mnmena xoie sna mra n xaxo ce mncnn)... ro naa na ocrane ynyrap cepe name naxne,
yxonnxo nenyiemo nayuno. /4u). pe). II, c. 213-214/
101 | a a e

EKOHOMCKO-HPABHH HOPEPAK HA HVTV 3A HOBH BEK
Connianno rnenano, y rnm semama oiauao ie nyx sapahnnana, raxo na ce non noimom
`noapa` yrnannom nonpasymenano na cy ro `marepnianna nopa`. Tpaxene rpronauxnx
nyrena npema Hnnnin yponnno ie nponanaxenem Amepnxe, na xana ie orxpno nony semy
(Mexcnxo), Konymo ie oianno xaxo ie namao Ennopano /nosnaheny semy/. Kannran ce
nnme nnie mepno y nocenonany crounnx rpna, nero y naromnnannm snarnnnnma n snarnnm
nonyrama. Hpxna nnie morna nn na saycrann nn na oysna ne am nooxno romnnane
orarcrna, raxo na ie y Enrnecxoi nna nnacnnx ienne rpehnne yxynnor npxannor orarcrna,
mehy ynnma cnpemnnm na exonomcxo ornmane, xoin cy nocrann nycrononn, ocnaiaun,
nnparn, excnnoararopn n yrneraun. Tpea pehn n na ie rnannnna exonomcxnx nocnona
nohena ynyrap npxne, re na cy nocroiane ncxyncxe n manacrnpcxe npme n rpronauxa n
nnnycrpnicxa npenyseha. V nsnncy ca xpennrnnm rpancaxnniama, nana Cnxcr V ie naxno sa
npcnor nnancniepa n noxpenyo samaian peopmaropcxor noxpera na ce on npnnpenne
nponsnonne crnopn `nosnn` (Beruf). Kaxo ce exonomcxa moh nouena cmarparn iennaxom
nonnrnuxoi, axo ne n nehom, iom ce Epasmo Porepnamcxn xanno na ce Cne nonpehyie
nonny. Enrnecxa n Xonannnia cy ce on noonpnnpennnx rpancopmncane y nomopcxo-
rpronauxe cnne, mro ie yunnnno na rpronauxn nyx npoxme n npnnarnn n npymrnenn xnnor n
naniaua narpniapxannn (mro ie ounrnenno npn cxnanany paxona). Inopenna n Homapnnia
cy ce nsmennne xana cy ymecro na xnynama (banca) nnnepn ocnonann yrnenne anxapcxe xyhe
crnapaiyhn nonuany apncroxparniy. Tpronauxe npme cy nocrane iaue on nnemnhxnx rpona,
a anxapcxa npma Mennun opmnpana ie nnnacrniy xnexena, ynocehn y npymrnenn
xnnor menenarcxn onnoc npema ymernnnnma n rexnnuxn nncnnpncana Maxnianennia.
1.1 Maxnjanenn ce ponno 1469.r. y unpennn, y noponnnn ne am oraror rpancxor
norapa. Vmpo ie naxon nycromena Pnma 1527. Connianne n nonnrnuxe npnnnxe xoie sarnuy
Maxnianennia necrannne cy n npamarnune. Tnponamo Canonapona (1452-1491) xoin ie ianno
cnaen y unpennn y cnoioi pennrnosnoi nocnennocrn n mopannoi nennunnn sa Maxnianennia
nnie no npenonpehen sa npymrnenn ycnex, nero sa nnuny rparenniy. Kao nomohnnx
ncxyna H. Conepnnnia no ie xon uesapa Fopnnie y Vpnny 1502., y rpenyrxy xana ce on
npacrnuno opauynanao ca xonaunma sanepe npornn nera, raxo na ie on de visu nmao npnnnxy
na youn nnanaiyhn nonnrnuxn mexannsam esosnpnocrn. V peopmn noicxe xoia my ie
nonepena y unpennn, on ce sannmao nnranem xaxo na ce nonono ocnoin Hnsa xoia ce
ocamocrannna sa pannycxe nnnasnie, n ro n nocrnrao 1508., rpniymanno ce napahaiyhn y
unpenny. Conepnnn ie saronapao nonnrnxy pannorexe nsmexy upannycxe n Pnma, npn
uemy my ie Maxnianenn caneronao na ce y nonnrnuxnm crnapnma nyxno mopa onpenennrn sa
ienny crpany; onanne he xacnnie nponcrehn ienan on ocnonnnx nauena neronor yuena. Fnna
ie ro norpemna nponena, naxon uera ie ycnenno nopas naponne mnnnnnie on rnennor nane
Jynnia II, re Conepnnnien nan, omoryhanaiy na na cneny nonono cryne Mennun. Kpai
nnnnomarcxnx axrnnnocrn Maxnianenniennx, ycnennno ie naxon xanmena n cacnymanana, re
102 | a a e

nonnauene naxon yramnnuena y npnnarny cepy n pan na Pacnpaea+a o npeoi oeraou Tuma
Hueuia (1513), B)aoaouv (1513) n Beumuuu pamoeana (1521), nonpnnenn cy na nopas na
nonnrnuxom, yne ncronpemeno ycnex na nnrepepnom nnany (ca npamom `Mauopaeo)a` ie
nocrnrao ycnex y Pnmy, unpennn n Benennin). V ro noa Maxnianenn ie nncao Hcmopuiv
4upeuue, a ona ie npernocranana nononnn anraxman on crpane nane Knemenra VII, y xoie
npeme ce snnano n cnpranane Mennunia, re nonn nacranax penynnxe y xoiy nnie no
yxyunnan, re ra ie xao capannnxa Mennunia, ys mnore xnenere, sarexna n cmpr (1527).
Onuno ce xaxe na `B)aoa)au` es ocrarxa moxe na ce nasone rexnnuxom xnnrom
(nonnrnuxnx canera sa ycnex), a `Pacnpaee` anonorniom penynnxe. Oparnmo nn naxny na
ono mra nam cam Maxnianenn xaxe: `Hocnera Hopenny Mennuniy n nncmo upanuecxy
Beropniy on 10. nenempa 1513. ronnne`, mro ynyhyie na xonrexcr y xome ie neno nacrano n
raxohe nynn onpehene npenmera xoin Maxnianenn xenn na opann (mra ie nnanannna,
xaxnnx nma, xaxo ce sanoniaiy n xaxo rye), y roi nocnern Hopenny, xao n y `Hosnpany` sa
`Pacnpane`, Maxnianenn onpehyie npnpony nonnrnuxor snana: xaxo ce no nera nonasn n on
uera ce ono cacroin. Baxna pasa o ymehy npxannnmrna (arte dello stato) sanpano snaun
nacrax nonnrnuxe reopnie ocnoohene ernuxnx nopmarnna, a ymnorome n cxpynyna canecrn.
Axo ce nnramo, saienno c mnornm reopernuapnma, y uemy ce cacroin nonnna
Maxnianennienor mnmena, nocmarpano y onnocy na anrnxy, onna ie ro oxper
nparmarnsannin nocranana nnena. Hornane 15. ns B)aoaoua crana axnenar na
ynaxanane crnapnor crana crnapn (verit effectuale della cosa), nseranaiyhn ocnanane na
nnysnie (npnnnn): Mnorn cy samnmann monapxnie n penynnxe xaxne nnxo nnneo nnie...
Hsmehy onora xaxo ce xnnn n xaxo n rpeano xnnern, nocroin pacxopax, raxo na uonex xoin
onuno unnn ono mro n rpeao na unnn npe he nponacrn nero ce onpxarn. Ounro na ie
Maxnianenn, npema cnom nosnanany ynn, o nnma nmao neoma nome mnmene n na ie nmao
mnmene, na axo nehnna nnie nopa n ne npenn nrn noap. Xnnorom no Maxnianennienom
yeheny nnana opryna, n ro ie npema oxonnocrnma iennno nsnecno. Hpemna uonex ne moxe
na npxocn nenoi cnasn xana ona nacrynn y rpenynnma mnpa, moxe na nsrpann pane xoie he
xacnnie xananncarn pasopny moh one nene yinne. Cnoona ie casnarn ony nyxnocr, na y:
`Pacnpane` /6. xnnra/ nnme o rome, xaxo ce cne y yncxom xnnory xpehe n nnmra ne ocraie
nenomnuno, raxo na ie nyxno n ysnnsane n cnymrane, a na mnore crnapn na xoie ne ynyhyie
pasym ynyhyie nyxnocr. Hcxycrno npemennrocrn ie ono opnrnnanno. On noxasyie iacan
orxnon npema anrnuxoi nnoconin nonnrnxe, npxehn na nema cmncna samnmarn nneanne
noperxe. Ho nemy ce mopa xpenyrn on ncxycrna n na rome rpannrn snane o nonnrnuxnm
crnapnma, snane y cmncny nemrnne - arte, ymernocrn. 3a Ipxe, ono nnxana ne n nno
onpeheno xao raxno (ono nnie rexnnxa nn xon Hnarona, a nn xon Apncrorena, nero npaxca).
Mehyrnm, Maxnianenn rpernpa ono snane y rexnnuxo-caneronannom (ynexonnxo n
npaxrnunom, oe pehn `npnmennnom`) cmncny, a ro ce moxe younrn n nernmnunnm
nornenom na cam npoannncrnuxn crnn nncana. Fnpao ie onpehenn ncropnicxn norahai,
103 | a a e

sarnm ancrpaxonao on cnnx npenenanrnnx unnnnana, re ie ca rnme noniao monen merona
xoinm ce axrep cnyxno y xonxpernoi cnryannin, na n ce yonnuno xonxperan npnmep n
ncraxao npnnnnn. V cyxoy ca nyxnomhy Maxnianennien axrep ce ynymrao y neno
onnananane, na na onaxan naunn nocraneno, ro nonymra na ce mory younrn ncnpannn
nocrynnn n rpemxe. Hnaue, Maxnianenn ie ynpano na rpemxama samepao anannsnpannm
axrepnma n nponsnenenn xapaxrep nocrynaxa (pannn xoie cy ycnehnnane), iep nauenno no
nemy rpemn camo onai xo ne sna, a nomro ce nonnrnxa xao rexnnxa moxe nsyunrn, ro ce n y
nonnrnnn mory pasnnxonarn onn nemrn n mane nemrn. Taxnom opmynanniom monena
Maxnianenn ie morao na nponenyie ncnpanne n nencnpanne nocrynxe, na yxonnxo ie y
onpehenoi cnryannin nn no na ce onpehena crnap yunnn, mory ce nponnrarn cpencrna
xoinma ce axrep xopncrno na n nomao no xeenor pesynrara. H ro ie ono mro ie onne
naxno, na cpencrna mory nrn pasnnunra n iennna mepa ie nnxona npnmepenocr
ocrnapnnany nna, ri. ycnocranany n onpxany mnnnrapncrnuxe npxane. Maxnianenn ie
rnopan nneie o npxannom pasnory, ann n npenopyunre amopanne npaxce yxonnxo ona nonn
ocrnapeny nexnx nnmnx nnena.
Honpyuie nepnnxannie nonnrnuxnx ncrnna ie nonpyuie ncropnie, ann cana cxnahene
xao nonpyuie xoncranrn sa xoinma ce rpara, xao sa onnm nocroiannm mro ce ynex nsnona
npaha, a n ycnen rora mro ce ncropnia nonana, Maxnianenn ie morao y noi na norpaxn
nornpny sa nnacrnre cranone. Homro re norahaie crnapaiy ynn, unie crpacrn n cxnonocrn y
cnnm npemennma ocraiy ncre, onn nmaiy n ncro neicrno. unsnuxn, norahain mory nmarn
pasnnunry npocropno-npemencxy xoopnnnary, ann y cymrnnn, xoia ie cama yncxa npnpona,
onn cy no Mannianenniy ncrn. Moxe ce pehn na ie nperexna oia cnnca anrpononomxn
necnmnsam, a onarne cexe n nnysopnocr ncrnnana nno xaxnor mopana y yncxnm
crnapnma. Honnrnuxa npaxca ie n cam mopan nncrpymenrannsonana xao cpencrno sor
ocrnapnnana cenunnx nnena, a xon Maxnianennia ie crnap raxnor nonnrnuxor mepnna
anconyrna, n ono ie no nemy reme onaxne ce y nnosonin o yncxnm crnapnma mopa
xpenyrn. Vxonnxo ce sanemapn ona unnennna, ona he ncxpcnyrn na nexom npyrom nonpyuiy
xnnora. 3aro ie n y `Pacnpanama` nnean penynnxancxor ypehena raxan, na ocrann
moryhnocr nxnnanana one unnennne. Vcnen rora n penynnxa xoia npncraie na noxper n
pauyna ca onom unnennnom y nnacrnroi necrannocrn nna nnianexrnuxn nocranena. Paxne,
canpmen nopenax ie cnnuan Honnniencxom memonnrom rnny, ann cana ns pasnora uro ce y
raxnom noperxy mory uyrn rnaconn cnnx paxnnia. Vnpano ce na rai naunn n cycnpexe
moryhnocr nosnnana na cynnny, sa pasnnxy on `Bnanaona`, n axrnnnsam ce crana na came
nnnnnnnye. One cy onronopne sa nnacrnro nenonane. Taxne nnnnnnnye, xao n nnananan ce
mopaiy onnnxonarn cnennnunom virtu: xon Maxnianennia ie ona nnxa narancxnm,
nnonnsnicxnm, nero xpnmhancxnm n anononnicxnm npnnnnnnma. V nocnennem cnyuaiy, ro
n naxnno camo sa npxany Foxiy, ann naxom nynnnne Maxnianenniene anannse nancxe
nnacrn y 3. xnnsn `Bnanaona` sa ny y nonnrnnn nema mecra.
104 | a a e

Ppyra xnnra pacnpana `Konnxo nma npcra penynnxa n xaxnoi ie Pnmcxa penynnxa
npnnanana`, onnocn ce na rpehy xnnry o rome na onai xo yremeyie penynnxe n
ycnocrana ioi saxone rpea na cne yne cmarpa onaxnma n na npernocrana xaxo he npornn
nera cnoiy onaxocr oxpenyrn xan ron nm ce sa ro yxaxe nonona npnnnxa. Hecnora napona n
pnmcxor Cenara yunnnna ie penynnxy cnoonnom n mohnom, a onronop na ro xoin cy
nononn yunnnn necnarana, ie na y cnaxoi penynnnn nocroie nna pasnnunra pacnonoxea,
ona xon napona n xon nennxama. Popn saxonn cy nocnennna nepena xoin mnorn necmorpeno
ocyhyiy, nox ie Maxnianenn npxao na cy rpahancxn n xnacnn cyxon nemenr npxane, xao mro
ie n xnnra ienanaecre rnane `Pacnpana`, O pe)ueuiu v Pu++aua, noronna nnycrpannia na
pennrniy nponenyie ca acnexra nene nonnrnuxe ynorpennocrn sa ocrnapnnane rpahancxe
nncnnnnnne. V cnenehoi xnnsn pennrnie ce nennnmy xao one xoie cy nacrane xao
nocnennna norpea mro nx ca coom nocn saiennnuxn xnnor, ri. nonnrnuxn xnnor. Cne
pennrnie cy, no nemy, y ocnonn nope ann ce xacnnie ncxnape, na mra yxasyie n mecro y
`Bnanaony` no xome cy nana n cnemrencrno cnoiom cneronnom nnamhy ncxnapnnn pennrniy.
Enrnecxa npxna ce on Pnma onnoinna 1533. r., a 1535. ie Xenpn VIII noryno cnor xannenapa
Tomaca Mopa, mro ie noxasano xaxo npaxca cpna n crapauxa mnsanrponnia unne nennxo sno.
Mana ie Maxnianenn cmarpao na ie penynnxancxo ypehene oe on monapxnie iep nnrepecn
ynpanaua nncy y cyxoy ca nnrepecnma nonannxa (ynyhn na ce nemrnna ynpanana
cacroin on nocroiannx mornna n yncxnx nnrepeca), on nnax nnie cacnnm onannnao mopan
n pennrniy, nero camo nonnrnuxo ryropcrno y npaxcn. To nponcrnue n ns caneronannor, a ne
reopnicxor npncryna, raxo na ie neron ron carnpnuan (Hcania Fepnnn), ann no nennuany
esosnpnocrn y nonnrnuxom nenonany, n xao `ranrcrepcxn npnpyunnx` xaxo ra ie
oxapaxrepncao Feprpann Pacen.
1.2 ax Boaen (1530-1596) ie xao npoecop npana na ynnnepsnrery y Tynysy 1576. r.
nanncao `Lecm rnuea o penvo)uuu` npenopyuyiyhn iaxy nenrpannsonany npxany xoia n
snaunna cnoonny rpronnny n exonomcxo iauane, xoie ce rapanryie anconyrnom n
nepmanenrnom nnamhy monapxa xoin ie y crany na norunnn mohne eynanne. O ie cnanno
Apncrorenony nonnrnxy pacnpaniyhn o nopexny npxane, poncrny, noponnnn, npnnarnoi
cnoinnn nrn. Paspahyiyhn Maxnianennieny nneiy cynepenocrn, npxane ca npannnm noperxom
n nnamhy nennncane cynepennrerom, onai anonor nonnrnuxor anconyrnsma nncao ie ro
camo uernpn ronnne naxon iesnnor norahaia, xana ie 1572. cnponenena anconyrncrnuxa
`Bapronomeicxa noh`, ri. xana ie no nanory anxapcxe nnemxnne Karepnne Mennun, Bapno
III napenno y Hapnsy noxo na xnane xyrenora uniom cy xpny onpann ynnne. To ie
nsasnano mnore `monapxomaxnuxe` reopnie xoie nsnop nnacrn nnne y napony, a ne y monapxy.
1.3 Touac Mop (1473-1535) ie cnanao mehy one xoin cy remxo onnocnnn oecnpannnane
cnpornne n `onuapcxy eny` npnonrne axymynannie xannrana, xana cy ncxopncrnnmn rpyn
cnpornne nennxamn nanann orxase na nmannma n repann nx y nyrannne n npociaxe. V xnnsn
nanncanoi 1516. r. - `Vronnia`, on ie onncao naioe ypehene npxane ca nosnnanem na
105 | a a e

Hnarona xoin ie yrnnao na opmnpane neronnx nainynx samncnn, saxrenaiyhn yxnnane
npnnarne cnoinne, xoie ce nnie onnocnno camo na xpyr ynpanaua, nero n na oprannsannie
nponsnonne y nenom npymrny. Pasnnxe ypanor n pycrnunor xoin ie ncrnnao noxper
xymannsma, on ie rexno na npennana xomynnrapnom npenopyxom na cnn nne ronnne opahyiy
semy. Mana ie cnoie nainosnarnie neno nanncao na narnncxom, marpao ie na y mxonama
rpea na ce yun na marepnem iesnxy. Fno ie sa ro na ce nomryiy nepcxe cnoone n npornn
pennrnicxe ysypnannie y ynpanany npxanom, ann xana ra ie Xenpnx VIII nosnao na
npncycrnyie xpynncany Ane Fonen onnaiaiyhn anrnnxancxy npxny on pnmcxe, Mop ie ocrao
npnnpxen xaronnuancrny, mro ra ie craiano xnnora. Henary ie pexao Camo xpapo
uoneue, ne oi ce cnor sanara, npar mn ie xparax, na saro nopo nnai na ce ne opyxam,
nocraiyhn rnme iom ienna, nonyme nerennapna, mpauna cmpr ys one necernne xnana
ecxyhnnxa, xoie ie pexnm xome ce cynpocranno nemao nyx nyrena. Hcxon ie sanpano
coxparoncxn, camo cana y xpnanoi enrnecxoi ncropnin, a n xaronnuxa npxna ra ie xao
maprnpa, no nexnma neonpannano nponsnena y cnernrea, iep nanonno nnie nmao nyny
normarcxy cnpemy. Taxna ocnopanana cy nyxn ncnxonornsam, iep ie Tomac Mop no cacnnm
noap nepnnx xoin ie cnoiom cmphy xao annenr noxasao cny naxasnocr nonnrnuxor (a ro
snaun n npxnenor) nenonana onnamne npxymxe Annona, xoia ce orana nnie mnoro menana
no mnornm nnrannma, uemhe nero mro ie ro npyrne no cnyuai carnpyhn cnoie naioe
yne. H Xereny cy ynyhnnann npnronope na nnme rnena na npaxcy nero na nnxone npxanne
axre, cmarpaiyhn na ce na rai naunn y cnoinm ounma nonnxy, es osnpa na npannunocr.
1.4 Touaso Kaunanena (1561-1639) ie no nranniancxn parap ns pena cn. Anrycrna, xoin
ce samonamno y nernaecroi ronnnn xnnora. 1537. r. Hrnanno Hoiona ie ocnonao iesynrcxn
pen sa onpany nancxor ayropnrera n opy npornn iepernxa, a ynpano cy onn noxasann
nonospene npema Kamnanenn xoin ce anpmncao xao npenanau na mehyrpancxnm penanniama.
Ann, xana ce on npnnpyxno sanepennnnma npornn nnacrn y Kanapnin n Hanyy, xoin cy
nnn sa reoxparcxy penynnxy n nporepnnane iesynra, ca nponamhy ror ycranxa 1600 r.
auen ie y nanycxy ramnnny rne ie nponeo 27 ronnna, na n naxon rora no excrpannpan y
upannycxy n ympo y Hapnsy y 71. ronnnn xnnora. Ipao cvuua ie nanncao ca nneiom na ie
na semn moryhe ocrnapnrn `npennrpy paia`, xoinm n morno na ornoune snarno noa nyno
cpehe, a npema ysopy xomyne y nomnnnxancxom manacrnpy. V rom cnncy ie pannxannsonao
Mopony nneiy xomynnrapne nponsnonne ca meraopnsonannm pnmcxnm nanom na ueny. On
onncyie rpahane nsmamranor ocrpna y Hnnnicxom oxeany, o xome my ie npnuao mopnap ns
Tenone, xoin xnne es npnnarne cnoinne n ene xoiy ona nsasnna, ocnonanaiy ce xao paha
n cecrpe, ouenn n maixe. Pan xon nnx npencrana onmry oanesy xao nocnennna nacnnrana
xoie ie crnopnno panne nannxe, raxo na cy cnn ocrann pannnnn, pasnnxyiyhn ce no npcrn n
creneny ymeha. V cnoioi `Vronnin` Mop ie cneo panno npeme na mecr carn nnenno, a
Kamnanena ra ie cmanno sa iom nna cara. Ipan-npxana mema ce y cne, na n y cexcyanne
onnoce (ne nonymraiy ce npe 19 nnn 21, nnn uax 27 ronnne, n ro camo yneue). On yxnna n
nnuny cnoinny ca nonymranem cexcyanne xomepnnie `cnaxe rpehe nohn` n ro ca neonunom
106 | a a e

npennsnomhy sa xanyhepa na ce `cnapyiy camo cracnre n nene xene ca npniarnnm n
cnaxnnm mymxapnnma, neene ca mpmanma, mpmane ca neennma, na n ce neno n xopncno
ypannorexnnn.` (yn. nam npen. Ipao cvuua, c. 24-25) Honnacnon `samncao nnococxe
penynnxe` ocrao ie y oxnnpnma cxonacrnuxor cxnarana, raxo na ie xpnrnxonao
Apncrorenone cranone nperxonno ra cyxeno rymauehn, ncro xao mro ie y memany npxane y
nonne crnapn nnneo ycnon iennaxocrn mehy ynnma.
1.5 Topaano Bpyno (1548-1600) ie nnme connianno-nonnrnuxn necpehna ycxa cynnna,
neronn mro ie nnonarnnnn nyx xoin ie onncao cnexnnom onone nayunnx npernocranxn. On
ie nacroiao na cauyna emnnpnicxy n maremarnuxy nonasny rauxy pasmarpana, cnenehn
Konepnnxony xennonenrpnuxy reopniy, ns xoie ie on nsnyxao meransnuxe xoncexnenne
ornopenor n nesanpmenor cnera, y xome ie sema nocrana ienna on nnanera. 3a nera ie
naxnno na marepnia cne nponnonn ns cee n na ie ona nsnop opmn n cner xnannrarnnno
pasnonpcnor nha, raxo na ie cner oxnnen cnyna n nyma my ie nainnxn opmannn yspox,
nox ie erep ocnon na xome ie pacnpocrpr, n ro y ecxpai mro nnmra ne npexopauyie.
Fnncrnonane ie on cxnarno xao rpaino n nenenno, ann n xao npomennno n pasnoponno.
Fnncrnonane ie sa nera nocroiano cnyna, re ma xonnxo nno nenornyno y nocennm
nenonnma na cnaxom mecry n ynex, ncxasano ie xao nocroiane cnera nmanenrno Foxnioi
cymrnnn, a camn rn saxonn cy nmanenrnn saxonn nncrnonana. Moxe ce pehn na ie ry
npncyrna onona xnnosoncrnuxor cxnarana y anraxonany sa crnapanauxe cnare xnnora y
xonrpanosnnnin npema rpannnnonannoi anrnuxoi n cxonacrnuxoi nnoconin.
1.6 mpancnc Bexon (1561-1626), nopn on Bepnyama, xoin ie y IX xnnsn O oocmoiaucmev
u veehaeanv uavra
81
, na nouerxy cenme nenennie xnnora nanncao: Jep, axo nepyiemo camo
onome mro onronapa namem pasymy, mn ce npnxnanamo crnapnma, a ne nnxonom Tnopny...
mro ie nnme nemoryha n nnme neneponarna /absonum/ oxancxa raina, ro ce xpos neponane
nnme ncxasyie nomronane Fora, n yronnxo ie noena nepe nnemennrnia. Ponyme, on ie
1620. r. oianno xnnry Hoeu opeauou, u)u npaeo vnvmcmeo ;a mv+a:ene npupooe
82
, rne ie
sacrynao resy na ce npnpona ne moxe noennrn axo ioi ce ne noxopnmo, cmarpaiyhn na ce
snane n yncxa moh cnone na ncro. V rom cmncny cnryannia mnmena xao na ie
nonpanena nexnm menrannnm saronerxama xoie cnpeuanaiy npnmeny no rana nosnarnx
pemena, re sa xoie naa nae ynorpeanarn nomnmarocr n omrpoymnocr, na n ce ono
mro ce non onpehennm ycnonnma nernpa noxasano na xpaiy xao ono no uera ie nainnme crano
n mro n naano na ce nainnme nomryie n cnann. Fexon ie nennocmncneno ncrnnao cran xoin
ie xacnnie nmao nanexocexne nocnennne, na ie cnpxa nayxe y mnpeny nnanannne yncxor
pona nan npnponom, sa mra ie cmarpao na ie neonxonno xonxperno yrnphnnane emnnpnicxnx
yspoxa ca pesynrarnma norpennm sa neno nerano ynosnanane. unnoconia ce npema
nemy ann Forom, uonexom n npnponom, ann ie pasymenane one norone xon nera narypa-

81
De dignitate et augmentis scientarum
82
Novum organon, sive indicia vera de interpretatione naturae/ma+o, 1,2, npen.crp.37-38/
107 | a a e

nncrnuxo, raxo na snaun nonmane npnpone y opmama marepniannor cnera xoinma ie
nsmaxnyr opmannn yspox. unnoconia npnpone ie raxo cnexynarnnna /physica specialis
alias metaphysica/ n npaxrnuna /mehanica et magia/, na nsnxa no nemy nema norpee na ce
ann nemarepniannnm opmannnm n nnannnm ysponnma, ynyhn na cy ennnienrnn ono
mro oesehyie napacraiyhe snane nnn moh pasnoia nayxe, ca doctrina de angelis et spiritibus
xao nsnonom ns Foxninx ncxasnnana xpos crnopeno. Tesy o nsnnn xao emnnpnicxoi naynn
xoia pasmarpa ncxyunno ennnienrne n marepnianne yspoxe, Fexon ie nspasnro sacrynao y
xnnsn Hpupooua u ercnepu+euma)ua ucmopuia paou ;acuueana du)ocoduie: u)u noiaee
vuueep;v+a
83
, rne ie xynno Hnarona n Apncrorena mro ce cranno nosnnaiy na nnannn
yspox, a xnanno Pemoxpnra n Ennxypa sor onnca marepniannor cnera es enrenexnia, mro ie
oner snaunno sananane rnennmra na npnpony y neno nncrpymenrannsyiyhe n
mexannnncrnuxo rymauene. unnoconia ce raxnnm xonnenrom orpannuanana na yuene o
axcnomnma xoin cy saiennnuxn pasnnunrnm nayxama, re ie rypnyra y nniacnopy cnohenem na
rpancnennenranne noimone nare y penannin ca npyrnm nayxama, naxne penyxonana na
cncremarnsaropcxy nomoh nayxama, re ioi ie penecancno n cacnnm monepno cum instauratio
magna nsmnnano rno na xome ie nounnana, ys esnoronopno cnane y mnponnny. Honaiyhn ce
yrncnnma xoie cnoamnn npenmern npme na nera, naxne y roronancxoi nacnnnocrn, 1. B.
Bnoona (1660-1742) `Kpnrnuxa pasmarpana o noesnin n cnnxapcrny`/1719/, ro noxasyiy ca
nnhenem ymernocrn xao pasnpnre n yxnnanem es myxe n nanopa, a n ca xpnrepniymom
`ocehaia` /rsn. mecror uyna/, xome ne mory na namrere ecrercxe penexcnie. Ecrercxa
xynrypa ie nna cmemrena y pesepnar rne ie morna na ce nocehyie xana nacrynn ymop nnn
nocana, a connianna ce ynono yymxana nopen mohnnx penexcnnnnx snana xoia cy
nemnocpnno nannna cner.










83
Historia naturalis et experimentalis ad condendam philosophiam: sive phenomena universi (1622-1623).
108 | a a e

PAHHOHAHH3AM XVII BEKA
3a ro npeme ie xapaxrepncrnuno na ie ernxa nouena na ce rpann na uncrom pasymy, es
yrnnaia noe, ocehana n crpacrn, a ono mro ie mopanno cmarpano ce npenacxonno pasymnnm.
To ie nna rnomonomxa ernxa, caunnena on mopannnx cenrennn, xoiy ie nparnna
nparmarnuxa ca nanohenem npnmepa, ca unme ce norncxnnana ona anonnxrnuxa xoia ie
naxnna y cpennonexony, na ce ns nornuxnx noxasa nenyxyiy npannna sa ynnmranane rsn.
`nara xnnora`. H camo npymrno nounne na ce nocmarpa y onrnnn connianne mexannxe, a
pannonanna ncnxonornia nocmarpa npxany xao rorono nsnuxy cnny. Onne ie sauernnx
Pexapr ca cnoiom panpanom o meronn n ncnpannom pyxonoheny yma, cnncy o crpacrnma
nyme n mexannsmnma xaxo nx naa cysniarn, ann n Hnxona Boano (1636-1711) xoin ie
ynorpeno nyx xapresniancxor saxrena sa iacnohom, re yrnenaiyhn ce na Apncrorena reopniy
ymernocrn npornacno crporom nayxom, xpnrnxyiyhn nponsnonocr n ecrercxe cnoone, na
cy ncrnna n nenora, xao n pasym y nainnmoi mohn nayunor yma n npnpona y cnoinm reneono-
mxnm xopnsonranniama, nsiennauenn sor saiennnuxor nopexna y anconyrnom cynepennrery
yma; re ca cnoinm ecrernuxnm reomerpnsmom, xoin ie nanarao ymernocrn na `nonn pasym` n a
na ce ann xnannnm, cnmerpnunnm xomnosnnniama (npnopenn on xyrna-xpomnn, nann nrn.)
H camo npymrno nounne na ce nocmarpa y onrnnn connianne mexannxe, a pannonanna
ncnxonornia nocmarpa npxany xao rorono nsnuxy cnny.
Pene Bexap1 (1596-1650) ce ynexonnxo anno ecrernuxnm nnrannma ca pasnnianem
resa o crpacrnma nyme n o mysnnn. 3axrenaiyhn reomerpnsam y crpyxrypannin noimona,
pasnno ie cnecr o cnoonn xoie my ie nonycrnno ynymrane y rsn. xnneponnuny cymny:
Ko ron na nac ie crnopno, na no on n cnemohan n omannnau, mn nnax ucrvuaea+o
c)oooov na ocnony xoie ce moxemo ysnpxarn on rora na npnxnarnmo xao nencrnnnre n
neocnopne one crnapn o xoinma nemamo nsnecno snane, re raxo cnpeunmo na nxana ynemo
omanyrn.
84
Taxna cnecr o cnoonn ie ounrnenno ona ypohena nneia xoia ynex nna nara
norennnianno, re no Pexapry camononona crnap sa xoncra-ronane mn cmo na nocean
naunn rocnonapn namnx nocrynaxa n saro sacnyxyiemo noxnany nnn noxyny
85
, mro yxasyie
na pannonannocr xao pesynrar noe n mohn npnsnanana, na ana nonparno cnerno na cogito
ergo sum xao na camoxpeanniy ns nnmra, nnn ns neycnonene cnoone xoia yxnna samrnry
on npornnpeunocrn n noxasyie ce xao cneoyxnaraiyha nepnepnia. Pacnpana o crpacrnma
anpmncana ie maremarnuxn n nornuxn nnean nayxa nennuaiyhn `nnrenexryanny panocr`, a
rnme ce nerona nsnenena ernxa noxasyie xao cnnexynapna n opnonncrnuxa. By he nye na
pasmorpn Cnnnosa, nnmyhn cnoiy Emurv, ann n na nponyn na mnpoi connianno-nonnrnuxoi
pannn y anonnmno oianenom Ho)umu:ro+ n Teo)ouro-no)umu:ro+ mparmamv (1670)

84
Pene Pexapr: Notae in Programma quoddam, cur finem anni 1647 in Belgio editum, cum hoc titulo: Explicatio
mentis humanae, sivae Animae rationalis, ubi explicatur quid sit et quid esse possit (Hpnmene na ienan nporpam
xoin ie xpaiem 1647 oianen y Fenrnin non nacnonom: Pasmarpene yncxor nyxa nnn pannonanne nyme, rne ce
pasmarpa mra ona iecre n mra moxe na yne/, 1,6/).
85
ma+o, 1,37
109 | a a e

3a Touaca Xoca (1588-1679), ayropa uynenor mnsanrponcxor Heeuiamaua (1642),
xoin ie neyraxnnnm cxenrnnnsmom ocmncnno na cy ncrnne nponsnone iep sannce on
nomnnannnx nennnnnia
86
, nesan ie snauaian xopnyc nonnrnuxnx n conniannnx reopnia.
Taxan `nsnnnsam` ornena ce cnyrne xon Xoca, xana on cne nmenyie rennma (cnonnnnm na
npocrop n xperane), a cnenehn Fexonony nennsy `snane ie moh`, on ie nneonorniy npnponnor
npana pasnno no anconyrnor monapxnsma. uonex ie yxnonen y npnpony es ncropnicxe
nnmensnie ca ncrnnanem npannonannor nauena y conniannoi npaxcn, na ce noronopom
npnponna npana npenoce na npxany, xoia crora nocraie `Henniaran`, cnemohna cnna nsnan
noiennnna. Bra ie Heeuiamau (cam ynon, crp. 3 n (uynonnmre craposanernor mnra, o xome ce
ronopn y Knnsn o Jony, r. 41, 24: nnmra nema na semn na n ce ncnopennno ca nnm),
nero poornsonana mexannnncrnuxa cnnxa cnera (npexo Iannneia n Pexapra non uninm ie
yrnnaiem no n cam Xoc /npenncxa ca Pexaprom nesana sa `Mennrannie o npnoi
nnosonin`/). Onarne, n mexannnncrnuxa xonnennnia npxane rne ie nemrauxnm nyrem
crnopen `Henniaran`, xoin nnie nnmra npyro nero nemrauxn uonex, unioi ie samrnrn n
onpann namenen. Henniaran ie saiennnna, npxana, civitas, ann ce n onne nounne ca
noiennnnem, n nmamo nnnnnnnyanncrnuxn nouerax, a ne ca noponnnom, cenom, nonncom.
Xoc ce nnrao, xaxo on onnx aromnsonannx iennnxn nohn no npxane-ypehene saiennnne? On
nynn rsn. nnnnnianny cnryanniy xoia rpea na nernrnmnme na npnom mecry nnacr y iennoi
raxnoi saiennnnn, a norom na oiacnn naunn na xoin nacraie npxana. V npnponnom crany
nema nncrnnxnnia na nema nn nenpanne. Hpanna nounna na cnoinnn, mro ce nnnn na npnmepy
na ramo rne nema cnora concrnenor nema nn cnoinne, na nema nn npanne xoia n ce
cacroiana y naueny na rpea narn cnaxom uonexy ono mro ie nerono. To ce mopa
oesennrn cnopasymom a iennno ie npxanna cnna y moryhnocrn na nsnynn nomronane onnx
cnopasyma. Henniaran ie y rn. 17, xana pasmarpa nnrana npxane neymonn - Cnopasymn es
maua camo cy peun, n es nxaxne cnare na uonexa oesene.
V cnncy Heeuiamau, rnana 13. oiamnana ce rsn. npnponno crane, y xom crany
(npennpxannom) ynn cy iennaxn n cnaunie npano ce npocrnpe noxne nonnpe nerona moh,
cnara. V raxnom crany crpenne n crpaxa cnaxo ie cnaxome nyx iep ie iennnn saxon saxon
iauer n nyxannier - par cnaxor ca cnaxnm. Par nnie camo crane ope, neh raxno crane xoie n
y mnpy cne axrnnnocrn ycpecpehyie xa norennniannom pary, ananorno onpehenom nanpennom
crany rne nema npanor n nenpanor iep ce onn noimonn ianaiy rex ramo rne nocroin nnacr n
nopenax. Hema mor n rnor, cem xpos nacne, ornmaunny, npenapy; raxo na nema nn npnnarne
cnoinne n cne ce ono ycranonana rex ynohenem nnacrn unin ie monyc nenonana crpax.
uonex rexn mnpy saro mro ce oin cmprn (xacnnie Xeren y nrypn rocnonapa n poa) ynyrap
jus naturale, raxo na ie lex naturalis - cnna n npenapa, xoie cy onne n ocnonne npnnne. Ho
npnponnom npany uonex nocenyie cnoony na nemro yunnn nnn na ce on neuera ysnpxn, nox
saxon napehyie n oanesyie na ienno on rora, raxo na rex ycnocrananem npxane crnapaiy ce

86
G. W. Leibnitz, Meditationes de cognitione, veritate et ideis u - Izabrani filozofsli spisi, Zagreb, 1980., str. 5.
110 | a a e

ycnonn sa ynohene xonnenra npanne. Paxne, npnponno npano ie cnoicrneno npnponnom
crany xpos npnn n ocnonnn saxon npnpone: rexnrn mnpy n onpxanarn mnp. Pocrnsane onor
crana npernocrana nanymrane npnponnnx npana cnoicrnennx npnponnom crany, ananorno
Jenanheocxoi maxcnmn - mro rpaxnm na ynn ren unne, ro n rn unnn npyrnma. Hnienna
saiennnna ocnm npxane ne moxe na oesenn noronnocrn sa xoie ie npxana nonecna. Ipynnn
nnepecn nonase y cyxo n ry nema saiennnmrna. Hnenrnrer moxe ycnocrannrn camo npxanna
nnacr xoia aromnsonano mnomrno nonnonn non ienno (nnp. napon, nannia, nrn., na ie nnacr
xoncrnrynmyha moh onor oiennnanana, mro ie mornn paspahen n xon Maxnianennia
(noceno o rome na 154. crp. Cynepena nnacr ne moxe na ce nsryn) Bnanapy Xoc naie
npxonny n neorpannueny moh na npymrno ne n nponano. Vronop ce cxnana camo iennom n ne
moxe ce yxnnyrn, mro nsysnma Bnanapa on nosnna na onronopnocr, n ocnopana npano na
noyny. Hpennocr npxannor ayropnrera no nemy ce cacroiana y rome mro ie on morao na
cnyra cranemxy pasiennnenocr n nonycrn cnoony nponsnonne n rpronnne. Mehyrnm, ry
`nema Fora, ocnm onor xon onopn nnacr`, a raxna ianna nnacr ce mema n y xopnmhene
npnnarnor nnacnnmrna n xoncrpynmyhn no cnom naxoheny ancamne npymrnennx onnoca, n
camnm rnm nonasn y xonnsniy ca rpahancxnm npannma xoia cy nsnasnna na ncropnicxy
nosopnnny. Hocnymnocr Fory onmenyie nocnymnocr cynepeny n snpyxyie nonnrnuxy n
pennrnosny moh xao snoryx, ann n npemohan uonexo-oxancxn apnrap nan nonannnnma.
Bapyx ae Cnnnosa (1632-1677), xao n Xoc, npxao ie na ie casnane casnane npenmera
ns neronnx yspoxa, no xome ie y cxnany c nennnnniama reomerpnicxor nonmana moryhe n
nacraiane npenmera. Fam xao n Xoc, Cnnnosa y unneny nnnn yspox ns xor ce caunnana
nrypa, ynyhn na unnene pacxpnna camy cymrnny onpehene nrype ns xoie ce mory
nsnonnrn n nena cnoicrna. Hs onpehnnana xpos xoncrpyncane nsnonn ce cnoicrno
reomerpnicxnx nrypannia, yxonnxo noa xoia nocn yspox cryna na neno. For xon nera nnie
Tnopan cnera, neh ie ro ecxonauna npnpona y nerepmnnncrnuxom cncremy, a npxonnn noiam
concrnene camoyspounocrn iennaunny Fora (necrnopene npnpone) n npnpone (one crnopene)
noxasyie xao cneonmry nepnepniy n eemepnocr ersncrennnie. Axo ie For cne mro
ersncrnpa, onna ie snp rnx ersncrennnia ono mro rai noiam caunnana /narahane no
xymynarnnnocrn/, na ce sa Cnnnosy moxe pehn n na ie npann nayunn nanrencr. Fes osnpa na
ncnpannocr rnpnne na onai xoin nonn Fora ne moxe na ouexyie na n For nera nonn (nanme,
moxe cacnnm na ce ynaxn npernocranxa ynocroianana), ann ie cmemno oryna nsnnaunrn n
yehene na crpnxrno ronopeno On nnxora n ne nonn /Emura, 5, 11/. Baa ce uynarn
cyrecrnia xoie cpnuy na nac Iocnon ne nonn, iep ie Berona xprna na Kpcry xoiom ie noenno
cmpr ncxasana ecxonauny nensmepnocr Berone yann. Ounrnenno na iennncrno
pasnonnxocrn ror mnomrna xao npxonnn apnrap oiennnana reomerpnia ca cnoiom
xoncrpynmyhom nonnorom y cyiexrnnnoi non, mro oner ana cne y anrpononomxy
cnryanniy na ynnnepsanny nepnepniy xapresniancxnx mamnncxnx ynn n neisax xoin n
noniennaxo morao na ce nasone nannemonncrnuxnm xao n nanrencrnuxnm. Tesa na npomene
na reny ne mory na yrnuy na nymy n opnyro no Cnnnose ie nocnena ns yuena oxcnonanncra
111 | a a e

npexo Pexapra, ca unme ie on nerpnnxonao npernocranxy o nocroiany nne cyncrannnie
mncnehoi n nporexnoi xoia ne yrnuy ienna na npyry. Oner ie noxas sa ro xymynarnnno
reomerpnicxe npnpone, no xome ce yrnnai ienne na npyry oiamnana napanennsmom cnnx
monyca ienne cyncrannnie n cnnx monyca npyre. Hpocrop n marepnianna nnmensnia
npocrnpana oryna sa nera croie na onom mecry rne sa Hainnna croin nyx-nyma nnn
xonrnnynpanocr ersncrennniannnx nnnona npnpone. V rom cmncny n Xoc n Cnnnosa nmaiy
nnenrnune nornene na pasnore nacranxa npymrnene saiennnne, ann ne n na neno naioe
ypehene. Kon Xoca ie ro neorpannuena nnacr monapxa, a xon Cnnnose nemoxparnia. V neny
Ho)umu:ru mparmam o cmarpa na:cnoonny saiennnny nnme nonn nana nero crpax
87
,
ncrnuyhn n xao opasnoxene n xao saxren: Jep nnanannna xoia nne sa rnm na nonn yne
camo nomohy crpaxa nnme he cysniarn nnxone nopoxe nero mro he noncrnnarn nnxone
cnoconocrn. A ynnma rpea ynpanarn raxo na onn ne ocehaiy na nx ce nonn, nero na
nepyiy na xnne no cnom cxnarany n no cnoioi non, n ro raxo na yny nesann camo yany
npema cnoonn.
88
3a pasnnxy on Xoca, xon Cnnnose y rpahancxom crany ne npecraiy na
naxe npnponna npana. Konnxo mohn, ronnxo n npana, na yxonnxo ce nnme ynn ynpyxn,
rnme he onn nmarn nnme npana. Cynepena nnacr na xoiy ce npenoce npana mopa na oesenn
samrnry camnx rnx npana, ri. na saxonnma samrnrn ocnonne yncxe cnoone. Jennaxocr,
nesanncnocr n cnoona cy npennocrn, a nopenax ie noap yxonnxo moxe na samrnrn one
cnoone. Cam uonex ie ononnxo cnoonan xonnxo ce pyxononn pasymom, na yxonnxo ce ynn
cnyxe pasymom n npxana ie yremeena na neronoi mohn. V rome ie nopa crpana ro mro
rana ynn nncy nenocpenno sanncnn on nnacrn nero on camnx cee.
Hon Aox (1632-1704) ie cnoiy connianny nnoconiy nsnoxno nanncanmn nosnare: uee pacnpaee
o e)aou (1689. n 1690.) One nmaiy sa moro nnrane: V uemy ce cacroin nernrnmna nnacr
cynepena? Honane 2 ie `O npnponnom crany` n npnponno crane (y xaxnom cy crany cnn
ynn no npnponn) nnie nennncano nn npennpymrneno, nn npenmopanno xao xon Xoca.
To ie crane canpmene cnoone, ann ne n camonoe, xao crane iennaxocrn. Hpnponnnm
cranem ynpana npnponnn saxon xoin npencrana ym xoin yun cne yne na ne nanoce sno
ryhem xnnory, snpany, cnoonn nnn noceny, nox ie ro ncro xon Xoca snaunno pap cnnx
npornn cnnx.. Baxno ie ncrahn na cy no Hoxy ynn neh no npnponnom crany y crany
saiennnmrna, a n na onn nncy nocnenn y ro crane na n sanononnn ocnonne yncxe
norpee. Onn rex nnacrnrom carnacnomhy nocraiy unanonn nexor nonnrnuxor npymrna,
npymrnennm yronopom onnxyiy nncrnrynnie (saiennnne, npxane), xoinma ce mrnre on
nesrona npnponnor crana. Haxo cy ynn cnecnn npnponnor saxona, onn ra mnoro crpoxe
npnmenyiy na cee nero na npyre, a snounnn mory npohn nexaxneno ycnen nenocrarxa
nenpncrpacnor ayropnrera, raxo moxe na nohe n no crana para. Taxo nonasn no npenoca
ayropnrera na rpahancxy nnacr (rnana 7), a ry ie rne rne nacraie yronop xoin rpea na

87
Fapyx ne Cnnnosa, Ho)umu:ru mparmam, Frn.: Kynrypa, 1957., 32 crp.
88
Hcmo, 96 crp.
112 | a a e

samrnrn nama npnponna npana, on xoinx ie nainaxnnie npano cnoinne (rn. 5). Hocrana ce
nnrane xaxo nexo crnue cnoinny nan neunm n samro ie ro ronnxo naxno. Ho Hoxy, cnaxn
uonex nma cnoinny nan cnoiom nnacrnrom nnunomhy, a rnme cy n pan n ono mro onai crnapa
neronn. Vnpano ie pan yneo pasnnxy y onnocy na xonnenr saiennnuxor nopa, re ce ca nnme
ynonn n nncrnnxnnia y norneny nmonnne. V nesn ca noimom nonnrnuxo reno (rnana 8),
sannmnno ie anocrponpane noiam npehvmue cae)acuocmu On ie n nponem sa Hoxony
xonnennniy xoin noxasyie na ne nocroin nernrnmnmyhn ocnon, nsysen onmrenaponne
carnacnocrn. Kaxo ie naprnnnnannia y nnacrn nacnnna ne nocroin naunn na xoin n
noiennnan nnacrnry carnacnocr morao na nosnaun.
Ho Hoxy nocroie saxononanna, nsnpmna n eneparnnna nnacr. 3axononanny unne
naponnn npencrannnnn casnann na y onpeheno npeme nonecy saxone y npxann, a nsnpmna
nnacr (xpaencxa) nanrnena nnxony npnmeny, nox nansop y mehynaponnnm onnocnma
npnnaa eneparnnnoi nnacrn, xoia nma nannexnocr sanounnana para, cxnanana mnpa n
nohena cnone nonnrnxe (CAP cy npnxnarnne pycooncxy noneny na saxononanny, nsnpmny
n cyncxy). Hacynpor Xoconom cranonnmry no xome ie anconyrna nnar ona xoia moxe na
ncnpann nenocrarxe npnponnor crana, on ie cynpocranno nneiy cnoone noiennnna,
cynepenocrn napona n nnanapcxor xoncensyca. Bnany orpannuana saxon xoinm ce mrnre
ocnonna yncxa npana, mro yxyuyie n npano na ornop necnorcxoi nnanannnn.
Bejnna Xjyu (1711-1776) ie ca cnoiom xpnrnxom npnpononpannnx n yronopnnx reopnia
rnopan rsn. `ncnxonomxe connonornie`. Ocnonnn npymrnenn unnnnan ie nonnrnuxn
nncrnnxr. To na ce nnacnnmrno nomryie, a ynn npnnpxanaiy yronopa, nnie npnponno nero
xonnennnonanno npannno nnxonor nonamana. Fno cxnon xonopmnsmy, xoin he ca
npeepennniom ecrercxe xynrype na yne neyrpannsarop one connianne, raxo mro he ce on
cnera na xpaiy onycraiarn npanem pyxy n saysnmanem renepanne cxenrnuxe nosnnnie. Tai
uonex xoin mnoro sna n norxpanyie nonospene npema cnemy, ymenao ie ys nparehn nnnnsam
na ocmncnn n noxoiy nopy peu nesany sa ymernocr. On ie npxao na ie namepa ecennnmrna
na ynepn, ncropnie na noyun, a noesnie na ce nonanne nocpencrnom ocehana n yopasne.
Ponyme, y ncnxonmxnm nsnopnma noesnie on cmarpa na nema nnuer narnpnponnor, a nenora
n npennocr cacroie ce yonmre y npniarnom ocehaiy. Vopasna naa na yne ncranuana, a sa
npocyhnnane npcre n onnxa ycnenocrn nenore norpeno ie ncxycrno.

Io1mpna Bnxenu Aajnnn (1646-1716) /Gottfried Wilchelm Leibnitz/ ie npema
Epnmanonoi mnpoxoi onenn rexno na nahe carnacnocr mehy pasnoponnnm rennennniama
anrnuxor nnaronnsma n apncrorennsma y cpennonexonnmoi nnrepnperannin, nsnxe n
acrponomnie Iannneia n Kennepa, anannsa Bonnca n Xairenca, re raxohe nonorniom
Henenxyxa, Mannnrnia n Cnamepnama, a neronn maremarnuxn panonn nnn cy nynxr
xpncrannsannie nerone nnoconie. Monane cy y raxnom paspemanany meransnuxor snana
113 | a a e

xnnocrasnpann nnepennniann, nox ie cner xnnocrasnpann nnrerpan, c rnme mro peu
xnnocrasa xao nonmer n cyiexr snaun npe cnera cnoony nnunocrn xoia nema norpee na
ce nonnprana nuem npyrom necnoonnom cem onom mro ioi n onpehyie nocroiancrno, a ro ie
nopo Foxnie ecxonaunocrn. V nncmy J. Tomasniycy ns 1669 on ie narnamanao xaxo cy my
nnxe xonnennnie cyncrannnianne opme nrype, nennunne, nsmene n xperana ns
Apncrorenone nsnxe, neronn pasmnmana xapresnianana on xoinx ie ynaen. On y cnncy o
npnmenama na onmrn neo Kapresniennx nauena xaxe na nnie cmarpao na ie cne nonnoxno
cymnany ncronpemeno n naxno nox ce ne noxaxe cynporno, re nnie onannnao npenpacyne
nero nx ie nocranao na npyro mecro. Horpena ie iacnocr n pasronernocr npocyhnnana xoia
he na nornpnn ncrnnnrocr nneia, raxo na ouyna mnmene on cxperana y ncnxonornsam n
cyiexrnnnsam.
V rom cmncny merone noxasnnana ncnpannocrn xoie ie osnanno Apncroren raxohe cy
n nae axryenne, iep mncnnm, naxne iecam nnie ncrnna ymnor cranonnmra, neh ncrnna
axrnnnrera xoia ne rapanryie ncrnnnrocr namnx npocyhnnana, iep nopen cee xao
mncneher cyiexra casnaiem n cnoie mncnn, y xoinma ce nanase nnme nnn mane ncrnnnrn
mncnehn canpxain, xoin nehe nocrarn mane nnn nnme ncrnnnrn ca npnmehnnanem
ncnxonomxor axra na ia mncnnm, neh ca rnm na ie mnome mnmena mnorocrpyxocr
xoiom cam mnoronnnno onpehen. V rom ie cmncny sa Hainnna cama nornxa "onmra nayxa"
(scientia generalis), na ie naueno cnaxor casnana naa na yne nonieno ne xpos anannsy
cyiexra xoin casnaie, neh ncrpaxnnanem npnpone came ncrnne, rne ie casnaino ia cnymreno
na npyry nnnniy naxnocrn, nomohy elementa rationis, na ie maremarnxa mehy nayxama
ysnnsana no onronomxe xonnennnie n nsnxa nocraie oanesna na ce ycrpoiana na ocnony
maremarnxe. To ie moryhe sor rora mro ie Hainnn cnonno maremarnuxe axcnome na
onmrenornuxe ncrnne crpor n uncr rnn snana xao nocean cnyuai npnmene nornxe,
npnmopanaiyhn nocrynare Pexaprone reomerpnie na ce noxaxy y cnerny nepasnoxnoi
anexnarnocrn n nenononocrn.
Hayxa ie nyxna na crpemn iacnom n onronapaiyhem snany, raxo na opahamo naxny na
yxynny npnpony npenmera mro ie nnme moryhe oniennom, na nopen nncxypsnnnor noniamo
n nnrynrnnno snane. Taxno snane nspaxana ynyrpamnn nornen osnauen cnmonnuxnm
nennnama n snannma xoin cy nonyme cnenn, ann nonesyiy ca iacnomhy nsnopnnx canpxaia.
Honmamo nmenonana n nasnauena raxo mro nm ounranamo snauena, ann ne n ca nornynom
ynepenomhy na ce ry moxna nnie norxpana rpemxa n rnme rpacnpana nyr xa sanynn. Pa n
ce sanyne nserne norpeno ie nsnecrn anannsy nonmanor nnn pasnoxnrn crnapn no
iennocrannocrn yspounnx n pasnoxnnx enemenara, na n ce orxpnne npornnpeunocrn xao
ono mro ce nenpnmerno norxpano y nonmany (axo ie For moryh oryn cnenn rex n na crnapno
nocroin, ann ne n onnananane nneiom camor ror nocroiana, re nenoymnna naipxer xperana
nnn nainehe ycnopenocrn nrn.).
114 | a a e

Hpema Hainnny, cymrnna npnpone ce ne cacroin y npocrnpany, nero y cnnn. Fynyhn
na cy pasym n yopasna nna nsnopa maremarnuxnx nonmana, nenn cynonn nncy anannrnuxn
neh cnnrernuxn, xaxo ie cem Hainnna cmarpao n Kanr npxehn na n reopnia nna nopen
cyhena ycnonom nonmana (y ocnonn cnaxor axcnoma nexn anpnopna cnnresa). Hainnn ce ne
cnaxe c Pexapronnm nonmanem npnpone narnamanaiyhn: Hyxno ie na yne nonymreno na
ie crnapnma npnnano nexo nenonane, opma nnn cnna, xoiy mn onuno nasnnamo npnponom.
To ce onnocn na rnopauxe acnexre npnpone rne ona noxasyie neicrnenocr n xnnor, xao n
nocenonane nauena nenennocrn rpannnnonanno opme, ca unme ce y noi sanpxanaiy
meransnuxa camonenarna nauena xoia ne nonymraiy neno cnohene na mprnn mexannsam. Ha
rai naunn nnnamnxa ce iana xao ocnonna nayxa o npnponn, iep nsyuana ysaiamno nenonane
cnna xoie ce pasanpy ymom, a ne yopasnom. On nspnunro saronapa na: Ta npnonrna
axrnnna cnna, xoiy ie moryhe nasnarn xnnorom n sanpmana ca rnme mro mn nasnnamo nymom,
nnn y npocroi cyncrannnin...nema nennha mace, rne ne n nno oprancxor rena, onapeno
nexom cnoconomhy n npnmanem, nnn nax nymom cnor pona. To ie saxrenano n nonn nornen
na nonmane marepnie, xperana, npeocmnmanane saxona nnepnnie n yxynnor onnoca
nsnxe n maremarnxe, mro ra Hainnna noneno no cranonnmra na: ...Mexannuxn npnnnnnn,
ns xoinx nponcxone saxonn xperana, ne mory na yny nsnenenn ns onora mro nma uncro
nacnnnn xapaxrep, reomerpnicxor, marepniannor, nnrn noxasain iennno maremarnuxnm
axcnomnma. Honmane nacnnne cnne xao onor nenpooinor nnn arpnncanor anrnrnnniom,
on ie nonmao xao marepniy nnn neny xonnunny xao macy y mnoronnnnocrn uynno narnx
rena: Hon marepniom nyxno ie pasymern npny n npyry, re na ie npyra crnapno npna
cyncrannnia xoia nnie uncro nacnnna, nox ie npna marepnia uncro nacnnna, ann nnie cacnnm
cyncrannnianna, na ie oryn on ne norpeno na nponsahe nyma, nnn opma ananaorna nymn,
nnn npna enrenexnia ri. nexaxan naoi nnn npnonrna cnna neicrnonana. Ony npnonrny
marepniy on nonexan nasnna n moles (nocnonno - "rpomana"), a npyry marepniy macom, ca
xoiom ce npenasn y onacr mexannxe n nsnxe, xa nporexnocrn n nenpooinocrn y nneprnoi
macn rena onaxne ce n nsnnaun saxon nnepnnie es xora ie scranonanane saxonnrocrn
ynapa n xperana rena nenornyno.
Ta npyra marepnia ie ounro no nnnamnunocrn xoiy nocenyie nemro npyro nero mro ie
ncrnnano y nesn c noimom marepnie xon Apncrorena, ann n xon xapresnianana, iep y cen
canpxn n naueno opme. V ro noa pasmarpana cy ce nna onnxa xperana, onai xnnemarnuxn
xao xperane na pannn noiana n onai nnnamnuxn sa xoin ce ycranonanaiy ysponn xperana,
ynyhn na cam npocrop nnme nnie nonman xao xapresniancxo ynyrpamne cnoicrno
marepniannnx rena, neh nnxon ysaiamnn onnoc nspaxen nnnamnuxom reopniom ynapa. Hoea
du;u:ra xunome;a (1671) nonena ie cnenehn pesynrar: Axo ce reno mncnn camo nomohy
maremarnuxnx nonmana, raxnnx xao nennunna, opma, mecro n nerona npomena, re nonycrn
nsmena cnopocrn camo y momenrnma sacroia, ne npneranaiyhn meransnuxnm nonmannma,
ri. npnmennno na opmy na nonmana nenarne cnne a npnmennno na marepniy, nonmany
nneprnocrn n npornnena, ri. npyrnm peunma yxonnxo onpehyie pesynrar ynapa camo
115 | a a e

nocpencrnom reomerpnicxor cnarana psnne, ro onarne, xao mro cam noxasao, ycnehyie na
psnna n rex manor rena cacnnm naa na npehe na nehe reno, c xoinm ce mano ynopehyie.
Cnenn na n mnpyiyhe reno, xaxo ron na nennxnm nno, nno non yrnnaiem nexor npyror,
nnyxonnxo npn rome ne ycnopanaiyhn ro mane reno. Can npn raxnom nonmany marepnie nnie
moryhe ronopnrn nn o xaxnom npornneny, neh ie ro moryhe camo o nepasnnxonany y
onnocy na xperane n mnponane. Crora ne n nno rexe noxpenyrn c mecra rexe reno,
neronn noxpenyrn mano...To n onronapaiyhe my npnnannocrn croie y npornnpeunocrn c
noperxom crnapn n npornnpeue npnnnnma ncrnncxe meransnxe.
89
Hs rora ie Hainnn nsneo
xpnrnxy Pexapronor saxona ouynana xonnunne xperana, yxasyiyhn na ro na ie xonnunna
xperana panna xonnunnxy mace rena nomnoxeno ca neronom psnnom, a ne na ie iennaxo
xonnunnn cnne, mro ie nna cynrnnnocr pasnnxonana xoia ie cnoinna cnny n namepy.
Honmane cnne y oxnnpnma nnnamnxe ne moxe na nonie cnoia xonauna oiamnena, neh
mopa na ce yxnonn y nnococxe oxnnpe nennncana xoinm ce nonma xao opma, unin ie
nspas perceptio n appetitio xao npniemunnocr xoia npencrana (representatio), raxo na
crpemene xoie nonesyie xey n namepy (appetitio) y rom npencranany nsanyie npen cee
ono npncyrno. Cnnc O ua:e)v ueoe+ueoe ()u:uocmu), nspaxanao ie pasmarpane cyncrannnie
xao nnnnnnnyannor nha ynpano ror xao xapaxrepncrnuno sa npnocyncrannniannn acnexr
Apncrorenone nsnxe: Taxo na nenyiy n ncnnryiy nenonane, cnoicrneno ie nnnnnnnyannnm
cyncrannniama... na ie neonxonno oiacnnrn mra ie ro ra cyncrannnia. Cacnnm ie npanenno
na xana ce nexonnxo npennxara npnnncyiy iennom n ncrom cyiexry, a na ce on ne npnnncyie
nniennom npyrom, moryhe ra ie nasnarn nnnnnnnyannom cyncrannniom. He nonnexe cymnn
na na cnaxo crnapno cnoicrno npennxarnnnocrnnma nexn ocnon y npnponn crnapn, a xana
npennxar nnie ncronpemen, ri. xana ce npennxar ne yxyuyie nenocpenno y cyiexr, ro ie
moryhe yxyunrn ra y nera norennnianno, a ro ie ono mro nnocon nasnnaiy in-esse,
ronopehn na ce npennxar nanasn y cyiexry. Ha rai naunn repmnn cyiexr ynex yxyuyie y
cee repmnn npennxar, raxo mro rai xoin n no canpmencrna morao na onnana nonmanem
nexor cyiexra, moxe na caunnn nsnon o rome, xaxan npennxar npnnana nocnennem.
90

Hairnphe naueno Apncrorenonor saxona ncronernocrn n xon Hainnna nocn onronomxy
rexnny, raxo na npexo yxasnnana na npnpony cyncrannnie xao nnnnnnnyannor cymracrna y
cen canpxe cnoie npennxare, mana nam xonauan ym ne moxe nenocpenno na nx carnena.
Hnie nanexo on moryhe ncrnne na ie na onaxno Hainnnono nonmane yrnnano
mnmene Jonana Pynca Cxora o raxnocrn haecceitas, xoie ie xao cpacna nenocpennocr
nosnara n non nmenom nmenem species monadica nnn individuum monadicum. Ha Hnxony
Kysancxor nonceha mnmene na re monane ne mory na ce ynnmre na npnponan naunn, neh
mory na yny ynnmrene camo Foxniom noom, xoia nx ie crnopnna, re cy Fory caneune -

89
Kpamru oora; euoue epeure uerapma u opveux ua pa:vu ;aroua npupooe, no+ohv roiee, rao umo cv ouu
+uc)u)u, Boe ea;oa o:veaea ieouucmeeuu+ ro)u:uuv rpemana v npupoou u roiu ie orpeuvo cev +exauurv, 1686.
90
De Principio Individui (1663)
116 | a a e

sempiternitates, a ne neune came no cen (aeternitates). Taxo cnaxa nnnnnnnyanna nyma
onnanana ecmprnomhy sanpxanaiyhn cnoiy onnuenocr n nnnnnnnyannocr n nocne cmprn,
mro ie resa xoiy Cnnnosa nnxaxo nnie morao na npnxnarn. Cnaxaxo, xana ie Hainnn pycno
counna ynyrpamnnx anarxn sa rnenane xopncrehn xnna ornenanna nyme, a Cnnnosn ie ro
no pyrnncxn nocao xoin ie oanao na n sapanno sa xnnor. Xnnor ie monanonomxn snauno
xonrnnynrer xonnxo n axryanny ecxonaunocr, xoiy cy pasmarpann Hnxona Kysancxn,
Iannnei n Kennep, a c maremarnsonanm npernocranxama nenor nspauynanana, Hainnn ie
nonesao neonnaronnuxo mnmene n naxon peopmannie pasnniany axpomarnuxy
xpnmhancxy reonorniy.
Cymrnna nyme npema Hainnny nounna na rome na ce cne nene noiane pahaiy y noi ns
noi cxonne npnpone onronapaiyhn onom mro npocnxonn y naceenn. Cna rena y naceenn
ocehaiy ienna npyro, na n name reno npnma yrncxe npyrnx, npemna cama nyma ne moxe na
opaha naxny nonieny on cnnx npyrnx rena, na cy name neiacne, cnyrehe npencrane
pesynrar ecxonaune pasnonnxocrn nepnennnia. Pyma o cnemy casnaie na necasnarnn
naunn (nemnm snanem = nnaronnuxom cnercxom nymom xoia ce nsiamnana xperanem, xao
nexom npcrom npocropa ocehainocrn Foxnie). Hainnn ie saxrenao ynaxanane moryhnocrn
cnyrehnx n naronemranaiyhnx nnn neiacnnx npencrana xao mannx nepnennnia, iep ie rex
ca nnma pasiamnnn noiam xonrnnynrera, y xome ce ounryiy ecxonaune manenocrn
(nepasnnxonanocr cnaxor ynapa mopcxnx ranaca oniennom). Vronnxo cy mann yrncnn xao
nenonono iacne nepnennnie cnnunn nnepennniannma, iep ce ecxonauan nnxon poi unnn
npncrynaunnm casnany xpos caxnmane, ann cy onn oner onpehen saxonom xonrnnynrera no
xome npnpona ne npann cxoxone, ocnanaiyhn ce na npncyrnocr axryanne ecxonaunocrn
npema xapaxrepy iacnocrn nepnennnia y reny monana ca ncxonnmrem y monannuxom
nporornny Foxniem. V rom cmncny Hainnnona npnponna mamnna nnn ayromar pasnnxyie
ce on Pexaprone no rome mro ie casnana on cnor oxancxor Tnopna, raxo na ce no
ecxonaune nennocrn cacroin ns ayromara raxo na nnxana ne moxemo anaromniom na
crnrnemo no mprne marepnianne crnapn. Xnno ce cacroin on xnnor, na xpehyhn npema
nocnennem oner nannasnmo na xnno cycmracrno cne no ecxonaunocrn. Hnie moryhe
nsnonnrn xnno ns nexnnor nonyr Pexapra, xoin oiamnana oprannsam saxonnma mexannxe,
ynyhn na ie npema Hainnny ro camo cnoamna opma noiannnana oprannsma
enrenexnuno naror. Knnemarnxa nnnamnxe na rai naunn ie nara y rpannnana came nsnxe, na
uyncrnom (nepnennniom) no nemy pacnonaxy ne camo xnnornne n nxe, neh n cne npocre
cyncrannnie npnpone /pennmo anhenn/, na Hainnn nsnonn noiam nexnnor no ananornin ca
xnnyhnm.
Kaxo ie Hainnn rnenao na marepniannn cner iacno ie nanncano nexonnxo nana npe
cmprn: Marepnia nnie nnmra npyro, neh camo enomen, ypehen n rauan xoin ne omanyie,
axo ce ysmy y naxny ancrpaxrna npannna pasyma... V npnponn nocroie camo monane, a
ocrano cy rex enomenn xoin onarne nponcxone... H y noi camoi nema nnuera cem yrncaxa
117 | a a e

(nepnennnia) n crpemena nonnm yrncnnma, raxohe n nyuena, nonyr rora na y cnery
enomena nema nnuera cem nrypa n xperana... Monane (one on nnx xoie cy nam nosnare
nasnnamo nymama) menaiy cnoie crane y onronapany na saxone nnnnx yspoxa nnn nyuena,
a y ncro ce npeme napcrno nnnnx yspoxa nanasn y carnacnocrn ca napcrnom nenyiyhnx
yspoxa, xoie n iecre napcrno enomena... Konrnnynpano nporesane nma camo nneanna crnap,
xoia ce cacroin on moryhnocrn, ne nmaiyhn y cen axryannnx nenona... Marepnia, xoia iecre
nemro axryanno, nponsnasn camo ns monana.
91
Hpocrop ie na rai naunn nneannn mennym
xpnar moryhnocrnma n nenn no ecxonaunocrn, na ie ro npenmer nsyuanana maremarnuxor
npnponocnona, nox ie cama cymrnna npnpone monanonomxa. V rom cmncny, xasnnane o
nannpnnry xonrnnyyma nnie nperepana meraopa, iep ce mane nepnennnie cnnnaiy
saienno nonocehn raxo ienan unran yrncax, npemna nnie iacno xaxo peannn xonrnnynrer
crnapn y namem casnany moxe na canocroin ca ycnonom nncxpennonncana enomena.
Cne ce marepnianne crnapn npen nama npencranaiy xao xonrnnynpane, npemna ce
uyncrnenn mnp npeoxpehe y cyiexrnnny nnysniy, ca unme ce ryn n na unpcrom sacnnnany
enomena, re nnme: "Axo ie nenonane xapaxrepncrnxa cyncrannnia, a npocrnpane,
nanpornn, ne osnauana nemro npyro, xao xonrnnynpano nonanane nnn pacnpocrnpane
nexe...xoia crpemn n ycnpornnyie ce, ri npornnneicrnyiyhe cyncrannnie, na cnencrneno,
nporesane ne moxe na caunnn camy cyncrannniy.
92
Hpocrop raxo nnie cama cyncrannnia neh
pesynrar peannor nenonana cyncrannnie, xoin ce cacroin y nnxonom nonanany n
pacnpocrnpany, na ie xonrnnynrer xao enomenonomxa crnap, crnap nepnennnia yncxe
nyme, nonyme n y nnny cyiexrnnnor nonanana oiexrnnnnm neicrnom camnx monana, xpos
pannonanno onnananane noianama. V cnoicrny aprymenra naxnno ie na maremarnxa ne moxe
na ce oiacnn ns yspoxa xoie naie nsnxa n nauena xoia ie npenacxone, nox nononexonnn
mexannnncrn npnpone npxe na ie reomerpnia noryha nsnohenem ns ynanpen nocrynncannx
yspoxa, ri. reomerpnicxa nonmana xao pesynrar xoncrpyxnnie. 3nane yspoxa re npcre
xapaxrepncrnuno ie sa nenniarancxy reopniy Tomaca Xoca xoinm ce sacnnnanem snana
npenmera xao nemoncrparnnnnm anpnopnnm snanem on n nopaha nnn nacraie. Moxemo na
snamo, xao n xon Kanra y nexnm casnainoreopnicxnm nacaxnma, rex ono mro cmo camn
nponsnenn. Xocono rnenane na rai rnn nayune nponsnonne casnana n nymrana y
nocroiane npenmernocrn npenmera cacnnm ie nomnnanncrnuxo, sa pasnnxy on Kanronor
xpnrnuxor, nornpranaiyhn na ce ysponn nanase ynyrap came yncxe noe, ca xoiom
caunnanamo reomerpnicxe nnnnie n nrype: To, mro ce reomerpnia cmarpa
nemoncrparnnnom nayxom n crnapno noianyie xao crporo noxasnna, ycnoneno ie rnm
cranem, no xome mn camn npramo nrype.(1642). Ppyrnm peunma, cyiexrnnnrer onora mro
naie npannna ncnpranannma reomerpnicxnx nnxona y naioem cnyuaiy ie nerenepncann
anconyr, xao cnenena nnnamnxa ca coom nonesanor pasymcxor yncxor iacrna, n camnm rnm

91
Hs nncma Penxnxypy on 11. nonempa, 1716.
92
Specimen dynamicum, 1695.
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nocn neuar naimane npomamnne nponsnonocrn. To crane Hainnn he xacnnie
npenosnarn xao nneprnnnsam xoin ne n npesao nn on cnercxnx penonynnia, camo na ce
namerne xao npnnnnn n saysme nenrpannn nonoxai ynaxanana, ri. ynnnepsanny
nepnepnocr c osnpom na ncrnny.
Vmecro na nemoncrparnnno pacnpana o nenocroiehnm yronopnma xoie cy ynn
nanonno caunnanann y npnponnom crarycy, on ie npenopyunnao npoyuanane
nncrnrynnonannnx, mehynaponnnx n yonmre iypnnnuxnx noxymenara. Ppxao nx ie sa
cnomennxe npomnocrn xoie naa xomnaparnnno nsyunrn npema xpnrnuxom xopnmeny
nsnopa. Hpema Hainnny ie ayrop npnponnor npana For, na pnmcxo npano npencrana ienno
pasymcxo npano. Taxo mro ce rnue nacnennor npana npxn na cy nymenoromaxa norexne on
ponnrea, na mory a ce rnenaiy xao nponyxerax nnxonnx nnunocrn, raxo na yxonnxo nyma
ne n nna ecmprna, ca rnme n n recramenr nacneha n nnmranan. Hacnennnnn ocy
onnamhena nnna, ynyhn na mprnn xnne n nae. On ce sanaxe sa xpnmhancxy nnoconiy
npana n npxane, sacnonany na yann n connnapnocrn. Komyrarnnny npanennocr
sanonoana crpnxrno npano sa nseranane necpeha, nncrpnyrnnno npano ynonn iennaxocr n
ysaiamny nomoh mehy ynnma, a npano na nooxnocr ynonn ynnnepsanny npannunocr ca
ncnynananem cnecrn o ecmprnocrn n cyneonnmrny y npxann.













119 | a a e

uHHOCOuHJA HPOCBETHTECTBA
Pannonannsam 17. nexa nma cnoie nannuie y nnoconin npocnernrecrna, unin ie onnoc
npema remennm npymrnennm nnrannma cacnnm npyraunin. On nnme nnie nn rnoceonomxn
nn onronomxn, nero ie nocranen na nperexno ernuxe n ecrercxe npernocranxe, rne ce
pasym nonmao xao nemro mro n rex rpeano na yne. Hocroiehn pasym npocnernren cy
cmarpann nnn nenonono pasymnnm, nnn cacnnm nepasymnnm. C rnme ce nponemarnxa
pannonannsma npeemrana ca rna reopnie na rne npaxce, ri. na npocnernn cncrem n peopme y
nemy. To ie nna nonecenocr ynepenem na xynrypa nnrenexra moxe na orxnonn nesnane xao
n cne connianne nennnre xoin nacraiy saxnayiyhn nemy. V rom ie cmncny nenocrarax
snana oxnannnxonan nnme xao necnopasym. Hpocnernrecrno namer Pocnreia Opanonnha
ocnoneno na nposanannauxe ysope, nnax ie nponamno n nnacrnrn nnr cnpam cpncxe
onuainocrn n xynrypnor rnna.
Mon1ecxnje (1689-1748) ie pohen y npeme nnanannne Hyia XIV y nponnnnnicxoi
nnemnhxoi noponnnn, a ry ce xpaen anconyrnsam rymauno xao rnpannia. Mahy
nponnnnnicxnm nnemnhnma nnanano ie ynpene na ie nsnop nnxonnx cnoona n npnnnnernia
nacrao xana cy repmancxn upannn saysenn Ianniy, xaxo ro onncyie Tannrona napnapcxa
Iepmannia. Monrecxie ie n nnaue cxynao mnoro nnopmannia n enexno nx es onmnnier
nponepanana unnennna.
93
To ie ynexonnxo uynno, ynyhn na ie no opasonany no npannnx.
Pener ronnna ie nponeo na mecry cynnie y Fopnoy, xoie my ie saienno ca nmonnnom ocranno
crpnn, na n ro namemrene nponao 1729., namepanaiyhn na ce nocnern nncany, iep ie neh
1721. oianno cnoia Hepcnicxa nncma ca xoinma ie crexao penyranniy nncna. V nnma cy
nanonno nna Hepcnina nncana cnoinm npniarenma xyhn mra cy nnnenn n xaxnn cy nm
yrncnn o opanxy y upannycxoi. Haxon mro ie nponao ocranmrnny, nocerno ie Hemauxy,
Aycrpniy, Hranniy n Xonannniy, a sarnm ce y npymrny nopna uecrepnnna sanyrno y
Enrnecxy, rne ie npoopanno nne ronnne. V upannycxy ce nparno y He Fpen y Fopnoy n
npnnpemno nosnarn uvx ;aroua (1748), oiannnmn nperxonno n Pa;+ampana o v;pouu+a
ee)u:uue Pu++aua u nuxoee nponacmu (1734).
Toxom opanxa y Enrnecxoi Monrecxie ce ynosnao ca Hoxonnm nennma, nopo
sanasnnmn aprymenranniy y npnnor orpannuanany nnacrn cynepena (ca nonenom nnacrn na
cyncxy, saxononanny n nsnpmny), na n ce nonno saxononancrno xoie ne nounna na
camonon nnanapa (`nnacrn` cy n onuain, sema, nonnee). V cnoinm ncropnicxnm

93
Hon Hnamenan sa nera xaxe: On ie neponao y cne mro n npounrao xon crapnx ncropnuapa; cna nnxona
cnenouancrna cy sa nera nmana rorono noniennaxy npennocr. On ie yseo snpano sa rorono na ie pana ncropnia
Pnma nnme nnn mane nna onaxnaxao mro iy ie onncao Hnnnie: ycnoino ie ono mro ie namao xon Bapnena o
canpemenoi nepcnin xon Pn Anna o Knnn... nnie npanno crporo pasnnxonane nsmehy nocmarpana n narahana, n
no ie npemano cnecran xaxo ie remxo nyrnnnnma na ncnpanno nporymaue ono mro nnne. Vnpxoc cnom
cxenrnnnsmy n pesepnncanocrn, uecro ie no naxonepan... no ie cxnon na nporyra cacnnm neneponarne npnue,
non ycnonom na nncy nne ncnpnuane y nnrepecy pennrnie /Hon Hnamenan, Hsapana nena I-III, Uoeer u
opvumeo, Honropnna: CID, 2007, crp. 281./
120 | a a e

Pa;+ampanu+a o v;pouu+a ee)u:uue Pu++aua u nuxoeoi nponacmu ounrnenno ie na ce
Monrecxie nnnno pnmcxnm ncropnuapnma n camnm enomenom Pnma, npnxnaraiyhn
nexpnrnuxn nponene, mro n nnie nno nan nyxa xnacnnncrnuxnx crpyiana nneia neronor
npemena. Hncrnrynnie cy onncnnane xaxo cy xao cnoxene nennne nacraiane y onnamnem
npymrny xpos parone n ocnaiana, n na naunn nnxonor yrnnaia na cncrem nnanannne, na n
na xpaiy cne pesynronano cnomom n nananem non ynap npemohnnx Anapnxonnx parnnxa. Ono
mro ie menano nnxony npymrneny crpyxrypy nna ie ycnemnocr, xoia nx ie raxohe nonena n
no xpaxa cnamanem nncrnrynnia n npnnna. Enrennie Cnexropcxn ie npnmerno na on na
npxanno ycrpoicrno rnena xao na mexannsam. Ty cnonnnocr na rorono nsnuxn
npopauynnny ynxnniy xao xon Xoca n Cnnnose on cmarpa na ie nocpenonano
cxonacrnuxo nacnehe rymauena Apncrorenonor rerpaxaysannor cxnona crnapn, noxasyiyhn
cxemarcxn npncryn xnacnnxannin rnnona npxannocrn y uemy ce xopennna
nesannrepeconanocr sa ncropnicxy nnnamnxy n pasnoi.
94
Cnexropcxn cmarpa na ie ro iom
younnnie y xacnnie nacranom `uvxv ;aroua`(1748), rne ie noceno nesannrepeconan sa
ncropnicxy nnnamnxy, carnenanaiyhn ycnone connianne n nsnuxe cpennne no ananornin ca
causa materialis, a nocmarpanem npnpone npxane xao causa formalis, npema naueny na xom ce
sacnnna xao causa efficiens, npxehn na ie causa finalis cam npenmer. `obiectus`. Taxan npncryn
nmao ie n nexe npennocrn iep ie Monrecxie ca oiamnananem nonnrnxe iypncnpynennniom
mora na ncrpaxyie ne camo yrnnai nnacrn na npymrno, nero n nonparno yrnnai npymrna na
nnacr. On ie ncrpaxnnao nonnee, semy, nennunny repnropnie, pennrniy, cranonnnmrno,
nerone oanese, onuaie n cxnonocrn, a xoie n cmarpa ocnonom `nyxa saxona`, ne
npeysnmaiyhn ry ocnony ns cnoa nocranannx nauena. 3axonn ry nncy nocmarpann xao
`anpnopna narocr`, xao `napene ianne nnacrn`, nero xpos neonxonne onnoce xoin nornuy ns
npnpone crnapn. V naynn o saxononancrny XVIII nexa onaxan npncryn ce noxnnanao xao
connonornsam, raxo na ie onaxno nye opahane connianno-nonnrnuxom mney n
npnnarohanany saxononanne nayxe roi xoncranrn (npema rsn. `naponnom nyxy`), nen
nanpenax.
Kao onnxe npxannnx ypehena, Monrecxie ie pasnnxonao penynnxy, monapxniy n
necnorniy, na nox ie sa nemoxparcxy penynnxy nmao npen ounma anrnuxn ysop, sa
apncroxparcxy ie oesenno cpennonexonnn. Monapxniy ie onncao xao xnacno ycrpoieny, rne
nnemcrno oysnana camonoy xpaa, a n noi n penynnnn ie cranno nacynpor rsn.
`ncrounauxn necnornsam` xao npxannocr y ecnpannom crany. 3axonnrocr ie ycnon
nnnnnnsonane npxane, raxo na npymrno ca saxonnma iemun ymepeny npxannocr. unsnuxn n
conniannn enemenr npencrana nene canpxaie, marepniy, rnn ypehena ie opma nnn
npnpona npxane (penynnxa, monapxnia, necnornia), neno naueno ie cnna c xoiom ie nacrana
(iynamrno, ymepenocr, uacr, crpax), a nen xpainn nn nnn npenmer ie pennrnia, excnansnia,

94
Tnpnno ie `Cnaxa pasnnunrocr ie pannomepnocr, a cnaxa npomena crannocr`. Berone npxane cy xao
mexannsmn, nnn ynxnnonnmy, nnn ce rpome n npoanaiy. Ann oprancxn pasnoi nm ie nenosnar /Enrennie
Cnexropcxn, Hcmopuia couuia)ue du)ocoduie, Feoran: Cnyxenn nncr CPJ; Honropnna:CID, 1997., crp.253 /
121 | a a e

ymepenocr n nonnrnuxa cnoona. Cnoony ie Monrecxie cmarpao cnoxoiem nyxa ca cnemhy o
nnunoi esennocrn n npany na ono mro ie saxonom nonymreno, a mro ie nocrnrnyro ca
reopniom o nonenn nnacrn. uonex no nemy nnie no nocnnan npnponnnx npana nnn cyiexar
npnponnnx norpea, neh ie ysnman xao npymrneno nhe npema onuainocrn saxona n
nncrnrynnia y npnnarohenocrn conniannnm menama. Vronnxo ie cmarpao na ie neonxonno na
ce nnacr xonrponnme nonenom sor moryhnx snoynorpea, ann moryhnocr na n cam saxon
moxe na nocrane yrnerauxn nnie ysnmao y osnp. Hnxanrnn cy nonann na ce cnarao ca rsn.
`norunnenomhy xena`, xao n ca `nomahnm poncrnom`, nosnnaiyhn ce na oxancxn ayropnrer
ca maxnianenncrnuxnm yehenem na ie npna xomnnexcnia nnxepaspenna (`Pyx saxona` xn.
15, rn.5), re na ce rnme oecxpapyie, na cnnuan naunn xaxo ce ocrnapyie n nncrannnpane on
pennrnia xoie `cnoi xopen nmaiy y semn, a ne na ney`. Xnannoha n nponnia xoia neie ns
onaxnnx yehena crana non snax nnrana ro, na nn ce pann o yehennma norexnnm ns
xpnmhancxnx ynepena.

Bon1ep (1694-1778) upancya Mapn Apye, ie pohen y XVIII nexy y rpahancxoi
noponnnn, ann ie rexno na nponpe y apncroxparcxe cnoiene nonyr Monnieponor `rpahannna-
nnemnha`. On ie raxo nopo nosnanao moh nonna na ie y neronom crnnany no nesaiaxnn, y
uemy ce ocnanao npe cnera na concrneny npenysnmnnocr. Ho mepn yxyca onnamner
npymrna nocrao ie npocnernrecxn nnoco, ann n nnacnnx nennxor manyaxrypnor
npenyseha n nennxor nmana. Axo ie Cnnnosa pycno counna xnnehn on cxpomnnx npnxona
ror sanara, Bonrep ie npenysnmnnnm nnnecrnropcrnom nsrpanno apnxy carona n xnneo
pacxomno. On mnanocrn my ie ycneno ynaxene y apncroxparcxe canone, a xacnnie n na
nnopone, na ce n nnuno nonncnnao n nocehnnao ca upnnpnxom II. Hnie mamrao o `snarnnm
npemennma`, ie ce cacnnm nopo cnamao y cnom `rnosnenom nexy`, xnnehn xao npenysernn
nnacrennn y cnom samxy y mnainapcxom uepney.
Onnnxa neronor npocnernrecxor crnna nna ie npnsnanane iacnnx n npennsnnx nneia,
es nniancnpana y xapresniancxom nyxy, a cne mro n nno on rora npyraunie, noxnnanao
ie xao marnonnro n npannonanno. Knnxennocr ie raxo npxao sa nopy npema nnunom
xpnrepniymy, na nn nsasnna nocany xon nera nnn ne. On ie npencranao crapy xynrypy xoia
ce pasouapana n onycrana on nanopa pemanana nponema, onaiyhn ryxan ron menanxonnie
xoin ie on nacroiao na noenn capxacrnunomhy rsn. `nonreponcxor nyxa`, ann n ca nonpmnnm
sanenannma n sannpxnnannma mnpennm y ranace cymnn n neraropcrna. Taxna cy
`unnosocxa nncma` (1734), unnosocxom peunnxy (1764), unnosoy nesnannnn (1788)
nnn pomany `Kannnn nnn onrnmnsam` (1757). Onanyiyhn nponnhene, Kannnn nponanasn
cmncao cnor nocroiana y crnapany xynrype n nnnnnnsannie. Onai uacroynn n npexomepno
cnannn uonex onncao ie cam cee xao `ncrap, ann nnnrax norox.` Monrecxiea ie noxauno ca
`onuninm iesnxom` xoin rpea na pemn nnrane cyxoa nancrna n nmnepnie, a Pycoa ca
npennorom na ynn xonaiy uernoponomxe xao mennenn. Cnenouancrno oxonocrn ce ounryie y
122 | a a e

rome na ie ymenao na ce oncmena n na xapnxnpa n naiosnnnia nnrana. Pencr no yeheny,
npennarao ie `na ce ynnmrn ecrnnnnna` (Hpxna), re na ce For nsmncnn axo ra nema xao
ayropnrer sa nenpocnehen napon. Ca rnm ie y carnacnocrn nno n yehene na npocnehnnann
pasym nnme yunnn sa nne nenennie, nero anarnsam (on raxo nnnn nepy) y unranom nexy.
Ann on iecre no nepnnx, n ro nepnnx npxannor ypehena anconyrne monapxnie, raxo na my
ie mano naxna nna Enrnecxa xao sema ycrannocrn, a nanexo naxnnie ro mro ie
rapanronana npnnarno nnacnnmrno n npnnpenne cnoone, rnpnehn na ie oe noxopnrn ce
iennom nany nero crornnn mnmena. Bnme nero nnuan ie neron nonnrnuxn cran na ie
npocnehena monapxnia npymrnenn nnean, iep rapanryiyhn nyxonne n exonomcxe cnoone
yxnana npenpacyne n nerpnennocrn.

Pyco, an-ax (175?-1778) Pohen ie y Xenenn, y uaconnnuapcxoi amnnnin xao `uonex ns
napona` xoin ie amrnnno penynnxancxa ynepena n xannnnncrnuxy pnroposnocr.
Hpencranaiy ra onenenor y myapy n iepmencxe xanne npxehn ce n nopnm n nomnm, ca
nocenom ocehainomhy npema nereomerpnicxoi npnponn xoiom ie no neisaxno
nmnpecnonnpan. Beron `npymrnenn yronop` ycneo ie na cacrann narernuno n ca nexaxnom
ynyrpamnom nornxom, a neronn unraonn xao npnnannnnn canoncxnx npymrana ncnouerxa
cy ra ocyhnnann sor penonynnonapnocrn, ann cy ra xacnnie npnxnarnnn. upannycxy
ypxoacxy penonynniy (1789) nnie nouexao, npemnnynmn 11 ronnna pannie, cnera rpn
mecena nocne Bonrepa. He ynaxanaiyhn nn Hnaronon cran xoin ie cmarpao na ie uonex cna
npen phanocrnma xana ie npenymren cam cen, a nn xpnmhancxo npenane o nacnehy
npaponnrecxor rpexa, on ie rnpnno na y uonexonom cpny nema ypohene ncxnapenocrn, ne
mapehn mnoro sa xomnnexcnocr xoia raxny rnpnny npernapa y nponem. Hnacnpao ie npocro
npyraunie ynepene, nanme ro na sno n cnaocr nonasn on `nemrauxe nnnnnnsannie`. Cne ie
nanonno nno nopo nox ie nno onaxo xaxo ie For nao, a onna cy ynn cne ncxnapnnn, raxo
na ce y roi ocynn anocrponpa nepnra npema xynrypn n nnononnma npocnehenocrn, raxo na
ce on sanoxno sa nonparax iennocrannoi n nencxnapenoi npnponn y xoioi ce no nemy nanasn
pemene. Taxan `npnponnn uonex` ie nacnnrauxn rnn y neronom Emnny, xoin caneryie xaxo
na ce orxnone npenpexe sa necnpeunnn pasnoi npnponnnx cnoconocrn xon nene. Ha
nonepeny y npnponny mynpocr yncxe mace naa na ce sacnnna n nonnrnxa, rnpnn Pyco, a
ona rpea na nnana npxanom am saro mro nnie nn xynrypna nn npocnehena (ri. nsonauena
nnnnnnsanniom). ynnma npnnana ono mro ie nencxnapeno n nopo (a no nennnnnin ry ie
mepnno crenen nesaxnahenocrn nnnnnnsannicxom nnnnnpanomhy), a ro mro npnnana
ynnma unnn nopy npxany n unnn yne iennaxnm. Hnunocr ie iennnxa, a npymrno nnxon
cxyn nnn snp nnunocrn ymnoxen no nennxnx nnpn, raxo na ie pasnnxa sa nera uncro
xonnunncxa n peanna camo y nomnnannom cmncny. Ca rnme ce orxnana cynpornocr nsmehy
iennaxnx iennnxn n npymrna, na cy n connianne noremxohe na rai naunn nymepnuxn pemnne.
On ie cmarpao na ie pasnoi nayxe n ymernocrn ypsao nponacr mopana (n ca rom resom 1749
ocnoino narpany Axanemnie y Pnxony), nosnnaiyhn opasonane yne na ce npare
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iennocrannocrn n onpexny neiennaxocrn xoie pahaiy orahena. 3ancra ie neonuno nsnohene
xoie rnpnn na orarcrno paha pacxom n noxonnny, ymernocrn n nayxy, xao xomue yncxnx
oxona. V npnponnom crany uonex nnie nn npniare nn nenpniare cnoinx nnxnnx, a xana
ie cnr xnnn y mnpy ca unranom npnponom. 3ema no nemy nnie nnunia, a nennm
orpahnnanem crnopeno ie npnnarno nnacnnmrno sa xoinm ycnehyie npymrno orarnx n
cnpomamnnx, npymrno neiennaxocrn ca iaxnma n cnanma. Ca crnapanem ynpane n
opmnpanem nnacrn nacrann cy rocnonapn n poonn, nocne uera ie y npnponny iennaxocr
moryhe nocnenarn camo penonynniom, xoia ne n cmena na yne nonnrnuxa, nero connianna
(`noap nnnax` xao nnean connierera).
V Ppymrnenom yronopy Pyco nonasn on npernocranxe na ce uonex paha cnoonan, ann
na cnyna rne ce xpehe nna npnxnnan. Pann rora uonex rpea na rpaxn raxny npymrneny
opmy xnnora, xoioi n xao onmroi non morao na ce noxopana iennno xao na cnyma camor
cee, a ca rnme ce ocrnapyie n npano na npxanancrno uonexa y npxann, rne saxononancrno,
nonnrnuxa anmnnncrpannia, cyncrno n xynr rpea na yny nonpehenn napony, iep cne ro n
nsnnpe ns nerone noe. Ounrnenno na Pyco ry nomnma n na nnxrar naponne noe y
ayronnxrary nnacrnror samnmana noxnnaia nerexnnie noe napona. Kao na rnme
nacroin na cnenn anrnuxe penynnuxe npxane ca nenocpennom nemoxparniom nnn nax
ypehena nexnx on mnainapcxnx xanrona. Enrnecxoi ie npeanno na mncnn na cy y noi ynn
cnoonnn iep nmaiy napnamenr, ann on cmarpa na cy cnoonnn camo xana npaiy
npencrannnxe, a onmax naxon rora `npeoxpehy ce y poone`. Onaxan pannxannsam ys nosnn
na nnanannny napona, cacnnm ie c npanom no rpaian nonnu sa pannycxy penonynniy (pano
unran y iaxonncxom xnyy).
Ha Pycoonnm nneiama n nanac nounna napnamenrapnsam naponnnx npencrannnxa, xoin
xao nenyrarn ne n rpeano na nspaxanaiy noy pernona, nero unranor napona, xao mro n
noa nehnne rpea na snaun n onmry noy cnnx y napnamenry. Mehyrnm na rai nponem
nnie no iennocranan uax nn sa Pycoa, cnenouancrno ie y `Pasmnmannma o noheny
Hocxe` ns 1772., rne ie noxasao xonsepnarnnnsam npema penonynnonpnnm nnennma n
sanarao ce sa ouynane nocroieher onnxa npxane, nosnnaiyhn na ro na ce rpane rnphane
npxane y cpnnma.
Bocn1ej Opaaonnh (1739-1811)
Pnmnrpnie Opanonnh (npnnnxom samonamena nasnan Pocnrei), pohen y uaxony 1739
(nanamna Pymynnia). Hopexnom ie ns rpronauxe noponnne, on ona Typha n maixe Kpyne,
pohene Haynxnh, es xoinx ie ocrao neh y neneroi nnn neceroi ronnnn. Hpema xnnrama n
npema nyronannma, iom xao nere ncnono ie nennxy yan. Hon yrnnaiem cnerauxnx xnrnia
xoia ie ca crpamhy unrao, noerao ie on craparecrna rerxa Hnxone Hapuannna y manacrnp
Xonono na upymxoi ropn (31. iyna 1757), rne ce samonamno xao Pocnrei (17. epyapa
1758). Tamo ie nmao npnnnxe na ce saxnayiyhn npocronymnoi naxnonocrn nrymana Teonopa
124 | a a e

Mnnyrnnonnha nacnahyie unranem npopannx nena cneroorauxe xnnxennocrn, nnernnxa n
anannra nyxonnnx (on yxynno 113 xnnra xononcxe manacrnpcxe nnnorexe, nno ie 26
pyxonncnnx n nne mramnane cpye, re xnnre pycxe pennrnosne xnnxennocrn). Haxon nna
mecena, y Cpemcxnm Kapnonnnma, sa haxona ra ie pyxononoxno cam mnrpononnr Hanne
Henanonnh, a neh naxon nexonnxo ronnna opanno ie no cpncxnm cennma y cenepnoi
Panmannin xao yunre. Onarne ie ornyronao (1765) na Kp, nocerno Cnery Iopy n manacrnp
Xnnannap (ramo, nonyme, neh onanno na Aronannn nnie nno nonorpuxor
npocnernrecrna Enrennia Bynrapnca /1716-1806/), ann ie xpenynmn npema Harmocy
napenne rpn ronnne yuno y iennoi rpuxoi mxonn y Cmnpnn xon uynenor Jeporeia Pennpnna.
Bparno ce y Panmanniy, a onarne xpenyo na sanan (1771), mecr ronnna npononehn y Feuy.
Kpaiem 1776. ronnne nocrao ie nacrannnx cnnonnnma mnrpononnra Bnxenrnia Jonanonnha-
Bnnaxa n ca nnma ie ornmao y Monpy (Fparncnana), na n y ramomnoi rnmnasnin cnymao
1777. cnymao Faymaicrepona npenanana y nnny opane Hainnnonnx yuena, re oryn y
Kapnonne n nae npexo Pymynnie n Hocxe, crnrao y Hpycxy (1782). Pne ronnne ie na
ynnnepsnrernma y Xaney n Hainnnry cnymao npenanana, a sarnm nomao y Hapns n Honnon,
onnasno norom pasne nemauxe xpaiene, nocerno sananny Pycniy, a on 1789. na nyxe ce
npeme nacranno y Feuy. Hs Feua ie npemao y Tpcr (1802), rne cy ra ramomnn Cpn nosnann
sa yunrea. Hnrepeconao ce sa npnnnxe y ycrannuxoi Cpnin on nouerxa, cxynao nomoh
ycrannnnma, a sarnm n cam npemao y Cpniy (1807), rne ie cynenonao y nonnrnuxom,
xynrypnom n nnnnomarcxom xnnory seme. Hpemnnyo ie naxon xpahe onecrn xoiy ie
nanyxao nyryiyhn nohy Pynanom uamnem xa Bnnnny, xao npnn noneunre npocnemrennia y
Hpannrecrnyiymhem Coniery nnn npnoi ycrannuxoi nnann.
V manacrnpy Hono Xonono Pocnrei ie npounrao snauaine xnnre onnamne meponanne
xnnxennocrn, on nerennapnnx xnrnia no nponora, Crparemanonor Tearpona n Hpxnene
ncropnie uesapa Faponnia n Cnnpnnononor Pyxonncnor 3opnnxa. Ty cy nna n npxyncxa
nena orocnona Cnnoncncn Cn Aranacnia, Jonana 3naroycror Maprapnr n Fecene, Hoyxe
Jenpema Cnpiannna n Ane Poporeia, Hecrnnna Jonana Knnmaxca n Anannr nyxonnn, xoin my
ie y ocnonn nocnyxno xao pann npennoxax sa nerony nnacrnry xnnxenny nenarnocr.
Pocnrei ie noueo na nnme iom y Panmannin, rne ie ocranno nexonnxo cnnca, mehy xoinma ce
no snauaiy nsnnaia Hruua (1770). Hpemna ra Pocnreiena xnnra nnie onmax mramnana, nena
namena ie neo samncnn xynrypnor npocnemrennia xoiy ie y xony ocrnapnnao. To ie xnnra
nanncana na uncrom naponnom iesnxy, y nyxy n no nnnniama npenana mnpoxe npxnene
rpannnnie.
He ncmo mnoro norpemnnn axo ncmo rai Pocnreien iom nencnoenn nporpam mornn
na nmenyiemo `npnmenennm npanocnannnm npocnernrecrnom`, xoie ie rparano sa cnoiom
ynornynanaiyhom opmom. Jacno ie xaxo ie rai nporpam cnoi nainehn nnnamnsam nocrnrao
Pocnreiennm nmenonanem sa `Honeunrea npocnemrennia naponner`. Mnnncrap npocnere
mopao ie na ocmncnn nporpam xoin onronapa onpehenom rnny xynrype xoin n onronapao
125 | a a e

nonoi n npenopohenoi Cpnin, ocnoohenoi on mecronexonne rypcxe oxynannie. Kaxan n ro
no rnn samncnn xynrype? Carnacno yueny Hpxne n nenoi ncrnnn, on xoie Pocnrei nnie
onycraiao xonnxo ron na ncrenpemeno eme xanap na youn n xnnoxpysniy monamxor xnnora,
on ie ry ncrnny cnoinm nnacrnrnm cnecnnm ncxycrnom nponynnao n rymauno. uonex xao
nnunocno nocroiane nnnem y nnne" ca Forom, ro iecr, ono mro unnn Foxnin nnx y nemy, ne
moxe na ce saycrann n cmecrn y nexn rpenyrax nnn y onpehenn npemencxn nnrepnan. Jep ono
mro unnn uonexa nnocraciy (nnunomhy), ono mro my naie nnuny cnecr, unnennna na ra For
nonn iennnnrom yany, iep On sone nenocroiehe xao nocroiehe (ynopenn - An. Hanne,
Pu+. 4,17). Cam Iocnon yremeyie n nonpxana nnunocny npyrocr xoia caunnana
iennncrneny ncrocr uonexa. uonex ie nnunocr, nnx Fora y onoi mepn y xoioi nma cnoconocr
na ysnparn na nosnn nyn yann xoin my For ynyhyie. Kpos cnoie ncnxocomarcxe ynxnnie
uonex ynpana" n pacnonaxe onom moryhnomhy, onronapa nornpnno nnn onpeuno na nosnn
Fora, ycmepana cnoie nocroiane xa xnnory xoin ie onnoc ca Forom, nnn xa cmprn xoia ie
onnaiane on Fora. To n sa Pocnreia nno n ono mro ce nasnna nnnamnsmom xynrype, xoia
nnie samnmena na nounna na rponnmensnonannoi cnnnn cnera, neh na onoi xoia ynaxana n
acnexr nynne, xao n nenpennnnnnocrn xoiy y xpnmhancxom neponany nspaxanaiy maxcnme
Foxnie noe n nspexa na Pyx nnme rne xohe. Carnacnocr ca raxnom noom ne moxe na
yne nocrnrnyra xarpesniancxom samncnn uonexa-maxnne cmemrenor y censyannrnuxn
marepniannsonan npocrop n pacnonoxenor iennno sa xnneponnuxy cymny na n ce ocehao
cnoonan na ynnnepsanno nepnepnin, maxap n xao cynepmen /naruonex/.
95
Hpeysernocrn
onaxnor nnunm nsasnanor samnmana, rne ce cxannannsonane nonornsma nemana neronnm
nponnnanem na meransnuxy panan, moryhe ie narn onai onronop xoin ie iennom Pocnrei
ynyrno Pexapry n neronnm nacranaunma nononom mexannsannie cnera n cranana
npnponnor noperxa y mamnncxa nocrpoiena naceene: Mnornma he xao nrn ca mnom
saienno, xoin nncmo c onom iepeciy nanoienn, mro ce ronnxo onnm xpnnornopnem npano
nmarn naie n nosnoana; ann, mra hemo mn rome?! Ipex ie npornn camora Cnerora Pyxa
nosnaroi npornnnrn ce ncrnnn. Hpanna n ncrnna Foxia cy cnoicrna, n nnx ce nnxan n nnrne
oiarn ne naa.
96
Morno n ce, cnenehn Pocnreiena pasmarpana, yonmreno pehn na ie
xynrypa crnap xnnora y cnery, crnap ynn, n na ce y nenoi cymrnnn nanasn cmprnnuxa

93
To raxohe nnie moryhe nn non cnnpnryannnm reopniama enonynnie xoie cy camo uynna macxnpna ynnopma
nannonorncrnuxnx crpemena, ca nexom crparemxom sanpmxom xoia pauyna ca rnme na nannxa naann
cehane n nonymra nocrenenocr y samennnany resa. Anpn Feprocn ie y nornany O snaueny xnnora, pen
npnpone n onnx nnrennrennnie cnor nosnaror cnnca Crnapanauxa enonynnia nanncao nocnonne: "Na dugim
razvojnim linijama gurale su se druge tendencije obuhvacene u zivotu, od kojih je covek posto se sve proimaju,
svakako nesto sacuvao, ali ipak vrlo malo. Sve se deava kao da je neko bice neodredeno i bujno, koje se moze
zvati, kako se hoce, covek ili NATCOVEK, traxilo da se ostvari, i u tome je uspelo samo na taj nacin to je ostavilo
na putu jedan deo samoga sebe. Ovi otpaci su predstavljeni ostalim ivotinjstvom, pa cak i biljnim svetom, utoliko
bar, ukoliko ovi imaju neceg pozitivnog i neceg to je iznad slucajnosti evolucije." Onaxna nsiana ie n crnap nnune
xynrype.
96
Pocnrei Opanonnh, Me;u+au Je )u :oeer +aruua, u)u uuie, y Pena Pocnreia Opanonnha, nero,
npxanno nsnane, Feorpan, 1911., crp. 433
126 | a a e

ysaiamnocr. Xnnor xynrype ie eexr npecexa cnnxponor n nniaxponor, reneanomxor n
axryannor.
Cnaxa ce yncxa ysaiamnocr, cnaxo ce cmprnnuxo npernyhe n nocrnrnyhe, neymonno
ornena cnpam nenncrnyiyher. Cmprnnuxn nepexr xon ynn nrno ce pasnnxyie on onor
oxancxor, iep ce cne mro ce noraha, noraha npen nnnem neunocrn. Caopno neponane y
neunocr uonexa nnie yehene na nocroin nexaxno ynyhe crane" y xom npeocraie nemro"
on uonexa, nerona nyma" nnn neron nyx". To ie nepa xao nsnecnocr na ce reme nocroiana
ne moxe ouynarn npnponom nn nennm ersncrennniannnm cnoconocrnma, nero na on moxe
nrn ouynan onnocom ca Forom, Beronom yany. Bepa y neunocr uonexa ie nsnecnocr na
ra Foxnia yan nehe npecrarn, nero he ynex caunnanarn moi xnnor es osnpa na
nenonane ncnxocomarcxnx cnoconocrn. V rom cy norneny meraope nnn ono mro
omaryhana rpancep cmncna, nrexaxo cemnonomxn snauaino xao npenoc nopyxa xoin
nonpasymena pasrpannuanana sa xoia ie cam uonex onronopan. Ty onronopnocr Pocnrei ie
nasnauno xao nainaxnniy crnap y cnoioi Emuuu, xnnsn mopannnx cacroiannia nnn
npaxrnunor xnnora anrpononomxe nepcnexrnne. Orxponencxn canpxai onpncyrnen y
xnnxennom rexcry npaxrnuno ie xynr nncana rne ce cemnonornia nyxa nmnpernnme
xynrypnnm canpxainma. Ono y xynrypn xynrno no cen nna xoncrnryncano xao ono
cu+oo)u:ro, ri snpyxeno c ecxaronomxnm momenrom xpaine cnpxe cnnx crnapn. Ono v rv)mv
rv)muo ncxyunno nna xao npencranno, ri. y cnoioi npencrannocrn npncyrno, mro nnie
nnmra npyro nero nponsnomene iennor xynrypnor opacna. Kynrypno onpncyrnene
rpancnennenrnor nonpasymena nnnno nsrpaheno cnmonnuxo onpncyrnnnane, nonemeno
xpos paspahnnane momenara xynrypnor nanopa ycnenocrn onnxonana rnnonornia
npencrana. Vunpmhnnane rnx npencrana nonn y nonmane n pasymenane xoie ie y
Pocnreienom npnmepy cacnnm ycneno no re mepe, na ie cacnnm iacno n penpesenrarnnno.
Kynrypno-npocnernrecxn pan na mnpoxom nannonannom nnany n na nonnm ocnonama,
sanoueo ie Pocnrei nanne 1783, oiannnanem Huc+a Xapa)a+nuiv n ueom u
npur+v:euuia. Hpno ie npornameno y xacnninm xomenrapnma neronnm normaronomxom
onanomhy npoxer npocnernrecxn mannecr, sor sanarana sa ynohene naponnor iesnxa y
xnnxennocr. V npyrome ie onncao cnoi xnnor, nsneo noxnnaie cnor nernncrna n
mnanocrn, a nacranax ie ycnenno naxon ner ronnna (1788), na Pocnreien ueom u
npur+v:euuia npyxa n nnme n mane on Onncannia xnnora mora, xoie nam ie ocrano on
raxohe snauainor xynrypnor nperaona Cane Texennie. Po onnacxa ns Xonona, Pocnrei ce
camo onnam sanpxanao na cnoinm noxnnainma, na n nononom nnx, y onnxy nnococxor
nnianora nnn napanoyuennia (rne ie nsnoxno cnoiy nneonomxy xpnrnxy manacrnpa,
monamrna, naponnor cyienepia n npyrnx noiana, re pasnno cnoie nneie o cnoonnom
mnmeny, nacnnrany noiennnana n npocnehnnany napona, c npyre crpane) ncnono cnoie
nnhene ynanpehnnana xynrype.
127 | a a e

V cnaxoi xynrypn nneia neunocrn npncyrna ie camo na nnnoy, cnmonnuxn mane nnn
nnme pannnpanor, oiexra xee. Ho npnponn crnapn, neunocr nnxan ne moxe nrn
peannrer rnapn, a camnm rnm nn xynrype. Vs ro, napanno, ecmncneno ie ronopnrn o
cnnxponnin n o nniaxponnin neunocrn. Kynrypa rexn xynry, ann ncro raxo nnienna xynrypa
y nornynocrn ne moxe cee noncronernrn ca xynrom, ynex nocroie nexe peanno nenoxpnnene
(npoane) cepe nha - rexehn xynry ona, sanpano, rexn cny o concrnenoi neunocrn. Bepa y
neunocr uonexa ie nsnecnocr na ra Foxnia yan nehe npecrarn, nero he ynex caunnanarn
moi xnnor es osnpa na nenonane ncnxocomarcxnx cnoconocrn. V rom cy norneny
meraope nnn ono mro omaryhana rpancep cmncna, nrexaxo cemnonomxn snauaino xao
npenoc nopyxa xoin nonpasymena pasrpannuanana sa xoia ie cam uonex onronopan. Ty
onronopnocr Pocnrei ie nasnauno xao nainaxnniy crnap y cnoioi Emuuu, xnnsn mopannnx
cacroiannia nnn npaxrnunor xnnora anrpononomxe nepcnexrnne. Orxponencxn canpxai
onpncyrnen y xnnxennom rexcry npaxrnuno ie xynr nncana rne ce cemnonornia nyxa
nmnpernnme xynrypnnm canpxainma. Ono y xynrypn xynrno no cen nna xoncrnryncano
xao ono cu+oo)u:ro, ri snpyxeno c ecxaronomxnm momenrom xpaine cnpxe cnnx crnapn.
Ono v rv)mv rv)muo ncxyunno nna xao npencranno, ri. y cnoioi npencrannocrn
npncyrno, mro nnie nnmra npyro nero nponsnomene iennor xynrypnor opacna. Kynrypno
onpncyrnene rpancnennenrnor nonpasymena nnnno nsrpaheno cnmonnuxo onpncyrnnnane,
nonemeno xpos paspahnnane momenara xynrypnor nanopa ycnenocrn onnxonana
rnnonornia npencrana. Vunpmhnnane rnx npencrana nonn y nonmane n pasymenane xoie ie y
Pocnreienom npnmepy cacnnm ycneno no re mepe, na ie cacnnm iacno n penpesenrarnnno. V
neronom opus postumum raxo moxemo na npounramo n cacnnm iacan cran npema npyrom n
npyrauniem xoie naa ocrannrn nsa neha: He nnnnmo nn mn n camn uecro na nexn, nox cy y
ymepenom crany, namernn cy n pasymnn, xporxn n ynxo-npncrynnn, nomrenn n, rnn ie
norpea, crnnnnn, yurnnn, npniarecxn, naronaxnonn, n na cnaxo onmre conpyxecrno n
necee n nonsy roronn, n ycpnnn, - iennnm cnonom, nncy nnmano maxnnama nononn, nero
npexpacno noxasyiy na cnonecna nyma n snpann pasym c nnma ynpana n nnana. A axo ce
oorare n no xaxna nncouecrna nohy, nsrye n saopane cna ona npana npexpacna cnoicrna, n
rao oa uerarea peeo)vuuia v nux v+e;e, nsmene ce y cnauem, n cacnnm n y cnaxoiaxe ce
maxnne npeopare n npernope.
97
Penonynnonapna snana ounro ce onnoce na nnune
nnrepece xoin ce xao camonononn n camonnacnn onnaiaiy y saceny onacr, xao mro n
nno nsmemrane nenrpa na nepnepniy. Vnnnepsanna nepnepnia ie ianna yuecranocr
nonanana nnner xapaxrepa naruonexa xome y ocnonn croin ncxomnnexcnpana ncnxa n
nyxanocr xpos nyxparnnne nocrynxe xoia oesehyie saysnmane rnx nosnnnia. To ne npenn
camo sa nsnnoiene noiennnne nnn nnxona rpynamena, nero n sa unrane napone xoie n raxna
naronomxa cnryannia nna y crany na saxnarn n oyxnarn: Kan ce nepasymno n nenpannnno
nnanaiy, npenaiy ce cnoinm ycrpemnrennnm noxorem n neoysnannm npncrpacrniam,

97
Pocnrei, Me;u+au; ucmo, crp. 434
128 | a a e

nenpanennom yoxopncrniy n cnnonnrom rpaexy, n raxo mnora sna n rnope n crpanaiy.
Kaxo ron ienno reno emunnonnnm xnnenem pacnaana ce n y nanennie mano no mano
nonasn, ro n c nennm naponom nna. Jenan nanne y pacxom n pacnymrene; cnax na cnoiy
crpany nacnnno norexyhn, pasnenn ce, pacxomana n pasacne. A npyrn y mxonn
snocrpanannia nayun ce n ymynpn, naronpemennm oncroiarencrnam nonsyie ce, n na
nanenniy npyrora nosnnnrne ce n yrnpnn: n nox ce ron nopo nnana, nopom ce nma n
nanieiarn.
98
Ernuxn ycnon naa yrnpnnrn na saxonnma n nopo ra cnpononnrn, na n ono
mro ie nonnerno nesnpanocrn morno na ce nonparn y npnponno crane, a oryna xpene y nrxy
sa ynanpehnnane xynrype n nennx nainnernninx rpana ymernocrn, nnoconie n pennrnie.
Cam Pocnrei, maicropcrnom cnoinx ornena, cnrypno ie ry ysopan.
Hneine n xnnxenne nnrennnie, xoie nspaxanaiy xaxo ie nae namepanao na
pasnnia npaxrnuny crpany cnor npocnernrecxor yuena, nanasnmo y Coeiemu+a ;opaeaeo
pa;v+a nare y rpn ornena: O +voaeu (no uemy ie yan nainaroponnnia crpacr n mro naa
mncnnrn o noi), O ;)oou n O ooopooieme+u (Poponiere ie nsnparn naioe). To ce moxe
cxnarnrn n xao ecrernuxa marepnia xoia ie npoxena n nonemro on rexcrona oianennx y
nouerxy Pocnreienor xnnxennor pana. Tpea cxpenyrn naxny n na ro na y neronnm
Coeiemu+a ;opaeaeo pa;v+a (Hainnnr 1784), Pocnrei npnn y cpncxoi xnnxennocrn
ynorpeanao n nasnn sa ecei "onnr". Pa nn ie ro nmenonane cxnonocrn ynymrana y opy
xao xnarane y xomran ca rom iennncrnenom peun rana nnanaiyher mexannnncrnuxor
npnponocnona, nnn ie ro npocro nsnpmenn yrnnai npexo npocror nosnnana na Monrenone
ornene, iom ynex nnie cacnnm iacno. C pasnorom nonnin xpnrnuapn uecro cxpehy naxny na
nna eceia o nxycy, y xoinma ce onmnpno pacnpana o nnrannma ecrernxe n reopnie
xnnxennocrn, a xoin ne npernocranaiy camo nncxypc nycromn nononexonnonx xnnxennnx
xanponeoa, neh n narenrne npennnie yrnnaie nnsanrnicxe nnreparype ns npenonnnauxe
nocpnnauxe axrnnnocrn sa xoiy Pocnrei sna iom on xononcxor nepnona. Cneronna n
acxercxa ecrernxa ry ce npennnhy ca pasmarpanem snauaiena y reopniama pasnniana
crnncxnx oenexia, na ce moxe pehn na ie ro onpehena npnnpema sa nocranana cmncna
xasnnana o cneiennncnenocrn crnapnocrn. Hma ry n neuer on nocranana npenycnona
ynocroianana na n ce npeopasnna nannna cnecr onunor cnexrpa onaxana n ocnoahana sa
npnxnarnnocr npnmana nnmnx onnxa nenore. Hpencrannocr npencrannor cnaxaxo na nn
sa Pocnreia ne moxe na nounna na oroenom peannrery npnponncrn. Pa ono npencranno
nnie npnponno noxasyie Pocnreiy nopo nosnarn xpnmhancxn xynrnn cran. Kynr ie, camnm
rnm mro ie xynr, ynex cnmonnuxn onocpenonan. On ie cepa repmnnannor, pynor, y
oxnnpnma cnmonnuxe crpyxrype nexe (ynex xonxperne) xynrype.
Jom y Panmannin oxo 1770. on ie onnaro ynocno acny y cnoie pane cnnce (Hruua,
Beuau oo a)daeuma), a ronnne 1788. nsnaie y Hainnnry y ncroi xnnsn ca npyrnm nenom
ayronorpanie E;onoee u npo:ux pa;uux oacuomeopuee cpa;)u:umux ie;ura ua c)aeeuo-

98
Pocnrei, Me;u+au; ucmo, crp. 437
129 | a a e

cepocru ie;ur npeeeoeue oacue. Pocnrei ce cnyxno rpuxnm opnrnnannma n npenonno ns nena
Esona, Ianena, Aronnia n Hrnarnia Taxona, a c narnncxor ie npenonno uenpa, uenponor
appendix-a, Anniana, Anonnma n npyre narnncxe napapacre. Hopen rora xon Pocnreia nma
Haonrenonnx, Hecnnronnx n uenenononnx acana. V Bacua+a ie Pocnrei ne camo npcran
npnnonenau nero n mncnnnan, mopanncra. Cnaxy acny nponparno ie eceincrnuxnm
xomenrapom, napanoyuenniem. Ty ie on pacnpanao o cnnm remama cnor yuena, ynocehn
mnomrno npnmepa ns xnnora, ncropnie, mnronornie, xnnxennocrn, xao n naponne
nocnonnne, cenrennnie, nanone ns xnacnxa, raxo na napanoyuennia npencranaiy n
naiopnrnnannnie Pocnreiene cranone. Kynrypa ie ornenano napona, xao raxna ona ne moxe
nrn nap orona. By rnope ynn, na nnma ie onronopnocr sa ny. Cnaxa nneia o moryhnocrn
ocrnapnnana nornyne (nnnnnune) cnmonnie nsmehy npxane n xynrype no cen ie nyoxo
yronncrnuna. Honnrnuxnm npncrpacnocrnma uax (napanno, camo no nsnecne mepe) moxemo
ronepncarn xaxoonniy, a xynrypn ne. Forocnyxenn ronop nnie ronop nonnca,
orocnyxenn ronop nnie ronop cnaxonnennne, a ncro moxemo pehn n sa namhene xynra.
Kynrypa ie, mehyrnm, ynex nerne nsmehy, nsmehy xynra n nonnca.
Foxnin nosnn, xoinm ce sacnnna nnunocr uonexa, ne mena ce ca cranem neronnx
ncnxocomarcxnx ynxnnia. Hcro raxo, on ce nanasn nsnan nomera nayunnx nnrepnperannia o
nporpecy nnn enonynnin ror crana. Cama yan Foxnier npnsnna n ycnehyiyher nosnna
onnxyie n cacrana uonexa. 3aro ce n Hpxna yonmre ne nnamn na he nena ncrnna nrn
oxpnena rnme mro nayxa npnxnara enonynniy npcra" n na uonex enenryanno nonomxn
nornue on maimyna. Pocnrei ie cacnnm nopo nacnyrno, mana ro moxe na ce nporymaun n xao
camopasymnno npeysera npenpacyna xoiy nnie pasmarpao, na ono unme ce uonex pasnnxyie
on maimyna, ne moxe na ce cacroin ce y xonnunncxom pasnnxonany canpmencrna
ncnxocomarcxnx ynxnnia, nero y xaxnocnoi (xnannrarnnnoi) pasnnnn, y unnennnn, na xpos
cnoie ncnxocomarcxe ynxnnie uonex npnnpema" npnsnanao on ro nnn ne - cnoi onronop
na nosnn xoin my ynyhyie For. Fnnnicxe cnnxe onnxonana uonexa on crpane Fora n
ynaxnnnane oxancxor naxa y uonexony nnunocr orxpnna ne nerono nonomxo nopexno,
nero yxasyie na nerony cnecr, neron nnenrnrer, nerony nnuny cnoony. Fnno na ce ono
nopexno uonexa noxnana ca nonomxom noianom yncxe npcre nnn na ce ono yxonuana xao
ienan eouyr y nanny enonynnie cnnx npcra, ncrnna nnnicxe n npxnene anrpononornie ce
rnme yonmre ne mena. Moxe nn uonex na xnnn neuno camo na ocnony cnoinx orpannuennx
cnoconocrn xoie cy crnopene (one ne canpxe nn cnoi yspox nn cnoi nn)? Iamenem
ncnxocomarcxnx ynxnnia ca nocnennnm nsnncaiem, uonexocrnopena npnpona ryn
cnoconocr na nanxnnn cee. Onai xoin nam napyie raxno one xnnora, onne n cana,
ynpxoc namnm ncnxocomarcxnm ornopnma na xnnnmo npannm xnnorom (xoin snaun
npenasnnaxene cee n onmrene y yann), oehao nam ie nynory xnnora, nenocpenno
ycnnonene, cycper nnnem y nnne ca Bnm xana sracny y semn n nocnennn rpsain namera
ynra. Jennno mro snam xpos naponano nam orxpnnene ncrnne, ro ie na he rai onnoc nrn
ynex nnunocran, onaxan xaxo nac For nosnaie n nonn, iep ie nmneparnn xynrype ie
130 | a a e

nonnonnia, a orocnyxenn ronop nemro npyro.
99
Me;u+au ie nsnmao nocrxymno (1818),
xao snpxa opnrnnannnx mncaonnx ornena (o xnnxennom iesnxy, o uonexy-mamnnn, o
nyxnom nomronany nayxa nrn.), y xoinma ie Pocnrei nao sanpmnn, mncaono n reopnicxn
nainponyennin nspas nexnm on cnoinx rnannnx nnococxnx rema xoie ie anocrponpao n
y Emuuu: o cnoonnom, xpnrnuxom mnmeny, o onnocy pasyma n noe, pasyma n mopana,
pasyma n sanonocrna, o ory n npnponn, o uonexy n neronoi cynnnn, o nponemnma
nacnnrana, nornuyhn ce ysrpenno n ranamnnx cpncxnx npnnnxa, npencranaiyhn
cnoienpcny npocnernrecxy cnmnosy nnoconie n xnnxennocrn. Ocnonnn nn cnor nena
Pocnrei ie cxnarno xao npomonniy nayxe (npnnpemane cpncxor napona na npnxnarn nayxy ie
nmanenrno npnnaro). Cmarpao ie na ce rai nn moxe nocrnhn camo non iennom
npernocranxom na yne nayue na ce xopncre cnoinm npnponnnm napom, snpannm pasymom,
na ce ocnocoe na cnoonno mncne n pacyhyiy. Pasnnxonane nneiy npnpona, pasnnxa nsmehy
necrnopenor n crnopenor moxe na yne npenasnhena na nnany naunna nocroiana xoin nm ie
saiennnuxn: a ro ie naunn nnunor nocroiana. Ona ncrnna nam ie orxpnnena xpos Bannohene
(Vuoneuene) Fora, xpos Hnunocr Xpncra Hcyca. 3a nera uonex nnie maxnna nnie
ayromarnsonann crpoi, ycrpoien no xomannn nexor yrnnainor uonexa nnn rpyne xoia n ce
ennrno nanpehnnana neronoi non. Camo maxnna ro ne n morna na noxnnn xao nnacrnry
nenoy n cnyranane. "Cnoonno mncnnrn" snaun npe cnera "cnoonno npncrynnrn" cnaxoi
crnapn, es crpaxa on cnoamnnx ayropnrera, ne nononehn ce sa npenpacynama, a sarnm c
npanom cymnarn cymnarn y neonpxnnocrn n xpearnnno ncrpaxnnarn. Hainnmn onnx
cnoonnor mnmena iecre nayuno-xpnrnuxo mnmene sacnonano na npnnnnny xaysannrera
xoin onnxyie iacno ocmnmena rnnonornia nnhena crnapnocrn. Hpema mnmeny Mnnana
Bennha sa Pocnreia nnie moryhe pehn na ie nennxn nayunnx, ann neron cran npema nayxama
ie anpmarnnan: Obradovics Werke aber haben nie einen wissenschaftlichen Charakter. Wenn
er auch hie und da zu den theoretischen Fragen gelangt, so ist der ganze Apparat, womit er sie
begrnden will, doch hchtenes Beobachtung und Erfahrung, die sich in einer Menge von
Beispielen ausbreitetPhilosophie ist aber die Wissenschaft des berlegenden Verstandes,
Wissenschaft der Endsresultate und Principien Obradovic hat es nie so weit gebracht man kann
ihm nie den Namen eines Philosophen beilegen, obwohl es manche auch ausserhalb seines
Volkes gern thun wollen.
100
Baa pehn na Pocnreiena nnrennnia n nnie nna nayuna y
reopnicxom cmnny, ynyhn na ie nemy nnme crano, xao n Kanry npema ynnnnma, no
npaxrnune ynorpee yma n no nanaxena nopnx canera xaxo na ce npnmenn nayueno.

99
M. B. Croianonnh ie noxasao, anehn ce anrnuxom napannrmarcxom mncnn y Pocnreiennm nennma, xaxo ie
mnpoxo y Copanniy Pocnrei saxnarao y anrnuxe nsnope. On ce ry ocnanao na ncropnicxo-norpacxa n
mopanno-nnococxa nena xenencxnx nncana pnmcxor nepnona (Hnyrapx, Pnoren Haeprnie, Ennian, Honnien,
3ocnm) n na nncne xnacnunor nepnona xenencxe n pnmcxe xnnxennocrn (Xeponor, Apncroren, Hnnepon,
Cneronnie, Banepnie Maxcnm). Tpea ysern y osnp n mnronomxe enemenre xoie Pocnrei xopncrn, a norom n
anrnuxy nponepnianny mncao. Honnia nnreparypa ncrnue na anrnuxa anernora xao n npyrn nanonn nonasn y
Pocnreia rorono ynex napannrmarcxn, ri. xao ernuxo-nnycrparnnnn enemenar, xoin ie oenexanao crannn
ycnon, xoin he nonecrn no npxynna y nocnennem neny.
100
Dr Milan evic, Dositheus Obradovic, Ein serbischer Aufklrer des XVIII.Jahrhunderts, Neusatz, 1889., s. 31-32
131 | a a e

Honasehn on nauena xpnrnuxor mnmena, Pocnrei ie nsneo npnuy o cnom xnnory, o
cnoinm sanynama n ocnemhnnany, o cnoinm opasonnnm nyronannma, xao npnmep xoin ie,
ncronpemeno noyuan n xapaxrepncrnuan sa cpncxe npnnnxe, npyxao mopanne noyxe
("coniere snpanor pasyma") o nonamany noiennnana n npymrna, nao nnococxy xpnrnxy
onuaia, napann n nncrnrynnia cpncxor npymrna n nsnoxno mnpox nporpam sa peopmy
namer npymrna n name xynrype npema pannonanncrnuxnm n npocnernrecxnm opacnnma.
Mehyrnm, ro nnie moryhe samnmarn mnmo npanne n ncrnne, xoie cy Foxnia cnoicrna n
nnx ce nnxana n nnrna oiarn ne naa /Pocnrei Opanonnh, ue)a, Feorpan, 1938, crp.433/
Vuecrnonarn n sanonrn ncxycrno cnecrn xoie ce noniennaxo onnocn na nnnone npymrnennx
ycrpoicrana, xao n na ycrpoicrno npnpone, nrn n ocrarn npoxer rnm xopenarnnnnm
canpxainma xoin ce pasmarpaiy no cnecnor nmunmhanana, ro xao na ie nasnauene Foxnie
cnaxom noiennnny, a rai sanarax Pocnrei ie pennocno n ysopno ncnynanao, anaiyhn noxoin
rpar cnerna n na ono name npeme, xonnxo ron na nno oysero cacnnm npyrauninm
sanprananem nnena n npennonannma.















132 | a a e

uHHOCOuHJA, HOHHTHKA H HPABO V HCTOPHJH HEMAuKE MHCAOHOCTH
Hpocnernrecrno ie ca snarnnm xamnenem saxnarnno nemauxn ernnuxn npocrop,
yrnannom saxnayiyhn npocnehenom anconyrncrn upnnpnxy II Bennxom (1712-1786), xoin ie
nennxy naxny nocnehnnao opasonany. Hemauxoi npannoi ncropnicxoi mxonn croiao ie na
ueny Kapn upnnpnx on Cannnn (1779-1861), xoin ie cranno y sarpane onmre saxonnrocrn
sa cne napone, na n saxononanny nanoxno na ce npxn nyxa noiennnor napona, iep ce on
namrnnexa npano pasnnia saienno c naponom, mro he nrn ysron y ienpa ncropnicxoi naynn n
anpmannin mopannnx reopnia. Joxan Iorpnn Xepnep (1744-1803), no sannmany
cnemrennx na nnopy noinone on Baimapa, xao onymenenn cnymanan Kanronnx npenanana
xoin ce ca nnm xacnnie pasnmao ynpano no nnrannma moryhnocrn sacnnnana nnoconie
ncropnie xao npnponne, emnnpnicxe npcre norahana, xpnrnxe npocnernrecrna, oianno ie
`Hneie sa nnoconiy ncropnie uoneuancrna` (1784-1791). V onnaiany uonexa on npnpone ca
xoiom ie nesan na peannsyie nyxonne saxone na semn, on ie noceno narnamanao snauai
iesnxa n nncma sa onnxonane yncxor pona n pasnoia yuenocrn ca nopnm nocnennnama no
ym n xynrypy, nsrpanny xymanor uoneuancrna. Vronnxo ie mnp, a ne par, npnponno crane
yncxor pona n ono ie npymrneno nhe xynrype, ymernocrn n opasonana. Texna na ce
rocnonapn nan npyrnma nnie yncxa onnnxa, iep ry rpea na nnana pannonpannocr, nero ie y
nnrany nexonrponncana crpacr xao xnnornncxo cnoicrno. Pasnnxe mehy ynnma n
naponnma ne crnapaiy xnnma n reorpacxn nonoxai, nero `pacna ocoenocr`, ri.
xapaxrepncrnuna npnpona cxnonocrn n nenpomennnnx npra xoie cy npernocranxa ncropnie.
Hoiennna npxanna ypehena sannce ynpano on ror xapaxrepa napona, on oxonnocrn
npnponnor n conniannor mnea y xome ce nanasn n onronerxa nnxone cynnne, ri. pana,
xynrype n npocnehnnana y rorannrery yncxe ncropnie.
V+ u c)ooooa roo H+auveua Kauma (1724-1804)
Carnenanana pennrnosnnx yuena ca nosnnnia pasyma, nonena cy y Kanrono npeme no
ynepena xaxo ce pasymom ne mory noxasarn xpnmhancxa yuena o ecmprnocrn Foxnioi,
nymn n nacxpceny, na ce on onnyuno na orpannuanane nayunor merona na n cauynao
xpnmhancxy nepy, xao n mopan xoin nonpasymena. Te nepcxe n mopanne ncrnne nocranno ie
nsnan ncxycrna n pasyma, ri. nomena xaysannnx saxona xoin n nx nyxno acoponann, y
nonpyuie cpna, uncre nonocrn n nyxonnocrn. uonex ie raxo ne camo enomenanno nhe
yroneno y naroncxy npnpony, nero n pasymcxo nhe nyxonnocrn xoie nspaxana
noymenannn ernuxn xapaxrep. Vm rpea na ynpana cnerom n xnnorom, a cnoona ie onai
nn xa xome rpea rexnrn na n ce ocrnapno. Ha ocnony cnoie ernuxe noxrpnne o cnoonn
uncrom noom, nsrpanno ie n yuene o npxann n mehynaponnnm onnocnma, ca sanaranem sa
canes napona n enepannsam cnoonnnx npxana, a unia ie cnpxa onpxanana neunror mnpa na
semn. Berona onmra mncao ie na nonnrnxa rpea na ce ycarnacn ca ernxom xpos
ycarnamanane npana n cnoona, ri. na nonnrnxa nahe cnoi nsnop y mopannoi nnoconin.
Kaxo cama cnoona nnie moryha y cnponom crany, ri. xao nnna n ornmaiyha, naxna ie
133 | a a e

npxana xoia ie yremeyie na saxonnma opmnpannm na ymnnm npnnnnnnma, ri. ocrnapyie
saxonnry cnoony. Cnoona, pannonpannocr n camocrannocr noiennnana moryhe cy camo non
npnnynom saxona, xoia ce no neronom mnmeny naiycnemnnie cnpononn y penynnxancxoi
nnanannnn. Monapxnie n apncroxparnie naxo ce oxpape na paronana na n mrnrnnn
nmonnmy onnx na nnacrn, a nairexe nocnennne rpnn cam napon, mro nspaxana napnapcxy
cnoony n norpey sa npennanananem crana esaxona. V npocnernrecxnm nneiama (npe
cnera pycooncxnm nneiama ns upvumeeuoe veoeopa) on ie nnneo moryhnocr na ce cnoie
cnoona n npymrnenn nopenax, na ce ocnrypa iennncrno uoneuancrna y mnpy. Axo n mnp
nocrao onmrn rnme mro n oyxnarno cne npxane, nnme n nna ncnynena cnpxa npnpone
ycnocrananem onmrecnercxor rpahancxor noperxa n nocrnrno n ce crane nymrana na ce
pasnniy cne onapenocrn yncxe npcre. Honnrnxa n raxo morna na ce nonpenn mopany n
npany, mro nomano nnun na nneanny moryhnocr nonparxa anrnuxor npaysopa iennncrna
ernxe n nonnrnxe. To ie Kanr pasymenao npema nanpry came ncropnie npnpone xao Foxnier
nena (`Haeahana o no:emrv ucmopuie :oee:aucmea`), a uonexono nsnaxene ns xpnna
npnpone cmarpao ie npenycnonom yncxe ncropnie y xoioi ce uonex ncnoana xpos cnoie
cnoonne nenarnocrn (`Hoeia onume ucmopuie vc+epeue ua ocmeapueane ceemcroe
epahaucroe nopemra`). Hanpenax uoneuancrna y ncropnin ne oesehyie nopa yncxa
npnpona nohena anrpynsmom, nero yncxe cenune cxnonocrn, nerona snoa na xoioi nenyie
cnpxonnro yncxn pon nnn uoneunocr, ocrnapyiyhn npana y ncropnin na asn mexannsma
npnpone, crpemehn npema xpainoi cnpcn cme npnpone xa canpmencrny npymrnenor ypehena.
Hcropnia raxo ncnynana cxpnnenn nnan came cnpxonnrocrn npnpone (ri. Foxniy npomncao),
naranaiyhn uonexa na pan n nanope na nanasn cpencrna mynpocrn, xoima he npenasnnasnrn
nacrane noremxohe.
1oxau Iomuu 0uxme (1762-1814)
Cnoiy `npny nnoconiy cnoone` unxre ie na Kanronom rpary nsrpahnnao cnenehn npe
cnera pycooncxn nmnync xa nneiama cnoone, pannonpannocrn n yncxocrn. On ie cmarpao
na cy nenonane n mnmene nepasnnoinnn, re na ie xareropnia unnoneicrnonana /rer-
xannnynra/ crapnia on xareropnie nncrnonana, iep nonymra pacxnnane ca necnoonnom
npomnomhy (ro ie anconyrna cnecr iacrna, cama xanroncxa nnrennrennnia camocnecrn), a
mro ie on nnneo connianno onnuennm y upannycxoi ypxoacxoi penonynnin ns 1879. r.
Mehyrnm, xana ie ry penonynniy Hanoneon nsnesao y Hemauxy n 1806. nopasno Hpyce y
nnn xon Jene, on ie cnenehe ronnne npxao narpnorcxe ronope nemauxom napony sa
nonnsane nannonannor nyxa n nonoca. Cmarpao ie na ce ncropnia mopa anpnopncrnuxn
pasymern, iep nnocoy ie anpnopna nnr cnercxor nnana iacna es nxaxne ncropnie, n onn my
ne rpeaiy sa noxasnnane neronnx cranona. Bera sannma camo onai neo cnercxe ncropnie y
xoiem uoneuancrno cnoie onnoce ypehyie nnnnnnsonano nnn ymno n cnoonno, a ro ce moxe
nocrnhn rex ca npenaxenem erane ymne nayunocrn (Hpeoaeana o oopehenv uav:uura,
1794). Pennrniy ie cxnarao xao ncropnicxy noiany xoia nspaxana mopannn nopenax cnera n
134 | a a e

yan npema nopy, re xaxo ce npxana cnyxn npncnnom pauynaiyhn na nenocrarax nope
noe, na ce ne n cnyxnna pennrniom sa ocrnapene cnoinx nnena, on sacryna nnxony
onnoienocr nnn npxannn cexynapnsam. Hcronpemeno reopnia cnoinne, iacno ncraxnyra y
Ocuoev npupoouoe npaea npe+a npuuuunu+a v:ena o uavuu (1796/97), xoia nonasn on rora na
cmo mn camn nama cnoinna n na ie cyiexrnnno - nneanncrnuxo uncro Ja rocnonap renecnnx n
nyxonnnx mohn xoie xopncrn sa cnoie cnpxe, nocraie `npannn ocnon` xpos pan onnxyiyher
npana na cnoinny, xoie ie n cacrannn neo npxannor yronopa. 3ameopeua mpeoea:ra opraea
(1800) ie unxreon cnnc y xome ce on cyouana ca npernocranxama nnepanne exonomnie
ynpano anocrponpaiyhn connianne n npnnpenne ynxnnie npxane, onpehyiyhn ioi nn y
narocrany cnnx rpahana nocpencrnom pannonanne oprannsannie pana. Ppxana rpea na
ocnrypa rpahannma npano na pan n ocnonna cpencrna sa xnnor, mro npernocrana
exonomcxo nnannpane nponsnonne n norpomne, rne cnn rpahann cnyxe nennnn. Mehyrnm
cama ncnpannocr npnnne n nayxe remen ce na camom nayunom nosnny xoin npnnana uonexy
xao uonexy, na nsrnena na es pnre o pennrnin nnme pauyna na crpax on xasne xoin nocraie
nsnnman npn peannsannin, xao n cama npxana, na n nanonno nanpenonane y ymy n cnoonn
nno ycnemnnie. Ponyme, y nosnom nepnony npano na pan, iennaxocr n cnoony
nonpasymena n npxanny pnry o pennrnin, a ca nenponasnom yany xa nopy uonex he
mohn na ce ocnoonn oxona npxane.

XEIEHOBA COHHJAHHA H HOHHTHuKA MHCAO

Ppymrnena n nonnrnuxa cranonnmra xon Ieopra Bnnxenua mpnapnxa Xerena (1770-
1834), paspahena cy xao neo onmre nnoconie xoia oiamnana samro ie cner nyxno raxan
xaxan ie. On sa mnore connianne mncnnone synyiyhe nasnna npxany `xonxpernsonannm
nyxom`, a cam nyx ie ono xonxperno onmre nnn ynnnepsanno.
101
Hon Hnamenan xaxe na ie
ono `xonxperno ynnnepsanno` cnaiane nneia xoie npemna canpxn noimone mro nmaiy cmncna,
nsrnena remxo noxyunno. Ho nemy, Xeren ie no nyox npymrnenn reopernuap, a n nyox
ncnxonor,
102
es osnpa na meransnuxo cranonnmre xoie on ne moxe na npnxnarn, na

101
V ynony sa Euuur)oneouiv du)o;oduicrux ;uauocmu, Xeren ie norpey sa cncremom ncraxao xao norpey sa
nneinom cnoonom: "Cnoonna n ncrnncxa mncao iecre y cen rourpemua, na ie ona raxo uoeia, a y cnoioi
yxynnoi onmrocrn ona ie oea uoeia, nnn anco)vmuo. Hayxa o noi y cymrnnn ie cucme+, iep ono ncrnnnro
nocroin xao rourpemuo camo na rai naunn na cee camo y cen pasnnia, canpyhn n npxehn ce y iennncrny, ri.
xao moma)umem n iennno nomohy pasnnxonana n onpehena neronnx pasnnxa moxe na nocroin nnxona
nyxnocr n cnoona nennne...Crora ce nennna npnxasyie xao xpyr xpyrona, on xoinx ie cnaxn momenar nyxan,
raxo na cncrem nnxonnx xapaxrepncrnunnx enemenara caunnana neny nneiy, xoia ce ncro raxo noianyie y
cnaxom noiennnom."/Xeren, Euu. 4u). ;uauocmu, "Vnon" 14, 15; npen. crp. 44-45/
102
Hcnxonomxn oxnnp xornnrnnnnx momenara cnecrn Xeren ie mncnehn nonnpnyo n sanaxanem nponparno n c
osnpom na noiam Fora: "Cymrnna camor nyxa ie moie cymrnncxo nhe, cama moia cyncrannnia - (uua:e ca+ ia
ueumo uuumaeuo); - ra cymrnna ie, raxo na xaxem, ynannn marepnian xoin moxe na yne ;ana+eu, ocneren
135 | a a e

yrnannom meraopnuno npeysnma nerone noimone y nennmnuno meraopnunnm
xomnnanniama, na n onprananem ror cmncna oesenno nponyxrnnnocr y nnianory, re
camnm rnm yxasao n na nnxony ncropnicxy naxnocr. Texna rome na ce nnococxn noimonn
npenone na onuan ronop onuno sanpmn nome no nnoconiy, mana ie nonrax y
neyxpyhenocrn npncryna n cnexnnn monyca nnrepnperannie. Honasehn on rora na nnxo nnie
cnrypan na nemro nema cmncna yxonnxo ro n ne noxaxe, re na aprymenrn xpnrnuapa nncy
onuno yennnnin on pannnana (mana xpoueoncxon npncryn ynaxanana `xnnor`
ocnoahanem `ns xann mprnor` non yrnnaiem Hapnonnnor marpniannsma, am n nnie
yennn iep onxopauyie snauai onnamhenocrn nnianexrnuxor snana)
103
, na axo ro n nncy, y
cnaxom cnyuaiy nenom axryannsanniom npomnpyiy xopnsonre pasymenana.
3a Xerena, snane n neron npenmer iecy mnmene xao nne crpane iennor (nayunor)
ncxycrna cnecrn, yxonnxo ie casnanane axrnnno, na cy nornuxn noimonn nncrnonana,
cymrnne, xnannrera, npomena, yspoxa n nocnennna, xonaunor n ecxonaunor nmnnnnnrno
npncyrnn n y onunom ronopy, a y nnoconin nnaiy ncnnrnnann, npopahnnann no
ycanpmanana n oiamnenn y nehem creneny. Kana ce rn noimonn xpnrnuxn npencnnryiy, onn
orxpnnaiy y cen npornnpeunocr xoia nx onpehyie, a ra npornnpeunocr ce paspemana y
nnocrpyxocrn nnxonor nocpenyiyher xperana, raxo na ce emnnpnicxoi ancrpaxnnin onysnma
emnnpnicxo cnoicrno, a xonxpernom nomany xonxpernocr n nonia nocpenonane xoie ie
nenocpenno nnn noiam xao ancrpaxnnia xoia ce xonxpernsonana. To ce snna y nocroiany rne
ce nomnpyiy noimonn ancrpaxrno nocmarpannx nha y onnocy na nnmra, raxo na y nera
nanaiy ooie y cnoioi peannsannin. Fnnane ie raxo nopnnano nncrnonane nnn rnpnna na ce
iecre xao nocranenocr, nanme nsrphnnane y caoonyserocrn nocroiana, rne ce npeme
noxasyie y `nerarnnnom iennncrny` c nnm, raxo na nonpasymenaiyhn nerony cynpornocr y
nenocroiany nonasn no noima cymrnne xoia oner nma cnoiy rpocreneny nnnamnxy
npenasnnaxena, na cne no nocnenana no anconyrne nneie xao noima xoin nnie
camonpornnpeuan. Hneia nnn noiam c rnme nma cne xapaxrepncrnxe nocroiana n
caonpxanocr cymrnne, nocn oenexia cyncrannniannocrn n cyiexra /nnocrasn, nnunocrn/.
Kaxo iennno cnexynarnnnn ym nnn nyx mory na ornope npncryn anconyrnoi nnein n ocrnape
ie nonmanem, n cama crnapnocr ie ononnxo crnapna y xom ie creneny ymna. 3aronerxe n

on crpane onmre cymrnne xao raxne, xao npenmerne. H camo yxonnxo ce rai docdop nanasn y uonexy moryhe ie
ro cxnarane, ro naene n ocneranane; camo na rai naunn nocroin y uonexy ocehane, nacnyhnnane Fora n
snane sa nera. Fes rora nn oxancxn nyx ne n no ono mro ie onmre no cen n sa cee.../I. B. u. Xeren, Hcm.
du). I, npen. crp. 65;66/
103
Bnacnnmrno nonpasymena nocenonane xao ennnenrny pacnonoxnny narocr nnn oe pehn `onnnnnocr`, ri.
yennnocr c osnpom na xapaxrep npncyrnocrn, a ne no Xereny nema es sayseror crana, nocranene
xnnorese nnn epmenenrnuxe xonxpernsannie xoia nonpasymena nponyxrnnan cran cnecrn xao nocranane
crnapn y nonmaiyhe xperane xpos xperane nonmana: To xperane xoie caunnana ono mro n nnaue rpeao na
nsnpmn noxas, iecr nnianexrnuxo xperane camor crana. Camo ono iecr ;ou+cro cncxynarnnno, n camo nerono
ncxasnnane iecr nnianexrnuxo npnxasnnaneCran rpea na nspasn ono umo ie ncrnnnro, ann ono ie nrno
cyiexr; xao rai on ie camo nnianexrnuxo xperane, rai rox mro cama cee nponsnonn, xoin nonn nae n npaha ce
y cee. /Xeren, 4eu. ovxa, npen. H. Hon. , Frn, 1975, crp. 45/.
136 | a a e

npornnpeunocrn paspemanaiy ce anannsom noimona y namnm cxnarannma, a onn ce oner
pasymenaiy xana o cnery mncnnmo xao o ymnom nyxy /nyxonnoi nnunocrn/ xoin ce pasnnia y
nanpenonannma no nynor camocasnana n snana o cen camom. V rom cmncny ie
ncrpaxnnane ncropnie mnmena naxan neo onora mro crnapnocr cymrnncxn n iecre,
ynyhn na ie nyx axrnnan n na ce orxpnna y cnoinm nennma xpos nsrpahnnane xoxepenrnnx
snana o cnery n nopexny cnera mro iecre y creuennm camocasnanannma.
104
Axrnnnocr nyxa
ry snaun nerono camocrnapane xpos nponec crnnana xoxepenrnor camoncxycrna, a rome sa
Xerena onronapa n xon camoorxpnnana nyxa y cnery. Fynyhn na on ornouerxa rex neiacno
sna na ie cner nponsnenen, cynpocrana ce npnponn xao cnoioi cynpornocrn y neuem
cnoamnem, a rai renepannn cran npenasnnasn na rai naunn mro ry nenocpenny neranniy
nocpenyie n yxnna xpos nye ynosnanane npnpone cnera. Hcxycrno cnecrn c rnme ce nnnn
xao nayxa /`uenomenonornia nyxa`/, ro iecr peanno ocnocoanane nnn crnnane mohn sa
npenosnanane crnapn npema ynyrpamnnm npaysopnma xoie neh nmamo n xpos casnanane
nponanasnmo y nnenrnnxanniama. V mnoxnnn xonaunnx ymona nyx nyxno crnue
camocasnane iep cy ra camocnecna iacrna xapaxrepncruna sa nyx npnmopnnianno yiennnena y
Fory, y Beronom Tpehem Hnny Cnere Tpoinne, y nnocrasn Cneror Pyxa.
Pyx ce na rai naunn cam orxpnna npexo xonaunnx ymona n xpos nnx ce ounryie camocnecr
xoia my ie cnoicrnena, iep ie on y ncrn max nnmn on nno xor xonaunor yma y xome ce casnaie.
3nane oyxnara ynorpey noimona xoin ce nornuxn canocranaiy ienan nacnpam npyror y
iesnxy, raxo na cam iesnx raxohe ne moxe na yne npnnarnn nocen nexor on xonaunnx ymona.
Xeren ro nasnna nnmnm uynom cnemrene nneannocrn saxnayiyhn xome ce snna
moryhnocr nsmnpena ca uynnom npnponom n ycrpoiana anconyrnocr. Beunocr ie sannuai
Pyxa xao Berona crnapnocr, na ie cne cpuano n nyxonno Bnme ocnereno n cnaxo nnane
ynaanano on ror npnonrnor nsnopa cnerna neycxnaheno, nox cy cneronne crnapn
esnpenne no onronapaiyhem nnany /das Ewige als die Heimath fr den Geist, eine
Wirklichkeit, in der Gott herrscht; die Geister, Hertzen, sie sind vershnt mit ihm, so ist der Gott,
der zur Herrschaft gekommen ist... das ist die revolutionre Seite der Lehre, die Alles
Bestehende theils auf die Seite wirft, theils fernichtet, umstt. Alle irdichen, weltlichen Dinge
fallen weg ohne Werth und werden so ausgesprochen...
105


104
Fynyhn neh nemro samnmeno, canpxnna ie cnoinna cyncrannnie; ne rpea nnme npeopaharn onpeheno
nhe y opmy nha no cen, neh ono mro ie no cen y opmy nha no cen, n ro nnrn ono no cen xoie ie uncro
ncxoncxo, nnrn ono xoie ie yronyno y onpeheno nhe, neh nanpornn, ono xoie ie neh y cehany... Ono mro ie
yonmre nosnaro nnie sor rora, mro ie nosnaro, raxohe casnaro. Xeren xpehe on rora na ie nnrepec mnmena
cyiexry nanoxen xao nanop npnanana canpxaia sa ycnocranene npencrana xao iennocranne onpene mncnn
4euo+euo)oeuie ovxa. Pyx ie cyncrannnia sa cee camor xao yxnnyrn n y cen penexronann npenmer nar xpos
camonponsnohene n uncrn noiam, xao nemy yienno mehysanncan npenmernn enemenr. On y nemy nma cnoi
oncranax, n on ie na rai naunn y cnom oncranxy sa camora cee y cen penexronann npenmer, nayuno pasnnieno
snane.
105
(/G W F Hegel, Smtliche Werke (Vorlesungen ber die Philosophie der Religion, Zweiter Band), Stuttgart-Bad
Cannstatt, 1965
4
.) /Cam Iocnon ce noxasao n orxpno onmrnnn xao yan raxo, na ie neuna nneia nocrana
137 | a a e

Oryn n ne moxe na sannana nexa mexannuxa ycnonenocr nnn mprnnno, nero mehycona
ynyhenocr xoia nonpasymena nnianor n xomynnxarnnnocr. C rnme ie snane xoie ce crnue
raxohe nponyxr ymne saiennnne xao ncropnicxe noimonne cennmenrannie, a ne
ocamocraenor nponeca xoin n ce onnniao y cnaxom xonaunom ymy noceno. Pyx ie
`xonxperna ynnnepsannocr` unia ce npnpona orxpnna xpos cne mro ra caunnana, na cy n
ycanpmenn nyxonn camo ecxpaino mann neo onmre crnapnocrn. Hacraiyhn ns npnpone (ne
`no` npnponn), nyx cne cnonn nyrem camocasnana nocrnrnyrnx y mnoxnnn xonaunnx ymona
na iennocrannocr saiennnuxor xnnora (on ie cne-iennncrnen). Anconyrnn noiam raxo canpxn
y cen cne nnxe noimone, a nyx cne nnxe crynnene nyxa. Henoxynna crapnocr ie oryn n
noymenanno n enomenanno crnap onnx norahana onaxne nornue n cama npnpona y
npyronncrnenoi peannocrn nneie. Orxpnnen y mncnnma xao nncrnonane cnpcncxonnocrn
xonaunnx iacrana, nyx ie cyiexrnnan, a orxpnnen y onnnnma ypehnnana saiennnuxor
xnnora on ie oiexrnnan. Cnn napanoxcn n anopnie xoie nyx cycpehe canpxe paspemene, iep
ie cam nponec (y roraxnnrery pasnoinnx momenara) ocmnmen nnianexrnuxn, no onor
crenena xoin nae nnie npornneuan, nero ie nmnnnnnre camocanpxanan y xpainoi
ynyrpamnoi cnpcn xoioi ie nn na xonaunn nyx nocrnrne ncrnncxo camocasnane. Pyx rnena
ono mro ie nerarnnno nenocpenno y nnne n nma neycrpamnny cnoconocr na ce xon ne
saycrann, nasnnaiyhn ro sanpxanane uaponom cnnom cyiexra xao ncrnncxe cyncrannnie
Ann, xnnor nyxa nnie onai xnnor xoin sasnpe on cmprn n xoin ce crporo uyna on
nycromena, neh ie xnnor nyxa onai xnnor xoin nonnocn cmpr n y noi ce onpxana. Pyx
sanonia cnoiy ncrnny camo rnme mro y anconyrnoi pacnexanocrn nanasn cama cee... neh ie
nyx ra moh camo no rome mro onome mro ie nerarnnno rnena y nnne ornopeno n mro ce xon
nera sanpxana. To sanpxanane iecre ona uapona cnna xoia ro mro ie nerarnnno npeopaha y
nhe. /4eu. ovxa, npen. crp. 18/ Fnaronapehn cnom xperany, onaxo sanaxene uncre mncnn
nocraiy noimonn y cnoinm saoxpyxnnannma n nnma cnoicrnennm mehyconnm xperannma
xao nyxonnnm cymracrnenocrnma xao y narpn xonaunocrn npexaennm nmenonannma
crnapn: Ono xperane uncrnx cymracrana caunnana yonmre npnpony nayunocrn. (4eu.
ovxa, npen., crp. 21) Hneia ce ncnoana y npenmernocrn npenmera xao "ynyrpana
cnoamnocr" xperana nyxa, xoin nonnpe no cee xao npncyrnocr y anconyrnoi nnein.
Anconyrno nouerno xao nenocpennocr ornopena npema nocpenonannma, xperanem xpos
crenenonana ncnoanana nneinocrn xao ncxycrno camor ersncrnpaiyher nyxa, ynpcrenana

nenocpenno neponocroina sa uonexa, xoia saienno c rnm npenasn y nyxonno casnane, a raxohe npenasn y
nenocpenny uynnocr, ann raxo na ce y noi nponanasn xperane, ncropnia Fora, xnnor xoin ie cam For. / wie die
ewige Idee fr die unmittelbare Gewiheit des Menschen geworden, d. h. Erscheinen ist. Da sie Gewiheit fr den
Menschen werde, ist nothwendig sinnliche Gewiheit, aber die zugleich bergeht in das geistige Bewutseyn und
ebenso in unmittelbare Sinnlichkeit verkehrt ist, aber so, da man darin sieht die Bewegung, Geschichte Gottes, das
Leben, das Gott selbst ist. (G. W. F. Hegel, Vorlesungen ber die Philosophie der Religion, Zweiter Band,
Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, 1965
4
., S. 308.)
138 | a a e

xpyr-npcren ncnocpenonane uenocpeouocmu (xao cnnresom omoryheno ciennnanane
pasnoxenor y npenasnmnocrn cnopennor), raxo na saysnma ncxonnmre xonxpernsannie.
106

Euuur)oneouia pe)amueu;auuia npomuepe:uocmu
Euuur)oneouia du)ocodcrux uavra ce xon Xerena cacroin on nornxe, nnoconie
npnpone n nyxa. Hs nornuxor apeana nyx npenasn na npnpony nyrem npemena xao nerarnnnor
iennncrna unnehn nsnanmrene y npyronncrnonane nnn xpos camooryhnnane, pasoryhyiyhn
ce xpos nene enrenexnune momenre y nnmoi cepn nonmana, xpos ymernocr, pennrniy n
nnoconiy. Hnrane samro on ro unnn, yxonnxo nsnyrpa nnie nnrennnpano pasapauxnm
nnennma, yronnxo nonia n onronop na ie ro sor camocnecne yann, a mro ne n rpeano
na ra nae ocnopana. Mehyrnm, uecro ce camom cncremy cnounrana na nounna na arperarnma
casnana cnor npemena, xoia ce y nayunom ncxycrny cnera nonyxnarnma nnnnnnsannie
ynehana n mena, a ca rnme nyxno n cncrem. Hpema raxnom cxnarany npenmer casnana y
iennncrny ca casnananem ynocn npyraunie xnannrere orxpnnanem onnx no rana nenosnarnx
crnapn, na cama cysncrennnia nyxa y nnma moxe na ce nsryn n nmunnn no nennnnnocrn.
V nsnnn, reorpanin, ncropnin yunnena cy mnora nona orxpnha xoia yaiy noranamne
ncrnne, raxo na nnme ne mory na ce nocmarpaiy necymnnno. Mehyrnm, ona moryha
penarnnnsannia ryn ns nnna moh ancrpaxnnie n rexny nyxa xa cymrnncxnm nnnonnma
crnapn, nanme nerony npnonrny nesy ca nsnopom onronomxor snana n ycmepenocr na
ynnhana npnnnnnniennnx nnnona crnapnocrn, ri. nnxonor nopexna n snauaia.
Cnaxaxo na cy unnennne naxne, ann one cy unnennne nenopanne nnn unnoneicrnonana,
n ne rpea cmernyrn c yma na ie onai xo ro unnn ynpano ie nyx, ncnoanan y onronapaiyhoi
nnrepnperannin. Panom na casnannma nyx nonnxe nnno camocnecrn, ynyhn na camo na rom
rny n nocroin snane n mnmene, iep ie cner es snana, mnmena n uyncrna mexannuan n
nacymnuan. V npnponn nyx nnie cacnnm asenrnnan apem mro ce rnue onor nena ns xor cam
nyx oprancxn nornue, raxo na y noi ocraiy maxap mnnnmannn rparonn nnrennrnnnnor y
napnniannnm neronnm nsnopnmrnma, raxo na ie cne mro ie crnapno sanpano mnmene n
neron /nyxonnn/ npenmer. Onarne n morno na ce saxyun xaxo n cner morao na nocroin n
es xonaunnx ymona xoin mncne saxnayiyhn npenmerno-mncaonom cnoiy neunor xnnora
xoin ynasn y npeme n xonaunocr, ann peannsannia camnm coom, ri. no cen ncxyunno
nocnennor noima pasyma n noe y nnein, mopana n na moxe na ce sanpxn y nnnoxpyry sapan
nenonnrocrn n cneoyxnarnocrn nonaxena nyxa no cee camor y npxyncxom camocasnany.

106
"Tai noiam nnoconie iecre nneia xoia ceoe +uc)u, snaiyhn, ncrnna ono mro ie nornuno ca snauenem na ie y
xonxpernom canpxaiy xao y cnoioi crnapnocrn ooucmuneua onmrocr... (ro ie) nneia nnoconie xoia v+ roiu
;ua ceoe, ono anconyrno-onmre unnn cnoiom cpeouuo+ mro ce pasnnaia y nyx n npnpony, unnehn nyx
npernocranxom xao nponec cyiexrnnne nenarnocrn nneie, a npnpony onmrnm excrpemom, xao nponec no ceou,
oiexrnnan sa nncrnyiyhy nneiy."/G.W.F. Hegel, Enzyklopdie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im
Grundrisse (1817), Hamburg: F. Meiner, 1965 - nocnenna crp./
139 | a a e

Bpahane na nouerax npn onncnnany xpyxne nyrane nyxa ie `ynpcrenanane npcrena` xoin
naxnnnm nocpenonannma nocnena no one npnonrne nenocpennocrn, xoie es rnx
nocpenonana nyx nn ne sanaxa, ocraiyhn manxan n nenonpmen y cen.
Camoorpannuanane noimona xpos nacynpor-cranana pasnnxonanem, crenenonannm
onmom n npornnpeuehnm onosnnanem, Xeren ie xao naiancrpaxrnnie nnneo y npnmenn na
npnpony, a xana ce onn npnmenyiy neh na oprancxa nha y noi, crnap ce no nnrany
npornnpeuehnx onosnnana penarnnnsyie n onn ce cne nnme xonxpernsyiy. V marpniannom
cnery noimonn nenyiy nainapanoxcannnie, nox ce cyouanana ca nenocpennocrnma
xonrpannxropnocrn nsanaiy ns ancrpaxnnie rex ca npnmenom na nyx y xperany npema
anconyrnoi nnein, iep ie ry nyx y cen nnxem enemenry n nonymra nynohy
xonsncrenrnocrn nonmana n nymra noiam na ce yxnonn y cne mro iecre. V rom cmncny mory
na nenyiy cymnnno n noimonn camoonpehenocrn, nonyr one xoia ncnocrana
camoorpannueny ecxonaunocr c osnpom na xonaunocr. Ppyraunie rnenane n
orpannuanane ecxonaunor xonaunnm ro crane nnneno xao `xonauny ecxonaunocr` nnn
rono yncxo nasnpane o ecxonaunocrn, npxehn ie oryn neayrenrnunom. Ann, Xerenona
rpniannuxa nornxa nnie meraopnuxa npnmena ernmonomxe npnpone c osnpom na nnsone n
cxynone, raxo na n raxan opmanno-nornuxn npnronop nanao y nomen rsn. `phane
ecxonannocrn` cnoamner nnneapnor rnna, iep ce penarnnnsam yxnana n
anrponomopnsam ce ryn npen crpyxrypannnm momenrnma npanor ornapana npen rpannnom
nan rpannnama xaxny npencrana npana xonaunocr cmprn. Ornapane xa cmprn nenocpenno ie
sianene nnmrannna n norpecane nennhennm crpaxom, raxo na ie rex cracao nyx y crany na
ce ornopn npema ecxonaunom saxnayiyhn npncnoienom canpxaiy xpnmhancxe nneie xoia ie
noennna cmpr, `pahaiyhn ce ns ne`. Bacxpcene Iocnonne na xome n mn yuecrnyiemo ie ro
nosnrnnno iennncrno npemena n neunocrn ns xoier ce ornapa nosnrnnna ecxonaunocr.
`Konauna ecxonaunocr` ie y rom cmncny npomna nony rpniany nnana, nerannie n
ononpranana re nerannie, npenasnnasehn n xocmnuxy nncxpennonncany n excrensnnny, xao n
acrponomcxy nnrensnnny ecxonaunocr, canpxanaiyhn ie y cen xao xonxpernsanniy
pasrpannuena onmre opnienrannie ecxonaunor, nmaiyhn y nnny nerony nyxonny nnmensniy.
To ne snaun na ie nyx ocrnapen y cnaxoi cnoioi axrnnnocrn, nero na on na nnma pann n na ie
ono samnmeno nnn norennnianno cnocono na yne excnnnnnpano. Hn ancrpaxrnn noiam
nnie camo onuan snp axrnnnocrn y xoinma ce orxpnna, iep ce y nehem nnn manem creneny
no nennnnnin nnacrnre ersncrennnie, c osnpom na canpxaine arperare (acnexre rpahe ns
yuemha marepniannnx momenara), ocrnapyie y cne excnnnnnrnniem rorannrery cnoinx
axrnnnocrn. V rnm axrnnnocrnma on `cnianomhy` oopmeno nsnasn ca coom na uncrnny,
ounmhen on onor mro ra noramnyie, cexyhn no nynohe onor ciaia xoin my ie namenen xao
cnernocrn. Vronnxo ie noiam noroco-nornuan nnn npennsnnie peueno, xao cnexynarnnnn nyx
uncra cnernocr nayxe, xoia ie npomna cnoiy `Ionrory` ymne noe n ysnnrna ce no mnpnor
iennncrna ca cnnme mro iecre n nna, nocnena no cne-iennncrna paspemennx nanerocrn
anconyra nneie, ne camo xao cyiexrnnnn nyx (Kanr, unxre), nnrn cranonnmre anconyrne
140 | a a e

nnnnepennnie (Bennnr), nero xao cacnnm oiexrnnan nyx xoin y snany concrnene
nocranenocrn xao peannnin on peannor, yxnna cnoiy anconyrny xomnerennniy.
uvxoeua uaneooeana v ea)epuiu )uroea ceecmu 4euo+euo)oeuie ovxa
Xeren nonasn on censannia n nepnennnia ca xoinma ce rpann cnnxa cnera y
apxnrexronnnn casnana, rne ienan naunn mnmena ycryna mecro npyrom nonesannm ca
ernxom, ymernomhy, pennrniom n nnoconiom. Hs cranona noiennnana xoin nmaiy cnoiy
pasyhenocr y nnoconin xnnora, Xeren npmn cncremarnsanniy yxyuyiyhn xonexrnnna
mnronomxa cranonnmra, pennrnosna onpeneena n nnanaiyha yuena. Kana ce nexn
ncropnicxn nponec nonpmn nnn nocrnrne cnoi nn, oiamnana ce na xoin ie naunn nyx
nocrnrao camocasnane n xonnxo ie ysnanpenonao. To ie noimeno ca cranonnmra pasyma
xoin ce penexryie y cnercxnm enomennma, a xoin oner noxasyiy cnoiy nnxepennniy n
nnrennrnnnnocr npnnanaiyhn uoneuancrny xao onmra xynrypna cnoinna. Pa n ce nno
pasymnnm n camocnecnnm norpeno ie na mnore renepannie opmnpaiy iannn iesnx n
noimone, iep ie iesnx onai xoin npyxa nocnenny cnnxy cnera, pasymenaiyhn ra. Cnnxa cnera ie
nnrennrnnnna marepniannia xoia ce rpann cncremom noimona mro ne mopaiy na yny
penexronann, nero ysern snpano sa rorono, sor uera ce ca pacrom casnana ona n mena (xao
mro ie cxonacrnuxo nonmane cyncrannnie sameneno ca `cnnom` y nsnnn nnn `enemenrom` y
xemnin). Hpemna xpos enomenannie xoie perncrpyie nyx rpann rsn. `cnoi cner` nnyhn n no
naronomxnx onnxa crnapana xpainer nnacrnror nnxa, cyiexrnnno n oiexrnnno crynaiy na
nonpnmre iannocrn y cynenonannma npnnarnsannia y nnma, raxo na ornopen cyxo xpehe ca
nponecom iannor npnsnanana, nanme cyxo nnune noe ca npyrnm noama camocnecnnx
nha, xaxo Xeren ncrnue ocnenounnane cnoone pnsnxonanem xnnora sor camocnecrn
nnacrnre cnpxe.
Pacnpana o rocnoncrny n poncrny y 4euo+euo)oeuiu ovxa y rom cmncny cnana y neoma
axryenne npymrnene reme. Panehn sa rocnonapa, po nenyie na npnpony n mena ie (`nernpa`),
menaiyhn n cam cee naienxacnniom meronom npnmenyiyhn nocao opane cnoamnnx
marepniana. Fynyhn na my ie sa ro norpeno snane xoie nyxno crnue na n no enxacan, on
camonncnnnnnnom n nocrenennm ynyhnnanem ynehana pasymenane npnpone n cee camor,
mnpehn cnoiy moh nan nnma. Ca rnme ce on opaha rocnonapy sa npnsnane y crpaxy xoin ra
onpxana y nocnymnocrn (iep ie rocnonap nannexan sa cpencrna sa nponsnonny), ann
rocnonapy ie ncnon uacrn na npnsna nnxer on cee. Orpannuene cnor nonoxaia on peannsyie
xpos saxren sa npnsnananem npema saiennnnn pannonpannnx xoia n nonpasymenana
yxnnane n npenasnnaxene poncrna ysaiamnnm npnsnananem, raxo na rex saocraiane
rocnonapa xoie ra unnn sanncnnm on pooncxor pana n snana y norneny enxacnocrn
nsnpmana ry nanoxnany. To ie cnryannia cxenrnnnsma rne ie po y samopnoi ocxynnnn
norunnen na n rocnonap ca nnononnma neronor pana ynono morao na pacnonaxe, a
rocnonap ncnouerxa no nesanonoan npnsnanem xoie nonia npexo nnxer on cee, ca unme
ce ounryie n cronuxa npra y cranenocrn y nonoxai `ancrpaxrne cnoone` ca xnnorom xoin
141 | a a e

ie cmemren y nonyuenocr. Hcnpnnnanem nanmohn xpos pacr sanncnocrn rocnonap nonymra
y nnmnrannin camocnecrn n pannonpannocr npnsnanana ie rana npnnpemena. Hanme po
rnme crnue `nocroiancrno` y cnoioi rexnn cnoonn, yehyiyhn ce na ie neh nma na ocnony
npyxenor yrounmra y ronopy n reopnin, ann nesanonocrno xoie ce noianyie ns ocrarxa y
nannaxeny na xonxperan ornop xon rocnonapa, ronopn o rome na uonex y cnery iom nnie
ycneo na ce onomahn n na ce nanasn ncnpen xyhe. To cy iom ynex sanomena nnysniama o
cnoonn na n npnnarohanane xnnornnm ycnonnma nno ycnennie, n ro npnsnaie `necpehna
cnecr` iep onarne ne nnnn nsnas, ann ce xpos anenonana ouexyie nponasnocr n ro peanno.
Oryhena nyma xoia camoi cen nocraie crpanan iep ne xopncrn pasym sa rpahene opmn
npymrnenor cnera xao cnor nponsnona, cana ie npnmopana na npenysme naxne xopaxe. Pa n
no cnoonan, uonex mopa cnecno `na ce nahe y cnery`, ne camo no nannnn npnxnarana xoia
ie xonenne npnpone, nero pannonanno n y cnecno paspahnnanom meronnunom nenonany.
Cnyranana cy na rom nyry pasna y `saiennnnn es nyme`, rne uonex camo mncnn na ie
rpahannn n nomnnanno nma cnoia npana, ann on ry xnnn npe cnera xao nonannx. Jennncrno
peannocrn n noima unne xnnor nneannnm, raxo na rex ca nynnm camopasymenanem uonex
nanasn naunna na ry samnmeny cnoony xao nnean (Kanr) n peannsyie y npaxrnunom
xnnory. Tex y saiennnnama xonaunnx pannonannnx ymona nyx ie nocrao crnapan, a nainnma
npcra saiennnne y xoioi on ocrnapyie cnoony iecre npxana.
Hoeia u rourpemuo iacmeo npe+a noi+v eo+e
Vnpano 4u)ocoduia opraeuoe npaea ronopn o pasnniany noe on noima no nneie. Hs
iennocrannor noima noe cnenn na ce ona moxe ocrnapnrn y npxann xao saiennnnn pasymnnx
nha, xana cy ona y crany na cnecno npnxnaraiy npannna xoinma n nnaue mopaiy na ce
noxopanaiy. Vmna noa raxo cnpononn ono mro ie `xonxperno ynnnepsanno` iep ie noiam no
npernocrannn ona nennna xoia ce nonpmana nyrem nnacrnror pasnoia n oyxnara noiennne
ymne noe xao xonauna iacrna xpos opasan xnnora nennne npymrna, nocraiyhn y nnma
penexronanem nomnpena ca crnapnomhy y orarcrny nonmana.
107
Jacrno sa uonex n nema
naxene axo ne npxn no anpexensnie nepnenrnnnnx nonaraxa xoin onnxyiy cnecr, nnn axo
nsocrane nsrpanna camocnecrn, iep ce uonexon xapaxrep ornena y oanany neronnx
axrnnnocrn. Hyxn ocehai ie nacnnan, ann `ia` nocrana cee y mnmeny xpos xey,
cnoony nsopa, onnyunocr, raxo na ie axrnnno y norneny rexne sa ocrnapnnanem nnn
xonxpernsanniom, na ce npymrnena nemanana penexryiy y iennnxama.

107
Hnamenan cmarpa na raxo oorahen noiam ne npomnpyie nerony npnmeny, ryehn ns nnna nynncxy panan
na xoioi ce on noianyie, raxo na npxn xaxo naprnxynasnsanniom orxpnna cymrnny oe nananem pasnonpcnnx
npnmepa, iep ro nnie no nemy `nnonno ceme` ns xor nspacra yxynnocr cnera xao `oprannsam`. Henpennnnnnocr
xperana nonmana y nperxonnnm panninm crynnennma xoin npernocranaiy nponec nonpmene nonmana y
nennnn, uncro ie ncnxonomxa, ynyhn na ro ne snaun xaxo ynosnanane ca nennm nponecom ne nonymra na ce y
nemy carnena nyxnocrHmnnnxannia raxo ne mopa na onpehyie came canpxaie nnn xaxo on pahe xaxe,
unnennne, nero nam npncryn nnma n nennnnnie xoie ce opmnpaiy rnm nononom.
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Hocpencrnom xonaunnx iacrana nocraie ce axrnnan n camocnecran, iep uoneunocr xao
ponnn noiam uonexa nocn `ynnnepsanny xonxpernocr` xao npncyrnocr camoocrnapena xoia
nexn y nenesn snauena ror noima. Ono cymrnncxn ecxonauno orxpnna cnoiy npnpony y
mnomrny xonaunnx nnnnnnnyannsonannx ymona, xoin c osnpom na emnnpnicxe
xapaxrepncrnxe ocraiy xao y ornenany crnapnocrn, nocehn ocehai nyxnocrn n rpeana xao
ycnon camoocrnapnnana. To ie camo ycnonno peueno c osnpom na nnxe norennnie
nncrnonana y ocehaiy, nopnny, npencrann xao yronenocrn y xnnorna crpyiana n snnana,
nox ie npncycrno mncaonor snana nenonono npnmehnnano, raxo na ce ca cnehenem cmncna
cnnx rnx enemenara y casnanany npenosnaie xaxo panr nocroiancrna came nnaiyhe nnunocrn
y nemy, raxo n onai conniannn enemenr xnnyher xoie nma pasym, ronop, cmncaone nnmensnie
n onmrn na npyrnm n npyrauninm xao ca camnm coom ns cee camor sa ono mro nx nanpocro
ysaiamno omoryhana n unnn ynpano rnm n raxnnm nhnma, a ne nexnm npyrnm nnnonnma
nncrnonana. Kon camor Xerena ro nnie ocrana camo nneia na xopnsonry nopnx xea, nero
ce y camopasnarany npennsnnm anannsama nocranana xpos camoxoncrnryncana,
nonpnmaiyhn cne nnme opnce one nyxnocrn xoia he nrn ocnocoena sa onpany cnoone
xoiy ie For, crnapaiyhn cner, nonapno uonexy. Ocnaiane cnoone c rnme ce snna xpos
opasonane.
Xeee)oea couuia)ua meopuia u no)orai pa;v+a v noi
Kana ie Xeren rpaxno onronop na nnrane samro ie uonexy yonmre n norpena cnoona,
xpenyo ie nyrem ncropnicxor pasymenana nyxa npexo pannonannor n camocnecnor yncxor
crnopena xoie nma nyno npano na cnoonno npa. Jom on nnoconie nonnrnxe Hnarona n
Apncrorena naxn npenane na ie nyx cymrnncxn cnoonan y rany-npxann, ri. na npa
cnoony xao nainehy npennocr xoiy crnue y npxanno ypehenoi saiennnnn. Ha rai naunn nyx
ce ncnoana xao oiexrnnannia noiennnaunnx noa y ypehenoi npxannoi saiennnnn y
nonocrn came noe xoia xpos raxno ocrnapnnane nocrnxe na nonasn no ce came, no onor y
non noenor xoia nnie nnmra nono nan cee, xao no anconyrnor nyxa.
108


108
Xeren ncro raxo rnpnn: aber vornehmlich ist die Philosophie jezt wesentlich orthodox; die Stze, die immer
gegolten, die Grundwahrheiten des Chrisienthums werden von ihr erhalten und aufbewahrt... eines Denkens, da
sich geprft hat, erkannt, das wei wie es denkt, und wei, was die endlichn, und was die wahrhaften
Denkbestimmungen sind... hier aber auf der Seitte zu lassen, insofern wir wissenschaftlich verfahren. / (Stuttgart-
Bad-Cannstatt, 1965, S. 207)/ Ho cymrnnn ie pasapano opmooorcua /npanocnanna/ cana du)ocoduia ne camo
ona, ann ona na nonainnme, a ynyhn na ona sacnnna n oesehyie ra cranonnmra, re ocnonne ncrnne
xpnmhancrna, xoie cy ynex nmane cnary... a ro cy ncrnncxa onpehena mnmena xoie sna mra n xaxo ce mncnn...
ro naa na ocrane ynyrap cepe name naxne, yxonnxo nenyiemo nayuno. /4u). pe). II, c. 212-213/ Ty nema
nponsnonocrn rnocrnnnsma nnn penarnnnsannia noxernsma, iep ce ymecro nexe nocenocrn spena `ncnaene
xao ns nnmroa`, no xoioi n y nohn `cne xpane nne npne`, npennaxe nayuna nsncrpenocr n ncrpnna
nornena xoia yremeyie cranonnmre.
143 | a a e

Xeren ie nonasno on rora na y sareuenocrn y npocropy n npemeny uonex n ne pasyme
cacnnm snauai cnoone, n unnn my ce na my ce n ca nom n es ne cxnara ncro, ann xana ocern
na cnoioi xoxn orcycrno npana xoia n snaue nocroiancrno, nanaiyhn y `necpehny cnecr`
ouaianana noima y nemy, ro raxo nna cne nox nponec xoin ie npoyspoxyie ne yne nonpmen.
Tex xana crnoponn xoin npnnanaiy mopannom n nonnrnuxom noperxy npeysmy cnoiy ynory
nounnyhn na cxnaraiy cam nen cmncao, onna crnuy n xey sa nom n pemenocr na ie noxyue.
Hpemna Xeren sacryna xpeannonncrnuxo cranonnmre crnapana n ypehnnana cnera, on
raxohe cmarpa na cy xonaunn ymonn ycnen nacneha rpemnocrn necnoconn na camn on cee
npomnmeno crnapaiy cner, iep nx cama nnxona xonaunocr xao xnnnonoma snor y rome
cnpeuana. Vnpyxnnane cnana y nenamepanann nponyxr yncxnx axrnnnocrn, ann na nema
npymrna ynn ne n ocrnapnnann norennniane xoinma cy onapenn, pasnniaiyhn ce xpos
npymrnene nponece. Cnoconocr xopnmhena ancrpaxnnie, ynopehnnana n nonmana nma sa
pesynrar pasnnxonane mncnn n xea y rexnama na ce nnenn ocrnape. Camocnecr nanaxe
na ce mncnn ynanpen, na xpos ynopehnnane n nponeny xea npxn na ymy nocnennne
nnxonor sanonoanana, ynyhn na ce xnnn ca npyrnm nhnma xoie nx raxohe nocenyiy n ca
xoinma ce naa ycxnahnnarn. 3a ro ie norpeno ycnaiane npannna nonamana y nymn n
noxasnnane onanocrn iannom nopy n mopannom noperxy. V saiennnnn nornyno cenunnx
ocoa, es osnpa xonnxo cy pasymne, ne moxe na yne nn nornyno sanononnx (iep ie iarma
sa crnnanem nasaiaxnna), nox ro moxe y saiennnnn mopannnx ocoa non ycnonom na cy
pasymne. 3a Xerena nyno sanonocrno mopa na nocn oenexie cnoone. Kana uonex sna mra
xenn n ro pannonanno nocrnxe pasnosn sa nesanonocrno ce rye , ie cy cxnarana npanne y
cxnany ca ycnocranennm noperxom n noxnanaiy ce n ca npnnarnnm nnennma, xaxo `ie
noa ncrnncxn noa n cnoonna iennno xao mncneha nnrennrennnia`.
109
3a Xerena ie y
nnrany camonoa xana uonexa noxpehy iennno naronn n xee, a onn nornanaiy non
nnianexrnxy narona n cxnonocrn y ysaiamnom omerany, raxo na ie sanonoanane iennnx
npnpehena xprna sanonoeny npyrnx.
110
Cnyuaine onnyxe camonoe uonexa necrannnsyiy
xao pasymno n rpesneno nhe, naronehn ra na ncnymra creuene npennocrn n ocraie es
xonrpone y cnryanniama ynyrpamne ope nmnynca sa npennocr y ncnoanany.
Ocyiehenocr y camocarnpyhnm naroncxnm nenomnpnnocrnma saxrena ncxopax y cepy
pasyma xoin he mohn na npernocrann ienan naron npyrome n na crannnsyie noy y cxnany ca
saxonnma n npymrnennm noronopnma. Hmnyncnnnocr cysnia nnianor n xomynnxanniy
nononn no npymrna y xome nnana cnna, a yrnnnrapnn npncrynn xoin ne mory na npopauynaiy
cne moryhe cnryannie ocnopanana oner sanpmanaiy na cnamany camonoe, raxo na reopnia
nnrennrenrnnx sanonoanana ry nanasn cnoie ynyrpamne rpannne. Xocon nnrennrenrnn
ann camoxnnn uonex n nae ie nyx y iarnehoi xoxn. 3ao uonex ne moxe na yne cnoonan iep
nnie y crany na necmerano oana sanarxe sor naromnnannx xea y necxnany ca onmrom

109
Ieopr Bnnxenm upnnpnx Xeren, Ocuoeue upme du)o;oduie opraeuoe npaea, Capaieno: Horoc, 1964, crp. 43
110
Hcmo, crp. 41
144 | a a e

noom, iep ie sa cnoony neonxonan xoncncrenran n nnranan npannn n mopannn cncrem
(nncxn crannapn saxona y Coxparono npeme yunnno ie na on nnie nenonao cacnnm pasymno).
Xerenona reopnia npxane nnie yuene o nonnrnuxoi nyxnocrn xoiy nanaxe pasymenane
npxane npema erocnoi ynnnepsannocrn, ri. nnie cnonnna na oiamnanana mra ie nonannx
npxane nyxan na unnn. Cnaxaxo na nannxa nnie nonona iep ce saxrena nnrenexryanna n
mopanna spenocr y emannnnonanocrn n camoxpnrnunocrn. Hnmra nennxo ne mopa na yne
nacrpanocr n npannonannocr xoia npxocn nnacrnma, xao nn synenocr ycnen sacnenenocrn
npenpacynama. Ho Xerenonoi nponenn ynn na nnacrn nmaiy nnme sacnyra n uemhe cy y
npany, neronn noynennnn xoin nm npxoce (mro cy my iaxonncxn nyxonn noceno
samepnnn), maxap noynennnn n ne mopann ynex na yny y sanynn. Xeren ie nopo nnneo na
n came npxane y norneny ypehena nanpenyiy y penocneny cmennnana phannx ca onma,
raxo na nnie ocyhnnao yne mro nsnoce y onrnnai oa nauena (npnmep Coxpara n Hyrepa),
a nenoxopnocr ie xon nera sa ocyny camo y naiooi npcrn npxane y ocrnapenoi cnoonn
saiennnne cnoonnnx nnunocrn. V cnom nnacnnmrny nnunocr nocroin xao pasym iep my ono
omoryhana nocroiancrnen xnnor y iemueny npymrnenor nonoxaia n nanaxeny mecra y
crannnoi saiennnnn. Ty ce crnue npano camonoysnane n nnacr nan coom (ynopennna ca
nererom xoie nncncrnpa na nnacnnuxnm npannma sor nornphnnana nnunocrn). Hapymanane
npana ie nenpanna, n ro xao nenamepno npecryn, a xao namepno npenapa, a ro nernpane npana
pexannnryie ce y npyxany nanoxnane xpos xaxnanane napannne nnn snounnna. Kao
`nerannia nerannie` xasna ie ono mro nornpe npenapy nnn snounn, npnnonehn nonono npany
`noy xoia nernpa camy cee`. Ca naunnom xaxo ce neno ocyhyie, snna ce cyouanane ca
camnm coom y cranany y cnryanniy nponene pann npanne, rne ncnnnnana ysaiamnocr
ymnor iacrna n canecrn xoia yuecrnyie y ocyhnnany nha xome npnnana. Canecr nnie y
uonexonom saxreny na pann mra my ce cnnha, neh na unnn ono sa mra nepyie na ie ncnpanno,
raxo na ie ona ycnon yncxe cnoone. Xnnor y saiennnnn ie cyncrannnianan iep onnxyie
mopanny nnunocr, na cy y cmncny mannecrannie pannonannocrn n noponnna n npxana ono
oxancxo xoie croin nsnan cnaxe reopnie yronopa.
upraea u npaeo
V rpahancxom npymrny xnnor ycmepana ym na ynaxana npennocrn yrenonene y
npxann, re na npomonnmyhn nnune nnene (amnnnie, rexne) nohemo no iannnx nnena
npennyiyhn capanny, xao n moryhnocr sanonoanana crnnannx norpea mro nac nesyiy ys
saiennnny. Ppxana raxo nonpasymena rpn xnace nnn cranexa: noonpnnpennn
(cyncrannnianan), nnnycrpnicxn nnn nocnonno-rpronnncxn (penexcnnan) n npxanna
anmnnncrpannia (ynnnepsanan). V Xerenono noa npycxa monapxnia n npoxparnia nne cy
peopmcxn npenysnmnne n unnonnnnn cy caunnanann saxone n sanpranann npanne
nonnrnuxnx xperana, ann cy nnn nonnoxnn xpnrnnn n y nocnyxy c naponom. Ancrpaxrno
npano y npxann nonpasymenano ie nosnrnnne saxone n nesanncno cyncrno, a nopornnnn cy
na cyhennma nnn ry xao npencrannnnn napona pann iacnnier npenouanana npanne. Fpso
145 | a a e

mnpene orarcrna nononn no npymrnenor naynepnsma, raxo na ie on cmarpao na npxana
naa na npeysme na cee pnry o cnpomamnnma, saienno ca ecnanma n xopnopanniama, raxo
na ce ca nonianem connianne nomohn es nonnxanana paspemana n nnrane xnpona orarnx.
Ppxann ie, xao n nennm nonannnnma, nn, na yxyunnanem nnunnx nnrepeca y onmry
noy oesenn cpehy rpahana. Hnenn n nnrepecn nemaiy cmncna nan npymrnennx onnoca y
xoie crynaiy, na ie cpeha ounronana y nocroiancrny, orarcrny n npnnnn noiennnna. Xeren
nonaie na ie cpeha n noap npannn nopenax, xao n noena cnoie seme (y pary nnn na
cnoprcxom raxmnueny) ann ro nncy xon nera snpxe nnunnx noapa nnn cpencrna sa ycnex
(xao xon Fenrama nnn yrnnnrapncra na nesa nnunor n iannor nnn onmrer ynex nocroin,
xonnxo ron na uonex no cenuan), iep uonex ne moxe na nma nnune nnene es npnxnarana
npymrnennx npennocrn n nncrnrynnia. Moryhn cyxon xoin n nonpasymenann pasnnxe cy
moryhe ie onpannann, iep ie rex y pannonanno cacnnm pasnnienoi npxann mehy nnma nornyn
cxnan. Cnoony ocrnapyie axrnnnocr namnx anena y xpnrnuxnm npencnnrnnannma, re
ocnemrennx nonyxnara xoin nonone no neher cxnana iannnx n nnunnx nnena.
Xeren ce nonyr Hoxa n Pycoa sanarao sa noneny npxanne nnacrn na saxononanny,
nsnpmny n cynepeny. 3axononanna n onpehnnana onmry noy, nsnpmna n ynpanana
npxanom oyxnaraiyhn cnyuaiene no saxon, a cynepena ie nnacr xoncrnrynnonannor
nacnennor monapxa. On ie ono cyiexrnnno xoie cnoiy noy npnnonaie oiexrnnnoi crpann
saxona cranaiyhn nornnc na axre, nomnpyiyhn saxononanny n nsnpmny nnacr xao cnmnon
cynepenocrn napona. Monapx ie nomnpnre n rnanna my ie ynxnnia y onanany
cxnannocrn npxane. 3axononanno reno rpea na npencrana no Xereny oe opasonane n
nonnrnuxn aprnxynncane xnace, xoie n y cxynmrnnn nnn ca sacrynennm naponom.
Hapnamenrapna nnana onronopna ie cranexnma no nnrannma nonomena saxona, a ne
xpaennm mnnncrpnma, a ro oner penarnnnsyie npoecnonannsam sa xoin ce sanarao.
Vnnnepsanna nnn onmra noa ne rpea na ce pxa ca rpenyrnnm pacnonoxenem n
rpenyrnom pacnonoxnnom noom napona. To ie Xeren noxasao npyxanem ornopa no
repnropniannnm nsopnnm oxpysnma, n es npomnpnnana na mecne onope crpanaxa, a
pemene n ce namno y rome na ropnn nom cxynmrnne npencrana noonpnnpenny xnacy
(yrnannom semonocennnxe), nox n nonn npnnao nnnycrpnicxn-nocnonnoi xnacn, re n ce
raxo cnpeunna mannnynannia rnacaunma npexo crpanauxnx onopa xpos nponnauena
nexomnerenrnnx amarepa. Amarepnsam ncro raxo cysnia n nnancnicxa xonrpona
crpanauxnx oprannsannia, xao n craiane na nyr na ce crpanxe orare on yuemha y
nonnrnuxom xnnory seme. Taxohe ie npxao na ie nponaia unnona y noicnn n nonoxaia y
npxann sa cnaxy ocyny.
Hnie crnap npxane na onpehyie y mra he rpahann na nepyiy (Hpxna ie on ne onnoiena na
ne n nna nenocpenno nonesana ca npxannnm npnnynama n xaxnanannma ounrnennor sna),
ann axo ie nexo yuene xoie ce mnpn cynepsnnno, xnenehe n noncrnue na noyny, npxana
rpea na ra sapann. Ppxao ie na ynane n ananrypncre ne rpea yhyrxnnarn, xao nn xopncne
146 | a a e

xpnrnuape, yxonnxo ne npomonnmy omanonaxanaiyhe xapnxarype came npxane. V pary, rne
ie nainnrensnnnnie npncycrno cnecrn o npxann, nonpana ce mopanno snpane ynn, ann on
nnie naiysnnmennia uonexona axrnnnocr, ne cyrepnme ce n ne npxn sa npexo norpean. V
cnonoi nonnrnnn nonyme nonymra na ie ayronomnia npxannor enrnrera nsnan
mehynaponne narone xoiy cxnana (Ocu. upm. du). opr. npaea, npen. nap. 330, crp. 297)
aonnpaiyhn on npanne onronopnocrn xpmene yronopa, ann ro oner ne snaun saronapane
rorannrapnocrn, xao mro ne snaun na noiennnan camo xao unan npxane nocenyie npennocr.
To naxn camo sa npxany y xoioi ie cnoona nornyno ocrnapena, a nemoxparnia cama no cen
nnie y crany na ncnynn nonoan ycnon cnoone, ycnen uera ie nonono n saxonom
orpannunrn nnancnicxe nnnoe marepnianne nonpmxe, xao n ynecrn xonrpony ne camo
nonnrnuxe, nero n nnancnicxe mohn nonnrnuxx naprnia. Ppxana ie ononnxa noxne nonnpy
nene nncrnrynnie, a on rpahancxor npymrna ce pasnnxyie no nyxy xoin ie npoxnma, xao n no
mepn npanennocrn y onmroi pacnonenn orarcrna. Cnaxaxo na ramna crpana onor sanarana
sa cnoony moxe na ce nnnn n y nenpniarnnm rononnma (yxonnxo ce caonmrana xaxo
ncropnia onpannana one xoin ycnenaiy, maxap nenonann ns nomnx noyna), onaxne n ce
onpannano morao ynyhnnarn npnronop Xereny sa aporanrnocr npeneperanana snounna, xao
n onai na n cnennno xaxo ie moryhe na ie npeynennuao xapaxrep ynxnnia npxannor
ycrpoicrna (iep ie nanonno nnme noneo nnacr nero mro nonymra noap yxyc). To yxasyie n na
xpnsy camor onpannanana nopa, xao n cnexynarnnnor xopnsonra nnhena `Fora npanne`
mehyrnm, ro nnie es ocehaia sa onmry onronopnocr, maxap ry crnapn craiane nomnie nero
mro ncmo xenenn. `Kpnsa reonnxeie` ie sanpano onmrn nspas xpnse y xoioi ce uoneuancrno
namno, re xao na ce ynpano sor moryhe aporanrnocrn Xeren n nonyxao y norneny
peannsannie nonmana rpannna anconyrnnx npxanornopnnx rennennnia, ocranaiyhn
Foxnioi npomncnn came ncropnicxe ncxone. Vocranom, Xeren nnrne nnie nonpxanao phano
nonamane ynn na nnacrn, a na on peannor npxannor ycrpoicrna xnnora sanncn n xapaxrep
cnnx ocnonnnx enomena yncxe ersncrennnie, ro ie nnax epmenenrnuxn neorxnonnna
unnennna. Vnpano re unnennne xoie nopen cynrnnnor neoromncre Iyrana Cnnepra, xoie ie
nncnpeno ycnenao na cynonnpa n canpemenn mncnnnan Xanc-Ieopr Ianamep y Hemauxoi, xao
n nehnna canpemennx pycxnx mncnnnana nanac (Hnan Hnn, A. u. Hocen, Bnannmnp
Inaroen, Maprapnra Cnnanriena, Hnernna Pauena, Hanen Jenrenennu Foixo, Annpei
Tamunian, Oner Cymnn, Ceprei 3mnixnoncxn, nrn.), peaxryennsyiyhn nynncxom
epmenenrnxom noima cnecr o neronnm npernocranxama, ysnnxy Xerenono connianno n
nonnrnuxo cranonnmre y xocmoc naicanpemenninx nneia nanamnnne.




147 | a a e

Mapucucmuuua meopuja pvumea u nouumuue

Mapxcnsam ie reopnia nasnana marepnianncrnuxnm n exonomcxnm nerepmnnnsmom, rne cy
menrannn n nsnuxn enemenrn ynpyxenn y npymrnennm xperannma. Cama Mapxcona
reopnia casnana nmana ie nparmarnuxy opmy (nonyme n ony `nannnor peannsma` onaxana),
xoia ie yremeena na marepnianncrnuxnm cxnarannma. Hpoyuanana nneinnx onnoca ca
cranonnmra npornnpeunocrn, xao xon Xerena, ry cy rpernpana xao nemro `npasno n
nepnepsno` nnn nnxomnarnnnno ca peannomhy. Mapxcnre nnie cynnme onrepehnnana
Xerenona nanomena na ie ro npannno noima xoie ce mena ca nponynnanem nornena n
saxnarom y cymrnne, raxo na npann cmncao anconyrne nneie n nnie nspaxen y nnoconin
npana nnn enomenonornin nyxa, nero y naynn nornxe xao nonmany anconyrnor xopnsonra
nncrnonana. Fynyhn na nn Mapxc nn Enrenc nncy nnn cncremarcxn mncnnonn nonyr
Xerena, nerona connianna reopnia xao nnrennrnnnno nacrpoiena, n nnie morna na onronapa
nnxonnm casnainnm cxnonocrnma n nnrepecnma nnacrnre anpmannie. Pa ie nno npyraunie
onn n pasronerno ncnoanann cnoie nneie n namepe, a ne n ns rora caunnanann anarxe sa
yoinra neicrna cnpanana `penonynnonapnnx mamnna`, xao mro ie no nosnarn
xomynncrnuxn mannecr nexnapncana cyxoa y nme pannnuxe xnace, xao mro ie n rsn.
`Honepnno caonmrene`
111
npenopyxe pannnuxoi naprnin Hpcxe na ce ocnana na
mehynannonanny mpxny npema Enrnesnma y penonynnonapnom nenonany, sacnrypno cacnnm
nan nomena nayuno nsrpahenor nornena na npenasnnaxene npymrnene opmannie
xannrannsma `pacrom nponyxrnnnnx cnara` xoie cnnom nnacrnre ersncrennnie nponsnone ony
nanerocr xoiom ce cama opmannia ypymana n ornapa npanennnin nornen na ycrpoicrno
npymrna nnhen xao connianncrnuxn.
Panexo on rora na ie Annon nexa oehana sema (nororono sa Hpne), a n Xeren ie
nnxonnm nonehnm npannnm axrnma samepao ycxorpynocr n cyxene xopnsonre y norneny
onmrocrn nocroiancrna ersncrennnie xoin cy cynnme onxopaunnann moryhnocrn rnauena n
ysypnannie yncxe cnoone y nncrnrynnonannsannin napnamenrapnsma, ann nonaxo
pyranny enrnecxy ncropniy ro ne n nnmano ynanpennno es nnianora xoin n
nonpasymenao nperpecane neypanrnunnx rauaxa n menana xapaxrepa npxannor npana na
oe. Ca rnme ne xenn na ce xaxe xaxo Mapxcone enaopannie y nonnrnuxoi exonomnin
nncy cncremarnune n nynnnne, ann exonomcxn uonex ie uncra nononnunocr y pasopenocrn

111
V nonponoi anannsn ror omaner Mapxconor nonnca ns 1870. ronnne Oooopv Couuia)oe+orpamcre
paouu:re napmuie Hpcre cnaxaxo ie moryhe nsnahn na ie: Honepnno caonmrene nncao uonex xoin ncnonena
nonnrnuxy nnoconiy xpainer nonynrapnsma... ca iennom nnnnunom ornopenomhy es npecenana... n
npencrana xnacnuan npnmep nonynrapncrnuxe nonnrnuxe raxrnxe xoia cnoiom pannxannomhy anrnnnnnpa
nonnrnuxy npaxcy raxnnx iesynra ca nennne xaxnn cy nn Faxynnn n Hennn... /xao/ anconyrnn cyiexr onnuen
y naprnicxom nonnrnuxom npxy, xoin nnpexrno ycmepana nenarnocrn nponerepniara... n nounna na memany
nnxraropcxnx n necnorcxnx onnamhena... (Hnxona Mnnomennh, Aumuuo+uie +aprcucmu:rux uoeo)oeuia:
Fomennsam, crannnsam, mapxcnsam, Feorpan, 1990., crp. 310-313)
148 | a a e

opasonnnx, xynrypnnx n nyxonnnx cepa (xoie cy y anrnocaxconcxom cnery snauainnie
pynnnpane nero y npyrnm nenonnma uoneuancrna), n xoie ce nexpercxn yxnnaiy xao
nepenonynnonapnn nspasn cnecrn ypxoacxe xnace.
Enncremonornia, xao n anrpononornia Mapxconnx `Pannx panona` (xpnrnxa nemauxe
nneonornie, ienpeicxo nnrane, nonan, xpnrnxa enomenonornie nyxa nrn.), nocenyie ierxocr
sanemapnnana nopexna came noiane enomena xoie pacnpana, xao n xoncrarannie xoie
nemaiy nemoncrparnnny rexnny n uax ce n excrensnnno nornuxn yrnannom noxasyiy xao
neonpxnne. Pennmo Mapxcona resa o rsn. `ponnom nhy uonexa` ie y xonrexcry nocranana
nneie nexoncncrenrna y nosnnany na Apncrorenony resy na `uonex paha uonexa` (a on nonaie
`n Cynne`). Ty renepnunocr Apncroren yonmre ne n pasymenao y xonrexcry
nomnnanncrnuxe rese o generatio aequivoca xao Mapxc, nanme y cnponom onnxy
nonreopnicxe nenopahenocrn, iep ie y nnrany reneparnnna cnara ynyrpamne cnpxe nnn
enrenexnie xoia nornue on mncaonocrn nenoxpenyror noxperaua xoin xnnn `nsnan sanner
nea.` Apncrorenon `emnnpnsam` ie ry nar non npernocranxom npcnnx pasnnxonana n
onannnane re npernocranxe onanyie n enrenexniy, ri. cam ynyrpamnn cmncao xoin noiam n
nocn. Jennaxo raxo cy n npne cymrnne no nemy nnunocrn xao Coxpar, Kannia, Hnaron, na
nnie moryhe ananorno saxyunnarn na ie Onai xoin ry npny cymrnny omoryhana nemro
esnnuno, na mra ie iom y cnoioi nnoconin pennrnie y mnpoxnm nprama nasnauanaiyhn
nenornunocr arensma yxasnnao n Xeren, ca npnxnaranem cneroorauxe n xacnnie paspahnnane
cxonacrnuxe nneie o uncroi nenarnocrn yma xao ncnpannor cranonnmra. Vm ie xon cee onna
xana mncnn n cxonno mnmeny nenyie, a ro snaun onronapa Foxniem nncrnonany onaxne n
nornue cna nerona onronomxa yremeenocr n xomnerennnia es npnmncnn n nsmnmornna.
V pacnpanama oxo nncrpnynnie npennocrn y exonomcxom cnery Mapxc o conniannom
noperxy pacnpana es rnx nonreopnicxnx samena resa n nonpnnnuno cnrypno, na ie paspana
nauenne ynxnnie xannranncrnuxe exonomnie nanexo cynncnnia on neonpxnnnx resa
neronor ncropnicxor marepniannsma, cem axo ce ne nperymaue xao `ersncrennnianne
marepniannie` nnn enomenonomxe rpahe xoie nnax ynanpen canpxanaiy opme nnacrnre
narocrn. Taxno cxnarane n oner nno nnoconia ca nrnnm oenexiem nnrepnperarnnnnx
saxnara, raxo na ce nnxaxo ne n morno npenopyunnarn oncrpannnane nnrepnperannia n
cnohene crnapn na oroeno uynno onaxnno menane cnera. Cnaxaxo na ie nainaxme ro
npocro npornacnrn nenpnxnarnnnm reopniama n crnapnma npomnocrn, ann one cy nocnne
cnercxo-ncropnicxe noxpere xpos unran nnanecern nex n xrenn mn ro nnn ne, nyoxo ymne y
ncropnicxy cynnny cnonencxnx napona n npxana, xoie cy xpenyne y npanny ocrnapnnana
nnxonnx npenopyxa n samncnn.
Hon Hnamenan cmarpa na ie Mapxcy nomno sa pyxom na nocranaiyhn axrnunocr y
nnnamnuxo crane xpos narnamanane `uynnor enemenra` y nponyxnnin yncxe cnecrn,
saysme nosnnniy sa iacnnie nocmarpane yspoxa rsn. `npymrnennx rpancopmannia` n rnme
nonpnnece osnnnioi paspann reopnia npymrnennx rpancopmannia yonmre. Penyxnnie n
149 | a a e

neexrnocrn cy sanpano nanoxnannne, ynyhn na ie pan na oiexrnnnom noimy oanan
nnme-mane neponocroino, es osnpa na onmrn npesnp npema naynn xao `ypxoacxoi
rnopennnn`. Hneia ncropnicxor pacra nponyxrnnnocrn xao n marepniannnx n ymnnx
`nponsnonnnx cnara` mnpn nonpyuie cnecrn o nneiama xoie rapanryiy nnmn nnno ocnoiene
cnoone y oxpernocrn nocmarpana nponema n crarycno, xao n npema nonoxaiy axrepa y
camom nponecy pana. Ono mro ry onna remeno naa na yne cranano y sarpane iecre
nnrepnonnpan npesnp npema pany na noimy xoin nonocn pemena, npema cnenniannsanniama
n excneprcxnm enncremarnxama xoie nnxaxo ne mory na nocneiy y sanemapnn nonoxai, xaxo
ron na ce samnmana nnsnia npymrnenor nanpenonana.

















150 | a a e

0uuocoquja pvumea u euhene noceuoe c+ucua uenome v
ucmopujcuo+ vxv
(aonpnnocn pycxe nc1opnocomnje)


Canpemena npymrnena reopnia y Pycnin nmana ie unrano orarcrno cnoinx
npencrannnxa nanasehn unran nns nesa ca nnsanrnicxnm n anrnuxnm nepnonom xao
saiennnuxy merponarniy npymrnennx opmn. Taxo ie saxnayiyhn nsnopnoi penennnin
Xerena xon nnxona, xao npoecopa Mocxoncxor npxannor ynnnepsnrera nmena
Homonocona, pasnniena ncropnococxa n npxanornopna mncao y nocrconiercxoi Pycnin no
sannnnnx nncnna. Hanen Jenrenennu Foixo ie ca Onerom Cymnnom, Annpeiem Tamunianom n
Cepreiem 3mnixnoncxnm, ornopno npexo pasmnmana unopencxor n Hocena onai xocmoc
nneinnx raapnra pycxe mncnn, xoie ie ecnomrennn penonynnonapnn sanoc nornyno
sacenno n npexpno nacnarama cacnnm npnraunie npcre. Oner Cymnn ie nsnpmno
pexoncrpyxnniy nnianexrnxe cmncna ocnonnnx nyxonnnx xareropnia nasanonana n
nanpenonana, ncrnuyhn npnmar nyxonnocrn xao xerenniancxy cynnny napona, es osnpa
na rpuennre ornope n opmanna srymnanana y npornnpeuehnm nosnnniama. Annpei
Tamunian ie nynom reopnicxom cnarom yxasao na cnexynarnnnn xopnsonr Xerenone nornxe
xao na nsnopno npoiannnane xpnmhancxe nneie n nyxonno onpxonene noiennnna, a
Ceprei 3mnixnoncxn na neron conniannn craryc n xomnnxonanocr nonoxaia y nocrmonepnom
npymrny enoxannocrn rnoannsma nnn nnxnnnsma nnxpycrpannie narypanncrnuxnx
oiexrnnnsannia y crpyxrype cnecrn xoie pacranaiy nnunocr. Tennennnie opmannsannie
mnrornopnnx crpyxrypa crnapnocrn nmne cy ynopeno ca nponyenom cnmonnuxom
ynorom nspasa y rexnn xa rpancnennenrnom, xoie cy n na reopnicxoi ocnonn opmynncann n
rpo Ceprei Hnxonaennu Tpyenxoi (1862-1905) ca ncrpaxnnanem cmncna noiannnana
noroca y nenornopnoi, rorono nnacrnuno nspaxenoi Beronoi ynosn y cnercxoi ncropnin, xao
n Hnan Anexcannponnu Hnn y Xerenonoi nnoconin xao yueny o xonxpernocrn Fora n
uonexa npema nponyenom pasymenany xerenniancxor noxyunnana opmarnnnor momenra
y nyxonnoi xynrypn. Hocpenonane noima ca ncrnnom crnapn, pasmarpaiyhn iom y mnanocrn
`cne ase nerarnnnor pasnoia enponcxe mncnn nocnenna uernpn nexa`, ncxymanao ie ca
nsysernnm samaxom pononauennnx nnosonie cneiennncrna n pycxor onronomxor
xocmnsma, Bnannmnp Bnannmnponnu Cononion.
Bnaanunp Cononjon (1853-1900) ie pononauennnx nonnie pycxe nnoconie.
Hpemanmn ase on nxonoopcrna, npexo nensma, nanrensma no arensma n marepniannsma, on
ie xpos xpnrnxy ancrpa-xrnnx nauena sacnonao xonxpernsonane opme npncryna pasmarpany
ncrnne, nmenyiyhn nx nnoconiom cneiennncrna. Taxo ie pasnoi on ouaianana noima, npexo
151 | a a e

nosnrnnne nayxe no ancrpaxrne nnoconie n nene xpnrnxe ynnnen y neron noxropcxn pan
Kpu;a ;anaoue du)ocoduie, xoin ie ca ycnexom onpanno na Herponrpancxom ynn-nepsnrery
1874. ronnne. Kpnrnxyiyhn nnanaiyhn nosnrnnnsam, on ce y Kpumuuu ancmparmuux ua:e)a
sanoxno sa ynnnepsanny cnnresy nayxe, nnoconie n pennrnie xoia omoryhana
npenasnnaxene ancrpa-xrnnx snana n nonymra nnoconin na nocnyxn xnnory. Ecrercxn
momenar ry ie npncyran y saxreny na xnanne nnococxe xareropnie yny npoxere
reonomxnm noimonnma, ca remnepamenrannomhy xoia n morna na yne nocrnrnyra
npnmenom reyprnie. Hcropnicxn xonxpernsonano ro ie snaunno npnmeny ncnxacrnuxe
reopnie y pasma-rpannma. Ha nerona Hpeoaeana o Boeo:oeeumev 1878., (xoia ie nocehnnao
neo Herponrpan), nenocpenno ce nacnanaiy ornenn Henoma v npupoou (1889), rne
nonpaxanane y Xpncry nna ncraxnyro npe cnera xao yuecrnonane y Beronom neny
nacxpcanana mprnnx, nanme xao nsrpahnnane xpama y nnacrnroi renecnocrn. Tome ie
ycnennno Onpaeoaeane ooopa (1894), orpomno neno ernuxe nponemarnxe xoie ie nacrano y
xperany npema napacnnm mopannnm nponemnma y penannin ca nonnrnuxnm, rne ie neh
npnnpemana nneia o reoxparnin ynyhnocrn. Ecrercxa pasmarpana raxo npencranaiy
nerone crynnie o nenom y npnponn, Onumu c+ucao v+emuocmu (1900), xao n Tpu pa;eoeopa
o pamv, npoepecv u rpaiv ceemcre ucmopuie (1889-1900), ca xoinma ie oxonuao n nncane, a n
xnnor. Ecrercxa nosnnnia Cononiona ie opmnpana npema crany na ie cam nam xnnor axr
ecrercxor crnapanamrna, re na ce cmncao crnapanamrna nnnn y npeepennniannom crany
npema cymrnncxn nenom xao n opmanno yonmranaiyhem xpnrepniymy xoin npernocrana
canpxnncxe momenre. Onn noce ony cnary ncropnicxor nyxa, xoiy ie iom iennno y crany na
ncnon reyprnicxa opma ocmnmanana crnapnocrn, caxnmaiyhn raxo na nnuno naueno
ersncrennnie nsnopne nnocrasn ne camo yncxor oncranxa. Onmrn cmncao ymernocrn raxo
nonpasymena pasnopanancxe momenre noiannnana nenore y cnery, ann rexna xa rpancne-
nenrnom xon nera ie ona cnna xoia ce xoncrnrynme n emonnonannom nsrpannom nyxa, raxo
na omoryhana n nponope y sarnopenocr xonxpernnx ncropnicxnx opmn ncrnnnror n nenor,
xpos rpancopmannie n rena n nyxonnnx ynnna, no cne nehe nnsnne cnerorpoinunoi
nnocrasn nenore n ncrnne y xoioi ce saoxpyxyie.
Hanen Anexcanaponnu mnopencxn (1882-1937) ie na rpary Cononiona ncrnnao
naxnocr nsrpanne nnrerpannor snana n cneoyxnarnor rnennmra iennncrna crnapnocrn xoie
npxynn y `Cryy n sacnnnany ncrnne` xao mepn ycanpmenocrn npanocnanne reonornie.
Marncrapcxnm panom O ovxoeuoi ucmuuu (1911), yrpo ie nyr onpann ienne on naionmnn-
inx, a n naisnauainninx noxropcxnx nnceprannia Cmvo u ;acuueane ucmuue (1914) na
Mocxoncxoi nyxonnoi axanemnin, y xoioi ie pasnno nneie o cneiennncrny xpos ienan ecrercxn
nnaysnnnan xonopnr. Jennncrno pennrnie n ancrpaxrnor snana ca ynepenem o nnxonoi
nynoi carnacnocrn, ocrnapeno ie y nnanaecr opnrnnannnx nncama, mro naie n narnny iennor
anrnuxn oopmenor crnna. Cnery ce cynpocrana Hoeoc xao nerono naueno, a xynrypa ce
nnnn xao cnecna opa, ca nacroianem cnera na ce npema nemy ypannorexn, raxo na yxynno
yncxo crnapanamno opmnpa nuev+o-cdepv, oprannsyiyhn marepniy xoia ce nanasn nan
152 | a a e

uonexa. To n snaunno na n ce nonpxanana mnnnmanno uernoponnmensnonanna nepnennnia,
xoia nma y nnny cmncao xonaunocrn nnn npeme y neronoi crnapanauxoi nnmensnin. To ie
raxna npernocranxa, xoiom n ce ca yxnnanem iennonnmensnonanne xynrypno-
pannonanncrnuxn saysere nosnnnie nepcnexrnne nnn cnnxe nynne, orxpnnane crnapn xaxne
cy y eneprercxn noxyunnanoi nnmensnonannocrn, xaxo ro npenopyuyie n Cn. An. Hanne y
Hoc)auuuu Edecuu+a (3, 14-18): "Hpexnanam xoena cnoia npen Onem Iocnona namera
Hcyca Xpncra...na nam nane na oia:ame Pyxom neronnm y vuvmpaune+ :oeierv, na ce
Xpncroc niepom ycenn y cpua eaua, na ncre, yxopnienenn n yremeenn y yann, mornn
pasymiern ca cnnma cnernma mra ie uupuua n ovruua, n ovouua n eucuua."
Anocrponpaiyhn ony anocroncxy nopyxy o norpen sa meramoposnpanem n nyxa n rena,
unopencxn nnie rexno npaneny nexor opmanno canpmenor cncrema, neh xnnory c Forom
y creuennm snannma, saxnayiyhn neronnm naronarnnm eneprniama. Ha nnxonom rpary
sanonien ie n naunn carnenanana xoin nnme ne moxemo na rymaunmo xao sanemapnn y nno
xom cmncny: "Cna ie npnpona nponyxonena, cna ie xnna, y nennnn n nenonnma. Cne ie
nonesano rainnm cnonama mehycono, cne nnme saienno ienno c npyrnm. Henpniarecxa n
narornopna nenonana nny ca cnnx crpana. Hnmra nnie neneicrneno; ann nnax, cna nenonana
n mehynenonana crnapn-cymracrna-nyma nmaiy y ocnonn npcry renenarnie, xoia nenyie
nsnyrpa, cnmnarnuxo cponcrno...Cnaxa crnap ce unnn snauainniom nero mro ona ro rpyo-
emnnpnicxn iecre.On cnera ouexyiem uyno. H nnmra ce ne moxe yunpcrnrn, xonauno
yrnpnnrn. Tai cner iecre ynex rexyhn, ynex nnaiyhn, ynex rpenepehe nony-nhe, a sa nnm,
nsa nera, - xao nasnyx nsnan seme y xapxom nonneny - rpenepehnm n xonennnm n
nonnoxannm xonrypama ocernno oxo npospena opvev crnapnocr...To ie crnxnina moh xoia ne
nosnaie nn, nanpesane xoie ne iana cee iep ne sna xaxo na ce iann, uncra moryhnocr xoia
nema nnuer crnapnor. Ona naie npennxar cnerornopauxor cyhena: "Hexa yne!" Ann mra
"Hexa yne"? Hpnpoxom ce onpehyie peannocr nonmera /nonnexeher/, ann camo nonmer,
cnoiom nneannom nanomhy onpehyie rnopauxn npenon norennnie y arm. Hneia - ero mra mopa
na yne nonmer. H camo npncyrnocr nneie y nyxy npaua unnn nerony rnopauxy moryhnocr
crnapnom. Hneia xoiy mncnn npau ycmepana nerony moh, naie onpehenocr neronom nanopy.
Ann n cama nneia saxrena npxau xoin ie yunpmhyie. Hneia ce nxcnpa camo y peun. Camo
peu, maxap n esnyuno nsronopena, maxap camo norennnianna peu, nana xao nanpesane
rnacnnx mnmnha (y xpainem cnyuaiy xao npyro mnmnhno ocehane), camo ona nxcnpa mncao
na nneiy. Camo y peun ce oiexrnnnpa n sanonia onpehenocr noe...Hpnsnany marnie, xao
ocoeno nnococxe cnoconocrn, onronapa naponna npencrana o casnany y npocnereny
npaua. Inoceonomxo snauene epoca xao cpencrna na ce casna ynyrpamna cymrnna crnapn,
xao onora mro naie na ce noraxne nainnma peannocr, iecre napanno yanna excrasa
uaponaxa, xana uaponax casnaie cymrnny npnpone n y cee npnma neny nainnmy
peannocr. Ono mro casnaie - Hnaronona nneia - iecre rauno cnarane nmena, uniy ynyrpamny
cnny npau nocrnxe y cnom uapany. H ra nynonaxna nmena raxohe ce onnoce npema onunnm
nmennma-nasnnnma xao Hnaronone nneie npema npasnnm pasymcxnm noimonnma...npe cnera
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nneie - rai cpennmnn sanpran Hnaronone xoncrpyxnnie - sa pasym nmaiy nne pasnnunre
rauxe ocnonna. One cy n opyha casnana ncrnncxn nncrnyiyher, ann one cy ncro raxo n
casnanana peannocr. Hneie cy ono mro xaxo-raxo iecre cyiexrnnno, ann one cy n ono mro ie
oiexrnnno, one cy nneanne, ann one cy n peanne."/H. unopencxn, C+ucao uoea)u;+a, Frn.,
2000. crp. 14-30/ Onai cnmonnuxo-mnrocan cmncao iecre n pyxononehn xao rexnnuxn
opranon (xao snainocan n sanarcxn) xoin ce ynpyxyie ca npoxnneno anconyrnnm, a xoin
remeno ncxasyie cnnc Hrouocmac (1922). Opnyra nepcnexrnna xoia ce xao `uernpra
nnmensnia` youana y nynncxoi npernocrannn nxonorpanie, npernocrana no cen
npncyrny nepcnexrnnnocr nary y onronomxom ecrercxom cnoiy npenmernocrn, raxo na cy n
opma n canpxai y nxonnunom cnnxapcrny nonpxann npnmapnnm crenenom peannrera
nncrnonana. Mnorocnoinom ncnpennerenomhy ouynana ce nnocrasnn xapaxrep yncxor
nyxa y cepn npnxasa na rorono nenocpenan naunn, mro unnn nanoncxn neo nocna oxo
anaromnie iesnxa n nayxe, nare y nepcnexrnnama cnmonnuxnx onnca, a onn ynase npexo
opranonpoiexnnia y nayxy o crpyxrypama nmenonana n nmaiy cnoi npymrnenn xnnor n
yrnnai. Ho ysopy na npnponne oprane, uonex naa rexnnuxn na ocmncnn one oprane xoie he
my omoryhnrn na nenyie na npnpony npema onnm naicnpcncxonnninm n nainsnopnninm
npannnnma, xoia ce noxasyiy xao npannna cymrnncxe nenore nsnecena npexo onmrer cmncna
camor xapaxrepa xnnora. V rom cmncny ocnemranane npernocranxn na xoinma nounna
rexnnxa nocn casnainn xapaxrep, nopen acnexra ycnemnocrn y npnmenn, iep ca raxnnm
xoncrpyncannma mn cne oe pasymenamo crpyxrypy namer concrnenor oprannsma, ynasehn
y nynne nsa nsnuxnx narocrn, re nocraiemo ocnocoennin sa oa ypehnnana npymrna y
xome ce sarnuemo. Bacnnranane nepnennnie ie ry naimann nonrax, iep cmncao no
unopencxom n iecre y oprancxom nporpecy xoin ce nacrana na rexnnuxn, nonehn yncxom
ycanpmanany xeos xomynnxanniy ca saiennnnom (caopnocr iemuena npe cnera y
nncrnrynnin Hpxne), na nyry xa nennxom xpaiy cnnx crnapn. Bacnnranane y onaxany
npernocrana n neronane naxne na camnm crnapnma, y cne oem ocnocoanany sa
carnenanane nneia ncnon nynncxor xapaxrepa npncyrnocrn npexo camnx noiana xao raxnnx.
Anexcej meoaoponnu Aocen (1893-1988) ie nasnao unopencxor `nnocoom
xnnora n npaxce`, iep ra ie npe cnera sannmana moryhnocr axrnnnor cnyxena ynnma,
ynyhn na ie xao npornannx sa crannncrnuxnx opauyna ca nencromnmennnnma, nopen
npoiexra ocmnmanana rpanccnnpcxe xenesnnne, xao npann myuennx xoin he 1937. na yne
ycmphen npnenom ersexynniom, na ce ann naunnnma noniana iona ns mopcxnx anrn, ca iom
unrannm nnsom orxpnha n ycnemnnx narenara. Cam Hocen, xao n Hnan Hnn pannie, raxohe
nnie morao na nserne ompasy n nporone ranamner crannncrnuxor pexnma, ann ra ro nnie
cnpeunno na nponyn cranonnmra unopencxor, nororono y onronomxoi n ecrercxoi cepn.
On ie nsrpanno unran ncnxacrnuxn xopnsonr ocehana cnera y canesy mysnxe, nnoconie,
yann n manacrnpa, nnmyhn orpomny neceroromny ncropniy anrnuxe ecrernxe n
penecanca, xao n nns crynnia nocnehennx nponemarnnn nnianexrnxe mnroca n ymernnuxnx
opmn (1928-1934), napounro opahaiyhn naxny na `mysnxy xao npenmer nornxe` (1927).
154 | a a e

Vnyrpamna merononornia xoia n caunnana cpne nsnarana crnapnocne npenmernocrn ie
nnianexrnuxa, xao ona xoia nonpasymena `macy pasiamnena n noxasa` y cnoinm
npernocranxama y ycnocranannma xperana. Ona my ie omoryhnna na carnena n rpenerno
npornnpeuie y cnaxom xnnornom nopnny, ynyhyiyhn ra na panan ncropnie norahana, rne ce
carnenana peannocr nocroiana xoia y ncropnin n nacraie. Hneannsam on carnenana npe cnera
xao yuene o nmanenrno-reneonomxom camopasnoiy crnapn n nocrana ra na npny nnnniy
pasmarpana, cacnnm y Xerenonom nyxy, raxo na ie nesa nsmehy nncrnonana n casnana npe
cnera canpxaino nornuxa nnn nnianexrnuxa y crnapnom yspounom cmncny. Anannsa cnnx
Hnarononnx nnianora no ie nporpam xoin ie oanno remenro n cxpynynosno, nynnxyiyhn
n nnacrnre npenone xoin cy n nanac ysopnn sa pycxo ronopno nonpyuie. Tpea nonarn n na
my ie sor npenopyunnana anena Hnnone crynnie o Xereny onemoryhena npxanna
xapniepa y nnoconin, ann ce on npocro npeanno na nnonorniy n nacranno nae.
Hornuxa nnianernxa cnexynarnnnnx cranonnmra y nainnmnm cnoinm momenrnma
nnoconie mysnxe carnennna ie n xao reonomxa, ca conniannnm snauaiem npecrannnsonane
xapmonnie, rne ce ncropnicxn camopasnniaiyha nneinocr nneia y norneny cmncna casnana
ouynornopyie y reny npymrnenor oprannsma, nonpasymenaiyhn n xomnnerny connianno-
exonomcxy crnapnocr nyxa npemena, xoia ie nna yrnannom nerarnnna. Xnnena
moponomxa oiexrnnannia nneinor cranonnmra nyxa, a nenocpennnie peueno, xao raxny
npcry neronor nspasa, rne ie cne ynyrpamne nocrano cnoamnnm n cne cnoamne
ynyrpamnnm, nnme n nema norpee na ce nonnrnuxn anraxyie yuehn npnmepom. V
neprnxannoi n xopnsonrannoi nnnamnnn onrnuxnx nponeca y ncropnin, sanoniaiy ce xaxo
opmannn, raxo n marepniannn enemenrn sa xoncrnrynniy npannnnor saysnmana crana
(nnococxa, onmrenayuna n connianna asa nnrepnperannie onronomxor nspasa). Ha
npnmepy mysnxe raxo on nanasn nnnnnresnmanny mysnunocr (yre), xao mysnuxy
maremarnxy nonieny ns anannse ecxonauno mannx enemenara, xao mro ie moryha ecrercxa
nnsypa cxynnrypanne acrponomnie Hnarona n nnraropeiana y `naiany noimona`, ynopennna
ca rorcxom xnacnxom Tome Axnnncxor n manyaxrypnom nnoconiom Hoxa n Xiyma,
nnnycrpnicxom rnoceonorniom Kanronom nnn nanoneononcrnom unxreonnm. Taxo on y
nonesnnany xapaxrepncrnunnx npra xoie unne onpeheny remarnxy, moxe na yunnn
oneparnnnnm n cnnrarme xoie ce na npnn nornen mory yunnnrn n necynncnnm: eynanna
xapmonnia (cpennenexonnn npxnenn perncrpn, a raxohe enoxa opranyma n nncxanra),
apoxno-nporecranrcxa meransnxa Faxa, poxoxo Monapra, rpahancxa npoxparnia mysnxe
Cen-canca n nmneparopcxn apoxo Inasynona, eprcononcxo-panrepcxa omrpnna, maxap n
yonmre es cnare, ocehainocr Pencnia n Panena, mncrnuxo cnemoryhcrno nnancnicxor
xannrana xon Barnepa n Cxpianna. /A. u. Hocen, 4op+a, cmu)i, eipareuue, Mocxna,
1995., crp. 361 (rn. Hcmopu ocmemu:ecrux v:euu)/ Cnaianem ymne cnnxe ca onaxennm
canpxainma, on ie yxasao na unnennny noniana rsn. cmncaone cnnxe /nnococxe
cnmnonnxe nneie/ xao carnacnocrn ymnor n uynnor canpxaia, xao orenornopanaiyhe onaxane
nocrnrnyro ncranuananem uyna, xoia cy ysnnrnyra nsnan oroenor cnyxena
155 | a a e

perncrponannma cnoamnnx nonpaxaia npema rnnonornin pannonannocrn onpehenom
onmrnm uynom. Tai xerenoncxn pannonannn nepnnxr nonpasymena sananocr npenmerana
ncxyunno no cnera oiexara (xaxo ie ro cnoienpemeno nmenonao n Hnxonai Fephaien), xao
n nenpnmerno ncropnicxo sacrpannnane y xony xa enoxn anapxnunnx nmnynca rexnnuxe
meransnxe y xoiy ie sanananem y nonornsannie, yonmre narypannsam n oiexrnnnsam,
ymna nonnia enponcxa nnoconia. Cnmnon ie raxo onpehenn einoc xoin ce nanasn sanoxen n
y onom npyrom y neonpehenom nnoicrny, xao ncrocr y mnoronpcnocrn npema xoioi ce
ycarnamanaiy npenmer n cmncao, caunnanaiyhn nnoconiy nnianexrnxe mnra xoiy ie Hocen
xaxohe cmarpao nocrynxom sa yrnphnnane npnmopnniannnx ecrercxnx crpyxrypa. To ie nspas
nnocrasnor xapaxrepa nha, ri. uyno nnn anconyr nnunocnor nncrnonana, xoin nonesyie
renecnocr n ono ncropnicxo. Hocpencrnom peun rnme ce npnxasyie uynecna ncropnia ca
nonymranem nnunocnor oenexia y cnom anconyrnom yremeeny y norocnom
orenornopenom yxasnnany Cnere Tpoinne, xao moryhnocr ornapaiyher nyra nxonorpanin
snauena n cmncny nmenonana, mysnuxom onnemennnany xocmoca n npxanornopnom
yunpmhnnany narpnornsma npniarecrna n connnapnocrn. To na ie nneia ecxonaunocr xao
xnno cymracrno, uynno onaxnno, xaxo ie npxao oran np Hanne unopencxn, cam Hocen ie
onenno xao nainehy nonnny unopencxor xao nnocoa, xoia pasorxpnna nsnopny onrnxy
nncrnonana n remeno onpehyie n nerony nosnrnnny n narpnorcxy npymrneny nosnnniy.

HBAH ABEKCAHBPOBHH HHH (1883-1954)


Ocnonnn pesynrarn xoin cy nocrnrnyrn y iennom on nainnonornopnninx ncraxnnana
Xerenone nnoconie, a ro ie crynnia Hnana Hnna 4u)ocodu Ieee) rar v:euue o
rourpemuocmu Boea u :e)oeera (Mocxna, 1818 /Canxr-Herepypr, Hayxa 1994/),
nnrepnperarnnno cy pasnnienn n xpos xacnnie Hnnone snpxe ornena, crnncxn
ycanpmanann no iennocranocrn onunor iesnxa npoxeror nnococxnm snauaiem n
snauennma. Hanenncremonomxn ias xoin ie nnoconia nyxa ornopnna ca neycarnamenomhy
anconyrnor snana n xperana y crnapnocrn, cnexynarnnnnx /caspnarennx/ ynnna n cnera
xnnora, xon Hnna ie cxnahen xao sanarax mro npnnnxnnier ycxnahnnana. On ie
cnponohen xpos saxren sa ononom, y xoioi ce xpun nyr yxasnnany na nymenny n nyxonny
panocr (noiyhe cpne ono cpne nyxonnor cpennmra, ncnxacrnuxor rena rena /cn. Ip.
Hanama/), ann ne xao nemro neoanesyiyhe cnonrano nnn nponsnono, neh xao cnoonna
crnapanauxa axrnnnocr yma n nyme uonexone, ri. xao nmenyiyha sxononanna onpehnnana
crnapn, rne cnoona nonpasymena ooeoeopuocm npen Forom n ynnma. Vronnxo cy nerona
onronopna xnnorna ncxycrna ronnxo opemennna nynncxa casnana ncxycrna mnmena, na
ce orarcrno onpehena no xoinx ie nocneo nponnnno no xpaine enerannnie pasronernocrn n
iennocrannocrn. Peu `o:ue)eouocm` oryn sa nera nma rexnny noima `anconyrne nneie` y
xerenoncxoi ennnxnonennunoi cnoiennrocrn, sa unie snauene ie on ynex morao na npenopyun
156 | a a e

unrane nerone noxropcxe nnceprannie: 4u)ocodu Ieee) rar v:euue o rourpemuocmu Boea
u :e)oeera, a mro ie n no nan nanac ienno on naionx neronnx pasymenana.
Haxon rora Hnn ie npoxnneno n npomnmeno npomao `mrnpneponcxo ncxycrno` ca
mncaonom eronarniom xao nannnom napannrmom `iennnor n neronor nnacnnmrna`, y xome ie
nynnnno npenosnao connianny naronorniy namer npemena, xao n cny nennianrnocr
nnrenexryannor pemena xoie nocn canpemena nsrpanna xynrypnnx npennocrn. To ie
ynanpennno n one noimonne renepannie xoie ie y xynrypnoi ncropnin moryhe nmenonarn
nyxonnom xpnsom. Hcropnicxo mnmene, na ie rai naunn xon Hnna nmanenrno ynnieno y
nenocpennocr pasmarpana, raxo na nerone xoncrarannie nnaiy onpemene na naxo sanase y
nnrnmna norahana y cepn xynrype, nanasehn nm nonpnnnuno onne rauxe y nainehoi
nnsnnn cymrnne crnapn: H camo cy iom nnocon nacranann na ronope o Fory, mehyrnm
n nnxona nsiamnena cy nocraiana cne rnyna n rnyna; ns crpaxa npen pannonanncrnuxnm
apniepama n saxrennma onpehennx saxyuaxa y nponemarnnn marepnie - nocreneno cy ono
nnrane cxnnann ca nnennor pena. Cxpynynosna nocmarpana cy ce npmnna ca rauxe rnennmra
mexuure (a ne ucmuue!). Ann, nsa ror nenenor nonerapna mexannuxor nornena na cner rynne
cy ce ynyrpamne peannocrn nyxa n npennene nese uonexone nyme. Pacnenxann uonex ie
pacnpenao noxrpnny pacxona npnmeneny na cnoamnem cnery n nonpnnao ocrarxe cnoie
nyxonnocrn y esnymnom, nnmenom caspnana, camonocmarpany. Aua)umu:ru v+, oecropeua
u pacnoiacaua eo+a, u ueovxoeuu uaeouu ca+oooprana - ro ie cne mro my ie ocraiano. Cne
ocrano ie nonnprnyro noncmexy: nepa, crnn npen concrnennm exnnornnm cpnem,
crnapanauxo caspnane xao npensnax "ecnnonne anrasnie" nrn./H. Hnn, Hoe)eo v
oa+uuv: Knnra npomnmana n nanana/
Ono mro n Xeren nmenonao nyxnm pannonannnm cxemarnsonanem n phanom
ecxonaunomhy, Hnn cana nnnn xonxpernsonannm na anrpononomxom nnany xao
ynyrpamny noneenocr nnn nyxonnn pacnen, ca nynncxnm nymennnm xarexonannma
casnana, xao mro ie ono, na ce noneenom uonexy cynne ne cmeie. Pniarnosa xoia ie
`o:ue)eoua` rnacn: nyxonno pacnenxann uonex ie - necpehan uonex. Onai ernuxn nocrynar
ns Hoe)eoa v oa+uuv, ycnenno ie npe cnera saro mro raxan uonex: ne yme na onnana
cnoinm narom, ne yme na pacnopenn orarcrno xoie my ie naro. Axo ie peu o cnernocrn sna
camo mra ie ro - cnernocr, ann ie ne caspnana xao ciai n ne oceha panocr sor ne. Pacnenxann
uonex - ro ie nyxonno onemohao uonex. Cnoinx yehena nema; y nnrannma ncnonecrn ie
nemohan; y cepn ncrnne ie ocxynan. Berone peun naa npnxnararn uncro onernuxn, saro
mro ie nnxon cmncao neiennosnauan, a nyxonna npennocr - mnronna nennunna. V cnaxoi
xnnornoi cnryannin on moxe na nocrynn "raxo", a moxe n "npyxunie"; y nemy nema neuer
cpxnor, n nema cmncna nonesnnarn ce c nnm. V nemy nema nainaxnnier, nainparonennier
remea nyxonnor xapaxrepa - cneoyxnarnor, onor iennor, ieouucmeeuoe ueumpa rueoma.
/H. Hnn, Hoe)eo v oa+uuv: Knnra npomnmana n nanana/. Bnnern n ciai snana (iep
/oxancxa/ cnernocr ie camo snane Ip. Hanama), ro nnrepnperarnnno snaun `nonnxe
ynosnarn ono mro ce sna`(Xeren), ri. ne sacraiarn na cnoamnem ciaiy, nero sanasnrn y
157 | a a e

cymrnny crnapn; nanymrarn nannny npernocranxy na nam opasonane nyxa nnie neonxonno.
Cnoiy anannsy yncxe ynyrpamne noneenocrn on ie caunnanao ca ncxpnuannm crnnom
xoin nocn n nponniy n rpyn na ce yxaxe na nsnas ns raxne cnryannie ncronpemeno: V nemy
xao na nocroin nexonnxo nenrapa iennonpemeno; cnaxome on nnx on ce xyne y nepnocr n
ymnma na ie nnmn on nno xaxnnx nonospena. unm ce ienan on rnx nenrapa ncnocrann ne
cacnnm noronnnm, nnn ce pacxnnma, on onmax "npenasn y npyrn cran", ramo ce yrnexhyie
ynonnie n opann - nn ca unm nonesan, na cne cnpeman, nn y mra ne nepyiyhn, nnmra ne
nonehn, ps na nsnaiy, a sanonoan coom. O ncrnncxom cnom nonoxaiy n o cnoioi nennxoi
necpehn - ienna na cymna. /ucmo/
Kana ie y nnrany nsnas ns raxne nenoe, Hnn ie cacnnm cnenno Xerena, re xao npcry
nyxonnor osnpannnana npenopyunnao pan: Cnaxo on nac mopa na yne npnsnar, na cee
npenopyun panom, na ce nornpnn, na cnoinm panom oesenn cee n cnoiy noponnny. Ha rai
naunn ce xon ynn mrnrn nncrnnxrnnno camonomronane xoie, sarnm, npepacra y ocehane
concrnenor nyxonnor nocroiancrna. Taxo, cearu ucmuucru vcnex ua ;e++u iecm vcnex paoa.
V pany, npupooa u rv)mvpa ce cieounviv mecuu+ ee;a+a, a uonexy npnnana panocr na y rom
neunom nponecy yne nocpennnx. Cner ce ne nprn ysanyn, n ne es cmncna: on ce oopu ;a
caepueucmeo maxap y rom cmncny mro nosnoana uonexy na sannpn y concrneny rpahy n na,
y nsnecnoi mepn, ynpana cnoinm xopannma. uonexy ie nara cpeha na, ca cne nehnm
pesynrarom, n y cne nehnm pasmepama, ynena cnoie panne n crnapanauxe cnare y rai narehn
cner xoin ce opn, rne iom ynex uexaiy neoyxnarne, nenpennnnnne moryhnocrn xynrypnor
nonnnonana. Pyxonnn pan nsnypyie uonexa ne mane nero nsnuxn. Cnaxn naroponan uonex,
noniaiyhn, noxymana na ce onpanna npen npnponom n cnoinm nnxnnma. H y npany ie. On
"ynena cee" y cnoiy nnny, y cnoi pasoi, y cnoiy xnnry - n neh ce mehy ynnma ne oceha xao
"roronan". Eno rne ie ucrvnume+cra o)aeooam paoa. /ucmo/
Mncaona onronopnocr ce xon nera ornena n y nauennom crany osnnor cxnarana
nnrana yncxe xonaunocrn, npema xoioi y xnnory, xao y ncropnin, nonpannor ncnnra nema,
iep ie cnaxn rpenyrax nsason n nyhene nonnne xoia nocrana none sanarxe n orxpnna
nocrnrnyha xoia naa npearn nnn caspnanarn, ri. xnararn n nemnponarn. H y onom
naxnom momenry on cnenn cnoiy crapy nnrepnperarnnny nnnniy Xerenone nnoconie: V
cnaxonneny ro ce nmenyie "ncxycrnom" n "xynrypnnm rpannnniama". Ann, cnaxo xnnorno
ncxycrno - ro ie sannxa npocynn n nosnana; a cnaxa rpannnnia - nparoneno nacnehe panninx
orxpnnena. Pox ie uonex xnn, rpaxn rauan nyr (no nnoconin, ro ie "meron", peu nornue
ns craporpuxor iesnxa). A rauan nyr - ro ie onai ncrn xoin nonn rourpemuoi cvncmauuuiu
ceema, ro iecr npe+a uoeiu Boea, npe+a Boruie+ mranv. Ca rnme ie nmno n ynepene na
orpannuena neponana y rsn. cpehan cncrem rpea nanycrnrn xao nocnennny nenocrarxa
npocnehenocrn, n rpararn sa ncrnncxom conniannom npannom, sa crnmynarnnnom
nonesanomhy narona ca npnnpennom nenarnomhy y rpn axropa: ...rpn axrnuxe nnacrn:
e)acm )u:uoe paoa, e)acm iaeuoe +nena n e)acm opraee. Hemro cnnuno nma cnoie mecro n
y npnnarnoi cnoinnn - nexonennoi ocnonn xnnora, xoiy nnxo nnie ycneo na ncxopenn no
158 | a a e

niexn niexon, uax nn y xomynycrnuxoi npxann. Ona ie nemy nonepena, nemy nara, nemy
rapanronana, unpcro my npnnana camo saro mro ie npnsnara, nomronana n nenpnxocnonena y
mnmeny npyrnx ynn, ro iecr xnnn on noiannocrn npyrnx - n xnnn norne nox ra noiannocr
ne ncrexne. noxasarn na npueamua ceoiuua ooaee;vie, oa npueamuo npaeo +opa oa ce cxeama
rao opvumeeuu ove, u oa maro mpeoa oe)amu, uax n rana xan npxana nema, na rom nnany,
nnxaxne unpcro nonecene nponnce. /ucmo/
Cmarpaiyhn nonyr Xerena y Ocuoeuu+ upma+a du)ocoduie opraeuoe npaea, na
npnnarno nnacnnmrno caunnana npymrnenn reme yncxor nocroiancrna, on ce raxohe
sanarao sa oprannsannie n axnnie connnapnocrn xoie ce ane nnrannma panne cnoconocrn,
na naiy canere, xpennre, nanase nocnone (na nonpnnoce "npany na yxyuene" y cepy
nponsnonne). Ann moxna nainehn snauai Knuee npo+uu+ana u uaoana nexn y onom
nsnarany, y xome ie Hnn cnoie nennxo nenaromxo ncxycrno, a xoie ie crexao na iennoi on
naionx cnercxnx mxona, Canxrnerepcypmxom Vnnnepsnrery, raxohe nyoxo npomncnno
n caxeo no pasronernor cranonnmra cymrnne nayunor nosnna xao raxnor, xao muxoe
ooeoc)vrena: Mnann axaneman mopa na ce nayun na camocranno n nenocpenno nepuunupa
cnoi npenmer, na ra nponanasn, nsnnaia, noxnnana, cosepnana n ncrpaxyie. A ncxycnn
axanemnx mopa na ce nocrapa na my npenece ono ymehe. Ponenr ie ry na crane nsmehy
cnymaona n npenmera ynpano pann rora na n nsasnao nnxon xnnornn cycper, na n ysopno
oprannsonao ony crnapanauxy nepnennniy, na n ce onmax sarnm nonyxao n cacranno
pacraneno. On xao na ysnma crynenra sa pyxy n nonn ra xa u;eopv na n my noxasao xaxo
onai nsnop crnapno nsrnena, xaxo ra rpea rpaxnrn, xaxo c nnme naa nocrynarn n xaxo ce
npero oeoe u;eopa oo)a;u oo ca+oe npeo+ema; ynpano sor rora raxosnana npaxrnuna
nacrana nnn npocemnnapn n cemnnapn nmaiy y ynnnepsnrercxoi nacrann nocean
snauai, ynonehn crynenra y nayuny naoparopniy. Axanemcxo mnmene no)a;u on
nenocpennor ncxycrna; axanemcxa cnosnaia npnn ns u;eopa; axanemcxo ncrpaxnnane ie
camocrannn noxnnai ncrpaxnnaua, onronopna opa sa ncrnny, xpnrnuxo rymauene, nexa
(acxesa) mohn cyhena, nemrnna noxasnnana n noxasnnana. Kpos ono ce opmnpa nnunn
nornen n ynepene xoie ie nspacno ns nnuno noxnnene ounrnennocrn. Jennom peuiy -
axanemnia ocrnapyie meron n nacnnrana sa +emoo. Meron ie rpuxa peu; ona osnauana nvm
ra uu+v; y nosnain - oopov ;a ucmuuv. Axanemnia ynpano n iecre uro)a ca+ocma)ue oopoe
;a ucmuuv. unranor cnor xnnora nayunnx-ncrpaxnnau ce opn ca ca+u+ cooo+, xaxo n
crexao neonxonny uncrory, nponnnnnocr n rnnxocr nyxa; ca npeo+emo+, xaxo n ra
ncnnrao, carnenao n npnxasao; ca ie;uro+, xaxo n nnme na npann naunn onnanao n
npnnaronno ra. On ce opn sor ncrnne, xaxo n ie crnapno noxnneo, yunpcrno n nspasno.
Crora, axo ce crnap cxnarn na npann naunn, axanemnia ne camo na nnie cynporcranena
pennrnin neh ona, am nanpornn, npencrana ieouv oo uain)e+euumuiux dop+u
pe)ueuo;uocmu; crnapanamrno ncrnncxor nayunnxa ie muxo ooeoc)vrene. /ucmo/
Hmaiyhn y nnny n orpoman Xerenon rpyn y 4u)ocoduiu pe)ueuie, n napounro nerone
uynene Poxase /Beweise/, on ie cacnnm ornopenor nornena crao npen nnne npemena, n y
159 | a a e

cyoueny c nnm xoncraronao na Hoiam Fora nnie oiamnanaiyha xnnoresa y cxnony
nayxe, ann na Pyx Foxnin iecre ucmuucra n oopehvivha ocuoea cnnx axanemcxnx nanopa n
nocrnrnyha. Hpaxrnuan nnn nenopanan, unnoneicrnen ocnon sa ro, iecre nennxn ynnn o
`ceemunu nopoou:uoe rueoma`. Hnnon nanernpnx `nopoi xenn` unnn n naicynncnnie
saoxpyxnnane cnnx nanopa xonxpernsannie noimenor nnn ynnnepsanno xonxpernor xao
npnponnor nnrepnperarnnnor monyca Anconyrnor Pyxa y canpemenocrn: Ona cee +ore,
ann ro noi uuuma ue epeou. Ona xenn pannonpannocr. Ann, cnacn Foxe semy on xena
xoie, nsnoienanmn pannonpannocr, nocraiy anxoxonnuapxe, nenarn, nnn npxe ianne xyhe. Cne
ie na cnery nosnano na ouyna nepnocr cnoioi concrnenoi npnoponnoi cymrnnn. 3aro n xena
mopa na ocnoin xpapocr y cnemy na yne n y cnemy na ocrane - xena. V cne mro unnn ona
mopa na ynocn neuny xencrnenocr n na onnia ono mro ioi npornnpeun. Boi ne rpea na ce
ynonoyie mymxapny, na ycnaia nerone nannxe. Hanpornn, ona mopa na nma cnoiy
ropnnocr, ona mopa cnery na xaxe cnoiy peu. Hvoaeu nenocraie cnery, a xena ie - ncrnncxn
n iennnn nen xnnn nsnop. Panac ynnma nenocraie eepuocm npupoou a nner neune
xencrnenocrn casnan ie ynpano sa nepnocr. Axo nexo n nanac y rome nnnn norunnanane, ro
snaun na my ncxycrno nyxonne cnoone ocraie crpana xareropnia.
Henonrno ie na ie Hnnon yrnen y nocrconiercxoi Pycnin neoma nopacrao, ann `Honn cnercxn
nopenax` n npareha rnoannsannia am n nncy cxnonn nomronany narnamenor npnponnor onnoca y
amnnnin n npxann, sa xoin ce on nanacne cnom nymom sanarao. Axo ce camo rexnnuxn yne
rpernpao n rex cnoamnnm renepannsanniama nonpaxanao, renepncahe ce iom ienna y nnsy
nannnocrn na ie ca rnme yncxo nocroiancrno iom ynex ocrano ynaxeno.



















160 | a a e

HEKOHHKA CPEPBEEBPOHCKA CABPEMEHA uHHOCOuCKA CXBATABA
COHHJAHHHX H HOHHTHuKHX HPEJA
Eauyna Xycepn (1859-1938) ie cmarpao na cy onmrocr n nyxnocr cynona
ycnonn xoin nexy reopniy yonmre n unne moryhom, re y nnma pasnnxyie nnrynnnie
unnennna n nnrynnnie cymrnna. Casnane nounne ca ncxycrnom o nocroiehnm crnapnma n
unnenn-nama, raxo na ro ncxycrno o nnma nocnena y cnecr n saxnara cymrnny nesanncno on
moryhnx cnyuainocrn. unnennune nayxe rexnne cy rome na uonexa npernope y unnennny, na
Xycepn xpnrnxyie nnxon narypannsam xao renepannn cran xoin naa crannrn y sarpane, na
n ce noxyuno nyn cnoi n ennnenrnpane cymrnne xoie npenasnnase raxne nosnrnnncrnuxe
oiexrnnannie. To ie npenxareropnianna cepa cnera xnnora xao ncxoncxnia onacr
cmncaonnx opmannia, xoia nperxonn cnnm nayxama n ymehnma, na ie enomenonornia npna
nnoconia xoia omoryhana uonexy na nocne no nonnx xopnsonara. On ce cne npeme rpynno
na y remenma nerone nnoconie yny ennnennnie, ono esnpernocranno, a ne
npernocranxe o nnnonnma ersncrennnie cnera. Beronn noimonn `enomenonomxe penyxnnie`,
`neyrpa-nnsannie ersncrennniannor xapaxrepa npenmera`, nanme neyrpannsannie peanne n
nsnnaiane `uncre nnrennnonannocrn` ca xoiom ce npencrannnn npenmer cynpocrana onom
xoin ce onaxa, xapaxrepnmy nneino onaxane xpos cncrem snauena xoin ncnynana noimonny
xomnerennniy. Mn ocmnmanamo n onnxyiemo xaxo npenmernocrn crnapn, raxo n nnxone
nnxonnx narocrn camepanano npema xapaxrepy noiannnana,
112
ann ro noiannnane ne
moxe na yne iennocrpno ysero n es cnoinx nynx cnoiena snauena. Taxo ie onncnnane
noiane moryhe camo xpos neno onnxonane nnn opmnpane nsrnena, xoin ce npyxa
xareropniannom onaxany n npocrnpe npen einercxom cnarom mncnn.
113
Meron ie ry cam

112
axrn n cna nenonana yrnphyiy ce xao nhe; n axo ie ro ne anconyrne narocrn unnennna n
ocehaia, oner ie cne nemro raxno, na npnnnnnnienno npornncroin cmncny, nnme ce ocmnmana n y rom
ocmnmanany nopaha., Hocen Anexce ueonoponnu: O:epru aumu:uoeo cu+eo)u;+a u +udo)oeuu, Mocxna,
1993. C. 366.
113
Kaxo ie n onne nsnecno, nponenypa ycranonnnana enomenonornie ie onmnmane emnnpnie na
ocnonn ymospena nha xao opmnpane einoca nyrem neonxonnnx enomenonomxnx nponenypa. V rome ie
nopo mro ce nponsnonn nnxon onnc n oiamnana nnxona caonnocnocr, nyrem uera nx ie moryhe
xniepapxnsonarn, ann ie nenocrarax enomenonornie y rome, cmarpao ie Hocen, mro ona camo nxcnpa
crarnuxn nar cmncao, n xoun xao nsocranena ns nornuxe nnnamnxe. 3a nera onne enomenonomxn onnc,
xao opmnpane snaun nonohene no cncrema onpehena npenmera camo ycnonno, a nayxa ie snane o cncremy
nnn cncremarcxo snane. V nesn c rnm naa npnnoxnrn na n cama peu enomeno)oeuia, raxohe, cnenoun o
rome, na ie ona onpehenn )oeoc, a ro snaun n nayxa (Hocen A. u. 4u)ocodu u+euu rn.23). V rome ce Xeren
noxasao xao neoma nponnnnn pasmarpaiyhn enomenonorniy xao npnn neo cnor nayunor cncrema, n Hocen ie
cam yxasnnao na ro na ie xerenoncxa enomenonornia cama npncyrna nnianexrnxa, ri. noroc, nayxa. Hocen xaxe
na nayxa iecre cnponohene neror ancrpaxrnor npnnnnna n ancrpaxrnor cncrema (Hocen A. u. Bimue. H+.
Koc+oc. M, 1993.\4u)ocodu u+euu rn.23\), re npxn na enomenonornia nnie nnxaxan meron, neh camo onnc
npenmera, onaxo xaxo saxrena cam npenmer. To cacnnm cnaxe onpehen yrncax, na Hocen nno na Hocen nnie
nmao anexnarny npencrany o cymrnnn nnococxor npenmera n merone, re nnxonor ysaiamnor onnoca, nno na
ie on oner xpaine necnperno nspasno cnoiy mncao. Pannie ie Hocen n cam onnnuno cxnarno opmannn xapaxrep
enomenonornie n ne mano crpannna nocnerno xpnrnnn xycepnoncxor yuena, xopehn ra sa nennianexrnunocr.
161 | a a e

npenmer y neronom camopasnoiy, camoonpenennany, y camoonncnnany, n oryn
onronapaiyha npnnpxenocr npenmery y merononomxom npncryny ne moxe na ce rnena xao
npeporarnnna n xao npennayunn neo enomenonornie.
114

Hornxa nnrepnperannie raxo ie ncrynnna na npny nnnniy, raxo na ie nenocpennnie
nonesana onor xoin mncnn ca npenmerom mnmena, naiyhn raxo nennnrnnno onnuie
mncaonom nncxypcy y xom ce mncaonocr ocnoaha sa nnacrnry cymrnny. Mehyrnm, penannie
npema ncropnin nonnrnuxnx nneia xao na cy ocrane y nonpnnnuno nenposnpnoi nosannnn. V rom
norneny ie snauaian iom ienan cran nosnor Xycepna, onai xoin nnxe oiamnana raxan onnoc: V
camocrannnm nnunocrnma, raxnnm xao mro ie Tanec, n npyrnm, nacraie nono uoneuancrno, ynn
xoin npoecnonanno casnanaiy nnococxn xnnor, nnoconiy xao nony opmy xynrype.
Pasymnno ie na ycxopo nnue nonn rnn caonmranana. To nneanno opasonane theoria -
neouexnnano ce npnma n npenocn nyrem oyxe n nonpaxanana. Vcxopo ce pann o saiennnuxom
nanopy n ysaiamnoi nonpmnn nocpencrnom xpnrnxe. Beh n onn no crpann, nennocon,
opahann cy naxny na neonuna nena n rexne. V noxymainma pasymenana nno na cy ce camn
npeopahann y nnocoe, nno na yxonnxo cy nnme nesann npoecnonannom nenarnomhy,
(npernapann) y nocpennnxe. Ha rai ce naunn nnoconia pacnpocrpannnana nnoiaxo: xao ona
xoia ce mnpnna xpos npymrno nnocoa n xao canyrnnuxo opasonno npymrneno xperane. Onne
ce oner na xpaiy xopenn n xpainn ynyrpamnn pasnnoi y nexoi nannin na opasonane n
neopasonane. Ha xpaiy, ra rennennnia ce ne orpannuana na rpannne ponne seme. 3a pasnnxy on
panninx xynrypnnx noiana ro xperane nnie nonesano ca remeem naponne rpannnnie. Feh ce n
npencrannnnn npyrnx nannia yue na nonmaiy n yuecrnyiy y mohnom npeopaxanany xynrype,
xoia nornue ns nnoconie... On npemena Coxpara uonex ie nocrao rema xao nnunocr, y neronoi
cnennnunoi yncxocrn, y nyxonnom xnnory snpyxnnana. Ocrao ie yxyuen y oiexrnnnn

Ha roi ocnonn moryhe ie pehn na ie on n cam cacnnm neno pasymenao iennocrpanocrn enomenonornie xana ce
ona anconyrnsyie, re na ie sa pasnnxy on nac, pasnnxonao enomenonorniy xao nponcrnuyhe nenocpenno
snane n enomenonorniy xao ancrpaxran nornuxn meron, enomenonorniy xao nornxy.
114
H mro ce rnue nepcxnx yehena, norpeno ie na ce nomryie ronepannnia xoia ne nonpasymena
penarnnnsme. H ry ie enomenoomxa merona on nomohn. V Xycepnonom nonmany enomenonomxe
ynnnepsannocrn anconyrnor xapaxrepa nyxa, on nna no-ianen, enomenonornuan, xao ecxonauno
nnonornopna ocnona sa pan nonmaiyher opasonana xao npnonauennor snana npenmera y einocnma xoin cy
nocrann pasymnnn. To ce raxohe na crpann ersncrennnie oiamnana xao cyiexrnnna npenmernocr xoia
nocroin nnn nonasn y npncyrnocr. Ha npnmepy Hocena moryhe ie caunnnrn xonsepnarnnan nsnon ns cepe
xnacnunor nonmana canamnnx xynrypnnx nponeca, nmaiyhn y nnny nencrpomnnocr ncrnne. V onmrem
nponecy nneannsannie, xoin nornue ns nnoconie, nonmane Fora ce raxopehn nornnxyie, npeoxpehe y
nocnona anconyrnor noroca. Te nornuxe nese Xycepn nnnn neh y rome, mro ce pennrnia nocpencrnom reonornie
ocnana na camoounrnennocr neponana xao yremeyiyher n nainyer naunna sacnnnana ncrnncxor
nncrnonana. Ann Hocen ie ro, iom nae, pasnnxonao y ocnonn on mnronomxnx npernocranxn xana ie nao iacno
onpehene n n raunnie nncao na: Taiancrna cy opme cyncrannniannor sacnnnana nnunocrn xao raxne y
neunocrn. V xpnmhancrny ie raiancrno moryhe camo saro mro nocroin Hpxna. Hpxna ie Teno Xpncrono.
Xpncroc ie Forouonex, ri. ienna n iennna cyncrannnia Fora xao cyncrannnie n uonexa xao cyncrannnie. V
cxnany c rnm, cacnnm ie pasymnno na ie raiancrno naceencxa emanannia oroyncxocrn, nenpexnnna
moryhnocr n nonpmxa cyncrannniannor sacnnnana uonexa y neunocrn... H xanocnn cy, cmemnn, ecnomohnn
onmrepacnpocrpanenn excnepnmenrn na ce pennrnia cnonn nno na nayxy n casnane, nno na mopan n
oyuanane, nno na ecrernxy n ocehaie. A. u. Hocen, Mud, :uc)o, cvuuocmi, Mocxna, 1994., C. 191
162 | a a e

cner, nocranmn nennxom remom Hnarona n Apncrorena. Onne ce oceha sannnyiyha
npornnpeunocr: yncxocr npnnana cnery oiexrnnnnx axara, ann xao nnunocrn, iacrna,
nocranaiy nnene n sanarxe, pacnonaxy rpannnnonannnm nopmama n nopmama ncrnne, ri.
neunnm nopmama. Pasnoi ie cnano y crapnnn, ann nnie no npexnnan.
115
Tpancnennnpane
sareuenor n nacnehenor y oxnnpnma sannuainor cnera nonpasymena mncaony nyrany on
cnyuainocrn no ncrne, sa xoiy nnie nonono camo paspauynanane ca npenpacynama. H
nainehe xynrypanne pasnnxe mehy ynnma cy camo rpanyenne, ann ro ornapa n nnnemy rpea
nn rpnern rerone nocnennne enponcxor esyma na ce ne n oncrpannnn n pesynrarn
nainehnx nocrnrnyha yma xoin cy cnoconn na ce noce ca ncropnicxn nacnarannm
cxenrnnnsmom n necnmnsmom. Axo ie enponcxa xynrypa nemoncrpnpana nnacrnry nax, ne
mopa na snaun na ie ona no cen naxna nnn na cy neenponcxe xynrype nencrnnnre. Tanopene
y nnacnrnm naprnxynapnocrnma nnie noap pasnor sa cycnensniy nponasa xa ynnnepsannocrn
cneiennncrna nncrnonana, ynpxoc nenom enponcxn mannecrarnnnom neopmncanom
ncnoanany.
116
Mehyrnm, penannie npema ncropnin nonnrnuxnx nneia xao na cy ocrane y
nonpnnnuno nenposnpnoi nosannnn. Moxe ce camo npernocrannrn na nneia ecxonaunnx
sanaraxa nayunnx ncrpaxnnana, xoia oehanaiy necnocycraiane y nnxy enponcxor nyxa, nmaiy
sa npernocranxy ynopnmre y Xerenonoi nnoconin npxannor npana yremeene y oiexrnnnom
nyxy neronor Anconyra.
117

Kon Maxca menepa (1874-1928) xareropnie n npennocne opme nonpasymenaiy
yiennnanane, xoie ce moxe cxnarnrn camo cxonno npennocrn xoiy caunnana uoneunocr y
yxynnom xnnornom norennniany, a ca xoinm ce pacnonaxe y cnery moryhnx npennocrn. To cy
one npennocrn xoie npnnanaiy npenmernma na ocnony nnxone rpancnapenrnocrn, na ie

115
E. Husserl, Die Krisis des europischen Menschentums und die Philosophie, Abt. II (Husserl, E.: Die
Krisis der europischen Wissenschaften und die transzendentale Phnemenologie, Hrsg. W. Biemel, Husserliana
Bd. VI, M. Nijhoff, Den Haag, 1962, Abt. II, S. 314348.)
116
V pasmarpany xpnse enponcxnx nayxa Enmynn Xycepn ie pasnore neycnexa y nyxonnom nanpenonany
enponcxor yncrna nnneo xpos npenarnamanane neonronapaiyhnx n nesanonoanaiyhnx naunna nonmana:
Pasnor neycnexa ienne pannonanne xynrype ne nexn... y cymrnnn camor pannonannsma, nero iennno y
neronom ocnoanany... /E. Xycepn, Kpu;a eeponcrux uavra u mpaucueuoeuma)ua deuo+euo)oeuia, Frn., crp.
263; Die Krisis des europischen Wissenschaften, s. 347/. Hornyno cyncrannniannsonane enponcxe xpnse n
nocnno oenexie xnneprponie xoia npnnne npernapa y mane, nemaiyhn y nnny na noxany moxe nsasnarn n
mnsonornia. Pennianrnocrn n y pamnpenom onmy nnax ne mory na noneny no cycnensnie pannonanne xynrype
iep npnnnn ne yxnna noiany, na neopmncane mannecrannie pannonanocrn ne nsonauanaiy n camy pasymnocr
cnoiom nnonennniom nnn paxniannomhy. Hnrenexryenna Xerenona cyiexr-cyncrannnia ry ce rex iom nasnpe.
117
Enmynn Xycepn ie npenopyuno xnnene y cxnany c ymom xoia ce xpnie y namoi cnoonn na xpos ny
nonocnmo onnyxe. Ham axryennn xnnornn rpenyrax sanncn on cennmenrannie cxnahenor n nonmana cranenor
y cexynnapny nacnnnocr, xpniyhn y cen npernocranxe sa namy nacrpoienocr xao nnnexc emornnnnx, nonnx n
npennocnnx cranonnmra y xoinma ie cner xoncrnryncan n xonxpenrno yonnuana ncxycrno. unnannn yunnnn
yma ry nanase pasnor cnoie mornnannie ornapaiyhn npema opnienrannin na rpary cnoone ynnna, a
enomenonomxa spenocr xoncrnrynme ce na pacxnny ca npnmnrnnnsmom nannnocrn renepannnx cranona. Ha
xopnsonry cneiennncrna, a ro ie sa Xycepna nannonanno cneiennncrno npema nopexny, xoersncrnpa xpnrepniym
nocraiana mopanne nnunocrn xao iennnxe nnunocnor iennncrna npnor pena: Vxonnxo ernxa xao nopmarnnna n
npaxrnuna nncnnnnnna yonmre nma npano, ynanpen mopamo na nmamo y nnny n ienny ernxy saiennnne.
/Edmund Husserl, Einfrung in der Ethik 1920-1924, Hua, Bd. XXXVII, Den Haag, 2004., str. 13/

163 | a a e

npymrneno ono mro ie ynxnnonanno y enemenry rorannrera npennocrn. One cy
nnrennnonanne nnn npnnanaiy cnecrn xoia nma moh ocehana xpos saysnmane ynyrpamner
cranonnmra, mro y xnnsn `Honoxai uonexa y xocmocy` (1928) nna saxnarano na nonpyuiy
cnnx crpyxrypa npennocrn xao npenmernnx. Taxo nennxa npennocr nounna na ocneranany
npennocrn yonmre xpos npano nnunocrn na ce nornyno n iacno pasnnie, na on
enomenonomxor npncryna paspemanany nponema sanncn n nnxono opmnpane.
Crnapnocr ce nocmarpa y xonrexcry noxasanor ornopa oxymananor y naronnma n non,
nohennm no cnnxe xao cnnrese npannonanne ersncrennnie n npenonnnnx cnmona, snaxona
xao nneannnx opmn. V naanom oiamnanany onaxaine crpane norahana crnapn, xpos axr
nenocpennor noxnnanana nocnena ce no npennocnor noxnnaia ocmnmananem nnn
ynomenem cmncna. Taxo ce y enomenonomxoi opmn npenasn na nnrepnperarnnne
onronomxe npcre snauena, xoie npennocrn nnne ocamocraennm y onnocy na peannocr, rne
ce one ne menaiy, neh ce npema noi mena camo nnxono naxene. Vronnxo ie sanarax
connonornie xynrype na ncrpaxn onacr xoia ie nsnan nenocpennor xnnora, rne n nocroin
ycmepenocr na npennocrn, xoie cne nnme sanase y nonpyuia naxena. V roi cepn rynnn
mory na ce nanoxnahyiy na npnnnnny connnapnocrn, ca peannsanniom nporpama nnococxe
anrpononornie. uonex ie nesa pasnnx axcnonomxnx cepa: xonaunor n ecxonaunor,
nponasnor n neunor, npnponnor n narnpnponnor, a ca ocnonnem na Cn. Anrycrnna on ce
nosnna na nnx Foxnin y nemy mro ie y crany na xoncrnrynme nnunocr xao nyx. Hnunocr ce
ne moxe casnarn, neh camo pasymenarn xpos penexcniy cymrnne sacnonane na yann. Pyx
crnapa xynrypy, ann ie ne ocrnapyie y npymrny neh y cnery nneia xoie cy nesaxnahene
peannomhy, sor uera uonex crpemn npennocrnma n ocraie nosnarocr xoia nnie cacnnm
nemnponana npema cnnnn nerone cymrnne, raxo na ie anrpononomxa nponemarnxa
nocnennn nspas nerone nnoconie.
Eyren mnnx (1905-1975) ie noxropnpao 1929. r. xon Enmynna Xycepna ca resom
Ocaepe+enene u c)ura, npnxnaraiyhn enomenonomxy merony xoiy ie nponynnao xpos
enomen cnnxe xao xonrnryrnnan sa nonmane ncrnne nncrnonana n nocroiana cnera. H
cnnc Hepa rao cu+eo) ceema (1960) xpehe on moryher xoie ce cxnara xao crnapno, raxo na
norennniannie yxasyiy npe cnera na penarnnnsanniy npnnnna xao rnpno omehennx nnmensnia
peannocrn, npyxaiyhn rnme n moryhnocr sa ycnocranane iaue nonnrnuxe n connianne
axnenryannie nsnopnnx nnmensnia xnnora. Pan n nenarornia cnecrn nne cy one crpane
yncxor xnnora xoie cy nenonane osnno, nox ie nrpa y npnnannocrn neuniem yspacry xao
nemro neoanesno n neosnno. unnx ie nonyxao npyrauniy nemapxannony nnnniy y
npernosnanany xpos ncnnrnnana remennx enomena yncxor xnnora, xaxo cy nrpe
npenniene y npyrauniy opmy onpxanaiyhn y roxy npannna xoia naxe n xana ce one ca
caspenanem nanymraiy. Hrpa ce ycnocrana xpos nonmane cnera, xoin ie xopnsonr
nncrnonana necnora n cyxoa nsnopnnx cnna nea n seme y nnxonom xperany, xao ono
mro uonexa nainpeue onpehyie. Heo n sema cy noimenn xao mohn na ce yne, xao
onronomxn cnmnonn n remene mohn cxpnnana n ocneranana nncrnonana y nrpn, xoiy cy
164 | a a e

crapn Jennnn nmenonann noimom npnpone. Kocmonomxa nnmensnia ie ona y xoioi ce xao y
nncrnyiyhem npnnnny snna cner nrpe. Taxo on npenopyuyie ncrynane na nonn nouerax ca
onycraianem on xee na ce y enponcxoi nnoconin nnnn ienna nporpecnnna reneonornia, re
na ce ona npenosna xao nerarnnno xperane xoie naa na ce npeoparn y mnmene y cnnxama
n cnnxonnrocr nrpe cnna nea n seme. To ra npnnnxana onom cnoicrny ymernocrn
mnmena xoie cy nocenonann npennn mncnnonn xao Xepaxnnr y cnoinm rnomcxnm
crnnnsanniama nnn Hapmennn y mecnaecrepauxom nsnarany. Cnoi xpai no nemy nnoconia
raxo nma y moryhnocrn na ce nahe na cnoinm nouennma, a ynyhnnane npema nemy nasna he
nrn sacnyra noiennnna xoin he rex nornphnnanem camor cee xpos nponaxene rnm
mncaonnm ncxycrnom, na crexne xomnerennniy na n cam nemro rnpnn.
Map1nn Xajaerep (1889-1976) ie nocne Enmynna Xycepna n Eyrena unnxa
naimapxanrnnin n nainpornnpeunnin npencrannnx enomenonomxe mncnn. Beron na npnn
nornen anrnconniannn cran (nnxana nnie nanymrao `Hannonan-connianncrnuxy pannnuxy
naprniy Hemauxe` y xoiy ie ymao 1933.r. n onmax nocrao ynnnepsnrercxn pexrop), camo ie
sayser nonoxai npema nnacrnroi conniannoi nemncaonocrn, xao n onoi xoia ce ycennna y
cnpemeno mnmene ca nosnrnnncrnuxo-nparmarncrnuxnm npxannma. Toranna nsonannia y
pany xoin ie nocrao cner n crane pannonannor nnannpana n npannonannnx nana, npennannne
cy xopnsonr oesehennm npencranama meransnxe cyiexrnnnrera, yanyiyhn nac y noa
cnnxe cnera. Taxo uonexono nyrane nna ocnrypano sa enponcxn nnxnnnsam xao
camosanonona camoonnocna penexcnia y pany pann pana, n uonex xao na ie cen caunnno
concrnenn sarnop penpesenrarnnnomhy iacrna n nponsnonomhy penexronana, ca unme ie
nono ynao y nenoy xoiy nnme ne npenosnaie, a mro n iecre Xainerepon enomenonomxn
onnc canpemenocrn. On n pexao na uonex cen nocrana cner n ncnocrana npnpony, raxo
na ie npeynemana ramo rne ona ne sanonoana nerono npencranane, ncnocranaiyhn (npo-
ns-nonehn /techne/) none crnapn onne rne my nenocraiy, n npememra nx onanne rne my
cmeraiy, nocranaiyhn nemro nsmehy cee n crnapn ramo rne ra onnpahaiy on nerone namepe
n ro cmarpa camopasymnnnm, saycranaiyhn n ycrayiyhn cner. Ornopenocr cnera nocraie
npenmerna n nonpenmehyiyhn ie, uonex nacnpam ne ncnocrana cam cee (nanpehyie ce y
cyiexr-oiexr penannin), raxo na nocrana cam cee xao onor xoin namepno cnpononn
unrano ro ncnocranane cnera (xao noa sa noy xoia rpryie ca nncrnonanem
norunnanaiyhn cne camoonnocnoi penexcnin xao pauyncxoi rpancaxnnin). To nononn y
crane yncxor napehnnana, ycranonanaiyhn ce xao esycnonna nnacr, a noniaiyhn rai
nanor no neronom ynnny, ynpano ns cxpnnene cymrnne rexnnxe. Texnnuxn nsrpahyiyhn cner
xao npenmer, uonex cam cen npenpeuana nyr y ornopeno, nocraie ynxnnonep rexnnxe cee-
cnponohenem y neno, n oprannsonano ce pasnnaiaiyhn on nsnopnninx moryhnocrn npnmana
on onor mro ra xao neuyneno cpennmre nncrnyiyher nyue x cen xao n cne uncre cnne. Ono
mro ie y rexnnuxom onxoheny n crany onacno, ie nnysnonnsam xoin nnme nero nopo
onncyiy snauaine peun ns pasmarpana Ue+v necuuuu /Holzwege, c. 272/: "Ono mro uonexa
yrpoxana y neronoi cymrnnn iecre mnene na rexnnuxo ncnocranane (nponsnonna
165 | a a e

/Herstellen) nononn cner y pen, nox ynpano ro ypehnnane yrana cnaxn ordo, ro iecr cnaxn
panr, y iennoopasnocr ncnocranana n raxo ynanpen ynnmrana onacr moryher nopexna
panra n npnsnana ns nncrnonana. Hs rora ie cnennno yehene na he
nannonanconnianncrnuxa penonynnia nonono na ycnocrann panrone (npema meranoncnxnsmy
`nnnnnx pyxy Anona Xnrnepa` xaxo ie onronopno Kapny Jacnepcy na xoncraronann
npocraxnyx), re ie `ry-nncrnonane` onnyuno nporymauno n xao `napon` opmnpaiyhn
nennsnonncrnuxy armocepy xoia ra ie npxana ynyrap nanncrnuxe naprnie, ns xoie on nnie
nn nsnasno no nenor cnoma 1945.
Beron panor sa ro ie onacnocr xoia ce no nemy cxpnnana y camom xreny y onnxy cee-
cnponohena ynyrap cnera xoin ie nonymren camo xao noa no onome mro ie onnyunno sa
esycnonno napehnnane, ncnopyuyiyhn ce na rai naunn pasnnm npcrama oprannsonana y
camosarnapaiyhe opme nnn rorannrere, rne ie Xainerep nmao neneponarny ronepannniy
npema Hnuey n rorono nnxaxny npema Xereny, unia nnoconia nanonno npern uonexonom
onnocy npema nncrnonany, caxpnnenom y esnany ncnon cnera nncrnyiyher, orxpnnaiyhn
yrpoxenocr y cymrnnn xoia nnana sa npeme rpaiana raxne cynnne. Taxo ce no cnoioi
cymrnnn npyraunie xrene noraha xao ono xoie onronapa nncrnonany, a nera nmaiy ynn
xoin ne crnuy npennocr n ne cnyxe nnacrnroi cenunocrn n ceeyy, xpos pasmerana
nexnm nsysernnm nocrnrnyhnma. On ie sa raxnor npxao cam cee ynpxoc noxasannm
nparmarnunnm nonemanannma noe sa norpee nnnena Xnrneponnm pyxama (xoie cy n
caunnnne norpom enponcxor yncrna), xao n rymauenem Hnueonor esoxnnmrna xao
nnarononcxe reonornie nnn Xerena xao concre.
Cap1p, an-Hon (1905-1980) ie pasnniao ersncrennnianncrnuxy mncao, rne je y npnn nnan
cranao uonexa n cyiexrnnnocr neronor crnapana. uonex ie npe cnera nsnopan enomen
ersncrennnie y unranoi cnoioi nornynocrn onosro no none, raxo na oyxnara xaxo peanne
nnanone ersncrennnie, raxo n one moryhe, no xoinma ie nerona uoneunocr nemro nanexo on
cnrnnuanocrn, mrannme ysnnmenocr xoiom xpacn connierer. uonex nacraie xpos
ouoneunnane, on ce crnapa, a pacxpnnany uonexa cnyxn ymernocr, nornuyhn ra ce xpos ono
rne on nocraie onai xoin nocroin y norahany nnacrnre cymrnne. Pannonanncrnuxoi
xonnennnin uncre cnecrn on cynpocrana cnryanniy `auenocrn y cner` xao npepenexcnnan
noxnnai nncrnonana y cnery. Caprp ie nocrnxe oxonuananem npamarnunor ncnynanana
sanarxa crnapana, y xoinma cy peun nenocpennn nspasn camnx crnapn. Caprp ie yehen na :
yxonnxo uonex ocrnapyie neno, ocrnapyie ra na nmarnnapan naunn (Buhe u uuumaeu)o 1,
Frn., 1983., crp.209), a ro ie ecrercxa nosnnnia nncxa Kpouey, xao n rpannnnin npncryna
cymrnncxn nenom xon Xerena, xoiy ie npomonncao n enomenonomxn npncryn crnapnma.
Honasehn on enomenonomxe necxpnnnnie cymrnne n nnrennnonanno oprannsonannx axara
cnecrn, on ie cnnuno Xereny pasnno onronomxy anannsy rnopauxor craryca cnecrn y
ynnnepsymy, xao npoiexronane nenocroieher xao xoncrnryrnnnor sa aprnxynanniy
nncrnonana, xao xonxperny n cnnrynapny rorannocr. Ono nocmarpauxo nnnn crapn y
canamnocrn, a ono axrnnnpaiyhe ynyhyie na ynyhnocr xao npann xopnsonr nneia onaxne
166 | a a e

npncrnxe cnpcnconna pasnoxnocr sa nenonane. Taxo ce ca nonnmrananem cnera oiexara,
cnaxonnennne y uynnoi peannocrn, snna npeannsannia xoia ra rpancnennnpa y nmarnnapnn
cner ymernocrn, ann n nneannsannia npxanno-conniannor craryca uonexa npema neronnm
ecxonaunnm norennniama. Hposa nma peepennnianny ynxnniy rpancnononana snauena y
nncxypsnnnnm caonmranannma, a noesnia nenocpenno ronopn o nhy n y noi cy peun
`crnapn`. Hmenonane nonpasymena cranno xprnonane nmennne nmenonanom oiexry, a ro
ymernocr ne npnxnara: necnnx ce saycrana na peunma xao cnnxap na oiama a mysnuap na
snynnma(O rnureeuocmu u nucuu+a, Frn., 1962), ca unme Apncrorenona reopnia o
nnnamen on nna ysnnrnyra y rorono anoarnuxo reonomxn nnnamnsam nha. Hnie nn uyno
mro ie ra anannsa npenysera ns yrna nncna, ymernnxa, raxo na ce ncrnue nponem
cyiexrnnnocrn, omannnana, ocnernnuxe ynxnnie nocrmonepnncrnuxnx neparmenrannia
crnapnocrn. Hnxnnnsam xoin ie ocyhen saienno ca onauennm xymannsmom, xon nera ie
npnxnahen n norepan ca onannnanem arannsama n npenpacyna, nonpasymenaiyhn
conniannocr y cxnonocrn capannn n xpos nonnrnuxo anraxonane. Caprp nnennpa na
ocnoahane on eronsma, nonnamhenocrn, crpaxa, nmenyiyhn xao ocnoahaiyhn axrop
rpaxene cnoie cnoone y cnoonn npyrora. On nnianexrnuxn npenasnnasn nerarnnnn mopan
ror npyror xao momenar opmanne nerannie, cacnnm cnenehn Xerena raxo na ne nonnayie
rom npyrom, neh y nnrennnonannoi npeannsannin opaha naxny na onronopnocr npen
pexynepanniom npenepernyror y rom opmanncrnuxom saxnarany ersncrennnie xoia ie n
onnena y nerarnnnsam; naxne npenopyuyie nsneuene on cxnonocrn npnxpnnany ncrnne
rnnnuno nnarononcxnm n nemy nnxnm xerenniancxnm cpencrnnma. Connianna ernxa ne n
rpeana na ecrercxe crnapanauxe momenre cnonn na opyhe, xao nn na onpannana oroenn
ecrernsam es nyxonnor noxpnha. Caprp ie no anraxonan nposnn nncan, ann ie cyiexrnnne
crpacrn n emonnie noesnie enomenonomxn npennsno onpenno, ocranaiyhn nsa cee
anronornicxe npame Hp+aee pvre, H;a ;ameopeuux epama, 1aeo u opaeu Boe nrn. Hapaneno
ca rnm, npenomnn nnanecern nex y Pycnin ie noneo na cnom nouerxy mncaonn pennrnosnn
npenopon npexo xpnrnxe ancrpaxrnnx nauena Bnannmnpa Cononiona n ca nnrerpannnm
cranom H. A. unopencxor, a nnme ie nomnnnpana naxnonena mncao A. u. Hocena n neronnx
cnenennxa Cepreia Cepreiennua Anepnnnena, Beniamnna Fnnxnna, Mnxanna nnxona,
Onera Cymnna, Hanena Foixo, Cepreia 3mnixnoncxor, Annpeia Tamuniana.
Iyc1an Cnnep1 (1903-1963) ie crynnpaiyhn xon Xainerepa nperpneo npecynan yrnnai
ynnamenranne onronornie n neron noiam `ry-nncrnonana`y cnery rymauno romncrnuxn
xao `ncrnny` y cnery. Poxropnpaiyhn (1930) ca panom Memadu;ura ca;uana roo To+e
Areuucroe n crnuyhn xannnryiyhn craryc (1937), ca cnncom - To+u;a+ rao cucme+
uoeumumema, on ie pasnniao meransnxy nncrnonana nha xao cnexynarnnnn cncrem y
nsnanaxeny Foxnier nnxa. Ocnerananem pasnnxa nha n nncrnonana xao axra n
cyncrannnie, Cnnepr ie noxasao na ie Xainerep y pacneranany onronomxe nnepennnie
camo npnnnnno npennanao Xerenono cranonnmre, nanasehn cnoi canpemenocrn npnmepen
nponas npema nemy xao nainehem cnexynarnnnom mncnnony, o uemy xasyie xnnra Boe v
167 | a a e

ucmopuiu: Hponem Fora xon Xerena n Xainerepa (1971). Horocnocr yremeenocrn
mnmena Cnere Tpoinne npoiexryie ce na pexoncrpyncan romncrnuxn cncrem, na ymecro
nneie sanoniene cnnresom rpancnennenranne anepnennnie, ymecro noima, on nocrana
npnpony xoia paspemana remnopannsonane crnapn na nnnoy xpnmhancxe meransnuxe
xonnennnie nncrnonana nha n iennor. On c rnme yremeyie xocmnuxn nonoxai uonexa
cnnuno Maxcy Benepy, ann xpos nenaromxn onnoc npema cranonnmrnma snana crnapnocrn
n ncrnne re crnapnocrn xao nenore cnerocrn n nopa. Hoceny naxny Cnnepr ie ycmepno na
npomnpeno cxnarane nenarornie, ocnanaiyhn ce Tomy Axnnncxor, Xerena n Xainerepa, xao n
na Mapniy Monrecopn, rexehn na xpos xpnrnxy iennncrna uonexa n npnpone npomnma
nsryeno iennncrno nnrennrnnnnor cyiexra npnpone y ncxycrny nanneie anconyrne
nosnrnnnocrn.
118
Xerenon xomnpomnc y nnoconin npxane xoin ie npnmerno y mynpom
onycraiany on cnponohena nporpama nanenncremnsma onnnunn Ha Hnn, a n Hon
Hnamenan y nonnaueny npen nynom xonxpernsanniom ynnnepsannor y npymrnennm
crpyxrypama, on nonninx ayropa, ne snaun nerony npenasnhenocr y cmncny rpye
mapxcncrnuxe noxrpnne, nero xao pennmo y neomapxcnsmy panxypronana, camo rpainy
axryennocr y canpemenom crpyiany nnococxnx nneia. Vnonnin nonoxai pennrnosnnx
mncnnnana ce cacroiao y rome mro ie cycnensnia nanenncremnsma y nonnaueny y `cnoi cner`
nsnpmena na xpaiy Hpeoaeana o du)ocoduiu pe)ueuie, sanpano nannan nonnaueny npen
moryhnm nonnrnuxnm anconyrnsmom, iep ie xpainn nspas Xerenone nnoconie sanpano
npennananane npornnpeunocrn n nanaxene moryhnocrn sa nomnpene ca cnerom n cmnpene
y nemy xao y oxaianom n ounmhenom mecry `none rnapn` y cnerny nacxpcena Iocnonner.
V rom cmncny raxno nomnpene ca npnponom iecre xomnnexcno mnpene ca ncrnnom.
Xanc Ieopr Iaaauep (1900-2002) ie npyrn snauaian Xainerepon yuennx, xoin ie npema
nocenom oiamnanany Xerenonor mncaonor n conniannor ncxycrna crnapnocrn
pexannnronao neron noiam nnianexrnxe xao mncaonor xperana y cnexynarnnno
cranonnmre. On ro nnie nsnoxno nonono axnenronano y neny Hcmuua u +emoo (1960.),
nocrannnmn xao ocnonno ecrernuxo ncxycrno, nopen ncropnicxor n nnnrnncrnuxor, ann ie
neronnx ner xepmeneyrnuxnx crynnia o Xerenonoi nnianexrnnn (Tnnnren, 1971) narnacnno
nonmane sanymrennx nnrana anrnuxe nnianexrnxe, `nsoxpenyror cnera` n nneie neronne
nornxe. Cnnuno Xainerepy, n on nanasn sa cxonno na nonponnie opmynnme n npennana
cxnarane, no xom ce nnianexrnxa namna y nonoxaiy na yne xpnrepniym onor mro ce cmarpa
concrnxonannm ymehem, ann ncrnuyhn Xerenony npennocr y nonynanany ca
cnexynarnnnnm noimom. Hcxycrno cnecrn ns uenomenonornie nyxa noxasyie na ce mncaona
nena nonmana (nenopannn, unnonecicrnonana) n nocmarpane ciennnanaiy y iennncrnenom

118
Hpo. Mnnan Vsenan ry nanasn na: Meransnxa nernncrna iecre necxpnnnnia nrn opasonana n cymrnne
naponnrocrn n caspenana y nouerxy yncxor oncranxa. Cymrnna uonexa nnie ienna y cen sarnopena cnnxa neh
norennnianna cyncrannnia, ri. nncrnonane y cen xoie ie on camor nouerxa npyraunie on onor mro na npnn
nornen iecre. uonexono casnane nonasn on nncrnonana n nonn nncrnonany. On ie ynex orenornopen nyx a ne
nyx nnn nyma xoia camo `nma reno... /Mnnan Vsenan, Hcmopuia du)o;oduie, Honn Can: Crnnoc, 2004., crp.
563/
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nponecy, re na nema nsononane ecrercxe cnecrn y ocrarxy rpancnennenranne
anepnenrnnnocrn. Kpnrnuxnm cranom npema npannonannoi cyiexrnnnocrn noxnnaia, on
noxasyie cny nnysopnocr nperennonana na penyxonane ncxycrna na noiennnn noxnnai xoin
n nexao y nocrnrnyrnm ynnnnma, sanemapyiyhn onai cmncao nennne xoiy ncrnna cama y
cen nocn y excnnnxannin nonarana pauyna o camom npncryny nernrnmncanem merone
pasymenana. Hoimonn mohn cyhena cy npomennnn, mro ie Xeren onnnuno youno
nncncrnpaiyhn na pesynrarnma nnn saxyuxy, raxo na cy onn, xaxo n onronapann
crannapnnma nayune meronnxe npernopenn y cyiexrnnne cynone, ann rex nnenrnrer y
nnepennnianniama xoie nonpasymena moxe na nx meramoposnpa y pesynrannie
ncrnnnrocrn. 3a ro ie xpnnan Kanr xoin ie noiam yxyca cneo na neno, a ncronpemeno my
onyseo casnainn cmncao. Taxo cy y npnn nnan y ecrernnn nocnenn noimonn rennia n
noxnnaia, ca xoinma ce ncxyunnao nnrepcyiexrnnnn enemenar, a n cam pasym y
pannxannnm ynohennma xpaine npannonanne xareropnie ymernocrn noxnnaia, uemy ie
onpannano npnronopno Xeren ca cnoinm onronomxnm yremennanem nneie (nenor,
npanennor n ncrnnnror y cne-iennncrny), npenasnnasehn raxna sacrpannnana. On cyiexr-
oiexr onnoce, xoin cy xapaxrepncrnunn sa ecrercxn noxnnai, nserana rnme mro noiam
nrpe ysnma sa nnr-nonny ncrpaxnnana xao naunne camonpencranana y camonoxasnnany
n npexo nnxonor npernapana y nexn npncyran nnx, nonono ornapa npncryn nainynm
nnmensniama Xerenone nornxe xao cnerorpoinune yann y cnoioi cnexynarnnnoi
ncropnicxoi nnmensnin nnana n nncrnonana xonaunor n ecxonaunor nyxa. Taxno
npencranane cee xao camonoxasnnane npncyrnocrn yxyuyie n nocmarpaua n
nocmarpano, raxo na ie pasymenane onai onnoc xoin ne nonpasymena nsononanocr noiennnna,
na ma xaxo nanapennx n renniannnx, neh nnxono yxyunnane y ncropnicxy nnmensniy
nncrnonana. Hcropnicxn cner raxohe ynex onpehyie cyiexra ncropnicxn, iep ie noiennnan
nepacxnnnno nonesan ca cnerom, a camo iom xopax naa naunnnrn na ce on noimn n xao
nnunocr xoia xao nayuno npoxera nynnama cnexynarnnne nornxe nna nnenrnnxonana xao
xpncronenrpnuna, ie ce y nenom xao raxnom ornena ono, mro ie nsa cee ocrannno
cynpornocr cyiexra n oiexra. Berona cnexynarnnna crpyxrypa noxasyie ce y enomeny
cnernocrn xoin nonesyie nnnnno n nnhene. Ocnon cnaxor onnoca ca cnerom sa Ianamepa ie
nrpa, xoia cnoiom nnnamnxom nannnasn cnaxy cyiexrnnnocr, nanme ona nrpa xoiy ca nama
nrpa iesnx. Ounr yrnnai Cnneprone nnoconie nrpe xasyie n o npncyrnoi rensnin cnpam
Xerenonnx ynnna.






169 | a a e


CAXETAK:
HPETHOCTABKE BHTEHA COHH1AAHOI H HOAHTHHKOI MOMEHTA
OBPA3OBAHA BYXA Y mHAOCOmCKO1 EHHHKAOHEBHHHOCTH
H CABPEMEHH IAOBAAH3AM

Canpemena connianna nnoconia ie cmeno oxpenyra norpasn sa cnoinm
mnoronexonnnm nopexnom y nynnama ncropnicxo-nnococxe mncnn xao raxne. V
ncropnicxoi nynnn, nanme, npeme ce xpos `nerarnnno iennncrno` craiana y nynxryannocrn
rpenyrxa cana paspemana xao rpainocr ry-nncrnyiyhe ncrnne, xoia ce rymauehnm
npncnaianem mncnn rpannnnie cne anexnarnnie ocnerana. Kareropemarnxa cranonnmra
pasnoxnocrn ornena ce y nncrnonany cymrnne cnera xao nonnosn nnn cyiexry xoin ie
ncronpemeno n onronomxn penenanran cyiexr npema opmanno yonmranaiyhem xpnrepniymy
xoin npernocrana nene canpxnncxe momenre.
Mncnn uonex xoin xnnn ry n onne, xoin ie nhe y cnery, unan neronor oncranxa nnn ry-
nncrnonane xao ianno nocroiane, re ce camnm rnm ncrnna nncrnonana nnnn y nhennrocrn
cner nrnmyher xao nha. Cnara ncropnicxor nyxa, xoia ie nocnyxnna Hnarony na pyxonohen
Coxparonom nponanneyrnuxom nnianexrnuxom meronom carnenanana crnapn ca nannuia
npenasnhe npornnpeunocrn xoie cy nsniane y cyxoy ca concrnma xao nocnonnma raxnnx
rnpnnn, Apncroreny ce noxasana y ycanpmanany anannrnuxe opme nanaxena norpemnocrn
y rnphennma, n xonauno cpennonexonnnm mncnnonnma y nyem nponnnany y onuainy
crpyxrypy iesnuxe marepnie xoia ie oesehnnana ncxopax ns nomnnanncrnuxor nnxnnnsma y
peanne nyrene noxyunnana noima npema nneannnm saxrennma no ysopy na oenonanene
oxancxe ncrnne. Hainae ie ornmao saxren sa onnxonanem xpaine nocroiancrnenor uonexa
xoin ie oanesan na ce xao ono crnopene xoie ie Iocnon xao Hnunocr, na cnoi nnx n nononie
yunnno nnunomhy, xopncrn rnm mnmenem crnopenor nha, a xoie ie no xapaxrepy raxno na
n camo crnapa na nnxem nnnoy (ro ie iom iennno y crany na ncnon cnoonna reyprnicxa
opma ocmnmanana crnapnocrn, caxnmaiyhn raxo na nnuno naueno ersncrennnie nsnopne
nnocrasn ne camo yncxor oncranxa).
Onmrn cmncao xnnora, nnoconie n yncxe saiennnne nocrnsao ce nponopom y
sarnopenocr xonxpernnx ncropnicxnx opmn narocrn /c osnpom na ono mro ie neno n
ncrnnnro/, re xpos rpancopmannie rena n xpos meramopose nyxonnnx ynnna, no cne nehe
nnsnne Cnerorpoinunoi nnocrasn y xoioi ce n saoxpyxyie. Opasonane y roi saoxpyxenocrn
nyxno nocn na cen nnococxe snaxe, onaxne ron na ce nohe, ynyhn na ie nnepnarnunor
xapaxrepa, ca yxasnnanem na crane canpmenocrn nnn crenene nneannocrn no xoinx ce
nocneno y raxnom nenonany. To nnie npencranornopnn xpyr ca oroenom nopmom cnoa
sanpranannx rauaxa xoie mopaiy na nenyiy opmanno oanesyiyhe, nero ie ono mro y rom
xpyry remarnsonannx npenmernocrn oanesyie na nerony nenonnrocr, nnn ns cee npyxeny
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cnoony, y xoioi ce xonauno nhe yxpmra ca ecxonaunnm n nae on `nexaproncxe cnnxe
cnera xao xoopnnnarnor cncrema` rnopn npernocranxy sanennana onnnx mecra,
spnnanana pannnocrn ersncrennniannnx rauaxa n onanana ycxnx rpna nporoxa eneprnia
ycnen napacnnx yxpyhenocrn ynyrap neenacrnunnx oxnaxa nyxa y neronom xperany. To
npernocrana ony nanneiy nnn nacnnrane, xoie xpyxehn xpyronnma penexcnnnnx ynnhana
ynpcrenana mncaonn npcren nyxa, remarnsyiyhn npe cnera noimone noroca, npnpone n nyxa,
xao mro ie ro ayrenrnunom mncaonom cnarom y Euuur)oneouiu du)ocodcrux uavra
ncnono n Ieopr Bnnxenm upnnpnx Xeren. Cnexynarnnna nornxa nsnocn xao pesynrar
uonexa xao nhe xoie y noxyunnany nneie npenasn na nayuno cranonnmre nocpenonana ca
anconyrnom nnunomhy nnenrnnxonanoi y nonmany. Hpnpona ce noxasyie xao
npyronncrnonane y cnoinm cxanapnnm norennniama n y xpainoi norennnin
oprannsonanocrn xao nainnxa nnacrnrocrn oxancxe cnpxe, a cam nyx xao cymrnna Jennor
n cnera, nanme nanenncremarnuxor rensma xoin y Orxpnnenoi pennrnin nnn xpnmhancxoi
nnein nanasn cnoie nornyno nonpmene rparana, xao n ersncrennnianno yrounmre. Cnenehn
nepn pasmarpana crnapn onuainor nyxa, naa ncrahn na ie Xeren sanoueo n ienan nnn
onpane npxane npornn nanana naprnxynapnsama nnrepeca, iep ie sa pasnnxy on
emnnpncrnuxnx ynxnnonanncra n npocnernrecxnx anannrnuapa yuecrannx connierernnx
nopnna nnanaiyhnx y cnecrn uoneuancrna, no reopernuap xoin ie ca nnme peannsma
onmepanao onnoce cnara y menannma npymrnennx nopmn n nnrepecnnx npannna. Hpxnn n
npxann, camarpao ie Xeren, rpeano n nparnrn nynomoh y cnyxenom n nyxonno-
xynrypnom naueny, nnxony ncropnicxy ynxnniy. Canecr raxo npxn cnexynannie y
rpannnama xoie saysnanaiy eronarnuxy anracrnxy, npyxaiyhn peanan naunn nonnpnnana
nncrnonana n npemena. Kon nera, mehyrnm, npexpernnuxa cnara nyxa xao neron
xonrpanosnrnnnrer, ornena ce y rome mro ce "menypene" y npnponnom roxy npemenonana, y
meransnnn npemena xao nonecnom xopnsonry nncrnonana, xopnsonry ncropnie norahana,
noxasyie xao snax ornopa nyxa, xoin nma cnoie nansrnen uynne nernrnmne mncaone
npernocranxe, nounm ce moxe rome nacynpor pehn n na ce raxan nyx rex ca peannnm
noianama rnpannie noxasyie xao nannpemencxn, xao nyxonna onpana on nexonrponncannx
npannonannnx cnna nnnnnnx y nananany n cynepaxrnnnom nanpehnnany, raxopehn ona
xoia onnpaha ersncrennniy on nene pyrannsannie. Vocranom, noxasano ce na cem
cnnonnie cacnnm nopo ynxnnonnme n mehynncrnrynnonanno ycarnamanane Hpxne (xoia
ce ann nacrnpcxnm panom n ca cnaconocnom noponrn yncxnx nyma) n Ppxane (xoioi ie
ocrano cacnnm nonono npocropa sa perynanniy npannnx npnnpenno exonomcxnx nopmn
rpahancxor connierera), mro ie raxohe mehycono nanonynyiyhn rnn capanne xoin yrnanom
ycnena npema `meransnnn npemena`.
Panamna, nehnncxa n yrnannom onmre-npnxnahena rymauena xapaxrepa ymne noe
nmaiy nenocrarax onemranocrn n cnoamnocrn c osnpom na camy npenmernocr xoiom ce
ane, mro nm naie n cnoamnn yrncax `nosnrnnne` nexepnocrn n camonononocrn. Taxohe n
nnma aroncxn cynporcranene reopnie y ncroi pannn pacnnpyiy epncrnuxe cxnonocrn, a nyr
171 | a a e

npema remarnsannin (ounrnenno n sa nnx rex nepanno naxehoi), a sanpano ycnyr
sarpnanaiyhnx nyrena no enomena xoin ocraiy anonnmnn, noraha ce xao nncxypc ynyuen y
camnm crnapnma cnoamne cnpxe.
119
Vronnicxo oxperane ynyhnocrn ns ror nnnoxpyra
saopannno ie na noimn n came nncrnene moryhnocrn onor mro ie npomno, na rnme nnie y
crany na sanonie onronopnnie ornapane npema ynyhnocrn y xoioi n nanpenax y
nnnnnnsonanocrn (''ymom onyxonenoi npnponn''- Husserl), xpos ornapane npocropa sa oe
camopasymenane n cnoicrnennin xnnor, nonpasymenao n saxrenao n nsnopnnia mepnna. Hama
ie cnecr rnme y cnoioi narocrn nnme cnecr renepannor crana `onor npeyseror ns cnera`, raxo
na rex y mncaoi xpnrnuxoi nncrannn nocraiemo cnoconn na xpos cnonn cner casnaiemo
nnme o camnma cen, na on anrpononomxnx momenara nexe pernonanne onronornie naa
naunnnrn ncxopax npema nsnopnniem xopnsonry nnrana o nncrnonany (Onom Koin iecre)
xpos ynnne y uonexono mecro y npnponn n ycnone xoin my ry omoryhanaiy xnnor, na n rnme
crynnnn na `ayrenrnuno rno` ncropnicxor xnnora. To `ayrenrnuno rno` cnrypno nnie nn
napon paspemen xpos ocnaiauxy nonnrnxy, nn nexa nnnnnnnyanncrnuxa onnyunocr nnn
nacrnpcxo pnrane sa ernsncrennniy (npe n ry npncraiana nacrnpcxa monnrna xaxo ie
onncyie y nainynm pannnma Cn. Ipnropnie Hanama), ann nn canpemena rnoanncrnuxa
nonnrnxa xanxynannia ca opasonanem xoie namehe mynrnxopnoparnnne n
mynrnmapxernnmxe crpyxrype.
Kana ie xao Forouonex npononno cnoie semacxe nane y cnery, Iocnon ie xasnnao: uor
ca+ v ceuiemv, ceuiem)ocm ca+ ceuiemv /Jenanhee no Cn. An. Jonany, 9, 5/ yuehn nainpaxe
my yuennxe, anocrone Herpa, Jaxona n Jonana, ocrane nainnxe cnenennxe n na xpaiy napon
xoin ie sarnnao. He ncxynyiyhn camo nnx, on ie nocrpanao ncxynyiyhn rpexe nacnenom
uoneuancrny, xasyiyhn - Kan nonnrnere Cnna uonieuniera, onna here oo;uamu na Ja iecam, n
na nnmra cam on cee ne unnnm; nero xaxo +e uav:u Oran moi onaxo ronopnm. H Onai xoin
me nocna ca mnom ie. /Jenanhee no Cn. An. Jonany, 8, 28-29/ Pahaiyhn ce ns cmprn xoiy ie
nopasno nacxpcenem, Iocnon ie cne xonauno yunnno orpannuennm (onronorniy,
rnoceonorniy, nornxy, saxone, npano, mnmene, npnnne, pasym n ym), ocranaiyhn rnme

119
Cnenonn cmo na ncropnicxa norahana noxasyiy xaxo opmnpana camoonnocna penexcnia xoia n na saxnarn
crnapn y xopeny nannasn na nponeme nesane sa craryc noe n paspemana nx rex naprnxynapno, a y xereporeno
nsnenennm cnenennuxnm paspanama n cacnnm npornnpeuno. Ona ce sanpano remen na rom noeny noe n
nenom nsnoenany na nannuiy noima, nyrem noncnecnnx rexnn sa eroncrnuxnm rpaenem mohn n crnnanem
nnnnnnnyannor marepniannor orarcrna xoin npyxa xnnor y narocrany, es osnpa na exonomcxo poncrno
xoie rnoannsam xannran-onnoca nonpasymena y cnom nnrepnannonannom mnpeny xpos nnrepxonrnnenranne
xopnopannie xao mynrnnenen nenrpn xonnenrpannie mohn y pyxama manor poia rasnn ca apmniom nocnymnnxa
mro ynono xnne, xprnyiyhn yncxe pecypce xao maconnn marepnian sa macmennicxy n reimnnennr pexnamny
opany ca macxom nomrena n ycnemnocrn. Xprna rnx mynrnmennicxnx xamnana ie camocxpnnena nespenocr
yuecnnxa y nnma, xoia rnoannsyie necnpemne na ry rpyocr npernapaiyhn nx y exonomcxe sanncnnxe on onaxo
oehannx ocrnapnnana cnona xpos ncxanne xpennre unie ornnahnnane nx npernapa y npann cyncrpar ene
uoneuancrna. Hponem noe sa ymnom noom ie ynyrpamna nenoa xoia ie nparn, raxo na ocraie pannna
npema nennm ycnonanaiyhnm xperannma, ri. nesnnannma sa nneie xoie ce ynorpeanaiy sa cnponohene
npnsemnnx n orpannuennx nnrepeca, iep ne nonpasymenaiy one nyxonne meramopose xoie xpos npeymnnane
ynyhyiy na capanny nnn caneicrno ca Foxninm necrnopennm eneprniama.
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mncaonom yncrny y sanarax na npeocmnma nsnona cne mro snaun opasonane n
opasonanocr, mynpocr n nomrene, npannunocr n npymrnenocr. Vcnen rora Xerenona
Ennnxnonennia nnococxnx nayxa xao nocnenno ycnoiena xpnmhancxa nneia nounna na
roi remenoi npornnpeunocrn, xoia nonnaun nemapxannony nnnniy pasymenana naunna na
xoin ie Iocnon mynpocr cnera npernopno y nynocr. uncro nncronane n uncro nnmra y
snaueny iennor n ncror, xao na enonnpaiy Moinieno casnane orxpnha raine Foxnier nmena
xana on onronapa na Jecre Onai Koin iecre. Onai Koin Jecre cnaxo iecre nnn nncrnonane
caunnana cymrnncxn, raxo na rex n moxe na ce yne ca rnm nynncxn orpennm cmncnom
nncrnonana (Cn. Ip. Hanama, Tpniana 3.), es osnpa na ro mro xon nsnecnnx canpemennx
nnocoa ocraie moryhn npnronop onronomxe nnepennnie, no xome n ono cnonnno sa
`neayrenrnuno`. Xeren n npe saxrenao nnrenexryanny nnepennniy nnn naunn
npenasnnaxena meransnxe cyiexrnnnocrn xpos npenmeran onnoc cyiexr-oiexr penannie
y rpancnennenrannoi anepnennnin nnn camocnecrn. Vcnen rora ie n saxrenao nayuny
nenpncrpacnocr merononomxn paspahenor pana noima xao onor mro ce npyxa y nonmany
xoie ra orpannuena npenasnnasn. Tnm npe mro onpemenanane nncrnonana moxe na ce ysme
osnno camo ns acnexra neunocrn ns xoie Moicniy Iocnon n xasyie na iecre Onai xoin iecre
- Cymrn. V rom cmncny ncncras Pyxa xoin nna nocnan naxon npocnanana Iocnona n
neronor nasnecena snecna Ony nocraie ncropnicxa oanesa mnmena, re ie ornymnnane o
ny nanpocro penexcnnno pacrannno nnacrnrn cmncao y uynne nnmensnie pasnonpcnnx
`nosnrnnno-nayunnx` ennnxnonennicxnx cnmynaxpyma, rexehn na nainnme rauxe
xpnmhancxe nneie oecmncnn n yunnn nenaxnnm.
Fanene npaxrnxama mornnannonor nonamana yncrna on crapnne raxo orxpnna
nnrepnperarnnno rno npnnpeme sa cycper ca onnm mro camo npeme nsnyrpa nocn, n mro xpos
ynyhnocr nanonasn ns came neunocrn xoia ce nonma y npemeny, ne nncrnyiyhn nnrne cnoa
nnn onocrpano npomnom n canamnem, iep ce nnaue ynana y npsnno xono xoie nocn
merononomxn anapxnsam n nnxnnnsam. To ce moxe nnnern n y nanmenocrn sanannoenponcxor
menrannrera, xoin npocro nna oyuen na ne nnnn ncrounoenponcxe npennocrn, ann ie na
necpehy ra nanmenocr nnme nero yuecrana n moxe ce namnpoxo noxymenronarn.
120
V ycnony

120
To ie cacnnm nsnecno neonpxnn cran xoin yrnannom cexe ns xpnna rsn. nonnrnsonanor xpnmhancrna n ne
nspaxana nnmra npyro neh acrenniy nyxa n sarpnxenocr iennocrpannx cranonnmra, xoia sa mornn xpnrnxe nmaiy
oyserocr crpacrnma npemohanana n npnxexnnane xomorne nanmohn. Ann, y nnrany ie ry cana n osnnocr
xoiy n nnianexrnuxn cran mopao na moxe na youn y cynpocranenocrn, na n omrpnna xpnrnxe ycnena y
oncrpannnany n npenasnnaxeny onor mro nnie nn nopo nn noxeno. To ie iom ienna y nnsy cnopennnx, ann
saro me n mane aporanrnnx resa on cnoinx cynaponnnxa ns ocrpamhenor nemaromxor nena Xerenonor nyxa, xoin
ie noniennaxo cnen sa mnpe ynnne, xonnxo ie n cnyran nnysnonnsmom cynepnopnocrn mera-cyiexrnnnrera xome
cam npnnana (a ro ie oon sa cypono onannnane nno uera npennor y nnsanrnnnsmy xome cy cpuann Typnn
nnn arym ncropnie, re Cpa ys ocrane asniarcxe napnape xoie no roi naxapannoi xoncrpyxnnin naa
nennmnuno npnnonrn sa sanannn cner, iep nanaiy non ncrn "arym"), n y ncropnicxoi xpnrnnn cacnnm
onpannano nannahen onryxom sa remeny orpannuenocr xoiy ie Xeren nnneo xao camo nemy snany nannonanny
necanecnocr. Bana ie rpeano poonarn Typnnma no camonornpana, na n ce nanonno namnpnna canecr npema
penenry xoin ie remxo nnnern npyraunie nero xao nonnrnuxo cnnerxapene n noropny nemarorniy
repmanonenrpnsma `n na n ienna penonynnia morna na ce necn xao /anrnxaronnuxa a nonpasymena ce n
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monepnor rpahancxor npymrna younno ie na ie ono y nonnrnuxom norneny samnmano cee
xao nanniy xoia cmenyie ony npnponny xao nononacraiyhn cyiexrnnnrer, ynyhn na ie
npncnoinno npxany naxon neyrpannsannie Hpxne. Pacnonoxnnnm nnancnicxnm xannranom
ono ie ycneno nonnrnuxn na ie npecrnrne y 3anannoi Enponn na nyry ncropnie, a cne ro na n
ca rnme nocrannno none remee ynyher nennnrnnno cnoonnorpxnmnor rnoanncrnuxor
npymrna, a uera ie xao xoconcxor nyunier xapaxrepa ycnocranana cmncna ersncrennnie no
cnecran n Xeren. To ie oner nocrannno (ncnynanaiyhn ycnon cyiexra-cyncrannnie) nnrane
remennx npennocrn xa xoinma nexo npymrno rexn. Herarnnnocrn y onnm cynpocranannma
cy nponsnonn iennor erannrapnor (nopannanaiyher) npymrna, opnienrncanor xa nonrn, xa
iennno nponrnoi exonomnin xoia npnxpnna nenonane eroncrnuxnx nopnna ns crapnx
oryhena, rnocrnnncrnuxnx, nenpocnerennx n y ocnonn neopasonannx sacana. Fes
nsnecnocrn o onmroi noponrn remxo na he mohn na ce nserne nanane y napnapcrno non
rpnmacom nnrepecnor erannpana npnponnnx casnana crnnannx y xpnny onuaine pennrnie,
mro raxohe yxasyie n na xopnsonr yuecranor noiannnana xaracrpoannnx ynn, xoin he
nesanyncanem xynrypnnx nanopa uoneuancrna na ra yneny y nepen n ane y noimonno
ouaianane, ns xora ce iom nanno Xeren nsanao c nennxnm nanopom n remxom myxom.
Anconyrno nncrnonane n mnmene xao nneia y iennncrny noima n peannocrn, naa na
yne cacnnm xonxperna, ri. na y cnexynarnnnom pasmemraiy nonpnmn panr nyxonnor
xapaxrepa xao noiana cpacna ca cymrnnom n cracana sa cner xao ycnocranena nyxonnocr on
anconyrne nynohe cnne nopa ca xoiom ie on n crnapan.
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Pann enomenonomxn npncryn

anrnnpanocnanna/ peopmannia`: "Hencnpanan ie, nanme, npnnnnn na ce oxonn npana n cnoone cruoaiv oe;
oc)ooohena caeiecmu n na n ienna penonynnia morna nrn sa peopmannie. - Taxo cy one seme oner nane
narpar y cnoie crapo crane, y Hrannin, c monnnxanniama nancxor nonnrnuxor crana. Benennia, Tenona, re
crape apncroxpannie xoie cy ap sancra nne nernrnmne, necrane cy xao rpynn necnornsmn. Bancxa nanmoh nnie
nnmra morna sa ynniex: Hanoneon ncro raxo nnie morao Bnanoncxy npncnnnrn na cnoony, xao mro nn unnnn
II Xonannniy nnie morao npncnnnrn na poncrno." /4u). Hcm., npen., crp. 464./ Hcrounoenponcxn cner xacno ce
noxopno peopmaropcxom nponecy rnoannsannie n ra ononnenocr nma cnoiy neny y nonoheny no poncxor
exonomcxor craryca na necrnnnn rnx nonnx npennocrn. A nehe nrn na cy one ocrnapnnane es npnmene
ynennnauxnx mexannsama n rexnnxe ocnaiana enpoarnanrcxnx nnrerpannia es npesana npen npexomepnom
ynorpeom yoinre cnne mnnnrapncrnuxnm nonnnamhnnanem. Bnannxa Pane n nononom raxnnx nnxpycrpannia
aryma n oxpapnnana napnapcrna na rnoannsaropcxom nnxy nyxa enponcxnx napona camo cnoxoino pexao -
`cnnier ie onai rnpian rnpiannny, a xamonn nymn naroponnoi`

121
Iycran Cnnepr ie ynopenno rai pan noima ca crnapanauxnm enemenrnma nrpe y neunioi nenarornin, rne ce
npannna nrpe ne menaiy nox nrpa rpaie, ann camoyxnnane rpainocrn ne mopa na yne orpannueno, nero camo
opoueno. Onai xo pxe cxnara naxme npncraie na nsmene npannna, na ynyrpamny npornnpeunocr noima unie ie
rex ncxonnme camopasymenana y pasnnienoi opmn ona norpena nenocpenocr na xoioi ce sacnnna, raxo na ie n
cnecrpanocr nneinor npncryna y Xerenonom anconyrnom crany nonpasymenana cnohena na iennocrannocr n
nomnpyiyhe cpacrane ca rorannrerom nncrnonana: :Also weltet in ihrer absoluten Differierung, in der Ma-
losigkeit ihrer Leidenschaften ein Fieber, eine Krankheit, die im Licht der `ein-scheinenden Vernnft` wie im
Geschich des einerseits zerrttenden, andererseits sich selbst vernichtenden Wiederstreits vergeht. So ist die
Differenz des Tod der Entfremdung und Verzweiflung, der sich im Licht und in der Macht vernnftigen Denkens als
Scheinted entlarvt oder ins Leben des Geistes zurckfindet. Die sich selbst differierende Identitt, im Fortgang die
Negativitt negiertvernnftlichte Identitt./Taxohe ce nanasn y nenom anconyrnom pasnnxonany, y nonnosn
ryena mepe xao remneparypa, onecr, y cnerny `iennociaieher yma` mro c ienne crpane nma noryny cynnny,
174 | a a e

crnapnma xonaunocrn, y xoinma nayxa o ncxycrny cnecrn xao 4euo+euo)oeuia ovxa
pacnerana nnepennniannie cnecrn ynyrap ne came, npernocrana pasnniane noima xao
nnmecrpano opasonane came re cnecrn xpos ynaxene y cee nyrem ncrynana npema
nenoxynnocrn onpehena xoia nonpasymenaiy nnacrnrocr onnoca. Pyx ca rnme ne nsnpmana
nexaxan `nan y npeme` (Xainerep), nero rex nexn neronn momenrn xao xonaunn, iep ie npeme
`nerarnnno iennncrno` camor nocroiana, xoie nma sa cnpxy na ynyrn na ycnaiane y xony
ncrnne enomenonornie nyxa. To nonpasymena n sanaxene no nainye ncrnne xoiy
npencrana orxpnnena pennrnia npema noi cnoicrnennm canpxainma. Bena npencranana ce
nonone no nonmana nnrennnonannomhy camor npenana, raxo na nonmane nna npomnpen
canpxai came cymrnne ncropnie norahana ca penexcniom y cen, npema xoioi
norocnonornuxn nnn xpncronenrpnunn onnx pasymenana nsnia y npnn nnan n
xonxpernsyie yxynny crnapnocr. Ona snaun na ce y cepn nnacrnrocrn noraha
camoxoncrnrynnia canpxaia n ynyrpamna aprnxynannia cyiexrnnnocrn npema opmn
mnmena, naxne ne nemro ysero no cen n xoie camnm rnm ocraie renepanno cnoamne n
nsonyie ce on camor canpxaia, nero nemro mro nnrepnopnsyie oiexrnnne canpxaie y
ynyrpamnocr penexcnie n rnme ocnerana cnoicrnenocr came npenmernocrn npenmera. Kon
Xerena ce cmncneno onpehyiy enemenrn anconyrne nneie y Hapcrny Ona n nocmarpa
anconyrno pasnnaiane ca crpanananem Foxancxe nnunocrn Cnna y ycranonanany
pasnnunrocrn y cnery, re oyxnara nasnauene uonexa na n ce ornopnno Hapcrno Pyxa y
nonpyuiy saiennnuapena npema rpoiennncrny nnocrasn nnn Cnerorpoinunom npeoxpery
nyxonnocrn y cneonmry crnapnocr. Hpomnpnnane noima nornuxe npornnpeunocrn onnocn ce
na sacrpamyiyhn ncxas `For ie mpran` n on y nnnamnnn nnianexrnuxor nnenrnrera snaun moh
nononnor oxnnanana, rne n noiam cmprn orpneo camo nennmnuno npnxnarnny
sanpmenocr npema opmannom nornuxom nnenrnrery, ynyhn na ie Iocnon n nacxpcao, nnn
onnasehn na Heeca snecna Ony ocrao npncyran y npxnenoi onmrnnn xoiy ie anocroncxn
yrnpnno, nenyiyhn n nae y Hnny Cneror Pyxa ca xoinm ie iennocymran. Opasonane cnecrn
unnn nynohy canpxaia camoyxnnana iennocrpanocrn nonmana y camom cen, na rai naunn na
enomenonornia nyxa ncnocrana canpxaie cnecrn xoin ce pacrnapaiy y aprnxynannin n
npenasnnase, cne no mncaonor ycnocranana nnmensnie anconyrnor noima y xome ce
cmnpyiy. Pan noima opasyie nyx xoin ce ycanpmana npema ysopnocrn cxnarana Cnere
Tpoinne xao nneie y yncxom ymy, na ce moxe pehn na ie nnianexrnuxn xon anconyrne nayxe
noroca sanpano anonnxrnuno cnerorpoinuno ycnnnane xa ncrnnn xao nonn nspas
nnoconie n yienno ocrnapnnane nainynx reonomxnx npernocranxn, a y rom ie norneny,
xaxo Xeren nspnunro rnpnn, cama nnoconia opronoxcna. Pyx y npenasnnaxennma

a ca npyre omamyie y nonnmranaiyhem npornnpeueny camom cen. To ie pasnnxonane cmprn onor mro ce
nsnanmrana n nonnaia, a ro y cnerny n cnnn ymnor mnmena xao cniaiyhe ornymrenocrn nnn ra nonparno
nanasn y neronom xnnory y nyxy. Cam cee pasnnxyiyhn nnenrnrer, y nneny nae nernpa nerarnnnocr... ymnn
nnenrnrer. /Gustav Siewerth, Gott in der Geschichte: Die Gottesfrage bei Hegel und Heidegger, Konstanz:
Trialogo Verlag, 1971., S. 101./

175 | a a e

ouynana ono mro ie npoyuanano nepcnexrnne neunor n canpmenor, raxo na ce pexynepannia
nnoconie noraha saxnayiyhn noiann xpnmhancxe nneie, na ie cana moryhe na yan
npema ncrnnn nainynx crpemena nnoconie yne peannsonana y onronomxoi
crpyxrypn yuena o orxponeny Foxniem.
V nperxonnom nsnarany ie iacno onpran cran npema ncropnococxoi xonnennnin xoia
ncxonn ns npomnmenor xerenoncxor cxnarana cnercxe ncropnie n nemanana na nnany
ynnnepsanno xonxpernnx nneinnx pasanpana noima nncrnonana (a mro n iecre ecxonauan
sanarax anconyrne pannn cnnx nnococxnx ncrpaxnnana). A. u. Hocen ie y cnoinm
pasmnmannma cnenno xnacnuan rpar samncnn nneanne npxannocrn uonexa on Hnaronone
Ho)umeie no Apncrorenone Ho)umure n npexo Anrycrnnone upraee Boruie no Xerenonnx
Ocuoeuux upma du)ocoduie opraeuoe npaea y cnnm nonomnma xoie ie ra nneia nmana
ncropnicxn na orpnn, ocehaiyhn ie xao nnrenexryanan ocyhen xao `naponnn nenpniare`
npema nniamaroncxnm cynonnma, y nennm npoiexrnma nesanyncana, n na nnacrnroi xoxn
nonnocehn cnnpcxn sarnop, norope n ecxpynynosne xnenere nnacrnrnx yehena. To
cnehene xnacnunor rpara nonpasymenano ie n nnrepnperarnnne nnonannie xoie cy nparnne
peaxryannsanniy nnianora nonnrnuxe mncnn y raxnoi cnryannin, rne on nnoconie n
pennrnie (npe cnera xpnmhancxe xao one orxpnnennx cnernx rainn), nnie ocrao nn xamen na
xameny, na n ce sarnm npen nerono npencranane Iocnony y rom ncrom npymrny npemno n
na pexynepanniy onor canpxaia nonmana, mro ce nanexo uemhe rpynm sapanama yxnnao
nnn apem ronnxo uecro ryno ns nnna, nero mro ie ro nanac ymecno n na ce npnmern. H
Oner Cymnn y cnoioi crynnin
122
, nnie nponycrno npnnnxy na mapxcncrnuxy xpnrnxy
Xerenone nnoconie onenn xao npcry epncrnuxe peaxnnie xoia ie ocamocrannna ienan
npaxrnuan npanan, n y rom cmncny nnie nenaxno mro ie ro nocrao ncrpaxen npanan
mnmena, a xoin, es osnpa mro ie peanno nocneo y hopcoxax, n nae xao mncaono
npenasnhen, nocn cnmonnuxn xapaxrep pannonannocrn n nma cnennnuny mncaony rexnny
y ycrpoianany npxanornopnnx saxrena. Ona nonpasymena n ncxopax ynasan, npema
xnacnunninm samnmannma nneanne rnnonornie onnxonana npymrnenocrn (nnoconie
nonnrnxe xao nanneie nonmanor ypehnnana npxanornopnnx yncxnx pecypca xon Hnarona n
Apncrorena); a xaxo cama anrnuxa napannrma nnie n iennna, naa nanomenyrn na
npxannnuxy n connianny cnryanniy noxasyie ynpano xpnmhancxa nneia, xoiy ie mehy npnnma
naicynncnnie ocmnmanao Anpennie Anrycrnn n nao ioi nocroiny reopnicxy cnary.
Hoxena Civitas Dei nspacra ns cnponocrn Civitas terrena, ann nneina nenpnsemnocr
iom ynex camnm rnm ne orxnana n snoynorpee, uax ryn n ornopnocr na
nncrpymenrannsanniy npexo nacna, pasoinnmrna, nauxe n ypehena onosemacxnx nesa.
ueynanno npano uax nonpasymena n npxanny nenenrpannsanniy, na raxnn onnocn nounnaiy
na saxnernn, openy, noxnony, nauxn n cnaxom npyrom onnxy nacna xoin cy

122
Ieee) rar cvooa Poccuu, Kpacnonap, 2005.
176 | a a e

nponsnonnnn nnemnhn, xpaenn, npxna n mane rpyne rpronana, nnxnapa n sanarnnia, a y
xpainoi nnnnin norona monapxomaxnia y opn sa npnencrno onnyunnana na nnacrn.
H Toma Axnnncxn ie cacnnm cynncno nsnamao na ie nam pasym orpannuen rnme mro ie
npnnyhen na cranno npa nsmehy noiennnnx noapa, re na cnaxn nyr na cnoi pnsnx
nponenyie na nn cy ra nopa nponasnn nnenn na nyry xa nainnmem nopy, a ro n unnn
yncxy cnoony iep ie npaxrnuxn ym y crany na ns onor ncxycrna nsnene onmra nauena
mopana xoia cy sacnonana na Foxniem saxony (Lex divina), xao na npany xoie nocraie
iypncnnxnnono naueno pasrpannuena naxena crnapn. V rom cneny npanehn noimonny
pasnnxy nsmehy xamare n sapane, on ie crao na crpany sapane nno panom mapnnomhy
cnpomaxa, nnn nax ynpyxnnanem rpronana, sanarnnia n anaxa xoin cnoiom nponsnonnom
cnoce pnsnx sa cnoie nnacnnmrno n nonehanaiyhn nponsnonny rexe xa saiennnuxom nopy.
Kaxo, npema iacnom Kanronom ynnny, xee n norpee xynrype snarno npennaue ncnpen
mopannor nanpenonana n cracanana, uecro nayuna nocrnrnyha n penarnnno naxna casnana
nnaiy npnmennnana na mrery ernxe n uonexone ynocroienocrn npnnne, ynyhn na ce
necmorpeno saopana xaxo moxe nome na sanpmn onaxo onanane cxnonocrnma y
nonymrannma ynyrpamnoi npnnynn xoia ynyhyie na npnnncxn xnnor n cmncao cnoone xoin
ne nonpasymena xaracrpoanne xapaxrepe n y cepn nepcxnx nncrnrynnia. V cnom
onuainom xopnsonry npaxrnune nnoconie ro ie cnoona ycrannnx oesehnnana yncxor
xnnora ca npernocranxom nerone ymnocrn, a y reopnicxom nnn onronornuxom
(meransnuxom) xopnsonry, ro ie nyna cnecr o npemenonany y nocrnrnyroi pannn cen
cnoicrnenor camoonpehena ymnocrn.
Cnpxa uonexonor xnnora nnie y crnnany naxencrna xoie n ce ounronano axrom noe,
neh axrom pasyma, ri. na ocnony nonymrena nnn naronarn Iocnonne. Axo n saiennnuxa
npenosnarnna crnap y xonrnomeparnma npcra nha y onnuiy nha uonexa nna
`npernocranenn cyiexar ncropnie` (nnn xao y mapxcnsmy cnoicrnenom nperymaunnany y
nerono rsn. ponno nhe), yxonnxo n yonmre nxaxo morno na nsahe ns nonornsma, rana
sa nera ne n naxnna ona noropno iacna Xerenona oncepnannia: Hnanera raxo nanymra ono
n ono mecro, ann unrana nena nyrana ie rpaina. Hcro ie n ca pononnma xnnornna. Hpomena
ie xpyxnn rox, nonanane ncror. Cne, naxne, croin y xpyxeny n camo ynyrap nera, a
npomena ie non (onnm) noiennnaunnm. V npnponn ie xnnor xoin nponsnasn ns cmprn cam
nsnona noiennnaunn xnnor; a axo ce pon y onoi npomenn carnenana xao cyncrannnianan, onna
nponacr noiennnaunor iecre nonono ornanane pona y noiennnaunocr. Onpxane pona ie raxo
(moryhe) camo xao iennoopasno nonanane ncror naunna ersncrennnie.
123
Fecxonauna
pasnonpcnocr npomena y camoi npnponn nonpasymena nanenenn xpyxnn rox nonanauxor
xapaxrepa, na ra nrpa mnoronnxnx onnxa npernocrana n cnoienpcny nocany, nacynpor
onome mro ce noraha y nyxy: Ca nyxonnnm onnxom ie npyraunie; onne ce npomena ne
onnrpana rex na nonpmnnn, nero y noimy. Cam noiam ie rai xoin ce ncnpana. V npnponn pon

123
G.W.F. Hegel, Die Vernunft in der Geschichte, (G. Lasson), Leipzig, 1920, crp.133-134
177 | a a e

ne unnn nnxaxan nanpenax, nox ie y nyxy cnaxa npomena nanpenax.
124
Hoiam nanpenax ie
sapano nosnrnnna npcra xnannrarnnne npomene xoia ne nonpasymena nacranana nnn
nponyxanana, nero cxoxonnrocr n pannn na xoinma ce snnaiy, nanme nnmensniy nynne. Ha
xopnsonry ce ornapa moryhnocr cranana mnmenor n nocroieher, raxo na ie snane xoie ce
rnme crnue onronomxor xapaxrepa, nanme npema npernocranxama nncrnonana y
npemenocrn ornapana crnapn y ncrn max n ornapane nnxonoi cymracrnenocrn xoia nocn
xapaxrep nannpemenocrn nnn neunocrn. To axn y conniannom cmncny peun xana ce rnenaiy
onnoiene rpymrnene rpynannie xao npemenyiyhe na onpehenom npocropy, ann ncro raxo
onpehene nneiama xoie cy nm saiennnuxe n cnpxama xa xoinma rexe xao cnoienpcna
cyncrannniannocr mera-cyiexrnnnor nyxa xoin oiennnyie mnomrno noiennnaunnx
cyiexara y rsn. `npymrnene opmannie`. Ono mro ie snauaino y Xerenonnm peunma o cmncny
npxannor npana xao aprnxynannie caonnomena mera-cyiexrnnnnx nyxona, iecre npncyrnocr
y xoioi ie noxnneo nennx ncnxnuxn ynap casnana na ie xpynnianan nponnar npxane
ncronpemeno n onai rne ce rpahancxo npymrno noiannnano xao cnoamnn xopnsonr y
norneny cnrypnocrn iennnxe, a xoiy ie npxana rapanronana cnoiom xonnennniom npana.
Mncnnonn nocne Xerena y enomenannom nponnary rpahancxor npymrna, nnnenn cy
onnomxe ncropnicxe peannocrn, iep cy n camn noxnnenn nnnycrpniannsanniy xao ienan ne
camo xnanrnrarnnan axrop nero n xnannrarnnan, menaiyhn am npannna nrpe xoia xao na ie
ynex namerana ncropnia ns cnor nynncxor cmncna. Moryhe oxperane xoconcxoi
xonnennnin nyunie npnpone uonexa ie cnaxaxo perporpanna n ne snaun xao nan y napnapcrno
camo ryene iom y anrnnn nocrnsananor nnnoa cnoone rpahana, nero ncro raxo n
ryena snana xoin raxny aprnxynanniy nponemarnxe ocneranaiy, mro ie nanexo myunnie.
Xerenon cexropcxn nonapnsonan yuennx Kapn Mapxc, nosaimno ie nneiy rpahancxor n
nnnycrpnicxor npymrna, ca nacnyhnnanem neouexnnano npncyrne moryhnocrn na ce `nsmenn
ncropnia`, re na ce nnrepnpernpa npema nonnronomxoi rpannnnin nenniaranoncxnx
`npnmannnana` raxnnx npnpona na xoia ie yxasao Xoc, nnn nax `marepniana opane` onnx
maxnianenncrnuxnx nonnrnuxnx rexnnxa sa xoie he ce nmarn cnyxa yynyhe, naiyhn
xomynnrapncrnuxe nonpnnoce pasnoiy mexannsama sa rpancopmncane remea onor mro ie
Xeren, neron yunre, nasnao moh ynnnepsannor. Boa ce onnnaunna c rnme npema
marepnianncrnuxnm crpyxrypama n exonomcxe anarxe cy noxasane xonxnncxanopcxn
nncrnnxr npema ennnxnonennicxoi norpen ycanpmanana nyxa npema maxcnmn ynnre
canpmenn xao mro ie canpmen Oran nam neecxn. Ta `moh ynnnepsannor` nanexo ie nnme
nounnana na rnnonornin ymnocrn n nsnohennm npencranama no caxnmana na nneiy, xao
nyxonno onronopnnm nnrepnperanniama, neronn mro ce reopnicxom nnanepy
connianncrnuxnx penonynnia rana unnnno, iep ie n on cam cxnarno na neronom nnheny
`menana cnera` nanexo nnme noronyiy nannonanne crpacrn xoie ce pacnnpyiy (cnyuai Hpcxe

124
ibid., c. 134. Xpnmhancxn xapaxrep nane ynoxene y nnonarnnnocr Pyxa onne ne n rpeao na yne cnopan.
178 | a a e

n Taino ynyrcrno nnn Honepnno caonmrene
125
), nnn xacnnie ycanpmanana nponaranna
n na necnom n na nenom xpnny penonynnonapnnx oprannsonana, nero nexo rpesneno n
nayuno onnxonano casnanane xoie n naano na ynyrn na nponeme. Knannrarnno
cposanane snauaia noima ymnocrn y nnunocrn npema maxcnmn na `nn onpannana cpencrna`,
iesynrcxn ie y neomnnnranrnoi xomynnrapnoi xnasnnpxnenocrn ynonaunno mnoro noopnnxa
connianncrnuxor yronnsma, noxasyiyhn `nyxancrno yma` ynorpeom nennmnuno raunnx n
nennmnuno noysnannx noimonnnx onpehena oiexrnnnor nyxa, marepnianncrnuxn nx
oxpehyhn n npnxasnnanem ca nannuia nsonauyiyhn y nnacnpany no mnpoxnx nayunnx maca.
Harenr nsnprana nsnopnnx snauena peun n mncnn neh ie no onpannie nosnar y opn
`cnoonnnx snnapa` ca snannunnm npxnennm yuennma y xnanany `Bennxom Apxnrexrn`,
`Cnernonomn` (Hynnepy Tanony) nsonauyiyhn nsnopny Cnernocr Iocnonny, a pasne
cexre n raina npymrna cy rai nemononomxn mannp naxapannnx rymauena n nsnprana ncrnne
xapnxarypanno npenocnne no mnpoxnx naponnnx maca, noxasyiyhn npanne mannnynarnnnnx
ycnexa nemaromxnm nonnrnuxnm crpacrnma.
Cxema rsn. `nomnmarocrn yma` y Xerenonoi nnoconin ncropnie pyxonohena ie xon
nera xeom sa nanoxnahnnannma onor mro ycann y nnrepnperannin, sa oxpernomhy n
cnpernomhy xoia ie y crany na npemomhananem nacrannx iasona npenasnhe npornnpeunocrn
cyiexrnnnor n oiexrnnnor nnn ersncrnpaiyher n ersncrenrnor y xnnory nanpocro (anrnuxa
copocnna, `namer` nnn `pasopnrocr`). Mehyrnm, y noxpnnany rom resom na ce pann o
pacnonarany ca ynnnom ymne cnecrn, xan ie neh crynnna na neno xonxperna ynnnepsannocr
nonmana, xon Mapxca ie ennnenrno nacrynnna cxemarcxa noimonna cnoona (ca onernomhy
n on ror opasnoxena), ca npenopyxom xoia ie ne camo nemoryha, nero n neyynno
nenorpena, na nennxa xonnunna rpahana pasnnamhyie n rnaun mannny, xoia iy ie pannie
exonomcxn nanmohno ynomanana (sa Mapxca =excnnoarncana) n anana y ncnxonomxn
sacenax, a mro ie cem ncnoanana sanncrn n npareher ncnoanana naxocrn, snaunno n
nenpemocrnny npornnpeunocr reopnicxe xoncrpyxnnie, xao nemro n es cnor ernuxor n es
xonxperno nornuxor onpannana (Hannonannsannia nnxana n nnie nmna y npanny
pasnnamhnnana orarnx rpahana na n ce ro orarcrno npanenno pacnonennano cnnma,
nero na n onn xoin onnyuyiy o rnm nponecnma nnn narpahenn `iennaxnin nero npyrn` xan
cy ce neh noom nehnne namnn y cnryannin na `xosa uyna xynyc`.)
Knanrnnxannie camo npnnnnnnm romnnannma nnn nonananem mace crnapaiy npnnnn
nehe ncrnnnrocrn, a sanpano ne oesehyiy nn nanpenax y yncxoi cpehn nn nponynnany

125
V nonponoi anannsn ror omaner Mapxconor nonnca ns 1870. ronnne Oooopv Couuia)oe+orpamcre
paouu:re napmuie Hpcre cnaxaxo ie moryhe nsnahn na ie: Honepnno caonmrene nncao uonex xoin ncnonena
nonnrnuxy nnoconiy xpainer nonynrapnsma... ca iennom nnnnunom ornopenomhy es npecenana... n
npencrana xnacnuan npnmep nonynrapncrnuxe nonnrnuxe raxrnxe xoia cnoiom pannxannomhy anrnnnnnpa
nonnrnuxy npaxcy raxnnx iesynra ca nennne xaxnn cy nn Faxynnn n Hennn... /xao/ anconyrnn cyiexr onnuen
y naprnicxom nonnrnuxom npxy, xoin nnpexrno ycmepana nenarnocrn nponerepniara... n nounna na memany
nnxraropcxnx n necnorcxnx onnamhena... (Hnxona Mnnomennh, Aumuuo+uie +aprcucmu:rux uoeo)oeuia:
Fomennsam, crannnsam, mapxcnsam, Feorpan, 1990., crp. 310-313)
179 | a a e

cnecrn o cpehn uoneuancrna y ncropnin, xao nnrn iacnnie nocranennm n yunpmhenninm
nornuxnm nnmensniama nanpenonana xa nopy y connianno-nonnrnuxoi crnapnocrn. V rom
cmncny ie onnnuny anannsy ror nponema, na npnmepy coniercxor npymrna, nonynno ie
nenanno Hanen Jenrenennu Foixo ca cnoiom ocmnmenom crynniom o nonmany cnercxe
ncropnie. On ie ro iesrponnro opmynncao nononehn no cxeme npernennocrn nnn ynnnepsane
xonxpernsannie nanpra nmunmhenor ncropnococxor cranonnmra y cnom pany o cymrnnn
nnoconie cnercxe ncropnie xon Anexceia ueonoponnua Hocena.
126
Ca iaxnm ocnonnem na
nyx xerenniancxe nnianexnuxe rpnianonornie on ie y canpemennm ycnonnma npencnnrnnao

126
Hmaiyhn y nnny cne nsnoxeno, ycranonanamo na pexoncrpyxnnia nocenencxe nnianexrnxe cnecnercxo-
ncropnicxor nponeca moxe na yne ua;ua:eua y cnenehoi nornuxo-ncropnicxoi cxemn:
1. Teoxpa1cxo apym1no (ayropnrapnsam, ienno):
a) Hcrox: (Hnnnia nneia; Ernnar marepnia; Hepcnia cnmnon);
) Anrnunocr: (Ppenna Ipuxa nneia; Ppennn Pnm marepnia; Jennnnsam cnmnon);
n) Cpennonexone: (nnsanrnicxo-mocxoncxa xynrypa nneia; iynancrnuxo-xaanncrnuxa xynrypa marepnia;
xaronnnnsam cnmnon).
2. An1ponoxpa1cxo apym1no (Hnepannsam, npyro):
a) Kannrannsam (Hpenopon nneia; Hnnycrpnannsam XVIIXIX nn. marepnia; Hmnepnannsam n amnsam
npne nononnne XX n. cnmnon);
) Conniannsam (Vronnicxn nneia; Torannrapnn marepnia; Pemoxparcxn cnmnon);
n) Anapxnsam (nnopmannono npymrno nneia, xaanncrnuecxo npymrno marepnia, rnoanncrnuxa
nnnnnnsannia cnmnon).
3. Konsepna1nnno, r.i. reoanrponoxparcxo npymrno (cnnresa), nasnaueno ie y npanocnannoi (r.i. pycxo-
cnonencxoi no npenmyhcrny) nnnnnnsannin xpaia XX nouerxa XXI n.
Kao mro nnnnmo, nornuxa crpyxrypa nare cxeme onpehyie ce nnianexrnuxom rpnianom resa anrnresa
cnnresa, rne meorpamu;a+ ncryna xao resa, aumponorpamu;a+ xao aumume;a, a rou;epeamu;a+ nrpa ynory re
nnme cnnrese, y xoioi ce cnnma orpannuenocr nne nperxonne ncropnicxe enoxe. Cnnrernuxa cymrnna
xonsepnarnsma, nerona opahenocr npennananany npornnopeuia canpemene ncropnie saxyuyie ce y
nnococxoi nacrpoienocrn ror nornena na cner, xoin ie cnocoan na cnnma uynny iennocrpanocr ecrernuxor n
pennrnosnor npymrnenor casnana. Anannsa ncropnococxe xonnennnie pycxor mncnnona npennoxena y
narom pany, nonymra na ce caunnn nsnon o rome na, y cxnany c Hocennm, nornuxn sanpmerax y cnercxoi
ncropnin naa na yne nneina (nyxonna) cynpocranenocr nna nomnnanrna nnnnnnsannicxa cncrema
canpemenocrn: ncropnicxn n nonnrnuxn noneeno /pascpenoroueno/ na seme 3anana n Hcroxa npanocnanne
nnnnnnsannie n auapxucmu:ro-raoa)ucmu:roe, e)ooa)u;auuouoe opvumea, unia ie ocnona nnancnicxa n
noino-nonnrnuxa moh, xoie cy ycpenorouene y CAP... Ann nacrynaiy npemena, xana he naarn na npxneno
casnane npnsna meodauuiv y cmeapa)aumev. Bannpxneno, cexynapno, xymanncrnuxo crnapanamrno ie
ncnpneno, cnyna ce ynapa y hopcoxax. Kynrypa ie ncnomhena. Haioe yne myun xeh neunocrn. A ro snaun,
na naa na nacrynn enoxa npxnenor crnapanamrna, xpnmhancxor, orouoneuancxor. Hpxna ne moxe na ocrane
homxnhem xnnora, homxnhem nyme. V esoxnoi nnnnnnsannin sarphe ce yncxn opas n cnoona nyxa,
ncxonnnhe crnapanamrno, n mohn he na noune napnapnsannia. Hpxna he iom iennom na yne oanesna na cnacn
nyxonny xynrypy, nyxonny cnoony uonexa. /Hanen Jenrenennu Foixo, uHHOCOuHJA HCTOPHJE A.u.
HOCEBA H CBETCKO-HCTOPHJCKH 3APATAK HPABOCHABA, uaconnc `Kynrypa nonnca`, Honn Can,
p. 11-12, 2009, crp. 34/
180 | a a e

xonnenryanny mnoronpcnocr nnoconie nocrxnacnune enoxe n saxyuno na mnmene
naa na nacrann xnacnunnm rparom, axo ne xenn na ce yronn y anrponomopnsme
`cnecnercxnx enepannia n nmnepnia` nnn y merononomxn anapxnsam n nnxnnnsam na n
noxyunno cmncao cynnne napona n ncropnicxor nponeca y nennnn.
127
Xerenoncxo nacnehe
ca rnme ne noxasyie camo nnrannocr, nero n crnapanauxe nonpnnoce, nsnaxyhn cmncao
sanperennx n cnoxennx norahana canpemene ncropnie, raxo na ie ocnonoeno na ce nocn ca
nopacrom rnoannsaropcxnx rennennnia. Bro ce rnue nponeca rnoannsyiyhnx npymrnennx

127
Hcro raxo Koxen ie neoma npeynennuao rexnoxparcxy n npocnernrecxy xomnonenry Xerenone
cnexynarnnne ncropnie. On ie npxao na nsa cnnx opmn anconyrnor nyxa croin uonex n nerona axrnuxa
ncropnia. V cxnany ca rnm anrpononomxnm npnnnnnom, cnercxa ncropnia he na ce sanpmn onna, xana
uoneuancrno ycranonn nyno rocnonapene nan cnerom npnpone. Parn nn he ce nocrnhn y ynnnepsannoi
nmnepnin, y xoioi he ynn na xpaiy na nahy cnoie ynyrpamne nyxonno iennncrno n npennanaiy connianne
npornnpeunocrn. Kao xonxperan pesynrar pasnoia nannonanno-npxannnx cncrema rpea na nocrane orpomna
mehynaponna n mehynpannnuxa xonenepannia, xoia he y naueny na nonene no crnapana nannannonanne
Cnecnercxe enepannie, `Cnercxe Hmnepnie`... Ho namem nnheny, nenononocr onronapaiyher `rexnoxparcxo-
rnoannor` pemena nponema cmncna n xpaia ncropnie saxyuena ie y yronnsmy, xaxo came nneie roranne
nnacrn nan npnponom (paha exonomxe xpnse n norpomauxo npymrno), raxo n exnexrnunocrn reopnie
Hannannonanne cnercxe xonenepannie, xoia ne nonpasymena nannonanno-npxannn axrop (nannonanny
nneiy) xao ocoeny n nyxny opmy peannsannie nyxonnor iennncrna uoneuancrna. Hanen Enrentennu Foxo
Cmauoe)euue noumu ece+upuo ucmopuu: Hcropnxo nnococxn ouepx, Kpacnonap: Kyan, 2006. Tai
nmnync nponyno ie n Hanen Anexcannponnu unopencxn (1882-1937), xana ie na rpary Cononiona ncrnnao
naxnocr nsrpanne nnrerpannor snana n cneoyxnarnor rnennmra iennncrna crnapnocrn. Marncrapcxnm panom
O ovxoeuoi ucmuuu (1911), yrpo ie nnacrnrn nyr, a onpanom ienne on naionmnninx, a n naisnauainninx
noxropcxnx nnceprannia na Mocxoncxoi nyxonnoi axanemnin /Cmvo u ;acuueane ucmuue (1914)/, y xoioi ie
pasnno nneie o cneiennncrny xpos cacnnm cnennnuan npnxasnnauxn xonopnr. Ty ie ocrnapeno iennncrno
pennrnie n ancrpaxrnor snana ca ynepenem o nnxonoi nynoi carnacnocrn, y nnanaecr opnrnnannnx nncama,
mro naie n narnny iennor anrnuxn oopmenor crnna. Cnery ce cynpocrana Horoc xao nerono naueno, a
xynrypa ce nnnn xao cnecna opa, ca nacroianem cnera na ce npema nemy ypannorexn, raxo na yxynno yncxo
crnapanamno opmnpa nneymo-cepy, oprannsyiyhn marepniy xoia ce nanasn nan uonexa. To n snaunno na n
ce nonpxanana mnnnmanno uernoponnmensnonanna nepnennnia, xoia nma y nnny cmncao xonaunocrn nnn npeme
y neronoi nynncxoi nnmensnin xoia ce nonnpyie c neunomhy. To ie raxna npernocranxa, xoiom n ce ca
yxnnanem iennonnmensnonanne xynrypno-pannonanncrnuxn saysere nosnnnie nepcnexrnne nnn cnnxe nynne,
orxpnnane crnapn xaxne cy y eneprercxn noxyunnanoi nnmensnonannocrn, xaxo ro npenopyuyie n Cn. An. Hanne
y Hoc)auuuu Edecuu+a (3, 14-18): Hpexnanam xoena cnoia npen Onem Iocnona namera Hcyca Xpncra...na
nam nane na oiauare Pyxom neronnm y ynyrpamnem uoniexy, na ce Xpncroc niepom ycenn y cpna nama, na
ncre, yxopnienenn n yremeenn y yann, mornn pasymiern ca cnnma cnernma mra ie uupuua n ovruua, n
ovouua n eucuua. C rnme ce nnie rexn npaneny nexor opmanno canpmenor cncrema, neh xnnory c Forom y
creuennm snannma saxnayiyhn neronnm naronarnnm eneprniama. Ha nnxonom rpary sanonien ie n naunn
carnenanana xoin nnme ne moxemo na rymaunmo xao sanemapnn y nno xom cmncny: " Tai cner iecre ynex
rexyhn, ynex nnaiyhn, ynex rpenepehe nony-nhe, a sa nnm, nsa nera, - xao nasnyx nsnan seme y xapxom
nonneny - rpenepehnm n xonennnm n nonnoxannm xonrypama ocernno oxo npospena opvev crnapnocr...To ie
crnxnina moh xoia ne nosnaie nn, nanpesane xoie ne iana cee iep ne sna xaxo na ce iann, uncra moryhnocr
xoia nema nnuer crnapnor. Ona naie npennxar cnerornopauxor cyhena: "Hexa yne!" Ann mra "Hexa yne"?
Hpnpoxom ce onpehyie peannocr nonmera /nonnexeher/, ann camo nonmer, cnoiom nneannom nanomhy onpehyie
rnopauxn npenon norennnie y arm. Hneia - ero mra mopa na yne nonmer... npe cnera nneie - rai cpennmnn
sanpran Hnaronone xoncrpyxnnie - sa pasym nmaiy nne pasnnunre rauxe ocnonna. One cy n opyha casnana
ncrnncxn nncrnyiyher, ann one cy ncro raxo n casnanana peannocr. Hneie cy ono mro xaxo-raxo iecre
cyiexrnnno, ann one cy n ono mro ie oiexrnnno, one cy nneanne, ann one cy n peanne."/H. unopencxn, C+ucao
uoea)u;+a, rn., 2000. crp. 14-30/
181 | a a e

crpyxrypa, ca rnme ie nyxan na ce cyoun opasonann nyx, re na npenasnnasehn
npornnpeunocrn ocrnapyie xonnxo ie ro moryhe cxnanne npymrnene onnoce.























182 | a a e

uECTO KOPHBTEHA HHTEPATVPA:
1. Milan Uzelac: Istorija filozofije, Novi Sad: Stylos, 2004. (www.uzelac.eu)
2. Evgenije V. Spektorski: Istorija socijalne filozofije, Beograd: Slubeni list SRJ; Podgorica: CID,
1997.
3. Veljko Korac: Istorija drutvenih teorija, Beograd: Zavod za izdavanje udbenika, 1990.
4. John Plamenatz: Man and Society: A Critical Explanation of Some Important Social and Political
Theories from Macciavelli to Marx, Volume Two, London: Longmans, 1963. /Don Plamenac:
Izabrana djela: Tom II, Covjek i drutvo: Kriticko preispitivanje nekih vanih drutvenih i
politickih teorija od Makijavelija do Marksa, Podgorica: CID; Hoiena, 2006./
5. ynnxo M. Mnnocanennh, Cpeonoeeroeua +ucao o opvumev, unnosocxn axynrer y
Hnmy, Hnm, 2002.; Hoo/cmuuane c)ooooe: Hononexonna mncao o npymrny, Hnm, 2008.
Bonyncxa nn1epa1ypa:
1. Beiervaltes Werner, Platonismus im Christentum, Frankfurt am Main, 2001.
2. Hanen Jenrenennu Foixo, uHHOCOuHJA HCTOPHJE A.u. HOCEBA H CBETCKO-
HCTOPHJCKH 3APATAK HPABOCHABA, uaconnc `Kynrypa nonnca`, p. 11-
12, Honn Can, 2009. crp. 21-35; Hanen Enrentennu Foxo, Cmauoe)euue noumu
ece+upuo ucmopuu: Hcropnxo nnococxn ouepx, Kpacnonap: Kyan, 2006.
3. Xeren, I. B. u.: Havra )oenxe I-III, npen. Frn., 1976-1979. (H. Hononnh)
4. Xeren, I. B. u.: Hcmopuia du)o;oduie I-III, Frn., 1979. (H. Hononnh); G.W.F. Hegel,
Die Vernunft in der Geschichte, (G. Lasson), Leipzig, 1920
5. Xeren, I. B. u.: Euuur)oneouia du)o;oduicrux ;uauocmu, Cap., 1987. (F. 3oneenn)
6. Ieopr Bnnxenm upnnpnx Xeren, Ocuoeue upme du)o;oduie opraeuoe npaea, Capaieno:
Horoc, 1964.
7. G W F Hegel, Smtliche Werke (Vorlesungen ber die Philosophie der Religion, Ersten und
Zweiter Band), Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, 1965
4
.
8. H. A. Hntnn, 4u)ocodu Ieee) rar v:euue o rourpemuocmu Boea u :e)oeera, Canxr-
Herepypr: Hayxa, 1994.
9. A.u.Hocen, Mud, :uc)o, cvuuocmi, Mocxna, 1994.
10. Hnxona Mnnomennh, Aumuuo+uie +aprcucmu:rux uoeo)oeuia: Fomennsam,
crannnsam, mapxcnsam, Feorpan, 1990.
11. Hnaron, 4u)eo u Teemem, 3arpe: Hanpnien, 1979.
12. Anexcannap M. Herponnh, Hcnucu uac)eha, H. Can, 1996., 4u)ocodcra
pa;+ampana o me+e+u+a noeecmu du)ocoduie, Feorpan: Hemnh n cnnonn, 1998.;
Apxeoepaduia uapooa Jveoucmo:ue Eepone, Feorpan: Mnpocnan, 2006.
13. Cymnn, Oner: Ieee) rar cvooa Poccuu, Kpacnonap, 2005.
183 | a a e

14. Siewerth Gustav, Gott in der Geschichte: Die Gottesfrage bei Hegel und Heidegger,
Konstanz: Trialogo Verlag, 1971. (Gesammelte Werke, Bd. III); Das Schicksal der
Metaphysik von Thomas zu Heidegger, Dsseldorf: Patmos Verlag, 1987.
15. Vsenan Mnnan, Memadu;ura, Bpman: Bnma mxona sa opasonane nacnnraua,
2006.; 4euo+euo)oeuia ceema v+emuocmu: Vnon y rpancnennenranny xocmonorniy,
Honn Can: Veris, 2008.; 4euo+euo)oeuia, Honn Can: Veris, 2009.
16. Oran, npo. np Hanen Anexcannponnu unopencxn: C+ucao uoea)u;+a, Frn., 2000.







































184 | a a e

CAPPXAJ:

HCTOPH1A COHH1AAHHX H HOAHTHHKHX TEOPH1A
(MOHOIPAuHJA H3 uHHOCOuHJE HOHHTHuKHX HPEJA 1,2:
Anrnuxe, cpennonexonne n Monepne connianne reopnie)

AH1HHKE H CPEBHOBEKOBHE COHH1ABHE 1EOPH1E
ARCHE n POLIS: HHATOHOB uHJAHOI uPABA
H uOBPO KAO 3AHOI BHBCTBOBAEA H OBHHKOBAEA UOBEKA ........................................2-32
HACTABAK H KPHTHKA HHATOHOBE 4HHOCO4HJE HOHHTHKE KOu
APHCTOTEHA.......................................................................................................................33-36
HOHHTHKA H 4HHOCO4HJA V uPAEV HPEMA PEAHHHM uPABHHM
TBOPEBHHAMA.....................................................................................................................3-41
II HPEHA3HA PA3uOBHA
HOHHTHuKA uHHOCOuHJA H JEHHHHCTHuKA EHOXA........................................43-44
Hnycrparnnnn npnmepn ns enoxannnx npenasa...................................................................44-48

HPEJHH TOKOBH H BHBE3HAuHOCT
KAPAKTEPA PHMCKE VHPABE.......................................................................................49-58
Hnycrparnnnn npnmepn npenomnnx pnmcxnx nneia
y npemeny penynnxe n nmnepnie.........................................................................................49- 52
Ceoa yuenocrn y Cenepny Apnxy n yrnnai na pnmcxy xynrypy.....................................52-56


Mooepue couuia)ue meopuie
HPOFHEM PPXABE H PPVBTBA KOJH HACTAJE
CA POHACKOM XPHBTAHCTBA..................................................................................67-70
185 | a a e

CPEPBOBEKOBHH HOJAM PPXABE H BEHH HPOFHEMH...............................71-72
HPEJE XV, XVI H XVII BEKA: XVMAHH3MA,
PEHECAHCA H PEuOPMAHHJE..................................................................................89-92
EKOHOMCKO-HPABHH HOPEPAK HA HVTV 3A HOBH BEK.............................92-106
PAHHOHAHH3AM XVII BEKA..................................................................................107-117
uHHOCOuHJA HPOCBETHTECTBA.....................................................................118-130
uHHOCOuHJA, HOHHTHKA H HPABO
V HCTOPHJH HEMAuKE MHCAOHOCTH ..............................................................131-134
XEIEHOBA COHHJAHHA H HOHHTHuKA MHCAO.............................................134-145
Mapxcncrnuxa reopnia npymrna n nonnrnxe.................................................................146-148
unnoconia npymrna n nnhene nocenor cmncna nenore
y ncropnicxom nyxy (nonpnnocn pycxe ncropnoconie)...............................................149-157
HEKA CABPEMEHA CXBATABA
COHHJAHHHX H HOHHTHuKHX HPEJA..................................................................158-167
Yuec1o noronopa:
HPETHOCTABKE COHHJAHHOI BHTEBA
OFPA3OBABA PVXA V uHHOCOuCKOJ EHHHKHOHEPHuHOCTH
H CABPEMEHH IHOFAHH3AM...................................................................................168-181
HHTEPATVPA...................................................................................................................182-183
Canpxai...............................................................................................................................183-185