5th Edition
VDMA Verlag
Forschunqskuratoriurn FMf
Maschinenbau ! !
ND 98 235
EINGANG TSBGEN3
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FKM Guideline
ANALYTICAL STRENGTH ASSESSMENT OF COJ\fPONENTS
IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
5th, revised edition, 2003, English Version
""." ,,'
Translation by E. Haibach
Title of the original German Version:
RECHNERISCHER FESTIGKEITSNACHWEIS FUR MASCHINENBAUTEILE
5., iiberarbeitete Ausgabe, 2003
Editor:
Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM) Postfach 71 08 64, D  60498 Frankfurt I Main
Phone *49  69  6603 . 1345
(c) 2003
by VDMA Verlag GmbH Lyoner Stral3e 18
60528 Frankfurt am Main www.vdmaverlag.de
All rights reserved
Alle Rechte, insbesondere das Recht der Vervielfaltigung und Verbreitung sowie der Ubersetzung vorbehalten.
Kein Teil des Werkes darf in irgendeiner Form (Druck, Fotokopie, Mikrofilm oder anderes Verfahren) ohne schriftliche Genehmigung des Verlages reproduziert oder unter Verwendung elektronischer Systeme gespeichert, verarbeitet, vervielfaltigt oder
verbreitet werden.
ISBN 3816304257
This FKMGuideline was elaborated under contract between Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e.V. (FKM) , Frankfurt I Main, and IMA Materlalforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,
as contractor in charge,
by
Dr.Ing. Bernd Hanel,
IMA Materialforschung und Anwenclungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,
Prof. DivIng. Erwin Halbach, Wiesbaden ,
Prof. DivIng. Timrn Seeger,
Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Fachgebiet Werkstoffmechanik,
DipI.Ing. Gert Wirthgen,
IMA Materialforschung unci Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresclen,
Prof, Dr.Ing. Harald Zenner, Technische Universitat Clausthal, Institut fur Maschinelle Anlagentechnik unci Betriebsfestigkeit,
and it was discussed among experts from industry and research institutes in the FKM expert group "Strength of components".
Financial grants were obtained from the "Bundesrninisterium fur Wirtschaft (BMWi, Bonn)" through the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen 'Otto von Guericke ' e. V. (AiF, Koln)" under contract AiFNo. D156 and B9434. The "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e. V." gratefully acknowledges the financial support from BMWi and AiF and the contributions by the experts involved.
Terms of liability
The FKMGuideline is intended to conform with the state of the ali, It has been prepared with the necessary care. The user is expected to decide, whether the guideline meets his particular requirements, and to observe appropriate care in its application. Neither the publisher nor the editor, the involved experts, or the translator shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly 01' indirectly by this guideline,
4
Preface to the English Version of the 5th Edition.
For engineers concerned with construction and calculation in mechanical engineering or in related fields of industry the FKMGuideline for analytical strength assessment is available since 19[)4. This guideline was elaborated by an expert group "Strength of components" of the "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM), Frankfurt/Main," with financial support by the Bundesministcrium fur Wirtschaft (BMWi), by the "Arbeitsgcmeinschatt industricller Forschungsvereinigungen 'OUo von Gucrickc" and by the "Forschungskuratorium Maschincnbau.
Based on fanner TGL standards and OIl the former guideline VDI 2226. and referring to more recent sources it was developed to the current state of knowledge.
The FKMGuideline
 is applicable in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry.
 allows the analytical strength assessment for rodshaped OD), for shellshaped (20) and for blockshaped (3~) components under consideration of all relevant influences,
 describes the assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength. the latter according to an assessment of the fatigue limit. of the constant amplitude fatigue strength, or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according (0 the service stress conditions,
 is valid for components from steel. cast steel. or cast iron materials at temperatures from 40 "C to 500 DC, as well as for components from aluminum alloys and cast aluminum alloys at temperatures from 40 "C to 200°C,
 is applicable for components produced with or without machining. or by welding.
 allows an assessment in considering nominal stresses as well as local clastic stresses derived from finite clement or boundary clement analyses. from theoretical mechanics solutions. or from measurements.
A uniformly structured calculation procedure applies to all of these cases of application. The calculation procedure is almost completely predetermined. The user has to make some decisions only.
The FKMGuideline is a commented algorithm, consisting of statements, formulae. and tables. Most of the included figures have an explanatory function only.
Textual declarations are given where appropriate to ensure a reliable application.
Its content complies with the state of knowledge to an extend that may be presented in a guideline and it enables quite comprehensive possibilities of calculation. The employed symbols are adapted to the extended requirements of notation. The presented calculation procedure is complemented by explanatory examples.
Practically the described procedure of strength assessment should be realized by means of a suitable computer program. Presently available arc the PC computer programs "RIFESTPLUS" (applicable for a calculation using elastically determined local stresses. in particular with shellshaped (20) or blockshaped (30) components) and "WELLE" (applicable for a calculation llsing nominal stresses as it is appropriate in the frequently arising case of axles or shafts with gears etc).
The preceding editions of the FKMGuidelille observed a remarkably great interest from which the need of an up to date guideline for analytical strength analyses becomes apparent. Moreover the interest of users was confirmed by the well attended VOl conferences on "Computational Strength Analysis of Metallic Components". that were organized for presentation of the FKM(iuidelille at Fulda in 1995. 1998 and 2002.
The contentsrelated changes introduced with the third edition from 1998 were mainly concerned with the consideration of stainless steel and of forging steel. with the technological size factor, with the section factor for assessing the static strength, with the fatigue limit of grey cast iron and of malleable cast iron. with additional fatigue classes of welded structural details and with (he local stress analysis for welded components. with the specification of an estimated damage sum smaller than one for the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength. with the assessment of rnultiaxial stresses. and with the experimental determination of component strength values.
An essential formal ehange in the third edition was a new textual structure providing four main chapters. that describe the assessment. of the static strength or of the fatigue strength with either nominal stresses or local stresses, respectively. For ease of application each of these chapters gives a complete description of the particular calculation procedure. although this results in repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in the corresponding sections.
5
The major change in the forth edition from 2002 is the possibility of considering structural components made from aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys by applying the same calculation procedure that was developed for components from steel. cast steel and cast iron materials sofar.
The decisions necessary to include aluminum materials were derived from I iteraturc evaluations. It had to be recognized, however. that some of the relevant factors of influence were not yet examined with the desirable clearness or that available results could not be evaluated objectively due (0 large scatter. I n these cases the decision was based on a careful consideration of substantial relations.
Concerning an analytical st rength assessment of components from aluminum alloys or from cast aluminum alloys this guideline is delivered to the technical community by supposing that for the time being it will be applied with appropriate caution and with particular reference to existing experience so far.
The involved research institutes and the "Forschungskuratorium Maschincnbau (FKM)" will appreciate any reports on practical experience as well as any proposals for improvement.
Further improvements may also be expected from ongoing research projects concerning the procedure of static strength assessment using local elastic stresses, Chapter 3, and the fatigue assessment of extremely sharp notches,
Last not least the fifth edition of the FKMGuideline is a revision of the forth edition with several necessary, mainly formal amendments being introduced. It is presented in bOI h a German version and an English version with the expectation that it might observe similar attention as the preceding editions on a broadened international basis of application.
Notes of the translator
This English translation is intended to keep as close as possible to the original German version, but by using a corumon vocabulary and simple sentences. If the given translation is different from a literal one, the technical meaning of the sentence and/or of the paragraph is maintained, however.
The translation observes an almost identical structure of the headlines, of the chapters, of the paragraphs and of the sentences, and even of the numbering of the pages.
Also the tables and the figures as well as their numbering and headlines are adapted as they are, while only the verbal terms have been translated.
In particular the original German notation of the mathematical symbols, indices and formulas, as well as thei r numhering, has not been modified in order to insure identity with the German original in this respect.
The applier of this guideline is kindly asked to accept the more or less unusual kind of notation which is due to the need of clearly distinguishing between a great number of variables.
In particular the applier is pointed to the speciality, that a comma ( , ) is used with numerical values instead of a decimal point ( . ), hence 1,5 equals 1.5 for example.
For updates and amendments see www___. fkm gu idyl in~~_.Q.~
References
II/ TGL J 9 340 (1983). Ermudungsfesugkeit, Dauerfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile,
121 TGL 19 341 (1988). Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Eisengusswerkstoffen.
131 TGL 19333 (1979). Schwingfestigkeit, Zeitfestigkeit von Achsen und Wellen.
141 TGL 19 350 (1986). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Betriebsfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile.
15/ TGL 19 352 (Entwurf 1988). Aufstellung und Uberlagerung von Beanspruchungskollektiven.
/6/ Richtlinie VDI 2226 (1965). Empfehlung fiir die Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile.
17 / DIN 18 800 Teil 1 (1990). Stahlbauten, Bernessung und Konstruktion.
181 DIN ENV 1993 (1993). Bernessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten, Teil II:
Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln, '" (Eurocode 3).
191 Hobbacher, A.: Fatigue design of welded joints and components. Recommendations of the Joint Working Group XIHXV, XIII153996 I XV84596. Abbington Publishing, Abbington Hall, Abbington, Cambridge CBl 6AH, England, 19996
1101 Haibach, E.: Betriebsfestigkeits  Verfahren und Daten zur Bauteilberechnung , 2.Autl.
Berlin und Heidelberg, SpringerVerlag, 2002, ISBN 354043142X.
II II Radaj, D.: Ermiidungsfestigkeit. Grundlage fiir Leichtbau, Maschinenbau und Stahlbau.
Berlin und Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag, 2003, ISBN 3540440631.
1121 FKMForschungsheft 241 (1999). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Alumininiumwerkstoff.
113/ FKMForschungsheft 230 (1998). Randschichthartung.
114/ FKMForschungsheft 227 (1997). Lebensdauervorhersage It.
1151 FKMForschungsheft 2212 (1997). Mehrachsige und zusamrnengesetzte Beanspruchungen.
/161 FKMForschungsheft 221 (1996). Wechselfestigkeit von Flachproben aus Grauguss.
II 71 FKMForschungsheft 1832 (J 994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile, Richtlinie. *,
118/ FKMForschungsheft 1831 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile, Kornmentare.
/191 FKMForschungsheft 180 (1994). Schweiliverbinduugen II.
1201 FKMForschungsheft 143 (1989). Schweillverbindungen I.
1211 FKMRichtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile, 3., vollstandig iiberarbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe (1998).
1221 FKMRichtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile, 4., erweiterte Ausgabe (2002).
Related Conference Proceedings
Festigkeitsberechnung metallischcr Bauteile, Empfchlungcn fur Konstrukteure und Entwicklungsingenieurc. VDI Berichte 1227, DUsseldorf. VDIVerlag, 1995.
Festigkcitsbereehnung metallischcr Bautcilc, Empfchlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieurc und Konstrukteurc. VDI Bcrichtc 1442. DUsseldorf, VOlVerlag, 1998.
Festigkeitsbcrechnung mctallischcr Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingcnieure und Konstrukteure. VDr Bcrichte 1698, Dusseldorf, VOLVerlag, 2002.
Bauteillebensdauer Nachweiskonzepte, DVMBericht 800, Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und prufung, Berlin 1997.
Bctriebsfcstigkeit  Neue Entwicklungen bei der Lebensdauerberechnung von Bauteilen. DVMBericht 802, Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und prufung, Berlin 2003.
1 I"' and 2ml Edition ofthe FKivlGuiJelinc
7
Contents
Page 5 Appendices Page
0 General survey 5.1 Material tables 131
Scope 9 5.2 Stress concentration factors 178
0.1
0.2 Technical background 5.3 Fatigue notch factors 187
0.3 Structure and clements 5.4 Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded
components of structural steel and of
1 Assessment of the static strength aluminum alloys 195
using nominal stresses 5.5 Comments about the fatigue strength
General 19 of welded components 209
1.0
1.1 Characteristic stress values 5.6 Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress
1.2 Material properties 22 spectrum to agree with that of the S·N curve
and deriving a stepped spectrum 216
l.3 Design parameters 30
lA Component strength 33 5.7 Assessment using classes of utilization 218
1.5 Safety factors 34 5.8 Particular strength characteristics of
1.6 Assessment 36 surface hardened components 222
5.9 An improved method for computing the
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength component fatigue limit in the case of
using nominal stresses synchronous multiaxial stresses 223
2.0 General 41 5.10 Approximate assessment of the fatigue
2.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum strength in the case of nonproportional
2.2 Material properties 47 multiaxial stresses 226
2.3 Design Parameters 50 5.11 Experimental determination of
2.4 Component strength 57 component strength values 227
2.5 Safety factors 68 5.12 Stress concentration factor for a substitute
2.6 Assessment 70 structure 230
3 Assessment of the static strength 6 Examples
using local stresses 6.1 Shaft with shoulder 231
3.0 General 73 6.2 Shaft with Vbelt drive 236
3.1 Characteristic stress values 6.3 Compressor t1ange made of grey
3.2 Material properties 76 cast iron 24]
3.3 Design parameters 85 6.4 Welded notched component 245
3.4 Component strength 89 6.5 Cantilever subject to two independent loads 250
3.5 Safety factors 90 6.6 Component made of a wrought
3.6 Assessment 93 aluminum alloy 256
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength 7 Symbols and basic formulas
using local stresses 7.1 Abbreviations 259
4.0 General 97 7.2 Indices
4.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum 7.3 Lower case characters
4.2 Material properties 103 7.4 Upper case characters 260
4.3 Design parameters 106 7.5 Greek alphabetic characters 261
4.4 Component strength 113 7.6 Basic formulas 262
4.5 Safety factors 125
4.6 Assessment 127 8 SUbject index 263 8
9
o General survey 0.1 Scope
() General SUITe),
This guideline is valid for components in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry. Its application has to be agreed between the contracting parties.
For components subjected to mechanical loadings it allows an analytical assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength. the latter as an assessment of the fatigue limit. of the constant amplitude fatigue strength or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength. according to the service stress conditions.
Other analytical assessments, for example of safety against brittle fracture. of stability, or of deformation under load. as well as an experimental assessment of strength * 1, arc not subject of this guideline.
It is presupposed, that the components arc professionally produced with regard to construction, material and workmanship, and that they arc faultless in a technical sense.
The guideline is valid for components produced with or without machining or by welding of steel, of iron or of aluminum materials that arc intended for use under normal or elevated temperature conditions, and in detail
for components with geometrical notches, for components with welded joints,
for static loading,
for fatigue loading with more than about 104 constant or variable amplitude cycles,
for milled or forged steel, also stainless steel, cast iron materials as well as aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys,
for component temperatures frorn 400e to 5000e for steel,
from 25°e to 5000e for cast iron materials and from 25°e to 200ae for aluminum materials, for a noncorrosive environment.
If an application of the guideline is intended outside the mentioned field of application additional specifications are to be agreed upon.
The guideline is not valid if an assessment of strength is required according to other standards, rules or guidelines, or if more specific design codes arc applicable, as for example for boltedjoints.
I Subject of Chapter 5.1! "Experimental determination of component strength values" is not the realization of an experimental assessment of strength. but the question how speci fi c and sufficiently rei iahle component strength values suitable for the genera! procedure of strength assessment may be derived experimentally.
2 In particular, what critical points of the considered crosssections or component.
0.2 Technical Background
Basis of the guideline arc the references listed OIl page 7, in particular the former TGLStandards, the former VDIGuideline 2226. as well as the regulations of DIN 18 800, the IIWRecommendations and Eurocode 3. Moreover the guideline was developed to the current state of knowledge by taking into account the results of more recent investigations.
Contents
0.3 Structure and elements
Pagc
0.3.0
0.3.1 0.3.2
0.3.3 0.3.3.0 0.3.3.1
0.3.3.2
0.3.3.3
0.3.3.4
0.3.4 0.3.4.0 0.3.4.1 0.3.4.2 0.3.4.3
o.s.s
General
l)
Procedure of calculation
10
Service stresses
Methods of strength assessment General
Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 1 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses. Chapter 2 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses, Chapter 3 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses. Chapter 4
Kinds of components
General
Rodshaped (lD) components Shellshaped (2D) components Blockshaped (3D) components
II
12
13
13
14 15
Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses
16
0.3.0 General
An assessment of the static strength is required prior to an assessment of the fatigue strength.
Before applying the guideline it has to be decided what crosssections or structural detail of the 2
component shall be assessed * and
what service loadings are to be considered.
The service loadings arc to be determined 011 the safe side, that is, with a sufficient probability they should be higher than most of the normally occurring loadings *3.
The strength values arc supposed to correspond to an anticipated probability of 97,5 % (average probability of survival Po = 97.5 %).
3 Usually this probability can hardly be quantified. however
10
() General survey
0.3.1 Procedure of calculation
The procedure of calculation for an assessment of the static strength is presented in Figure 0.0.1, the almost identical procedure for an assessment of the fatigue strength in Figure 0.0.2 *4
Sequential procedure of calculation
Characteristic service strcssc~
/'I"latcrial
Figure 0.0.1 Procedure of calculation for an assessment of the static strength
Characteristic sen·ice stresses
Sequential pruced u rc of cnlculatiun
G)
I
CD
I
<ll
)
@)
I
3)
I
@
I
CD
I
@
Component fatigue limit for the actual mean stress
Component fatigue
strength
c();;iponciit v~riable I
amplitude fatigue strength i
 J
Figurc 0.0.2 Procedure of calculation for an assessment of the fatigue strength.
4 ;\ survey 011 the analytical procedures of a"cssmCllt oased on the equations of the guideline may he {()lI11d ill Chapter 7.6.
5 Nominal stresses can he computed for a well defined crosssection only
G)
I
CD
I
Q)
I
@
j
~
j
@
At the assessment stage (box at bottom of either Figure) the characteristic values of service stress occurring in the component (box at top on the left) and the component strength values derived from the mechanical material properties and the design parameters (middle column) are compared by including the required safety factors (box at bottom all the right). In specifying component fatigue strength values the mean stress and the variable amplitude effects arc regarded as essential factors of influence. The assessment of strength is successful if the degree of utilization is less or equal 1,00. where the degree of utilization is defined by the ratio of tile characteristic service stress to the component strength value that has been reduced by the safety factor, Chapter 1.6.
In Figure 0.0.1 and Figure 0.0.2 the arrangements of the individual boxes from top to bottom illustrate the sequential procedure of calculation.
0.3.2 Service stresses
For an application of the guideline the stresses resulting from the service loadings have to be determined for the socalled reference point of the component, that is the potential point of fatigue crack initiation at the crosssection or at the component under consideration. In case of doubt several reference points are to be considered, for example in the case of welded joints the toe and the root of the weld,
There is a need to distinguish the names and subscripts of the different components or types of stress, that may act in rodshaped (I D), in shellshaped (2D) or in blockshaped (3D) components, respectively, Chapter 0.3.4.
The stresses are to be determined according to known principles and techniques: analytically according to elementary or advanced methods of theoretical mechanics, numerically after the finite clement or the boundary clement method, or experimentally by measurement.
All stresses, except the stress amplitudes, arc combined with a sign, in particular compressive stresses arc negative.
To perform an assessment it is necessary to decide about the kind of stress determination for the reference point considered: The stresses can be determined
as nominal stresses *5 (notation Sand T),
as elastically determined local stresses, effective
• 6
notch stresses or structural (hot spot) stresses *
(notation a and T).
G The elastic stress at (he root of a notch exceeds the nominal stress by a stress concentration factor, In the case of welded joints effective notch xtrcsses arc applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength only. Structural stresses, also termed geometrical or hot spot stresses, are normally in usc with welded joints only For further intormation sec Chapter 5.5
Correspondingly the component strength values arc to be determined
as nominal strength values or
as local strength values of the elastic local stress, of the effective notch stress or of the structural stress.
With the procedures of calculation structured uniformly for both types of stress determination it is intended that more or less identical results will be obtained from comparable strength assessments based on either nominal stresses or local stresses.
0.3.3 Methods of strength assessment 0.3.3.0 General
In order to present the guideline clearly arranged and userfriendly, it is organized in four chapters, Figure (J.O.}:
 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses, Chapter I, Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 2, Assessment of the static strength using local stresses, Chapter 3, Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses, Chapter 4.
/~............... ~
: Chapter I:" .. Chapter 2:
( Stoolie stre"~th ) __ Nommal___j FaHguc,treng!h
Nominal strl'~se/ stresses \ Nominal stresses
~. I
Static Fatigue
strength strength
~~'SCSSlllCl1t assessment
/./~L __ ~~ ~~
. .eli.llpler 3: "\ .. ,/ Chapter 4: ,
( Static s(.en~lh !~ S,Local ~( Fat;::"c 'trc"~th )
, .... / ' tresses ,. s
~'~/ \~'~I~/
Figure 0.0.3 Organization of the guideline.
J n particular the procedure of calculation is completely presented in everyone of the four chapters, even if this results in repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in Chapter 1 and Chapter 3 or in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4, respectively.
The procedure of calculation using nominal stresses is to be preferred for simple rodshaped (JD) and for shellshaped (2D) components. The procedure of calculation using local stresses has to be applied to blockshaped (3D) components, and moreover in general, if the stresses are determined by a finiteelement or a boundaryelement calculation, if there are no welldefined crosssections or no simple crosssection shapes, if stress concentration factors or fatigue notch factors are not known, or (concerning the assessment of the static strength) in the case of brittle materials.
II
() Cencral survey
0.3.3.1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 1
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the extreme maximum and extreme minimum values of the individual types of stress or stress components. e.g. nominal values of the axial (or tensioncompression)
S di S d f' I .7 .8
stress, zd of the ben mg stress .. b. an so tort 1" "",
Chapter 1. 1.
Relevant material properties arc the tensile strength and the yield strength (yield stress or O. 2 proof stress) as well as the strength values for shear derived from these. A technological size effect is taken into account if appropriate. The influence of an elevated temperature on the material properties  strength at elevated temperature and creep strength, yield strength at elevated temperature and Ity" creep limit  is allowed for by means of temperature factors, Chapter 1.2.
Design parameters arc the section factors, by which an experienced partial plasticity of the component is allowed according to yield strength, type of loading, shape of crosssection, and stress concentration factor. From the section factor and from further parameters an overall design factor is derived, Chapter I. 3.
The nominal values of the static component strength arc derived from the tensile strength, divided by the respective overall design factor, Chapter 1.4.
As common in practice the safety factor against the tensile strength is 2,{). For materials with a yield strength less than 0,75 times the tensile strength the safety factor is 1,5 against the yield strength, however. Under favorable conditions these safety factors may be reduced, Chapter 1.5.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of utilization for an individual stress component or type of stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service stress value, divided by the allowable nominal static component strength value, which follows from the nominal static component strength divided by the safety factor.
If there are several stress components or types of stress their individual degrees of utilization arc combined to obtain an entire degree of utilization. The interaction formula to be applied to that combination allows for the ductility of the material in question, Chapter I.G.
For welded components the assessment of the static strength has to be carried out for the toe section as for nonwelded components, and for the throat section with
7 According to rod, shell or blockshaped components, Chapter 0.3.4.
8 '1110 extreme maximum or minimum stresses lor the assessment of the static strength may be different from the maximum and minimum stresses lor the assessment of the fatigue strength, that arc determined lrom the largest amplitude and the related mean value of a stress spectrum,
12
(l General surycy
an equivalent nominal stress, that is computed from the components of nominal stress acting in (he weld seam *9.
0.3.3.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 2
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses arc the largest stress amplitudes in connection with the respective stress spectra and the related mean stress values. They are determined for the individual stress components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean values of the nominal axial (tensioncompression)
stresses, Sa.zd and SIll,zd, and so forth *7 *8, Chapter 2.1.
Relevant material properties arc the fatigue limit for completely reversed axial stress and the fatigue limit for completely reversed shear stress of the material in question. A technological size effect is taken into account where appropriate. The influence of an elevated temperature is allowed for by means of temperature factors, Chapter 2.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the fatigue notch factors, allowing for the design of (he component (shape, size and type of loading), as well as the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor, by which the respective surface properties are accounted for. By specific combination of all these factors a summary design factor is calculated, Chapter 2.3.
The nominal values of the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stresses follow from the derived fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the respective design factors, Chapter 2.4.1. From these fatigue limit values the amplitudes of the component fatigue limit according to (he mean stress values (or the stress ratios) are to be derived, Chapter 2.4.2. The amplitudes that specify the variable amplitude fatigue strength of the component are obtained from the fatigue limit values multiplied by a factor depending on the parameters of the stress spectrum (total number of cycles and amplitude frequency distribution), Chapter 2.4.3.
The basic value of the safety factor is 1,5. Under favorable conditions this safety factor may be reduced, Chapter 2.5.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of utilization for an individual stress component or type of stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service stress amplitude, divided by the allowable amplitude of the component fatigue limit or of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength. The allowable
9 This assessment of the static strength for welded components is according to DIN 18 800 part I. A, far as conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned, the rules of DIN IS 800 arc provisional and ttlay be applied with caution only.
amplitude value follows from the nonunal amplitude of the derived component fatigue strength divided by the safety factor.
If there are several stress components or types of stress their individual degrees of utilization are combined to obtain the total degree of utilization. The interaction formula to be applied to that combination allows for the ductility of the material in question. that is in the same way as for the assessment of the static strength, Chapter 2.6.
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded components using nominal stresses basic fatigue limit values for completely reversed stress are given. They are independent of the' tensile strength of the base material (which is different to nonwelded components). They are converted by design factors that follow from a classification scheme of structural weld details. The combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses in welded components is considered by means of a mean stress factor together with a residual stress factor * lD
0.3.3.3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses, Chapter 3
Relevant characteristic local service stresses are the extreme maximum and extreme minimum stresses of the individual types of stress or stress components, e.g. local values of the normal (axial and/or bending) stress, G, and of the shear (shear and/or torsional) stress *7 *8, Chapter 3. l.
Relevant material properties are to be determined as for nominal stresses, Chapter 3.2.
Design parameters arc the section factors, by which an experienced partial plasticity of the component is allowed according to yield strength, type of loading, and shape of the component. The section factors are calculated on the basis of Neuber's formula, but by observing individual upper bound values that follows from the plastic limit load (plastic notch factor). From the section factors and from further parameters an overall design factor is derived, Chapter 3.3 * 1I.
The local values of the static component strength arc derived from the tensile strength, divided by the respective overall design factor, Chapter 3.4.
The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal stresses, Chapter 3.5.
10 The assessment of the fatigue strength for welded components makes reference to the llWRccommcndations and Eurocode 3. As far us conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys arc concerned this kind of calculation is provisional and may be applied with caution only.
1 I The assessment of the static strength using local stresses on the basis of" Neuber's formula and the plastic limit load is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and is to he applied with caution only.
The assessment is carried out by means of the degree of utilization as for nominal stresses, but with the respective local values of the characteristic service stress and the local component strength values, Chapter 3.6.
For welded components the assessment of the static strength using local stresses is carried out using structural stresses (not with notch root stresses). for the weld toe as for nonwelded components, for the root of the weld using an equivalent structural stress, that is to be derived from the structural stress components acting in the weld scam *9.
0.3.3.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses, Chapter ..
Relevant local characteristic service stresses arc the largest stress amplitudes in connection with the respective stress spectra and the related mean stress values. They arc determined for the individual stress components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean values of the local normal (axial and/or bending) stress, On and 0"01 , and so forth *7 *8, Chapter 4.1.
The relevant material properties arc determined as for nominal stresses, Chapter 4.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the KtK[ ratios, allowing for the design of the component (shape and size), as well as the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor, by which the respective surface properties are accounted for. By specific combination of all these factors a summary design factor is calculated, Chapter 4.3.
The local values of the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stresses follow from the derived fatigue limit values of the material, divided by' the respective design factors, Chapter 4.4.1. The conversions to the amplitude of the component fatigue limit and to the amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength are as for nominal stresses, Chapter 4.4.2 to 4.4.3.
The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal stresses, Chapter 4.5.
The assessment by means of the degree of utilization is as for nominal stresses, but with the respective local values of the characteristic stress amplitude and the value of the component fatigue limit or of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 4.6.
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded components using structural stresses or effective notch stresses the same basic fatigue limit values for completely reversed stresses apply as for nominal stresses. They hold for effective notch stresses without conversion, but for structural stresses they have to be converted by factors given for some typical weld details. The combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses in welded components is to be considered as for
[3
() General survey
nominal stresses bv means of a mean stress factor together with a residual stress factor * 10
0.3,4 Kinds of components 0.3.4.0 General
Rodshaped (LD), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished, as in each case other stress components or types of stresses. identified by differing symbols and subscripts, arc of concern. The distinction is only a formal one, however, and the procedure of calculation is the same in all cases. Specific particulars apply to welded components.
0.3.4.1 Rodshaped (lD) components
For rodshaped (I D) components  rod, bar, shaft, or beam for example  the following system of coordinates is introduced: xaxis is the longitudinal center line of the component, y and zaxes are the main axes of the crosssection that are to be specified so. that for the moments of inertia Iy2 I, is valid. Figure 0.0.4.
'Vz
Figure 0.0.4 Rodshaped (1 D) component (round specimen with groove) in bending. Nominal stress Sf, and maximum local stress O"m", at the reference point W.
Calculation using nominal stresses
If the assessment of rodshaped (1 D) components is carried out by using nominal stresses, Chapter I and 2, the nominal stresses to be computed at the reference point are Szd from an axial load, Sb from a bending moment, T, from a shear load, and/or T, from a torsional moment acting at the respective section.
For the equations given in Chapter I and 2 it is provided, that both the bending stress Sb and the shear stress Ts act in the xzplane. Otherwise stress components Slw and Sb,z , Ts,v and Ts.z arc to be
considered * 12.' .
12 The indices y and z describe the direction of the related vectors olthc bending moments My, 1v1% and of the lateral loads Fy. Fz .
In case of rotationally symmetrical crosssections with circumferential notches a resultant bending stress and a resultant shear stress can be calculated from these stress components,
,..
Sb = S2 +S2
b.y b,z
(0.3,1)
The equations given in Chapter I and 2 may be applied to Sb and Ts'
In the general case of not rotationally symmetrical crosssections a calculation using local stresses is normally to be preferred.
Additional stresses at notches (as for example the circumferential stress associated with an axial stress of a shaft with groove) may be included in the stress concentration factor, otherwise they will be neglected,
Calculation using local stresses
If the calculation of rodshaped (lD) components is carried out using local stresses *13, Chapter 3 and 4. the local normal stresses at the reference point from axial and from bending loading (in xdirection), O',d = 0' as well as the local shear stresses T, = T from shear and from torsion (normal to the xdirection) are considered,
If the local stresses arc calculated from the nominal stresses by multiplication with the respective stress concentration factors, the equations given in Chapter 3 and 4 are applicable,
However, if the calculation yields the complete local state of stress at the reference point (as for example a finiteclement calculation docs), the principle stresses CTI, IT2, IT3 arc computed * 14 and treated as described for blockshaped (3D) components,
Rodshaped (10) welded components
For rodshaped (l D) welded components *15 the notations 0' and T apply to structural stresses and the notation UK and TK apply to effective notch stresses '16,
13 The assessment of rodshaped (I D) components should preferably be carried out using nominal stresses whenever possible,
14 Principle stresses are independent of the chosen coordinate system, In the special case of a proportional loading the directions of the principle stresses remain fixed to the coordinates of the component. In the more general case of nonproportional loading the directions and the amounts of the three principle stresses will change with lime, sec Chapter (US
14
o General SUrYC)!
0.3.4.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Rodshaped (J D) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) components  disk, plate, or shell for example  the following system of coordinates is introduced: The x and yaxis are placed in the surface at the reference point, the zaxis is normal to the surface in thickness direction. The normal stress and the shear stress in thickness direction arc supposed to be negligible, Figure 0.0.5,
Figure O. O. 5 Shellshaped (2D) component (shell with cutout detail). Local stresses O'a,x at the reference point W (peak value) and 0'".",1\'> at the neighbouring point B.
Calculation using nominal stresses
If the assessment of shellshaped (2D) components is carried out using nominal stresses, Chapter I and 2, the nominal stresses at the reference point to be computed are the normal stresses Szd. '" S, and Szdy = S, from loadings in the x and ydirections and T, "" T from a shear loading.
Calculation using local stresses
If the assessment of shellshaped (2D) components is carried out using local stresses, Chapter 3 and 4, the local stresses at the reference point O',dx "" ax and O'"ly = O'y in the x and ydirections and the local shear stress T5 = T arc considered.
If the local stresses are computed from the nominal stresses by multiplication with the respective stress concentration factors, the equations given in Chapter 3 and 4 are applicable.
However, if the calculation yields the complete local state of stress at the reference point (as for example a finiteclement calculation docs), the principle stresses IT I, IT2, CTJ are computed * 14 and treated as described for blockshaped (3D) components,
IS Rodshaped (l D) welded components arc rolled sections with circular, tube, 1, box or other crosssections connected or joined with butt welds and/or fillet welds,
IS
o General survey
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) welded components the notations a, , ay and 1: apply to structural stresses and the notations OK.\: , OKy and 1:K apply to effective notch stresses * 16 .
I I I
I t~
logitudinal stiffner
I
I
short transverse weld
0.0.6
Figure n,O,6 Shellshaped (2D) welded Example: Strap with longitudinal stiffner. 110/.
component. After Radaj
Top: Joint, Centre: Stress distribution, Bottom: Profile, Relevant is the stress at the reference point W (at the toe line of the weld).
Calculation using nominal stresses: Stress S, .
Calculation using structural stress: Maximum stress Ox.max obtained from extrapolating the stress distribution towards the weld toe.
Calculation using effective notch stresses: Maximum stress (lKx,m"" occurring at the weld toe, sec Figure O,O~2,ww
~~~~~~
Figure n.O,7 Shellshaped (2D) welded component. Example: Cruciform joint and butt weld. After Radaj /lO/.
Calculation using effective notch stresses: The maximum stress (lKXJl1iC, occurring at the toe or at the root of the weld has to be computed by introducing a fi ctiti ous cffecti ve notch radius r = I rum, unless the rca I radius is r I mm (the fictitious notch radius is intended for the assessment of the fati gue strength only).
The fictitious notch radius r = I mm applies to welded joints from structural steel. It is supposed, however, that it is applicable for other kinds of material as well, although this has to be considered as a preliminary specification for welded aluminum materials so far,
16 Structural stresses can be applied to the assessment of the static strength and to the assessment of the fatigue strength. Effective notch stresses can be applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength, but not to the assessment of the static strength.
0.3.4.3 Blockshaped (3D) components
In the general case blockshaped (3D) components are to be calculated using local stresses, Chapter 3 and 4 ,,<17
For blockshaped (3D) components the coordinate system at the reference point may be of cartesian, cylindrical or spherical type,
The calculation is supposed to yield the complete stale of local stress at the reference point (as for example a finiteclement calculation docs), From that the principle stresses 0'1, a2, 0'3 arc computed *14 , and for these the degrees of utilization are determined.
If the reference point W is located at a free surface of a blockshaped (3D) component, Figure 0,0,8, it is supposed that 01 and 02 are the principle stresses at the surface, while the principle stress 0) is supposed to point normally to the surface inwards the component.
In general stress gradients exist for all three principle stresses, both normal to the surface and in either direction of the surface, However, only the stress gradients for 0' 1 and rJ2 normal to the surface can be considered in the procedure of calculation, while the stress gradients for 01 and a2 in any directions of the surface and the gradients of rJ3 can not.
Blockshaped (3D) components can be calculated as shellshaped (2D) components if the stresses Ox , O'y and 1: at the load free surface are of concern only.
Figure 0.0,8 Blockshaped (3D) component (flange). Local longitudinal stress 01 and circumferential stress rJ2 at the reference point W (peak values), stresses 01,,,, and 02.6, at neighboring point B,
17 For blockshaped components the determination of a nominal stress is not possible since there is 110 well defined crosssection.
16
o General survey
Blockshaped (3D) welded components
Welds at a loadfree surface of blockshaped (3 D) components having no inner defects can be assessed as shellshaped (2D) welded components. Then the notations Cix , Ciy and T apply to structural stresses and the notations Cl"Kx . Cl"Kv and TK apply to the notch root stresses at the surface, Figure 0.0.6.
0.3.5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses
The stresses occurring in the crosssection or at the reference point of a component may be caused
by a single load or
by several loads acting simultaneously.
In both cases
an uniaxial stress or multiaxial stresses
may result at the reference point.
All uniaxial stress occurs under special circumstances only, as for example in a tension loaded prismatic bar, or at an unloaded edge of shellshaped (2D) or blockshaped (3D) components. the latter even if several loads act on these components simultaneously, Figure 0.0.9. In addition an uniaxial stress may be assumed at the reference point if, by comparison, any further stresses arc small.
In general components arc subject to multiaxial stresses, however. Then two or three normal stresses. or normal stresses and shear stresses occur at the reference point.
s, t Sy t
 T
'lI> 'j>T
f j';x ~{QJr!'
+i ... +Dt ...
.,_
~
7" +
4. Figure 0.0.9 Uniaxial and multi axial stresses.
Nominal stresses s., Sy and T.
Lett: muitiaxial stresses in a sheet section,
I~i~lt:lltliaxial stress in a sheet sc~ti,?ll.~~_ll:.e~jgc_ of a cuto~~~ ... _ ..
In this guideline a basic principle is defined both for an assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength in case of multiaxial stresses:
the individual degrees of utilization for everyone of the computed types of stress or stress components have to be determined and assessed separately in a first step, and
thereafter these individual degrees of utilization will be combined by means of an appropriate interaction formula to obtain the entire degree of utilization for final assessment.
Assessment of the static strength
For the assessment of the static strength the most unfavorable case to be considered is that the extreme values of all maximum and minimum stresses occur simultaneously. Accordingly the entire degree of utilization has to be computed. However. stresses of different sign that will decrease the entire degree of utilization are to be included only if they definitely occur together with the remaining stresses, Chapter 1.6 or 3.6.
Assessment of the fatigue strength
For the assessment of the fatigue strength *18 multiaxial stresses varying with time have to be distinguished as follows:
proportional stresses. synchronous stresses, or nonproportional stresses.
Proportional stresses
Normally proportional stresses result from a single loading acting on the component.
Examples of proportional stresses are the circumferential and the longitudinal stresses of a cylindrical vessel loaded by internal pressure, or the bending and torsional stresses of a round cantilever loaded eccentrically by a single load.
If this single acting loading is varying with time, all multiaxial stresses are varying proportionally to that loading and proportionally to each other, which also is true with regard to their amplitudes and their mean values. Further, as a consequence, the principle stresses observe nonchanging directions relative to the component. The amounts of the stresses, also in the stress amplitude spectra, may be converted by constant factors. Hence all stress spectra are of similar shape, but may differ in intensity (amount of their characteristic maximum stress).
Proportional stresses my also result from several loadings that act on the component simultaneously and, for their part, change proportionally with time as well. Then several stresses of the same kind are to be overlaid additively.
For proportional multiaxial stresses, the interaction formulas given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6 arc exactly valid in the sense of material mechanics. if the related rules of signs are observed.
18 Both for the assessment of the fatigue limit and for the assessment of the variable amplitude strength.
17
o General survey
Synchronous stresses
Synchronous stresses arc a simple case of nonproportional stresses. They are proportional with regard to their amplitudes, however nonproportional with regard to their mean values.
Normally synchronous stresses result from a combined action of a constant loading with a second. different kind of loading. that is varying with time. Examples arc a shaft with a nonchanging torsional loading and a rotating bending loading. Or a long. lying cylindrical vessel under pulsating internal pressure. where the longitudinal stress is nonproportional to the circumferential stress because of the bending stress from the dead weight is additively overlaid.
For synchronous multiaxial stresses. the interaction formulae given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6  if observing the related rules of sign arc valid as a useful approximation, because they arc applied to the stress amplitudes, which arc proportional to each other, and because the fatigue strength is determined by the stress amplitudes in the first place. Additional rules for considering the mean stresses arc required, however.
An improved procedure for the assessment of the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses is presented in Chapter 5.9.
Nonproportional stresses
Nonproportional stresses result from the action of at least two loadings that vary nonproportionally with time in a different manner.
In this most general case of nonproportional loading different spectra apply to the individual types of stress that result from the combined loadings. In particular the amounts and the directions of the principle stresses arc variable with time.
The case of variable directions of the principle stresses can not be considered with the interaction formulas given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6.
Appropriate methods of calculation proposed for the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of nonproportional stresses, that have been developed from a material mechanics point of view, require much computing effort and arc applicable with computer programs for short stress sequences only. Their plausibility is currently subject of investigations.
Therefore only an approximate way of calculation for the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of nonproportional multiaxial stresses can be given, Chapter 5. 10: As proportional stresses result from each of the acting loadings the degrees of utilization of these individual loadings can be correctly computed and assessed as described in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6. The so
determined degrees of utilization for the individual loadings arc then added linearly in order to estimate the entire degree of utilization. Compared to usual interaction formulas developed for proportional stresses the linear addition may be assumed to produce results on the safe side *19
A necessary reservation for applying this approximate way of calculation is. that a thorough stress analysis is performed in every case and that careful evaluation of the result is performed finally.
In order to reach an optimum degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength III the case of nonproportional multiaxial stresses, an experimental assessment of the fatigue strength has to be recommended according to the contemporary state of the art.
19 For nanproportional multinxial loadings the reference point may be at different positions in the case of the combined loadings and in the C:LS" of each of the individual loadings, respectively. This is because the most damaging stresses from the combined loadings may occur at positions different from the positions of the maximum stresses from the individual loadings. By the above mentioned approximation. however, the full damaging effect of each loading may be assumed to he superimposed at the reference point in qu est ion.
18
() General survey
1.1 Characteristic stress values
19
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
iRI I N,doq
1.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
It should be observed that not necessarily the component static strength is determined by a failure occurring at a notched section. Likewise a global failure occurring at a different, unnotched or moderately notched section of the component may be determining, Figure 1.0.1.
,...+._._. F
Figure 1.0.1 Different sections for a static failure occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (B).
For GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with low elongation, A < 12,5 % , for all sorts GT and GG as well as for cast aluminium alloys the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3 * I,
In the case of very high stress concentration factors the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3 *2,
For blockshaped (3D) components the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3,
For all other kinds of material (GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with high elongation, A::::: 12,5 % , OS, milled steel and forgingsteel) and for smaller stress concentration factors of rodshaped (ID) and of shellshaped (2D) components the assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses is applicable.
I Because these materials lack sufficient plasticity.
2 Because extremely high local strains are associated with a very high stress concentration factor. The stress concentration factor Kt ~ 3 of a flat bar with a hole is suggested as it limit value
1.1 Characteristic stress values
Contents
Page 19
L 1,0 General
1.1.1 Characteristic stress values
1.1.1.0 General
1.1.1.1 Rodshaped (lD) components 1.1.1. 2 Shellshaped (2D) components
20
1.1.0 General
According to this chapter the characteristic service stress values arc to be determined.
Relevant arc the extreme maximum and minimum stresses Smax,ex,7.d and SUlIrl,ex,7.d, .. , of the individual stress components expected for the most unfavorable operating conditions and for special loads according to specification or due to physical limits *3 Both the maximum and minimum stresses can be positive or negative. It is assumed, that all stresses reach their extreme values simultaneously.
Elevated temperature
In case of elevated temperature the values Smax,ex,zd . and Smin,cx,zd, .. , arc relevant for a shortterm loading (related to the high temperature strength or high temperature yield strength).
For a longterm loading (related to the creep strength or I % creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in case of a constant (static) tensile stress Smax,ex,zd equally distributed over the section of concern.
In all other cases of constant or variable loading the assessment will be more or less 011 the safe side if the values Smax,ex,zd , ... and Smin,cx,zd, ... refer to a stress distribution with a stress gradient, and/or if they refer to the peak values of a variable stress history, which are of short duration only, while for the rest of time the stress is lower.
If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use of the longterm load bearing capacity of the component
3 In general the values Smax,cx,zd and Smin,ex,zd for the assessment of the static strength arc the extreme values of it stress history. For the assessment of the fatigue strength a stress spectrum is to be derived [rom that history consisting of stress cycles of the amplitudes Sa,zd,i and the mean values Sm,zd,i, Chapter 2J.
The largest amplitude of this stress spectrum is Sa,zd, I , and UlC related mean value is Sm zd I ' The related maximum and minimum values arc Smax,zd,l = Sm,z~l,l'l Sa,zd,l and Smin,zd,l ~ Sm,zd,1 ~ Sa,zd,J . The values Smax,cx,zd and Smin,ex,zd may be different from the values Smux,zd, 1 and Smin,zd,l . This is because extreme, very seldom occurring events are important only for the assessment of the static strength, but hardly for the assessment of the fatigue strength. In a stress spectrum which is supposed to apply to normal service conditions they do not have to be considered therefore.
1.1 Characteristic stress values
20
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
(because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved) an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment. Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present guideline. however.
Superposition
If several stress components act simultaneously at the reference point, they are to be overlaid. For the same type of stress (for example tension and tension Sl1lax,e::,zd,l, Smax,ex.zd.2 , ... ) the superposition is to be carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single stress value (Smax,ex.zd ' ... ) exists for each type of stress *4 For different types of stress (for example bending and torsion. or tension in direction x and tension in direction y) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage, Chapter 1.6.
Stress components acting opposed to each other and which do not or can not occur simultaneously, are not to be overlaid however.
1.1.1 Characteristic stress values
1.1.1.0 General
Rodshaped (10) and shellshaped (20), as well as nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished.
11.1.1 Rodshaped (ID) components Rodshaped (1D) nonwelded components
For rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components an axial stress Szd . a bending stress Sb, a shear stress T, *5 and/or a torsional stress Tt are to be considered. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
Sm"x,cx,zd, Smax.cx,b, Tmax,ex,s, Tmax,c:.:,t, Smin.ex,zd, Smill,ex,b, Tmin,cx.s, Tmin,ex.t.
(1.1.1)
Stresses of different sign (Smax,cx,zd positive, Smin,ex,zd negative for instance) are generally to be considered separately *6 For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant.
4 Stress components having different signs may cancel out each other in part or completely.
5 Bending and shear in two planes (components y and z) arc to be considered if appropriate, sec Chapter 0.3.4.1 .
G Particularly in the case of cast iron materials with different tension and compression strength values as well as in the case of unsymrnetrical cross' sections.
Figure 1.1.1 Components of nominal stress Sli , Til' S.i. and T 1 in welds. After DIN 18 800, Part I.
Left: Butt weld, Right: Fillet weld; the nominal stress is to he computed with the throat thickness a.
Rodshaped (ID) welded components
For rodshaped (10) welded components the nominal stresses are in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section *7.
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components, Eq. (1.1.1) .For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses have to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from the particular types of loading, Figure I. 1.1 *8
2 2 2
Swv,zd '" S J..,zd + T J..,zd + 111 .zd
( 1.l.2)
SJ..,zd T.l.,zd Tll,Zd
Axial stress normal to the weld seam *9 Shear stress normal to the weld seam, Shear stress parallel to the weld seam.
Swv,b , T wv,s and T wv.t in analogy.
The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent nominal stresses arc
Smax,cx,wv,zd and Smin,ex,wv,zd, ...
(1.1.3)
Stresses of different SIgn (Smax,ex,wv,zd positive, Smin,ex,v{v,zd negative for instance) arc generally to be considered separately, For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant.
7 For welded components in general an assessment ofthe static strength is to be carried out for the toe section and for the throat section, because the crosssectional areas may be different and because the strength behavior is evaluated in a different way, The assessment for the toe section is to be carried out as for nonwelded components. '[be assessment for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent nominal stress Swv,zd , , ..
8 According 10 DIN 18 800 part 1. page 36. The nominal stress SII (normal stress parallel to the orientation of the seam) is to be neglected.
') Nomlally Swv,zd will result mainly from SJ..zd. Further types of leading analogous.
1.1 Characteristic stress values
21
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.1.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components
For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components normal stresses in the x and ydirections Szd,x ~ S, and Szd,y == Sy as well as a shear stress T s "" T are to be considered.
The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
Smax,cx,x • Smax,cx,y , T max.cx . Smin,cx,x , Smin,cx,y , T min.ex .
(1.1.4)
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses (negative) are generally to be considered separately *10. For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6, the nominal stresses are in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section '7.
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components, Eq. (1.1.4).
For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses SWV,)(, Swv,y and T wv have to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from the particular types of loading, Figure 1.1.1, according to Eq (1.1.2). The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent stresses are
Smax,cx,wv,x and Smin,cx,wv,)(
( 1.1.5)
In case of opposing effect Smax,ex,wv,x is to be regarded as positive and Smin,cx,wv,x as negative. Tension and compression are generally to be considered separately. For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
lO See footnote *6. And moreover because the second normal stress Sy may reduce the degree of utilization.
1.2 Material properties
22
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.2 Material properties
1R12 EN. dog
Contents Page
1.2.0 General 22
1.2.1 Component values according to standards 23
1.2.1.0 General
1.2.1.1 Component values according to standards
of semifinished products or test pieces
1.2.1.2 Component values according to the
drawing
1.2.l.3 Special case of actual component values 24
1.2.2 Technological size factor
1.2.2.0 General
1.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter
1.2.2.2 Effective diameter
1.2.3 Anisotropy factor 26
1.2.4 Compression strength factor and
shear strength factor
1.2.4.0 General
1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
1.2.4.2 Shear strength factor 27
1.2.5 Temperature factors
1.2.5.0 General
1.2.5.1 Normal temperature
1.2.5.2 Low temperature
1.2.5.3 Elevated temperature 1.2.0 General
According to this chapter the mechanical material properties like tensile strength R", yield strength R, and further characteristics for nonwelded and welded components are to be determined *1.
All mechanical material properties arc those of the material test specimen. Values according to standards, component values and component values according to standards arc to be distinguished, Figure 1.2.1.
Material test specimen
In the context of this guideline the material test specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of d() = 7,5 mm diameter *2
I If in this chapter values arc given for GT, GG or cast aluminum alloys, they arc needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength only, Chapter 2, but not for the assessment of the static strength, which is to be carried out using local stresses for these materials, Chapter 3.
2 This definition is the basis of the presented calculation, although specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from 7,5 mm,
!.2.1
~,N
2D :mm
Values according to standards
Component values 
(lg)
Figure 1.2.1 Values according to standards and component values according to standards, Rm and Rp, or values specified by drawings, Rm.z and Rp,z .
Top: All kinds of material except GG, Rm'::: Rm,N, Rp :: Rp,N . Semilogarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the effective diameter doff
Bottom: GG, Rm'::: or ;;> Rm,N . Doublelogarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the effective diameter d"ff.
Specified values according to drawings Rm,Z 1Illd R~L ..
Values according to standards
The values according to standards (Ro\N , R; , Rp,N, Rp) correspond to an average probability of survival Po = 97,5 % and depend on the effective diameter doff and on the technological size factor.
Component values
The component values (Rm , Rm,z , R, , Rp,z ) are valid for the effective diameter doff of the component, they may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po , however.
Special case of actual component values
If specific values for a component (R,'d , Rp,l) have been determined experimentally, they normally apply to a probability of survival Po = 50 % , and therefore they
1.2 Material properties
23
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
arc valid only for the particular component, but not for the entirety of all those components. They may be used, for instance, for a subsequent assessment of the strength of the particular component in case of a service failure, if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in addition.
Component values according to standards
The component values according to standards CRn , Rp) apply to an average probability of survival Po :::; 97,5 % and are valid for the effective diameter, ddT, of the component. Their application is not limited to a particular component, and therefore they may be used for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of all those components.
To determine the tensile strength Rn and the yield strength R, *3 the technological size factor, the anisotropy factor and the temperature factors arc to be considered in general. Furthermore compression strength and shear strength values are to be considered.
1.2.1 Component values according to standards
1.2.1.0 General
The component values according to standards, Rn and R, , are to be determined from the values of semifinished products or of test pieces defined by standards, Rm.,N and Rp,N , or from the component value specified in the drawing, Rm.,z . As a special case the experimentally determined actual component values, Rm,I and Rp,l , may be applied,
1.2.1.1 Component values according to standards of semifinished products or of test pieces
The component values according to standards of the tensile strength, R; , and of the yield strength, Rp, are
n, = KJ,m' KA· ~n.N' R, = KJ,p . KA' Rp,N,
(1.2.1)
technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2, anisotropy factor, Chapter 1.2.3,
values of the semifinished product or
of a test piece defined by standards,
Chapter 5.1 .
In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the tensile strength, R.n,Nis the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished
Kd.m, K'Lp KA
Rn.N, Rp,N
3 The term yield strength is used as a generalized term for the yield stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2 proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as aluminum alloys).
product *4 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it is the value from the test piece defined by the material standard.
The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished product *4 or for the test piece defined by the material standard *5.
Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive stresses the compression strength factor fa , Chapter 1.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor ft , Chapter 1.2.4, and for elevated temperature the temperature factors K[,m , ... , Chapter 1.2.5.
1.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing The component value of the tensile strength, Rm, is
Rn = 0,94 . Rm,z .
( 1.2.2)
The component value according to the drawing Rm.z is the tensile strength of the material specified on the drawing. As the value Rm,z is normally verified by random inspection of small samples only *6, it is assumed to have a probability of survival less than Po:::; 97,5 % . Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value R""l to a component value R; that is expected to conform with the probability of survival of Po = 97,S%.
The yield strength R, corresponding to the tensile strength R.n is *7 .
R;> Kd,p . Rp,N . Rm, Kd,m Rm,N
(1.2.3)
Kd,m, K!.p R""N, Rp,N
technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2, values of the semifinished product or
of a test piece defined by standards, Chapter 5.1 .
4 If different dimensions of that semi finished product arc given by the stands rd.
5 A probability of survival Po = 97,5 % is assumed lor the component properties according to standards Rm,N ' Rp,N . This probability of survival should also apply to the values Rm ' Rp calculated therefrom.
6 The value Rm,Z is checked by three hardness measurements (n=3) for example, where every test has to reach or to exceed the required value, The probability of survival of the lowest of n=3 tests may be estimated to 75 % (= I  I/(n+1) = 1 11(3+1) = 0,75), and may be assigned to Rm,Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of 4% the conversion (0 Po = 97,5 % follows from Eq. (1.2.2).
7 A conversion proportional to Rp N I Rm N would not be correct since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield strength tha n for the tensi le strength.
1.2 Material properties
24
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength ~n,1 is known the value of the yield strength Rp,1 may be computed from Eq. (L2,3) with Rn = R,,'.l'
1.2.2 Technological size factor 1.2.2.0 General
The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of the material strength values usually observed with increasing dimensions of the component. It is specified as a function of the effective diameter, Figure 1,2,1, It is different for nonwelded and for welded components *8
1.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter Nonwelded components
Steel and cast iron materials
For GG the following technological size factor applies to the tensile strength: For deft' ::; 7,5 mm
Kd,m = 1,207,
for dell' > 7,5 mill *9
Kd,m = 1,207' (deff/7,5 mill)  0,1922.
(1.2,4)
( 1.2.5)
For stainless steel within the dimensions given in material standards there is
Kd,m = Kd,p '" 1.
(1.2.7)
For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the technological size factor is: For defT ::; defl:N.m
Kd,m"" Kd,p =1,
for deff,N,m < dell'S deff,max,1ll * 10:
( 1.2.8) (1.2,9)
1 0, 7686,ad,m ,Ig(ddf 17,5mm) 1 0, 7686, ad,m 'Jg( deff,N,m /7, 5mm)
for deff 2 deff,max,m it is:
Kd,m = Kd,m (delf,max,IIl ).
(1.2.10)
deff
deff ,N,1ll , ad,rn
effective diameter, Chapter 1.2,2.2 , constants, Table 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 .
Considering the yield strength the values Kd,rn, deff,N,m , and ad,m have to be replaced by the values Kd,p , ddf,N,p , and ad,p (except for GG),
8 The infl I' .
ie 1 uence actors according (0 Chapter 1.2.3 (KA ), Chapter 1.2.4
(fa' f,) and Chapter 1.2.5 (KT m ... ) arc supposed to be valid for both nonwelded and welded components.
9 Footnote and Eq. (1.2.6) cancelled.
100,7686 = I fig 20,
For milled steel there is deff,max,rn = dclf,max,p = 250 nun. For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit values dcfl',max, ... ,
(1.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.
Aluminum alloys
For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of the tensile strength, Rn , and of the yield strength, Rp, are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material and its condition, and depending on the thickness or diameter of the semifinished product. To these values the technological size factors Kd,m = Kd,p = 1 apply.
For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as follows: For derrs; d.rr,N.l11 = deff.N.!' = 12 mrn
for 12 rum < deff < ddT,max,m = de[f,max,p = 150 mm
Kd,m = Kd,p = 1,1 . (doff/7,5 mm) ,0,2, (1,2,13)
for d.ff2 d.[f,,,,ax,fll = d.rr,max,p = 150 mm
Kim = Kd,p = 0,6 ,
(1.2,14)
Welded components *11
For all kinds of material the technological size factor for the toe section and for the throat section of welded components is * 12
Kd,m = Kd,p = I.
(1.2.15)
For materials such as conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution,
1.2.2.2 Effective diameter
For components with a simple shape of the cross section the effective diameter is given according to the cross section in Table 1.2.3.
In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is specified in the material standards,
For the determination of the effective diameter deff two cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.
II Valid for steel, cast iron material and aluminum alloys.
12 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to DIN 18 800, part I, page 40.
1.2 Material properties
25
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Table 1.2.1 Constants ddT,N,m , "., and adm, , .. , for steel
Table 1.2.2 Constants deff,N,m , ... , and adm, ... , for cast iron materials
Values in the Upper row refer to the tensile strength Rm , Values in the lower row refer to the yield strength Rp .
Kinds of material :1 deff,N.m ad,m
dcn;N,p ad,p
in mm ;.?
Nonalloyed structural steel 40 0,15
DINEN 10 025 40 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 70 0,2
DIN 17 102 40 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 100 0,25
DIN EN 10 113 30 0,3
Heat treatable steel, q&t 16 :3 0,3
DIN EN 10 0831 16 0,4
Heat treatable steel, n 16 0,1
DIN EN 10 0831 16 0,2
Case hardening steel, bh 16 0,5
DIN EN 10 0831 16 0,5
Nitriding steel, q&t 40 0,25
DIN EN 10 083·1 40 0,30
stainless steel  
DIN EN 10 0882 :4
Steel for big forgings, q&t 250 0,2
SEW 550 : 5 250 0,25
Steel for big forgings, n 250 0
SEW 550 250 0,15 q&t=quenched a. tempered, n=normalized, bb = blank hardened
:1 Within the kinds of material there are the types of material.
:2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except for nonalloyed structural steel ) see Table 5.1.2 to Table 5.1. 7.
;.2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deff,N,m = 40 rnm, values Bd,m and ad,p as given above.
;.4 No tecbnological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in the material standards.
,,5 For 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 or 33 NiCrMo 14 5: dcff,N,m = deCf,N,p = 500mm or 1000 mm resp., values ad,m and ad,p as given .~~
Case 1
Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel, of case hardening steel, of nitriding steel, both nitrided or quenched and tempered, of heat treatable cast steel, of GGG, GT or GG.
The effective diameter dcfC from Table 1.2.3, Case 1, applies.
In generalit is:
deff = 4 . V ( 0 ,
V,O Volume and surface
of the section of the component considered.
(1.2.16)
Values in the upper row refer to the tensile strength Rlll ' Values in the lower row refer to the yield strength Rp .
Kinds of material deff,N.m ad.m
dct{N,p ad,p
111 nun
Cast steel 100 0,15
DIN 1681 100 0,3
Heat treatable steel casting, 300,,1 0,15
DIN 17205 300 0.3
Heat treatable steel casting,
q&t, DIN 17205, 100 n,3
types ,,2 No. 1,3,4 100 0,3
as above 200 0,15
types v3 No.2 200 0,3
as above 200 0,15
. types No.5, 6. 8 200 0,3
as above 500 0,15
types No.7, 9 500 0,3
GGG 60 0,15
DIN EN 1563 60 0,15
GT v4 15 0,15
DIN EN 1562 15 0,15 q&t= quenched and tempered
vi For GS·30 Mn 5 or GS2S erMo 4 there is deff N m = 800 mm or 500 mm respectively, values ild,m and ad,p as gi~en' above.
,,2 Material types sec Table 5.1.11.
;.3 Valid for strength level V I, for level V 1I deff,N,m = ddT,N,p = 100 mm with values Hd,m and ad,p as above.
,,4 The values for GT arc needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength only.
 _._. __ ._.__ ..
ease 2
Components (also forgings) made of nonalloyed structural steel, of fine grained structural steel, of normalized quenched and tempered steel, of cast steel, or of aluminum materials,
The effective diameter deff is equal to the diameter or wall thickness of the component, Table 1.2.3, Case 2.
Rodshaped (ID) components made of quenched and tempered steel
The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the heat treatment is performed.
In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment the effective diameter deff is the largest diameter of the rod. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the effective diameter dcff is defined as the local diameter in question. The diameter dell according to the first sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side.
1.2 Material properties
26
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Table 1.2.3 Effective diameter detT
No. Cross section detT dell"
Case 1 Case 2
1 E d d
2 t 2s s
~
~_j
3 2s s
4 ~ 2b ·s s

b+s
5 rl~bt b b 1.2.3 Anisotropy factor
The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower transverse to the main direction of milling or forging than in the main direction of processing. It is to be supposed that the specified strength values are valid for the main direction of processing.
In case of multi axial stresses, and also with shear stress, the anisotropy factor is
(I.2.17)
Steel and cast iron material
The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is
(1.2.18)
For milled steel and forgings *13 the anisotropy factor in the main direction of processing is
(L2.19)
For the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 1.2.4 is to be applied.
13 With material properties depending on the direction.
Aluminum alloys
The anisotropy factor for cast aluminum alloys is
K,\ = 1.
(1.2.20)
For forgings ")3, for which material standards specify the strength values as depending on the testing direction, the anisotropy factor is not to be applied:
( 1.2.21)
For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the strength values in the main direction of processing is
( 1.2.22)
For the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 1.2.4 is to be applied.
Table 1,2.4 Anisotropy factor KA .
Steel'
Rut up to 600 from 600 from 900 above
in Mpa to 900 to 1200 1200
KA 0,90 0,86 0,83 0,80 Al
II
umtnum a oys:
Rn1 up to 200 from 200 from 400
in MjJ_a to 400 to 600
KA 1,00 0,95 0,90 1.2.4 Compression strength factor and shear strength factor
1.2.4.0 General
The compression strength factor allows for the fact that in general the material strength is higher in compression than in tension.
The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the material strength in shear is different from the tensile strength.
1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression strength factor is
fo""l.
(1.2.23)
For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength Rp arc to be replaced by the compression strength ~,m and the yield strength in compression Rc.p:
1.2 Material properties
27
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
R".m = fa . Rm . Rd: = fa' Rp.
(1.2.24)
compression strength factor, Table 1.2.5. tensile strength and yield strength, see Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
The values Rc.m and Rc.p are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength, as only the compression strength factor f" is needed *14.
Table 1.2.5 Compression strength factor f" and shear strength factor f~
Kinds of material r, r, r,
for for ·;.1
tension compress.
Case harden' g steel 1 1 0,577
Stainless steel 1 1 0,577
Fo~ging steel 1 1 0,577
Other kinds of steel I 1 0,577
GS 1 1 0,577
GGG 1 1,3 0,65
Aluminum alloys 1 1 0,577 c I 0,577 ~ I I J3, according to v. Mises criterion. also valid for welded components.
1.2.4.2 Shear strength factor
For shear stresses the tensile strength Rrn and the yield strength Rp arc to be replaced by the shear strength R;,m and the yield strength in shear R;,p:
Rs,m = fT . Rm, R;.p = fT . Rp ,
ft shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5 Rm, Rp tensile strength and yield strength, Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
( 1.2.25)
The values Rs,m and Rs,p are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the strength, as only the shear strength factor f~ is needed.
1.2.5 Temperature factors 1.2.5.0 General
The temperature factors allow for the fact that the material strength decreases with increasing temperature.
Normal temperature, low temperature and higher temperature are to be distinguished.
14 Tensile strength and yield strength in compression arc supposed to be positive. Rc.m, Rc,p :> O. therefore for compression fa » 1.
1.2.5.1 Normal temperature Nonnal temperatures arc as follows:
for fine grain structural steel from 40°C to 60°C. for other kinds of steel from 40°C to + lOOcC. for cast iron materials from 25°C to + lOO°e,
for agehardening aluminum alloys
from 25°C to 50°C,
for nonagehardening aluminum alloys from 25°C to lOO°e.
For normal temperature the temperature factors arc
KT.111= ... = I.
(1.2.26)
1.2.5.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above arc outside the field of application of this guideline.
1.2.5.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures  up to 500°C for steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for aluminum materials  tbe influence of the temperature on the mechanical properties is to be considered. In case of elevated temperature the tensile strength RIll is to be replaced by the high temperature strength Rm.T or by the creep strength Rm.T! . The yield strength Rp is to be replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp,T or by the I % creep limit Rp.Tt *15.
For the shortterm values Rm.T and Rp,T as well as for the longterm values RIIl,Tt and Rp,Tt Eq. (1.2.27) to (1.2.35) apply.
Shortterm values
Short term values of the static strength are
(1.2.27)
Rm.T = KT,rn . RIll , Rp.T = KT.p . Rp ,
KT,m' Kt,p. temperature factors,
Eq. (1.2.28) to (1.2.33),
Rm, Rp tensile strength and yield strength, Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
The values Rm.T and Rp,T are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength, as only the temperature factors KT,m and KT,p are needed.
Steel and cast iron materials
According to the temperature T the temperature factors KT,m and KT,p apply as follows:
l5 TIle relevant temperature factors wi!! be applied in combination with the safety factors at the assessment stage,
1.2 Material properties
28
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
for fine grain structural steel, T > 60 GC .d6.
Kr.m = KT•p = 1  1,2' 10.3• T 1°C, (1.2.28)
for other kinds of steel *17, T > 100°C, Figure
1.2.2: (1.2.29)
Kr,m = KT.r = 1 1,7' 10 ·3. (T I °C_ 100),
for GS, T> 100°C: (1.2.30)
KT.rn = KT.!' = 1  1,5 . 10 3 . (T / °c  100),
for GGG, T> 100°C:
KT.JlI = KT.p = 1  2.4 . (10 3 . T / DC) 2
(1.2.31)
Eq. (1.2.28) to (1.2.31) arc valid from the indicated temperature T up 10 500DC. For a temperature above 350°C they are valid only, if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
CI'CCp Strength R",.T,
0,21+1+,.;'>..&...1 Rm.TI I
~jmt
u
o
100 200 300 400 500
Tin"C
1.7,;(
Figure 1.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of nonalloyed structural steel plotted for
comparison.
Rp / Rm .~ Re / Rm ~ 0.65.
Rpl.T I Rrn ~ K:r,m  Rp:l' I Rr ~ KT,p' Rm,Tt! Rill  Kn,T11 ~ Rp,n Rp = KTt,p .
R r R T as well as R r R °1' for! = 105 h
m, , p. m, l> p, t '
Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5:
jrll.~ ... 2.:~:.lR ~" j.!l.1L"·~jJ1.l..':_l,g,:Jj:J,'::...!.~ _
Aluminum alloys
According to the temperature T the temperature factors KT,m and Kr,p for aluminum alloys apply as follows:
for agehardening aluminum alloys: T> 50°C,
Figure 1.2.3 (1.2.32)
16 There is '111 insignificant discontinuity at T =" 60 "C. 17 For stainless steel no values arc known up 10 now.
KI,tH = I  4.5 ' 10,3 . (T / DC  50) ~ 0.1. Kr,p = 1  4,5 . 10.3, (T / °C  50) ? 0, I.
for not agehardening aluminum alloys:
T> 100 c, Figure 1.2.3 (1.2.33)
KT,m = I  4,5' 103. (T / DC  1(0) :2: 0,1,
KT,p = 1  4,5 . 10.3. (T I °e  1(0) :2: 0, L
Eq. (1.2.32) and (1.2.33) arc valid from the indicated temperature T up to 200°C, and in general only, if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
0,5 0 ~ .,::..,..,~..,..
\ High temperature
strength Rm, T
Rm,T 1 R .... J ....
0,4 tt\'I.+rfti+:.~ Creep Strength
IR .... n Rm•Tt 1
O~ ~ __ Lf~~~r~~R~m~·~jm~t~
0,2
0,1 . c:rw,<d, Tjt\:flt~I;_____l crW.ld,T I!W.1d
(1W.uI '~. jo
o
o
250
300
100
150
sa
200
1.2.3
TIT
Figure 1.2.3 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison.
Static strength values:
Rp,T I Rm ~ K T,m ~ KT,p / Rp= KT,p Rm,TI,I Rrn = K'n.m ~ KTt,p! Rp = K·rt.,p
R 'n R 'n far t = 105 h
111, , p, .
Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress (N = [06 cycles):
O'w.,~! Rn~' 0,30; (JW~dT I (Jw~, ~ Kr,l)·
Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5;
Longterm values
Long term values of the static strength are
(I .2.34)
Rm.Tt = Kn,m . Rm , Rp,Tt = KTt,p . R, ,
Kn,m , KT"p temperature factors,
Figure 1.2.2 and 1.2.3, Eq. (1.2,35),
R"" R, tensile strength and yield strength, Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
1.2 Material properties
29
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
The values Rn.Tt and Rp,Tt are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength, as only the temperature factors Kn,m and Kn,p are needed.
Steel and cast iron materials
Depending on the temperature T and on the operation time t at that temperature the temperature factors Kn,m and Kn,p apply, Figure l.2.2 *IS
K,. =lO(aTt,m+ bTt.rn' Pm+ CTt,rn '1'1112)
I,"m (1.2,35)
K. =IO(aTt,p+ bTt,p ,1'1'+ CTt,p '1'1'2)
1t,p
Pm 10  4, (T I C + 273) , (COl + Ig(t I h»,
PI' IO4'(TIC+273)'(CIll+lg(t/h»,
aTt.Ill, ,." Cp constants, Table 1.2.7,
t operation time in hours h at the temperature T
Eq. (1.2,35) apply to temperatures from approximately 350°C up to 500°C, but only for stresses acting on long terms. In general they do not apply to temperatures below about 350°C *19.
Aluminum alloys
For aluminum alloys and t = 105 hours Kr~", is given by Figure 1.2.4 *20,
1,0
\
\
\
\ :
I \t R".,T! I R",
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
o
RT 100
300 400
TrC
200
Figure 1.2.4 Temperature factor KIt,,,, ~ R,n,It I Rill for aluminum alloys and t = 105 hours,
The given curve is the same as in Figure 1.2.3, except that the factor
(l ! jill) is different.
18 LarsenMillerparameter P and LarsenMillerconstant C,
19 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures T < 350 DC, where the values KT ,01 and KT,p are relevant instead,
20 The temperature factor Kt,p is not defined up to now. It may be assumed, however, as it is essential for the assessment of the static strength, that the term Rp,Tt ! jpt is more or less equal to Rm,Tt ! Jrnt ' see Figure 1.2,2 (required safety HlctOrsjpt = 1,0 andjmt = 1,5),
A LarsenMiller equation similar to Eq, (l ,2,32) or (1,2.33) applicable to derive the values of K'n,m and K'n,p according to temperature T and operation time T has not been specified for aluminum alloys up to nOW,
Table 1.2,7 Constants aTt,Ill' .. " Cp ¢l
Steel Non Fine grain Heat
alloyed structural treatable
structural steel steel
steel
02 <,3 .;·4 ,,5
Creep strength
aTt.m  0,994 1,127  3,001
bTtm 2,485 2,485 3,987
cTtm  1,260  1,260  1,423
Cm 20 20 24,27
1 % Creep limit
aTt.n  5,019  6,352  3,252
bn,n 7,227 9,305 5,942
CTLn  2,636  3.456  2,728
Cn 20 20 17,71 Cast iron GS ,'6 GGG ,:7
materials
Creep strength
aTtm 7,524 2,50
bTtm 9.894  1,83
c'n.m  3,417 0
Col 19,57 20
1 % Creep limit
aTt.n  10.582 0,12
b'n,[1 8,127 1,52
cTt.a  1,607  1,28
Cn 35,76 18 ",I Approximate values, applicable from about 350°C to 500QC. ¢2 Not valid for stainless steel.
v3 Initially lor St 38, Rm ~ 360 MPa, similar to si 37,
·>4 Initially for H 52, Rm = 490 Ml'a, similar to 51E 355; the absolute values Rm,Tt are the same as for 5t 38,
¢oS Initially for C 4S N (normalized) with Rill ~ 620 Iv!l'a, For C 35 N, with Rm = 550 1\11'a the constants 3,001 and 3,252 arc to be replaced by ,2,949 and ,3.198, The absolute values Rm Tt arc the same as for
C45~ ,
·:·6 Initially for GSC 25 with Rrn '" 440 Ml'a.
'.':_~~I1J~i,~~r.~o_r_~~.~:~?..:~!~I!.!~m __ 4_23 I\i!'a . , . __ ._, __ .. __ ,,,
1.3 Design parameters
30
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.3 Design parameters
[R13 EN. dog
Contents
Page
1.3.0
General
1.3.1 Design factors
1.3.1.0 General
1.3.1.1 Nonwelded components 1.3.1.2 Welded components
1.3.2 Section factors
1.3.3 Weld factor Ct\\"
1.3.0 General
According to this chapter the design parameters arc to be determined.
1.3.1 Design factors 1.3.1.0 General
Nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished. They can be both rodshaped (lD) or shellshaped (2D).
1.3.1.1 Nonwelded components
The design factors of rodshaped (I D) nonwelded components for axial (tension or compression). for bending. for shear, and for torsional stress are
KSK,zd = I.
KSK.b = I I I1pl,b , KSK,s = 1.
KSK,1 = 1 I npl,( ,
(1.3.1)
I1pl,b ...
section factor *1. Chapter 1.3.2.
The design factors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for normal stresses in the directions x and l' as well as for shear stress arc
KSK,x = 1, KsK,y = I, KSK,s = I.
(13.2)
I KSK,zd = .co = I means, that the value of the related section factor is "pl,zd = ... = 1.
1.3.1.2 Welded components
For welded components the design factors arc generally to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section.
30
For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.
For the throat section of rodshaped (ID) welded components the design factors for axial (tension or compression), for bending. for shear and for torsional stress are
31
KSK.zd = I I (xw , . KSK.b = 1 I (npl,b . o..,v ). KSK,s = 1 I (Xw •
KSK,l = 11 (npl.l . (xw ).
For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the design factors for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress arc
(1.3.4)
KSK,x = 1 I ct\\" , KSK,y= 11 (X\\" , KSK,s'" II ctw •
(1.3.5)
llpl,b ... (Xw
section factor, Chapter 1.3.2, weld factor, Chapter 1.3.3.
Weld factors CXw are given for tension, for compression and for shear stress.
For tension and tension in bending (xw for tension is to be applied. For compression and compression in bending (xw for compression is to be applied. For shear and for torsion ctw for shear is to be applied.
1.3.2 Section factors
The section factors llpl,b and Ilpl,t allow for the influence of the stress gradient in bending and/or torsion in connection with the shape of the cross section on the static strength of components, Figure 1.3.1. They serve to make best use of the load carrying capacity of a component by accepting some yielding as the outside fiber stress exceeds the yield strength.
An essential condition is the existence of a stress gradient normal to the surface of the component. Figure 1.3.1.
It has to be observed, however, that the derived section factors only apply to the notched section considered and not to the component as a whole. Therefore other sections may have to be considered in addition, see Chapter 1.0 and Figure 1.0.1.
1.3 Design parameters
31
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
t
Figure 1.3.1 Definition of the section factor npl,b for bending of a notched bar, for instance.
Bending moment Mb. yield strength Rp. static component strength for bending SSK,b , section factor npl,b = SSK,b / Rp,
Light straight line: fictitious distribution of the stress calculated elastically. Solid angular line: real stress distribution when providing elast~ic idealplastic material behavior.
Surface hardened Components
The section factors arc not applicable if the component has been surface or case hardened, see Table 2.3.5 *2
npl,b, ... = 1 (1.3.6)
Steel and cast iron material
For austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition *3 the section factors for tension or compression. for bending, for shear, and for torsion arc
npl,zd'" 1, npl,b '" Kr,b , npl,s = 1, npl,t = Kp,t .
( 1.3.8)
2 Because the p lasticity of a hard surface layer ~ for example as a result of case hardening  is limited, it may observe cracks when yielding occurs, particularly at notches where the calculation of nominal stress neglects the stress and strain concentration.
Possibly this nile is too far on the safe side, as npl = 1,1 is allowed for case hardened shafts according to the recent DIN 743 (launched in 2000).
3 Because of the high ductility ofaustenitic steel in the solution annealed condition the plastic notch factors Kp,b and Kp,t arc relevant and not the given material dependent section factors.
For other types of steel, GS and GGG *4 the section factors for tension or compression, for bending, for shear, and for torsion are *5 *6
npl,zd'" 1,
llpl,b = MIN (JRp•max / n, ; Kp,1l ). Ilpl,s = 1.
npl,t = MIN (JRp,rnax / Rp ; Kp.1)'
(1.3.9)
constant, Table 1.3. I,
yield strength, Chapter 1.2, plastic notch factors, Table 1. 3 ,2,
Table 1.3.1 Constant Rp,max ~1
Kind of material Steel, GS GGG Aluminum
allovs.
Rp,max/ MPa 1050 320 250 ,,1 Constant defining an upper bound value of the section factor
~pcnding on the kind at: rna __ tc_fi_a_l. _
Table 1.3.2 Plastic notch factors Kp,b and Kp,t .
Crosssection Bending Torsion
Kp,b Kp,t
rectangle" I 1,5 
circle 1.70,,2 1.33 d
circular ring 1,27 ,,4 1>5
lsection or box ,:6  ,,) or plate, ,,2 1,7()~16!(3'1t), d 1,33"'4/3. ,;·4 thinwalled, 1.27 = 4/71:.
,'5 ti1i nwalled, otherwise there is
, 1(d!D)3
Kp,( = 1,33 4 '
ICd/D)
(1.3.14)
d. D inner and outer diameters.
, lCbJB)'(h!H)2
.;.6 Kp,b = 1,5 3
i (b! B)·(h / H)
( 1.3.15)
4 GT and GG nrc not considered here because the assessment ofthe static strength has to be carried out using local stresses for these materials.
5 MIN means that the smaller value from the right side of the equation is valid
6 Upper and lower bound values of the section factors arc the plastic notch factor and 1,00
1.3 Design parameters
32
I Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Aluminum alloys
For ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A ~ 12,5 (Yo) the section factors arc to be determined from Eq (1.3.9) *7
1.3.3 Weld factor a.w
The weld factor aw accounts for the effect of a weld. It applies to the throat section of welded components only, Tab. 1.3.3 *8
Table 1.3.3 Weld factor aw "1 .
Type of RlIl:::; Rill >
.Joint Weld quality
stress 360 Ml'a 360 Mpa
full all Compression
penetration ·:·2
weld verified 1,0 1,0
or with Tension 1.0
back weld not
verified
partial all Co mp rcssion 0,95 0,80
penetration or 0,80
or fillet Tension
weld
all all Shear
welds
bull weld Tension 0,55 ,
,·3 0,55 <?I According to DIN 18800 part L Table 21 and Eq. (75).
¢2 For aluminum alloys (independent of Rm ) the values typed in in boldface should be applied for the time being.
¢3 Butt welds of sectional steel from St 37·2 or USt 37,2 with a product til ickness I > 16 mrn,
_ y_'·cw.·· ._ •• o~"m~ . _
7 Less ductile aluminum alloys (A < 12.5 %) and cast aluminum alloys are not considered here because the assessment of the static strength has to be carried out using local stresses for these materials,
8 For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.
1.4 Component strength
33
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.4 Component strength
1.4.2 Welded components
Contents
Page 33
1.4.0 General
1.4.1 Nonwelded components 1.4.2 Welded components
1.4.0 General
According to this chapter the nominal values of the component static strength are to be determined.
Nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished. They can be both rodshaped (lD) or shellshaped (2D).
1.4.1 Nonwelded components
The nominal values of the component static strength of rodshaped (lD) components for axial (tension or compression), for bending, for shear, and for torsional stress arc * I *2 *3
SSK.zd = fO' . Rm / KSK,zd , SSK,b = fO' . Rm / KSK,b , TsK,s = f~ . Rm I KSK,s,
TSK,t = f't' Rm/ KSK,t·
The nominal values of the component static strength of shellshaped (2D) components for normal stresses (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
(1.4.1)
SSK,x = fO' . Rm / KsK.,x , SSK.y = fO' . Rm / KSK,y , TSK = f,' Rnl/ KSK,s,
compression strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4, tensile strength, Chapter 1.2. 1,
design factor, Chapter 1.3.1,
shear strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4.
(1.4.2)
Rm SSK.zd ... r,
I The component static strength values arc different for normal stress and for shear stress, and moreover they arc different due to different section factors according to the type of stress.
2 Basically the tensile strength Rm is the reference value of static strength, even if in the case of a low Rp / Rm ratio the yield strength should to be used for the assessment of the static strength, a fact that is accounted for in Chapter 1.5.5. however.
3 The tensi le static strength is the reference value for the bending static strength, too. The difference in static strength in bending compared to the static strength in tension or compression is accounted for by the design factor. Torsional static strength in analogy.
For welded components the strength values are generally to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section.
For the toe section the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.
For the throat section of rodshaped (ID) welded components the nominal values of the component static strength for axial (tension or compression), for bending, for shear, and for torsional stress are
SSK,zd = fer . Rm / KSK,zd ' SSK,b = fO' . Rm / KSK,b , T SK.,s = f, . Rm / KSK,s ,
TSK,t = ft . Rill / KSK.t .
For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the nominal values of the component static strength for axial (tension or compression) stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
(1.4.4)
SSK,x = fO' . Rm I KSK,x , SSK,y = fO' . Rm I KSK,y , TSK = f,' Rm/ KSK,s,
( 1.4.5)
r,
Rnl KSK,zd, ... r,
compression strength factor. Chapter 1.2.4, tensile strength, Chapter 1. 2. 1,
design factor, Chapter 1.3.1.
shear strength factor, Chapter 1.2.4.
1.5 Safety factors
34
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.5 Safety factors
IRIS EN. doC!
Contents
Page
1.5.0 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3 1.5.4 1.5.5
General Steel
Cast iron materials Wrought aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys Total safety factor
1.5.0 General
According to this chapter the safety factors arc to be determined.
The safely factors arc valid under the condition that the design loads arc reliably determined on the safe side and that the material properties correspond to an average probability of survival of Po = 97,5 1% * I .
The safety factors may be reduced under favorable conditions, that is depending on the probability of occurrence of the characteristic stress values in question and depending on the consequences of failure.
The safety factors arc valid for both nonwelded and welded components.
The safety factors given in the following arc valid for ductile materials. In this respect any types of steel arc ductile materials, as well as cast iron materials and wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation As ~ 12,5 %. *2,
1.5.1 Steel
Safety factors that generally apply to the tensile strength and to the yield strength, to the creep strength and to the creep limit are given in Table 1.5.1.
1.5.2 Cast iron materials
Cast Iron materials with an elongation As ;:: 12,5 % are considered as ductile, in particular all types ofGS and some types ofGGG, see Table 5.1.12.
Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in Table 1.5.2. Compared to Table 1.5.1 they are higher because of an additional partial safety factor jF that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings. The factor is different for castings that have been subject to nondestructive testing or have not ,,3.
I Statistical confidence S 50 %.
Table 1.5.1 Safety factors jm and .ip for steel (not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys (As> P 5 %)
34
,
jm '" I Consequences of failure
jp <"2 severe moderate
Jmt .,.3
·>5
.lpt <>4
high 2,0 1,75
1,5 1,3
Probability of 1.5 1,3
occurrence of 1,0 I,D
the characteristic. low 1,8 1,6
service stress <>6 1,35 1,2
values 1.35 1,2
1,0 1.0 35
? 1 referring to the tensile strength Rm or to the strength at elevated temperature RmT ,
<> 2 referring to the yield strength Rp or to the hot yield strength Rp.T • c 3 referring to the creep strength Rm, Tt ,
:4 referring to the creep limit Rp, Tt .
:5 moderate consequences of failure of a less important component in
the sense of "no catastrophic effects" being associated WiOI a failure; for example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statically undeterminate system, Reduction by approximately 15 %.
v6 or only infrequent occurrences of the characteristic service stress values. for example stresses due 10 an application of proof loads or due to .!.?~ds during an assembling operation, Reduction by approximately 10%.
1.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are the same as given for steel in Table 1.5.1. in particular all types of wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation As ~ 12,5 %, see Table 5.1.22 to 5. 1.30 ·2
1.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys are nonductile materials for which there is no need of giving safety factors here '2.
2 All types of GT. GG and cast aluminum alloys have elongations A, < 12,5 % and arc considered as nonductile materials. Wrought aluminum alloys with elongations A, < 12.5 % arc considered as nOI1 ductile materials, too. For nonductile materials the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out with local stresses according to Chapter 3.
3 In mechanical engineering cast components arc of standard quality for which a further reduction of the partial safety factor to jF = I,D does not seem possible up to now.
A safety factor jF = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast components have to meet special demands and checks on qualification of the production process. as well as on the quality and extent of product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their mechanical properties.
1.5 Safety factors
35
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Table 1.5.2 Safety factors Jm and Jp for ductile cast iron materials (GS; GGG with As ?:: 12,5 %) <>1
Jm Consequences of failure
Jp severe moderate
Jmt
.lpt
castings not subject to nondestructive testing <>2
high 2,8 2,45
2,1 1,8
Probability of 2,1 /,8
occurrence 1,4 1,4
of the characteristic low 2,55 2.2
stress 1,9 1,65
1,9 1,65
1,4 1,4
castings subject to nondestructive testina <>3
high 2,5 2,2
1,9 1,65
Probability of 1,9 1,65
occurrence 1,25 1,25
of the characteristic low 2,25 2,0
stress 1,7 1,5
1,7 /,5
1,25 1,25 v 1 Explanatory notes for the safety factors see Table 1.5.1.
<>2 Compared to Table 1.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jr = 1,4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects in castings.
<>3 Compared to Table 1.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jr = 1,25 is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality of the castings
is obviously guaranteed when testing. ,.~ _
1.5.5 Total safety factor
From the individual safety factors the total safety factor jges is to be derived *4:
safety factors, Table 1.5.1 and 1.5.2, temperature factors, Chapter 1.2.5 *5
Simplifications
The following simplifications apply to Eq. (1.5.4) :
In the case of normal temperature the third and fourth term have no relevance *6, and moreover there is KT,m = KT,p = 1 ,
for Rp / Rnl:S:; 0,75 the first term has no relevance, for Rp / Rm > 0,75 the second term has no relevance *7.
4 rvlA.X means that the maximum value of the four terms in the parenthetical expression is valid.
5 Applicable to the tensile strength Rm or the yield strength Rp to allow for the tensile strength at elevated temperature Rm T ' the creep strength Rm,Tt , the hot yield strength Rp,T' or the' creep limit Rp,Tt , respectively.
6 The terms containing the factors K Tt,m and K Tt,p must not be applied in the case of normal temperature, as they will produce misleading results.
7 If there is a ratio of the safety factors jp I jm = 0,75.
1.6 Assessment
36
1 Assessment of the static strength Llsing nominal stresses
1.6 Assessment
Contents
Page
1.6.0 1.6.1 1.6.1.1 1.6.1.2
1.6.2 1.6.2.1 1.6.2.2
General
Rodshaped (l D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress
Shellshaped (2D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress
1.6.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
In general the assessments for the individual types of stress and for the combined types of stress arc to be carried out separately * I *2
In general the assessments for the extreme maximum and the extreme minimum stresses (axial stresses in tension or compression and/or bending stresses in tension or compression) arc to be carried out separately. For steel or wrought aluminum alloys and a symmetrical crosssection the highest absolute value is relevant *3
The calculation applies to both nonwelded and welded components. For welded components assessments are generally to be carried out separately for the toe section and for the throat section as indicated in the following.
Degree of utilization
The assessments arc to be carried out by determining the degrees of utilization of the component static strength. In the context of the present Chapter the degree of utilization is the quotient of characteristic service stress (extreme stress Smax,e,.zd .... ) divided by the allowable static stress at the reference point *4 The allowable static stress is the quotient of the nominal component static strength, SSK,zd .... , divided by the total safety factor jgcs . The degree of utilization is always a positive value.
I It is a genernl principle for an assessment of the static strength to suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum) values at the same time.
2 This is in order to examine the degrees of utilization of the individual types ofstress in general, and in particular if they may occur separately.
3 Not so for cast iron materials or cast aluminium alloys with different static tension and compression strength values or for an unsymmetrical crosssection.
4 The reference point is the critical point olthc cross section that observes the highest degree of utilization.
36
Superposition
For stress components of the same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter 1.1.
37
If different types of stress like axial stress, bending stress ... *5 are to be considered and if the resulting state of stress is multiaxial, see Figure 0.0.9 *6, the particular extreme maximum stresses and the extreme minimum stresses arc to be overlaid as indicated in the following.
38
39
Kinds of component
Rodshaped (JD) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished. They can be both nonwelded or welded,
1.6.1 Rodshaped (ID) components 1.6.1.1 Individual types of stress Rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components
The degrees of utilization of rodshaped nonwelded components for the different types of stress like axial, bending, shear or torsional stress arc
Smax.ex,zd < I
aSK.zd'" ,
SSK,zd / jgcs ~
(1.6.1)
Smax,cx.b
aSK,b = . s: 1,
SSK.b / Jges
Tmax,cx.s < I
aSK,s'"  ,
TSK,s / jgcs
Smax.ex,zd ... extreme maximum stresses according to type of stress; the extreme minimum stresses, Slllin,cx,I.d .... arc to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses, Chapter I. I. I. L
related component static strength, Chapter 1.4.1,
SSKzd ...
Jgcs
total safety factor. Chapter 1.5.5.
5 Bending stresses in two planes, Sb.z and Sb, v, arc different types of stress, also shear stresses in two pi anes, T s.z and 1,,), .
6 Only in the case of stresses acting simultaneously the character of Eq. (1.6.4) and (1.6.12) is that of' a strength hypothesis lfEq, (1.6.4) and (1.612) are applied in other cases, they have the character or an empirical interaction formula only. For example the extreme stresses from bending and shear will  as a nile ~ occur at different points of the crosssection. so that different reference points Ware to be considered. A~ a rule bending will be more important. Moreover see Footnote I.
1.6 Assessment
37
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In general axial stresses (tension and compression) and bending stresses (tension and compression) arc to be considered separately. For shear and torsion the highest absolute value of shear stress is relevant.
Rodshaped (lD) welded components
For the toe section of rodshaped (ID) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components.
For the throat section of rodshaped (lD) welded components the degrees of utilization for an axial, bending, shear andlor torsional type of loading follow from the equivalent nominal stresses, Chapter 1.1. I. I:
aSK.wv.zd = S max, ex, wv .zd :::; 1, ( 1.6.2)
SSK,zd I jges
aSK,wv,b = Smax,ex.wv,b S; I,
SSK,b I jges
aSK,wv" = Tmaxl ex, \VV .s S; 1,
TSK,s I jges
aSK,wv,t = Tmax,ex,wv,t S; 1,
TSK,t / jgcs Smax,cx,wv.zd, ... extreme maximum stresses (equivalent nominal stresses); the extreme minimum stresses, Smin,cx,\V\',zd ... , are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses, Chapter 1. L 1.1,
related component static strength, values, Chapter] .4.2,
SSK,zd ...
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In general axial stresses (tension and compression) and bending stresses (tension and compression) are to be considered separately. For shear and torsion the highest absolute value of shear stress is relevant.
1.6.1.2 Combined types of stress Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components
For rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stresses is *7
7 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a combination ofthe normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. Mise, criterion (GlI). Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is controlled by a parameter q as a [unction of j~ according to Eq, (1.6.7) and Table 1.6.1. For steel is q ~ 0 so that only the v. Miscs criterion is of effect. For GGG is q ~ 0,264 so that both the normal stress criterion and the v. Mixes criterion arc of partial influence.
(1.6.4)
aSK.Sv = q . aNI! + (J  q) . am! S; 1, where *8
aNH=±{lsl+Js2 +~),
( 1.6.5)
( 1.6.6)
t = aSK.s + aSK.! '
aSK.zd, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (L6.l). and
q
J3 ~ (11 f ~ ) *9 J3 ~ 1
(1.6.7)
f, shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (axial and bending, or shear and torsion. respectively) always act unidirectionally at the reference point * to, the degrees of utilization aSK.zd and aSK,b andlor aSK,s and aSK,t are to be inserted into Eq. (I ,6,6) with equal (positive) signs (summation); then the result will be on the safe side. If they act always opposingly, however. * II, they are to be inserted into Eq, (1.6.6) with different signs (subtraction) * 12
8 In the tile case of assessing the static strength the degrees of utilization aSK,zd and aSK,b arc defined by the static component strength values SSK,zd and SSK,b . Contained in til esc arc the section factors for tension or compression, npl,zd . and lor bending, npl,b . aSK,zd and aSK,b arc overlaid linearly when computing the value s. For shear and torsion ill analogy. Compared to a more precise solution this procedure is on the safe side.
9 Table 1.6.1 Constant q(I;).
Steel, GGG I GT, GG
.~_ ~:::;!:_~~~,,
_.L,. __ . __ 0,577_ ... _+Q&L ... t __ ~_ ... 1 ..
q 0,00 i 0,264 I. I
Caution: Here only ductile wrought aluminium alloys arc considered (elongation A > 12,5 %). For nonductile wrought aluminium alloys (as well as for cast aluminium alloys, and for GT or GG) the assessment of
the :,t"tic Strl'11b>th is to .~.,:,.~~icd o~;J_~~~rdillg_t"C_lJart,,r3 ..... __ _
to For example a tension stress [rom axial loading and a tension stress Irorn bending acting at the reference point where both result Iro111 the same Single external load affecting the component.
II For example a tension stress [rom axial loading and a compression stress hom bending acting at the reference point, where both result from the same single external load affecting the component.
12 Stress components acting opposingly may caned each other in part or completely.
1.6 Assessment
38
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
In the general case  without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly * 13  the degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.6) both with equal or with different signs; then the least favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with Smm.<.,.zd , Srnm.<.x.b ' Tm1!l.cx., and Tmm.,x" are to be included in this comparative evaluation.
Rodshaped (lD) welded components
For the toe section of rodshaped (lD) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for rodshaped (l D) nonwelded components.
F or the throat section of rodshaped (1 D) welded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stresses (or loadings) is * 14
aSK.Swl' =
( 1.6.8)
2 2
(aSK,wv,zd +aSK,wv,b) +(aSK,\\'\',s +aSK.wv,t)
aSK,wv,zd, ... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.2),
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress (tension or compression and bending, or shear and torsion, respectively) always act unidirectionally at the reference point ·10, the degrees of utilization aSK,wv,zd and aSK,wv,b and/or aSK,IVv,s and aSK,wv.t are to be inserted into Eq, (1.6.8) with equal (positive) signs (summation); then the result will be on the safe side. If they act always opposingly however, 'II. they arc to be inserted into Eq. (1.6,8) with different signs (subtraction) 12.
In the general case  without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly '13  the degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (1.6,8) both with equal or with different signs; then the least favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with
Slnin,cx+\o,'y,zd ~ Srnin.c:\, ...... v.b , Trnin.e;;, ...... v.s and T,ni.n>c~I\VV,t arc to be
included in this comparative evaluation,
j 3 For example. iftwo loadings vary with time in a different manner.
14 Eq. (1.6,8) docs not agree with the structure ofEq. (1.1.2) on page 20 in all respects. It is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution.
1.6.2 Shellshaped (2D) components
1.6.2.1 Individual types of stress Shcllshal)cd (2D) nonwelded components
The degrees of utilization of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for the types of stress like normal stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are
Smax,ex,x 1
aSK.x:= .:::; ,
SSK,x I Jges
(1.0.9)
S'tlax,cx.x ... extreme maximum stresses according to type of stress; the extreme minimum stresses, Smin,cx,x .. , , arc to be considered in the same way as the extreme maximum stresses, Chapter L L 1.2,
related component static strength, Chapter 1.4.1,
SSK,x ...
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or zero), In general tension and compression stresses are to be considered separately. For shear stress the highest absolute value is relevant.
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For the toe section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components.
For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the degrees of utilization for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress follow from the equivalent nominal stresses, Chapter 1.1.1.2:
aSK' = Smax,ex,wv,x :::; I
, .wv.x S' /. ,
SK,x Jgcs
(1.6,10)
a, ' =ISmax, ex .wv.y I < I
(SK IVV v  ,
", SSK,y I jges
Tlllax.cx,wv
aSK,wv,s = :::; I,
TSK,s / jges
Smaxp;,wv,x." extreme maximum stresses (equivalent nominal stresses); the extreme minimum stresses, Smin,cx,wv,x'" , are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses, Chapter 1.1.1. L
1.6 Assessment
39
I Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
5s1\.." ...
related component static strength, Chapter 1.42,
total safety factor, Chapter 1.5.5.
All extreme stresses may be positive or negative (or zero). In general tension and compression stresses arc to be considered separately. For shear stress the highest absolute value is relevant.
1.6.2.2 Combined types of stress Shellshaped (20) nonwelded components
The degree of utilization of shellshaped (20) nonwelded components for combined stresses is '7
aSK.Sv'" q . aNI! + (I  g). <lUllS: L where
aNH=±{lsx +Syl+J(Sx _S~)2 +4·t2 J. (1.6.13)
( 1.6.12)
a(tH=Js~ +s~ sx ,s)' +t2. sx'" aSK,;.: .
(1.6.14)
aSK;.: .... degree of utilization, Eq. (1.6.9),
and
g
J3(lIft) *" J31
(1.6.15)
ft shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act unidirectionally at the reference point * 15, the degrees of utilization aSK,x and aSK,v arc to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.14) with equal (positive) signs (summation). If they always act opposingly, however * 16, the degrees of utilization aSK,x and aSK,y arc to be inserted into Eq. (1.6.14) with different signs.
In the general case  without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly * 13  the degrees of utilization arc to be inserted into Eq. (l.6.14) both with equal or with different signs; then the least favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with Smlll.ex.x , S'II!!I.<x.y and TIlIIII.ex.·, arc to be included in this comparative "valuation,
15 For example tension It) direction" and tension in direction y from a single loading affecting the component.
16 For example tension in direction x and compression in direction y troll) a singk loading affecting the component.
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For the toe section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components.
For the throat section of shellshaped (2D) welded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stress (or loadings) is '],1
2 2 2
aSK,Sw\' = aSK.wv,x +aSK,wv.y ·'·aSK,w\"s
(1.6.16)
aSK.w\',~, ... degree of utilization, Eq, (1.6, 10).
40
1.6 Assessment
I Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
2.1 Characteristic service stresses
41
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses 11m EN.dog
2.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
2.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum
Contents
Page
2.1.0
General
2.1.1 Characteristic service stresses
according to the kind of component 2.1.1.0 General
2. I. 1.1 Rodshaped (lD) components
2.1.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components 42
2. 1.2 Parameters of the service stress spectrum
2.1.2.0 General
2. I .2.1 Mean stress spectrum 2.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum
2.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the component constant amplitude SN curve
2.1.4 Determination of the parameters
of a service stress spectrum 2.1.4.0 General
2.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum 2.1.4.2 Class of utilization
2.1.4.3 Damageequivalent stress amplitude
2.1.0 General
According to this chapter the parameters of the service stress spectra are to be determined. Spectra arc applicable for N > 104 cycles approximately.
Relevant arc the stress spectra of the individual stress components. They are specified by a number of steps, i = I to j , giving the amplitudes Sa,zd,i, ... and the related mean values Sm,zd,i , ... of stress cycles, Figure 2.1.1, as well as the related numbers of cycles n, according to the required fatigue life *1
Figure 2.1.1 Stress cycle Example:
stress cycle (axial stress), stress ratio:
S.,zd,l
S d.i S d.i
R . ~ rn,z ,I  a,z ,r
zd.i Srn,zd,i + Sa,zd,i .
A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum, consisting of one step i = j = I only. For axial stress there is Sa,zd = S",zd,i = Sa.zd.l, Sm,zd = Srn.zd,i '" Sm,zd, I .
41
Superposition
Proportional or synchronous stresses
If several proportional or synchronous stress components act simultaneously at the reference point, Chapter 0.3.5, they arc to be overlaid. For the same type of stress (for example unidirectional axial stresses Sa,zd, I, Sm,zd, I and Sa,zd.2, Srn,zd,2 , ... ) the superposi tion is to be carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single stress component (Sa,zd, Srn,zd, ... ) exists for each type of stress *2 For different types of stress (for example bending and torsional stress or axial stresses in x and ydirection) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage, Chapter 2.6.
43
Nonproportional stresses
If several nonproportional stress components act simultaneously at the reference point, Chapter (U.S, they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5.10.
44 45
2.1.1 Characteristic service stresses according to the kind of component
2.1.1.0 General
Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished. They may be both nonwelded or welded.
2.1.1.1 Rodshaped (lD) components Rodshaped (Ill) nonwelded components
For rodshaped (l D) nonwelded components an axial stress Szd, a bending stress Sb , a shear stress Ts, and a torsional stress T, arc to be considered *} . The respective amplitudes and mean values arc
Sa,zd,i , Sa.b,i , Ta,s,i ' Ta,t.i, Sm,zd,i, Sm,b,i, TIll,s,i, Tm,t,i.
(2.1.1)
1 As a rule a stress spectrum is to be determined lor normal service conditions, see footnote 3 on page 19. The largest amplitude Sa zd I of a service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value Sm zd"1 'define the step i ~ 1 and serve as the characteristic stress values. ,.,
o
. Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other in part or
completely.
2.1 Characteristic service stresses
42
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
Rodshaped (1 D) welded components
For rodshaped (lD) welded components the (nominal) stress values arc in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section *.1. Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. (2.1.1).
2.1. 1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components
For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components the (nominal) axial stresses in x and ydirection, Szdx = Sx and Szdv '" Sv, as well as a shear stress Ts '" T are to be considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean values are
Sa,x.i, , Sa,y.i ,T a.i ' Sm.x,i" Sm,y,i, Tm.i
(2.1.4)
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6, stress values are in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section '4 Respective amplitudes and mean values see Eq. (2.1.4).
2.1.2 Parameters of the stress spectrum 2.1.2.0 General
A stress spectrum describes the stress cycles contained in the stress history of concern *5 •
If the stress cycles show variable amplitudes a stress spectrum is to be determined for every stress component *6 The constant amplitude stress spectrum may be regarded in the following as a special case ·7 • for which i = 1 and
Sa,zd '" Sa,zd,i '" Sa,zd.l , N '" N "" ni = III
(2.1.8)
J Where appropriate bending and shear stresses in two planes arc to be considered (component, Y and z), see Chapter 0.3.4.1 .
,1 For welded components separate assessments of the fatigue strength for both the toe section and the throat section of the weld arc to be carried out. Both assessments arc of the same kind, but in general the respective stresses and fatigue classes FAT are different.
5 In the following all variables a.nd equations arc presented lor the axial stress component Szd only, but written with the appropriate indices they arc valid for all other types of stress as wcll.,
(, In this case an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be carried out.
Parameters of the stress spectrum are:
(2. L9)
characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the stress spectrum. equal to the amplitude ill step 1 amplitude in step i.
Sa.zd,i > 0, S",ld,i+ I I Sa.zd,i s: 1.
S .. j. mean value in step i, ___!!LZ( ,I
N total number of cycles corresponding to the required fatigue life
(required total number of cycles), N '" Ini (summed up for I to j). related number of cycles in step i,
N, '" Ini (summed up for 1 to i),
total number of cycles of a given spectrum, ~ 8
H = Hj '" [hi (summed up for I to j) * ,
related number of cycles in step L
Hi = Ihi (summed up for 1 to i),
step, i = 1 toj,
total number of steps, step for the smallest amplitudes
damage potential.
H
J
Vzd
The damage potential is defined by *5 *9,
. [ J ko
k .:!, hi Sa,zd.i
vzd '" 0".(.... =. _
i=l H Sa,zd,l
(2.1.10)
where k, is the exponent of the component SN curve. Sa.zd,i I Sa,zd.! and hi IH describe the shape of the stress spectrum. The amplitudes Sa,zd,! are always positive, the mean values Sm,zd.i may be positive, negative, or zero.
As a rule a restriction to the following kinds of stress spectra is possible: Mean stress spectra and stress ratio spectra (with the fluctuating stress spectra as a special case), Figure 2.1.2 * 10.
7 In this case an assessment of the fatigue limit is to be carried out fur type I SN curves if N ~ N 2 NO 0" or an assessment of the endurance
. ,
limit for type 11 SN curves if N ~ N 2 ND,a, II ,respectively, or an
assessment for finite life based on tile constant amplitude SN curve (formally similar to an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength) if N = N < ND.cr or N = N 2 ND,(1, l! for Typ I or Typ II SN curves. respectively. N]),a or N]),(1,!l is the number of cycles at the fatigue limit of the component constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
8  ~
The values N  total number of cycles required  and H 'lotallllllnl2.£[
ofcyclcL2fa given spectrum  are different in general. The terms rli IN and hi I II are equivalent.
9 The damage potential is a value characterising Ole shape of a stress spectrum. The values ka ~ 5 for normal stress and k, ~ 8 lor shear stress are valid for nonwelded components. The values ko 3 and k, cO" 8 arc valid for welded components,
The term hi I H may be replaced by l1i ! N .
lOA mean stress spectrum. for example, results from a static load with dynamic loads superimposed. a fluctuating stress spectrum, for example, results for a crane hook when lifting variable ioads.
2.1 Characteristic service stresses
43
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
IN
 6
Smitl,zd _ H := 10
~'1 'I
Smin,ul = 0
Figure 2.1.2 Stress spectra
Top: Mean stress spectrum. Midle: Stress ratio spectrum. Bottom:
Fluctuating stress spectrum. Example: The presented stress spectra are standard type stress spectra, basically defined by a binomial frequency distribution, a coefficient p ~ 1/3, a total number ofcyclesH ~ J06, and
extrapolated to the required tOlal_number_o_f~c)._·c_le_s N_. _
2.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum
A constant mean stress applies to all steps of a mean stress spectrum:
Sm,zd,i = Sm,zd.
(2.1.11)
2.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum
A constant stress ratio applies to all steps of a stress ratio spectrum:
Rzd.i = Rzd, where
(2.1.12)
(2.1.13)
or
Sm,zd,i I Sa,zd,i = (l + ~d) I (l  IZ,.d)·
(2.1.14)
Special case: Fluctuating stress spectrum
A constant stress ratio of zero applies to all steps of a fluctuating stress spectrum:
Rzd,i =~d = 0,
(2. U5)
or
Sm.zd,; I Sa,zd,i = L
(2.1.16)
2.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the component constant amplitude SNcurve
This chapter mainly applies to stress spectra, the steps of which do not have the same stress ratio * 11.
A mean stress spectrum, for example, has different amplitudes Sa,zd,i ' and constant mean stress values Sm,zd,i := Sm,zd ' and consequently the individual steps have different stress ratios Rzd,i . On the other hand the component constant amplitude S·N curve, Chapter 4.4.3.2, is derived for a constant stress ratio Rzd . To allow the proper application of Miner's rule, Chapter 4.4.3.1, all steps of a spectrum, however, must have or must be converted to that stress ratio Rzd,i = Rzd , Chapter 5.6. L
2.1.4 Determination of the parameters of a stress spectrum
2.1.4.0 General
If the stress spectrum of a component under consideration is not known, or in case of high demands on its accuracy, the parameters of the stress spectrum are to be determined by calculation, by simulation, or by measurement. The determination of the stress spectrum from a stress history has to be realized according to the rainflow cycle counting procedure or in the sense of this procedure.
From a measured and graphically presented continuous stress spectrum a stepped stress spectrum may be obtained according to Chapter 5.6.2.
In case of existing experiences  depending on the component and its application· the determination of the parameters of a stress spectrum may be simplified by applying a standard stress spectrum, a class of utilization, or a damageequivalent stress amplitude.
II Applies to a mean stress spectrum, for instance, but not for a stress ratio spectrum or a fl uctuating stress spectrum.
2.1 Characteristic service stresses
2.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum
Standard stress spectra are used to describe the shape of typical stress spectra. Standard stress spectra having a binomial or an exponential frequency distribution that may be modified by the spectrum parameter p , are presented in Figure 2.1.3. In addition, damage potentials \"zd according to Eq. (2.1.10) and Figure 2.1.1 are given in the graphical presentations. (These apply (0 an exponent of the component constant amplitude SN curve k., '" 5 and a total Humber of cvcles H = 106 ).
Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
S;l,zd,l characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step I
N required total number of cycles,
VzJ or Sa,zd,i / Sa,zd, 1 and hi. i = I to j, according to the shape
of the standard stress spectrum
Sm,zd,i mean values, i = 1 to j.
Table 2.1.1 Damage potentials Vzd and v, for standard stress spectra having a binomial or exponential frequency distribution, modified by the spectrum parameter p, a total number of cycles H = 106 , for nonwelded and welded components, for normal stress and shear stress (exponents of the constant amplitude SN curve k" and k, ).
nonwelded welded
p binom. ! expon. i binom. expon.
!
Vzd normal stress
 "" .. ___ ' __ '0 ~g_=_1_ _ k, = 3
0 0,326 0,196 0.267 0,155
Jl6 OAOO 0.297 0,366 0,286
1/3 0,499 0,430 0,483 0,426
112 0,615 0,570 0,608 0,569
2/3 0,739 0.713 0,737 0,712
5/6 0,868 0,856 0,868 0,856
1 1 I 1 I
v, shear stress
_ .. _,_. __ .... _  ~"~_§_ ....   ~L':'..2_  , ... ~~.
0 0,399 0275 0.326 0,196
1/6 0,452 0,330 0,400 0.297
113 0,527 0,438 0,499 0,430
I12 0,627 0,573 0,615 0,570
2/3 0,743 0.713 0,739 0,713
5/6 0,869 0,856 0,868 0,856
1 I I I 1 44
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
1
2
P 2/3
vzd = 1
0,5 0,739
0,499 ~ 0,326
113
o
~.~~r~~40
!O5 106
Hi (Ig)
Step i s., / Sa I hi Hi
P 0 1/3 2/3
1 1 I 1 2 2
2 0,950 0,967 0,983 16 18
3 0,850 0,900 0,950 280 298
4 0.725 0,817 0,908 2720 3018
5 0,575 0,717 0,858 20000 23000
6 0,425 0,617 0,808 92000 115000
7 0,275 0,517 0,758 280000 395000
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 604982 1000000 1
1,0
S
a,zd,l
Ss,zd,l
P 2/3
0,5
vzd = 1 0,713 0,430 0,196
o
10° 1 0 I lO2 I 03 104
~''~r~~O 105 106 Hi (lg)
StCQ_i Sa· / S_il, hi Hi
P ° 113 2/3
I 1 1 1 2 2
2 0,875 0,9]7 0,958 10 12
3 0,750 0,833 0,917 64 76
4 0,625 0,750 0,875 340 416
5 0,500 0,667 0,833 2000 2400
6 0,375 0,583 0,792 11000 13400
7 0,250 0,500 0,750 61600 75000
8 0,125 0,417 0,708 924984 1000000 Figure 2.1.3 Standard stress spectra.
Top: Binomial distribution. Bottom: Exponential distribution (Straight line distribution). Spectrum parameter fl, total number of cycles H ~ HJ '" z: hi" lOG, number of steps j ~ 8 . damage potential Vzd lor an .:'::,p~ncnt ko "' 5 Orl~e~S'~~pone!lt C(~~t~ll~amplittJ<J"S_~.c_L_lr"Vc. _ ...
2.1 Characteristic service stresses
45
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
Analytical relationship.For standard stress spectra with spectrum parameters p > 0 (p = I16, 1/3, I12, 2/3. 5/6) there is
( ~a.zd.i J
S".zd,1 p
= p + (Ip) .[~a'Zd.iJ
S'l,zd,1 p=o
(2.1.17)
Application: In case of existing experiences about the shape of the stress spectrum a suitable standard stress spectrum may be applied to assess the variable amplitude fatigue strength in two ways:
Application of the damage potential Yzd Eq. (2.1.10) for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the elementary version of Miner's rule, Chapter 2.4.3.1.
Application of the data on S",zd,i I Sa,zd, I and hi of the steps i "" I to j from Figure 2.13 for an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength according to the consistent version of Miner's rule, Chapter 2.4.3.1.
The appropriate standard stress spectrum has to be specified separate from this guideline.
C f '1' . *12
2.1.4.2 lass 0 uti ization
A class of utilization is an approximately damageequivalent combination of different shapes of stress spectra and of specific figures of the required total numbers of cycles, Figure 2.1.4, see also Chapter 5.7.
S."d,; Sn,.d,1
p=1
~
I
J_
100
i 6,3 2 6) __ .L_~L_.J_,~L.J.J
106
N
Figure 2.1.4 Spectra corresponding to the same class of utilization.
Example: Welded component, stress spectra with binomial distribution. axial stress. All three stress spectra are approximately damageequivalent <lIl(I_"o,~",:r~J!.:'!_to the ','Ull':'_ eh':'~l)f~lili':"·ltio" 135. TabIc_5.7!
12 According to DIN 15 0 III.
Parameters of a so derived stress spectrum
B
characteristic (largest) stress amplitude of the stress spectrum, equal to the amplitude in step I class of utilization (a combination of the shape of the stress spectrum and of the required total number of cycles).
'I J
mean stress .
Analytical relationship: See Chapter 5.7.
Application: In case of existing experiences about the shape of stress spectrum and the required total number of cycles a class of utilization may be applied to assess the variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 2.4.3.1.
The class of utilization has to be specified separate from this guideline.
2.1.4.3 Damageequivalent stress amplitude
The damageequivalent stress amplitude is a constant stress amplitude with an assigned number of cycles equal to the number of cycles at the knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve, No.rr . It is damageequivalent to the stress spectrum in question, In particular it is defined by the shape of stress spectrum, the required total number of cycles, N, and the largest stress amplitude Sa.zd,[, Figure 2.1.5.
2. \.5
Nn,<l N N
Figure 2.1.5 Damageequivalent stress amplitude.
Component constant amplitude S·N curve. WL. number of cvclcs at the knee point Nn cr . component variable amplitude fatigue: life curve, LL. characteristic stre~s amplitude Sa.lod.], required total number of cvclcs N
Shown is the situation when ltd! usc is made of the fatigue strength capacity of the component (degree of utilization aBK,zd I DO '>"" Eq.2.6.3).
A, the damageequivalent stress amplitude Sa,zd,dY is assigned to "'I).a it allows an assessment of the variable amplitude j;ltigllc strength to be
46
2.1 Characteristic service stresses
2 Assessment of the fatigue str'cngth using nominal stresses
Parameters of the so derived stress spectrum
S".7.d.dT Damageequivalent stress amplitude (damageequivalent to a combination of the shape of the stress spectrum, the required total number of cycles and of the largest amplitude in the stress spectrum).
SIIVd Related mean value.
Analytical relationship: Based all the elementary version of Miner's rule (he damageequivalent stress amplitude is obtained as *1·\
I j
S d 'I' = k __ . Ln' ·ska
a.z .ct N 1 a.zd.i
D.a i~1
(2.1.18)
~ (N / N ) l/krr . \1 . S
~ D.« zd a.zd.L»
ka exponent of the component constant amplitude SN curve
Nn.a number of cycles at the knee point of tile
component constant amplitude SN curve j, i, Hi , ... see Eq. (2.1. 9),
Vzd damage potential, Eq. (2.U 0).
Application: In case of existing experiences about the damaging effect of the stress spectrum a damageequivalent stress amplitude S".zd.cff may be applied. It allows an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength to be performed as an assessment of the fatigue limit, Chapter 2.6.
The damageequivalent stress amplitude has to be specified separate from this guideline.
1 'I Eq. (2.1.18) is valid for a damage slim Dlo,l " 1 . see Chapter 2.4.3.1.
2.2 Material properties
47
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
2.2 Material properties * 1
IR22 EN.dog
Contents
Page
2.2.0 General
2.2.1 Component values according to standards 2.2.1.0 General
2.2.1.1 Nonwelded components 2.2.1.2 Welded components
2.2.2
Fatigue strength factors
for normal stress and for shear stress
2.2.3 2.2.3.0 2.2.3.1 2.2.3.2 2.2.3.3
Temperature factor General
Normal temperature Low temperature Elevated temperature
2.2.0 General
According to this chapter the material fatigue strength values (component values according to standards) arc to be determined. These arc the material fatigue limit for completely reversed normal stress, Cl"W,zd , and shear stress, I\V,s , as well as further characteristics *2
2.2.1 Component values according to standards
2.2.1.0 General
The determination of the material fatigue strength is different for nonwelded and for welded components.
2.2.1.1 Nonwelded components
For nonwelded components the values according to standards of the material fatigue strength for completely reversed normal stress and shear stress *3 and for a number of cycles N ::: No,O" = NO,1 = 106 are *·1
Cl"W,zd = fw,a Rm, tw,s'" fW,1' Cl"W,zd,
(2.2.1 )
I Chapters 2.2 and 4.2 are identical.
2 An influence of frequency on the material fatigue strength values is not considered up to nOW although it might be of importance for aluminum alloys.
3 For the tensile strength according to standards, Rrn , a probability of survival 1'0" 97,5 % is presumed. '[bat probability should also apply to the values CiW,zd and "tW,s computed from Rm . Moreover Eq, (1.2.1) applies here too:
<3W,zd ~ Kd,m . K;\ O"W,zd,N, (2.2.2)
~W,s .~ Kd,m . K;\ . "tW,s,N '
Kd,m technological size factor as for the tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.2.
K}\ anisotropy factor, Chapter 1.2.3,
<3\V,zd,N,' semifinished product fatigue strength value according to standards, Chapter 5. I .
47
f\v,O" fatigue strength factor for completely reversed normal stress, Chapter 2.2.2,
fW."t fatigue strength factor for completely reversed shear stress, Chapter 2.2.2,
Rm tensile strength, Chapter 1,2.1,1.
Caution: For nonwelded wrought and cast aluminum alloys the fatigue limit is different from the endurance limit associated with N::: Nn.e.n =ND,1,1I= 108 cycles,
48
2.2.1.2 Welded components
For the base material of welded components the material fatigue strength values for completely reversed stress arc the same as for nonwelded components.
Steel and cast iron materials
For the toe section and for the throat section of professionally welded components from weldable structural steel *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply independent of the kind of material. These are for completely reversed normal stress at N ::: ND,a = 5' 106 cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at N ::: No,t = 1 . lOS cyeles *6, Chapter 5.5,
Cl"W,Zd = Cl"w,w = 92 MPa, tW,5 = 1\V,W = 37 MPa.
Caution: For other kinds of material (stainless steel conditionally weldable steel, weldable cast iron material) these values are to be considered as provisional and arc to be applied with caution,
(2_2.3)
Aluminum alloys
For the toe section and for the throat section of professionally welded components from aluminum alloys *5 specific values of the fatigue strength apply in analogy to steel independent of the kind of material, These are for completely reversed normal stress at N::: ND,a = 5 . 106 cycles and for completely reversed shear stress at N ::: ND,t = 1 lO~ cycles *6, Chapter 5.5,
Cl"W,zd = Cl"w,w = 33 MPa, 'Cw,s = 'Cw,w = 13 MPa.
Caution: These values arc provisional and are to be applied wi th caution * 7
(2.2.4)
4 The values O"w.," and tw., correspond to the fatigue limit which is equal to the endurance limit of steel and cast iron material, but not of aluminum alloys, however, Figure 2.4.5 and Chapter 5.1.0.
S Weld imperfections occurring with normal production standards are allowable,
6 The values Ow.w and tww correspond to the fatigue limit which is equal 10 the endurance limit of welded steel and cast iron material as well as of welded aluminum alloys. Figure 2.4.6 and Chapter 5.1.0.
7 Values derived from an average relation of 0,36 ofthe FAT classes lor aluminum alloys and for structural steel, Chapter 5.4.
2.2 Material properties
48
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
2.2.2 Fatigue strength factors for normal stress and for shear stress
The fatigue strength factor for completely reversed normal stress, f\V,a ' is the quotient of the axial fatigue strength value for completely reversed stress divided by the tensile strength, Table 2.2.1.
The fatigue strength factor for shear stress, [w,t , considers that the material fatigue strength is lower fix shear stress than for normal stress, Table 2.2. I.
Table 2.2.1 Fatigue strength factors for completely reversed normal stress, f\v,G . and shear stress, fw" d.
Kind of material [\V,cr fW,t
Case hardening steel 0.40,·2 0,577 ~?2 <>3
Stainless steel 0,40 ,'4 0,577
Forging steel 0,40 ·>4 0,577
Steel other than these 0.45 0,577
GS 0,34 0.577
GGG 0,34 0,65
GT 0,30 0,75
GG 0,30 (J,SS
Wrought aluminum alloys 0,30 d 0,577
Cast aluminum alloys 0,30 ,,5 0,75 c I I\V,cr and fW, t arc valid fix a number of cycles N = 10'. tw, t equal to ft , Table 1.2.5.
·>2 Blankhardened. The influence of the carburization on the component fatigue strength is to by considered by the surface treatment factor, Kv, Chapter 2.3.4.
,:·3 0,577 = I IJ3, according to the v. Miscs criterion, Also valid for welded components .
.;·4 Preliminary values.
·,.5 i"W cr does not correspond to the endurance limit Jar N ,." eX' here!
___ •• ."",l"o,.'o".~_~._.~ ~~ __ ., •. C __ ""_.,,~,'c ~ .• __
2.2.3 Temperature factor 2.2.3.0 General
The temperature factors considers that the material fatigue strength for completely reversed stress decreases with increasing temperature.
Normal temperature, low temperature and elevated temperature are to be distinguished.
2.2.3.1 Normal temperature Normal temperatures arc as follows:
for fine grain structural steel from _40DC to 60°C, for other kinds of steel from 40°C to + 1 nODc, for cast iron materials from 25DC to + 100DC,
for agehardening aluminum alloys
from 2YC to SO°e,
for nonagehardening aluminum alloys from· 25DC to !OO°e.
For normal temperature the temperature factor is
Kr,D = I. (2.2.5)
2.2.3.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above arc outside the field of application of this guidcline.
2.2.3.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures  up to 500°C for steel and cast iron materials and up to 2000 C for aluminum materials  the influence of the temperature on the fatigue strength is to be considered. For elevated temperature the fatigue strength values for completely reversed normal stress and shear stress arc
O\V.zd,T = K T.D . crW.zd , TW,s.T = KT,D . ""[W.s '
(2.2,6)
KT,D temperature factor, Eq. (2.2.7) to (2.2.11),
crW,zd, ... material fatigue strength value for completely reversed normal stress, Chapter 2.2.1.1 and 2.2.1.2.
""[w,s,'" material fatigue strength value for completely reversed shear stress, Chapter 2.2.1. 1 and 2.2.1.2.
According to the temperature T the temperature factor KT,D is
for fine grain structural steel, T > 60°C:
Kr.D=I1O3·TloC, (2.2.7)
for other kinds of steel "7, T> 100°C, Figure 2.2.1:
KT,D = 1 1,4' 103. (T I °C~ 100), (2.2.8)
for GS, T> iooc
KT,D = 1 1,2' 103. (T I DC_ 100),
(2.2.9)
for GGG, GT and GG, T > 100°C, Figure 2.2.1:
Kr,D = 1 a'U) . (l0  3 . T I DC)2, (2.2. lO)
for aluminum alloys, T > 50oe:
KT,D = 1 1,2' 10 3. (T I "C ~ 50)2, Figure 1.2.3 in the Chapter 1.2,
(2.2.11)
aT,D Constant, Table 2.2.2.
Table 2.2.2 Constant aT.D *8.
Kind of material GGG GT GG
aT,D 1,6 1,3 1,0 8 For stainless steel values aT.D arc not known up 10 now.
2.2 Material properties
49
2 Assessment of thc fatigue strength using nominal stresses
High temperature strength Rm:r
High temperature yield strength RP.T
I % creep limit ~,TI
0, 3 !k+__',,+""'~h.,L._._j R p,Tt R p !
p:;' Rm ' ipt
Creep Strength Rm•Tt Rm.Tt ~'jrnt
o
0,1
o 100 200 300 400 500
2.2.1a
Tin'C
0,4 r.,.
High temperature strength Rm,T
Creep Strength R",.TI Rm,Tt ~jml
o
C'W.zd,T
0, 11==~:::::::::!:.::::h"._Ld~1,j
tJW,zd.T (JW,zd
o ] 00 200 300 400 500
U.l"
T in'C
Figure 2.2.1 Temperature dependent values of the static strength and of the fatigue strength, plotted for comparison.
Safety factors j according to Chapter 1.5 Or 2.5, respectively.
Rm.T! Rm '" KT,1ll ' Rm,TI! Rm ~ KTt.J1l '
Rm,T. Rp.T as well as Rm,Tt, Rp.Tt for ( = [Ol h. Fatigue strength value at elevated temperature : nW,zd,T / GW,zd ,0 Kr.D
Top: Nonalloyed structural steel, as in Figure 1.2.2, Rp / Rm ' Rc / R'll = 0,65, GW,zd! Rm ~ 0,45, jmc2,0. jp=jmt~ 1,5, jpt~ 1,0, jD= 1.5
Bottom: GG, as in Figure 3.2.2,
crW."'4!I~nL:::.~:}O, jill = 3,0, jmt ~ jD ~ 2,4.,._" """ _
Eq, (2.2.7) to (2.2.10) apply to stec! and cast iron materials from the indicated temperature T up to SOll°e. Eq. (2.2.11) applies to aluminum alloys up to 2000e
The values CJW,zd,T and 'tW,s,T are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the fatigue strength, as only the temperature factor KT,D is used.
For elevated temperature, and in particular when the mean stress Sm. :j: O , the fatigue strength in terms of the maximum stress may be higher than the static strength so that the assessment is governed by the static strength.
2.3 Design parameters
50
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
2.3 Design parameters
 ..  ..... ~~~~. ~
Contents
2.3.0 General
Page 50
2 .. 3 .. 1 2.3 .. 1..0 2 .. 3 .. Ll 2 .. 3 .. l..2
Design factors General
Nonwelded components Welded components
2 .. 3 .. 2 Fatigue notch factors
2 .. 3.2 .. 0 General
2..3 .. 2 .. 1
Fatigue notch factors computed from stress concentration factors Fatigue notch factors computed from experimental values Fatigue notch factors for superimposed notches
Roughness factor
Surface treatment and coating factors Constant KNL,E
Fatigue classes (FAT)
Thickness factor
2 .. 3.2.2
2 .. 3 .. 2 .. 3
2.3.4 2 .. 3 .. 5 2 .. 3 .. 6 2..3 .. 7
2.3.0 General
According to this chapter the design parameters are to be computed in terms of design factors ..
2.3.1 Design factors 2.3.1.0 Gencral
Nonwelded and welded components arc (0 be distinguished ..
2.3.1.1 Nonwelded components
Rodshaped (l D) and shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components arc to be distinguished.
The design factors of rodshaped components for axial, for bending, torsional stresses are * I .
(I D) nonwelded for shear and for (2 .. 3 .. 1)
KWKzd =[Kf'" j +~.~I .IJ
.. .zc KKK K
R.n v : S" NL.E
KWK,h=( KUl +~. ~1~~IJ .. I
l Kltn Kv .. KsKNL.E
KWK.s=( Kt:s +K1 IJ
l 1(1: Kv .. Ks
KWKt =[KI' + __ I_~IJ .. _
, .1 KKK
R,~ .. V" S
The design factors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are (2 .. 3 .. 2)
K\\IK x = [K j' . + _1 IJ 
" .x KKK K
R,cr .. V" S" NL.E
KWK . =[Kt" .. +_1. IJ
,} .. Y K
Iter
K v .. K s .. K NL. E
51
( I J
KWKs =lKt· +1
.... .s K
R.«
KCzd ......
fatigue notch factors. Chapter 2 .. 3 .. 2,
roughness factor, Chapter 2 .. 3..3, surface treatment factor, Chapter 2 .. 3..4. coating factor, Chapter 2 .. 3..4.
constant for GG, Chapter 2 .. 3 .. 5 ..
52
KR,cr ...... Kv
Ks KNL .. E
54
55 56
2.3.1.2 Welded components
For the base material of welded components the design factors arc to be computed as for nonwelded components ..
For the toe section and for the throat section of welded components the design factors are in general to be determined separately. since the crosssection values. the nominal stresses and the fatigue classes F AT may be different
Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) welded components are to be distinguished ..
Steel and cast iron material
The design factors of welded rodshaped (ID) components made of steel or of cast iron materials *2 for axial, for bending, for shear and for torsional stress are,
KWK,zd = 225 / (FAT" ft .. Kv KNL,E). KWK,b = KWK.zd '
KWKs = 145/ (FAT" ft" Ko ),
KWK,t = KWK,s ..
The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded components made of steel or of cast iron materials for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for
(2 .. 3..4)
shear stress are
1 The additive combination of the fatigue strength notch factor Kr:;;d .... with the reciprocal roughness factor KR,o, reduces the dIe',,! 'of roughness for components with sharp notched (Kf is larg~) in comparison to components with mild or no notches (Kf" 1).
2 To " major part the FAT values where derived with reference to the lIW recommendations and Eurocodc 3 (Ref /9/, iK') .. The design factors arc supposed. however, 10 be valid not only for weldable structural steel but also for other kind, of iron based materials (conditionally weldable steel. stainless steel. weldable cast iron materials) ..
2.3 Design parameters
51
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
KWKx = 225 J (FAT, ft' Kv KNL.E), KWKy = 2251 (FAT, ft Kv KNL,E), KWK,s = 145/ (FAT, ft . Kv ).
(2.3.5)
concentration factors, K, ' and from the K,Kr ratios. '5
ner( r) , !ler( d) , n,(r) , [l,( d) .
Aluminum alloys
The design factors of rodshaped (lD) welded components made of aluminum alloys *3 for axial, for bending, for shear and for torsional stress arc
KWK.zd = 81/ (FAT, fr . Kv' Ks), KWK,b = KWK,zd '
KWK.s = 52 / (FAT' ft' Kv' Ks).
KWK,t = KWK,s .
The design factors of shellshaped (2D) welded components made of aluminum alloys for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress arc
(2.3.6)
KWK.x'" 81 / (FAT ft' Kv' Ks ), K WK.y = 81 / (FAT' ft . K v . Ks ), KWK.s = 52! (FAT' f(),
(2.3.7)
FAT ft
Kv Ks KNL,E
fatigue class, Chapter 2.3.6, thickness factor, Chapter 2.3.7,
surface treatment factor, Chapter 2.3.4 *4, coating factor, Chapter 2.3.4,
constant for GG, Chapter 2.3.5.
The fatigue classes F AT arc in general different for normal stress in the direction x and in the direction y, as well as for shear stress.
2.3.2 Fatigue notch factors 2.3.2.0 General
The fatigue notch factors, Kf,zd , ... , allow for the influence on the fatigue strength resulting from the design (contour and size) of a nonwelded component. They are to be computed from stress concentration factors or. if these are not applicable or not known, from experimental values.
2.3.2.1 Fatigue notch factors computed from stress concentration factors
Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished.
The fatigue notch factors , Kf,zd , ... , for axial, for bending, for shear and for torsional stress of the rodshaped (I D) nonwelded structural details presented in Chapter 5.2 are to be computed from the stress
3 To some part the FAT values where derived with reference to the llW recommendations. Moreover the design factors arc supposed to be valid, however, for all weldable aluminum alloys, except for the aluminum alloys 5000, 6000 and 7000. Numerical values see Footnote 6 on page 47.
4 As a rule KV is not relevant for welded components, that is KV ~ 1.
K  Kt,zd
f,zd {) . ncr r
(2.3.10)
K
K  t.s
f,s n~(r) ,
The fatigue notch factors, K[x , .... for normal stress in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress of shellshaped (2D) components are
K =~
f.x ( ) ,
ncrx r
Kty
Kf ='
,y noy (r) ,
(2.3.11)
K
K  t.s [,5() , n~ r
Kt,zd ... stress concentration factor according to type of stress, Chapter 5.2,
ncr (r) ... K[Kr ratio of the component for normal stress or for shear stress as a function of r, ncr (d),.; K[Kr ratio of the component for normal stress or for shear stress as a function of d,
r d
notch radius at the reference point, diameter or width of the net notch section.
Caution: If Eq. (2.3.10) or (2.3.11) yield a fatigue notch factors K[,zd, ... < 1 the realistic value to be applied is "7,
Kf,zd'" ... = 1.
(2.3.12)
KcKr ratios for normal stress
The K,Kr ratios for normal stress, Ilcr (r) and Ilcr (d), Figure 2.3.1, are to be computed from the related stress
 
gradients Gcr (r) and Gcr (d) , Eq. (2.3.13) to (2.3.15).
ForGcr ;; 0,1 mm 1 there is
(2.3.13)
( "0 0,5+ ~rll) n =1+G mm TO l bO·lvlP"
cr cr ,
for 0,1 mm" 1 <G; ;; 1 mm" I there is
ncr = 1 +JGcr· mm '10 (ao +';G~~~~j)d ,
(2.3.14)
for 1 mm" 1 < Gcr ;; 100 mm" 1 there is
( R)
 ao + __ I_ll_~
'" 1 +#G rnm ·10 bO ·MPa
~ cr '
(2,3.15)
a 0, bo constants, Table 2,3.2.
2.3 Design parameters
52
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
3
2
1,4
IIIP I L/I/
J,2
1,1
V! 1/11/ Vi /1.
i'll/if /~~111O'"  ::::IT=
1 ,04 If l'! 1 / 11, ! ll~++j
[,02 ~~11j ~o~::~~ :
1,01 L_L_LJ__L_'__;__,L_J1..L':'
0,01 0,02 0,05 0,1 0,2 0,5 2 5 10
Gqin nunI Figure 2.3.1 K,Kr ratios Ilcr for normal stress.
2.3.1
The diagram may be extended up to Gcr [00 mm[
Indicated numerical values [10,65 to 1/0,95: Difference of the fatigue limit for completely reversed ~trt::ss in tensioncompression and in bending, valid felt the matcriul test specimen of the diameter dO , .. , 7,5 mill.
Not included ill the figure 2.3. 1:
Stainless steel, Threshold values j(l[Ga·" [ Illlll [ .
I;irgcst value: ne> J ,27 for Fm ~. 400 MPa and
smallest value: Ilcr l.J 4 for Rm·' 1070 Iv!!';;.
Wrought aluminum alloys: Threshold values forGe> I nun ) : largest value:!lcr ." 1,69 for Rill 95 !V!Pa and
smallest value: Ilcr I.J8 for RIJI 59() rvf!'a.
Last aluminum alloys: Threshold values .101': Go 1 nun ) :
largest value: no 2,()2 for Rm 130 Ml'a and
. smallest value: Ilcr I,SX for Rm 330 MP'L
Table 2.3.2 Constants ae; and be; .
Kind Stain Other GS GGG GT GG
of less kinds
mate steel of
rial steel
ac; I 0.40 0,50 0,25 0,05  0,05  0,05
be; 2400 270n 2000 3200 3200 3200 Wrought Alallo s
Cast Alallovs
0,05
 0,05
bc;
850
3200
For surface hardened components *8 (components with thermal or with chemothermal surface treatment) the K,Kr ratios are lower than for non surface hardened components *') *10
KjK, ratios for shear stress
The K,Kr ratios for shear stress, n, (r) lind 11, (d), are to
be computed from the related stress gradients G 1 (r) and Ge(d) according to Eq. (2.3.13) to (2.3.15), after having replaced ('5 by T and the tensile strength Rm by fW,l . Rm ' where fw,,, is the fatigue strength factor for shear stress, Table 2.2. I.
Related stress gradients
The related stress gradients a~a function of the notch radius r at the reference point, Go (r) and Ge (r), are to be determined from Table 2.3.3. The related stress gradients from bending and torsion as a function of the diameter or width d at the notch net section arc
(2.3.17)
2.3.2.2 Fatigue notch factors computed from experimental values
Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D) components arc to be distinguished.
The fatigue notch factor depends 011 the notch root radius rand moreover in the case of bending or torsion on the diameter or width d at the notch net section.
G Sec footnote 11.
7 Exception ill case of bending: If KCb! u, (r) <: 1 then K,";' no (r) I is
to he applied (without considering na(d»). Accordingly in case oftorsion .
8 Docs not apply to cold rolled or shot peened surfaces. See the summary of special features ofthe fatigue strength of surface hardened components, Chapter 5.8.
9 The Kt  Kf ratio for a crack originating in the hardened surface layer is Iowa because the tensile strcngth Rm ofthe hard surface layer is higher than the tensile strength Rm ofthe core material according to the material standard,
The Kt· Kf ratio for a crack orig!!pting i!.!.._lhe COIC rnateriul is lower because the related stresx gradient Gcr (or Cit ) in the core material has decreased from its maximum value at the surface.
I () The tensile strength of the surface layer llIily be estimated approximately as Rm (3,] HV) !vIP" . where BV is tJ,C Vickers hardness number. A.So this equation, however, was not specifically cstahlishcd for hardened surface layers. it is to be applied with caution. In particular the fatigue strength value vW,zd ofthe hardened surface layer must not he derived from that estimate of the tensile strength
(crW,zd " I\V,cr . Rm)
2.3 Design parameters
Table 2.2.3 Related stress gradients Go (r) and G 1: (r) for simple structural details d.
~ctural detail Go (r) ,·2·:·3 G,(r)'A
Mb~r 2 I
~·(I +(p) 
( ) r
.:\ 1D' 'd "7 r
l7.d 00 ";_., !'zd
Mb r • Mb 2.3 1,15
(~~ "~. (I + rp) 
r
\ . F r
Fzd .tt / zd
Mb~Mb 2 
.:"( B  b ):; _.(1 +[p)
r
Fzd 0 Fzd ,»
t
Mb~Mb 2.3 
"_·(l+(p)
:nB'b }7 r
Fzd. . I zd ,,·5
t
Mb Mb 2,3 
(.!~r0rl' 
r
Fzd '. 1 . / Fzd
Round specimen or flat ,·5
member "I r > 0. The equations arc valid for round members, approximately they apply to round members with a central borehole too.
>2 'P (J lor tid> 0,25 or tib>O,25. (P~lj(4'M+2) lor lId'<;O.25 or tib:£O,25.
.,.3 The related stress gradient Gcr (r) applies to axial stress and to bending stress; nevertheless there is a difference for bending because or the KtKrratio ncr(d) additionally contained in Eq, (2.3.10) and (2.3,18).
<4 The related stress gradient G~(r) applies to shear stress and to torsion stress: nevertheless there is a difference tor torsion because of the KtKfratio n,(d) additionally contained in Eq. (2.3.10) and (2.3.18)"
,·5 flat member ofUlickncss s.
The fatigue notch factors, KJ:zd , .p , for axial, for bending, for shear and for torsional stress of the rodshaped (I D) nonwelded structural details presented in Chapter 5.3 arc to be computed from the experimentally derived fatigue notch factors of test specimens given there, and from the respective Kf K, ratios. In particular * II
ncr (rp)
Kt'zd = KI'zd (dl,) .  (2.3.18)
" ,. ncrCr)
S3
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
n, (fp ) KI' = KI' (dl,)' 
.s ,5 n, (r) ,
The fatigue notch factors for shellshaped (2D) 110nwelded components applying to normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are:
ncrx(rp) Kt:~ = KI;x (dp) . __::c:.::_:;,~
!lax (r)
(2.3.19)
_ / H, (rp )
K/·.  Kj' . (dl,) . ~~". ,
.s .s n , ( r)
KCzd (dj.), p fatigue notch factor of the test specimen according to type of stress. Chapter 5,3 * 13,
ncr (rp).p KtKr ratio of the lest specimen for normal stress or for shear stress according to fp * 14, ncr (r) ... KtKf ratio of the component for normal stress or for shear stress according to r '14. ncr (d) >.. KtKf ratio of the component for normal stress or for shear stress according to d,
11 In this case the fatigue notch factor depends on the notch radii rand rp and for bending and torsion on the diameter or width d at the notch net section.
12 The basic definition ofthe fatigue notch factor K[b lor bending is:
Kr.b ...• crW,zd! SWK.b·
(2.3.20)
crW.zd fatigue strength value lor complctclv reversed axial stress of the unnotched test specimen of the diameter dO,
SWK,b fatigue strength value lor completely reversed bending stress of the notched component ofthe diameter or width d
Kf;b in bending is dependent on the notch radius r and on the diameter 01 width d ofthe notch net section. Kt:t for torsion in analogy.
The definition of the i:ltigtlc notch factor for bending derived from experimental data . under the provision that the unnotched and the notched specimen ha ve the same diameter d pIS:
K[h (d]') ~ SW,b,l'! SWK.h,['.
(2.3.21)
SW.b,P
fatigue limit for completely reversed bwding stress ofthe unnotchcd test specimen of diameter dp,
fatigue limit for completely reversed bending stress of the notched test specimen of diameter dp.
SWK,b,P
Kr,b is dependent on the notch radius r]' and on the diameter or width Ill" the notch net section d. KCt for torsion in analogy
13 The fatigue notch [actors given in Chapter 53 arc applicable to components from steel without surface treatment. Additionally, however, a procedure for components being surface hardened and for C0111]1011'onl.> made of cast iron materials and aluminum alloys is described there
14 For computing KtKf ratios the notch radii, r or 1'1' ' are required Particularly for cases that may produce some doubt the radii arc specified in Chapter 5.3. A possible incorrectness that may occur will be reduced by the division of ncr (rp ) I "cr (r).
2.3 Design parameters
r d
notch radius of the component, diameter or width of the component, notch radius of the test specimen, diameter or width of the test specimen.
rp dl'
The KIKf ratios ncr (r»), ... arc to be computed according to the related stress gradient GO" (rp ) with reference to Chapter 2.3.2.1 ....
Because of similarity of the test specimen and component it is
rId = fpl dp.
(2.3.22)
Caution: If a fatigue notch factors KCzd , ... < 1 is obtained from Eq. (2.3.18) Of (2.3.19) the realistic value to be applied is '15
Kfjd'" ... '" 1.
(2.3.12)
2.3.2.3 Fatigue notch factors for superimposed notches
For superimposed notches (for example a fillet and a borehole), the partial fatigue notch factors of which are Kj;J and KO , the resulting fatigue notch factor in the most unfavorable case is
Kj= 1 + (Kf,l~ 1) + (Kf,2 1).
(2.3.24)
If the distance of notches is 2 r or above (where r is the larger one of both notch radii) ",6 a superposition does not need to be considered.
2.3.3 Roughness factor
The roughness factor KR,O" or KR,t accounts for the influence of the surface roughness on the fatigue strength of the component.
The roughness factor valid for a polished surface is
(2.3.25)
For a rolling skin, a forging skin Of the skin of castings an average roughness value R, '" 200 urn applies.
The roughness factors for normal stress, Figure 2.3.3, and for shear stress arc "17
KKR,O" (2.3.26)
:0:0 1  aR,O" . Ig (R, I urn) . Ig (2Rm I Rm,N,min ),
KKI~,~ ""
"" 1  fW,t . aR,cr ·Ig (R, /um) ·Ig (2Rm IRm, N, min),
Rm Rm,N,min fW,"t
constant, Table 2.3.4,
average roughness value of the surface in um , according to DIN 4768,
tensile strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1, minimum tensile strength, Table 2.3.4, fatigue strength factor for shear stress, Table 2.2.1.
54
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
l,O
!l
6 Q,.
R.r.jnJ.Lm:::; 1
G;: l.:::::: 1,
I
~ ~ r. b ;1 3,
~ ~ ~ r,
~ t; ", r ~
b,
o)l,_r,f', ~
~~" f' r 25
"'1S;'"
1'1"
2Q
~
20 0,9
2
3
0,8
0,7
0,6
o
0,5
o
0,4 300
500 700 1000
2000
2.3.311.
1,0 ''1 KR,cr 0,9 r.....rr4.;;;;
0,8
400 600 800 1000
Rat In MPa fiir GS, GGG, GT
100
200 300 400 I
Rnl in MPa flir GG
2'.J.Jb
Figure 2.3.3 Roughness factor KR,O" .
Top: Steel.
Bottom: Cast iron materials with skin, steel with roiling skin for .,,_~tI1parison
15 Exception in C;L~e of bending: If Kr.b(d,.) na{re),I n~{r) I then Kfb{dp) . nQ(r.) / ne(r) = I is to be applied (without considering no(d) ). Accordingly in case of torsion.
16 The distance of 2 r is likely to be on the safe side.
17 In particular residual stresses as a result of manufacturing and of a surface treatment are determining the influence of the surface on the component fatigue limit, rather than the surface roughness. According to the current state of knowledge, however, improved regulations 10 allow for the surface effect arc not yet developed, so that the traditiona I equations based on a roughness value have to be accepted for tile time being.
2.3 Design parameters
55
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
Table 2.3.4 Constant aR.cr and minimum tensile
strength. RIll.N.min . for the kind of material considered.
Table 2.3.5 Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factor for steel and cast iron materials <. i z
Kind of Steel GS GGG GT GG
material
aR,cr 0.22 0.20 0.16 0.12 0.06
Rm.N,rnin 400 400 400 350 100
inMPa Kind of Wrought Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum allovs
ar(O' 0,22 0,20
Rm.N.min 133 133
inMPa For surface hardened components s and an expected crack origine at the surface the roughness factor is less favorable (smaller) than for components not surface hardened. because of the higher tensile strength Rm of the hardened surface layer * I I)
Normally, in the case of experimentally determined fatigue notch factors the roughness factor docs not need to be considered (KR,cr = KR,~ = I). Otherwise, in the case of fatigue notch factors that are experimentally determined for specimens with a different surface roughness, KR,cr and KR,~ are to be replaced by
(2.3.27)
K R.' = KR., (R;,) I KR.~ (Rz.p),
R, average surface roughness of the component in !L1Il. Rz'p average surface roughness of the specimen in um.
2.3.4 Surface treatment and coating factors The surface treatment factor, Kv , allows for the influence of a treated surface layer on the fatigue strength of the component.
Without a surface treatment there is
Kv = 1.
(2.3.28)
For components with surface treatment 'H the surface treatment factor depends on whether a crack origin is to be expected at the surface or in the core. Essential factors of influence are the ratio of the fatigue limits of the surface layer and of the corc material, as well as the ratio of the local stress values on the surface and in the core just below the surface layer.
Upper and lower limits of the surface treatment factors for steel and cast iron materials are given in Table 2.3.5. A definite value is to be determined by the user "18
Surface unnotched notched
treatment components components
d
Steel
Chemothermal treatments
Nitriding 1,101.15 1,30  2,00
Depth of case 0,1...0,4l1l111 (1,15  1.25) (1.90  3,00)
Surface hardness
700 to 1000 HV 10
Case hardening 1,1 ()  1,50 1,20  2,00
Depth of case 0.2 ... O.S rnm (1,20  2,()0) (1,50  2,50)
Surface hardness
67010750 HV If)
Carbonitriding
Depth of case 0,2 ... 0.8 nun (1,80)
Surface hardness
670 to 750 HV ](J
Mechanical treatment
Cold rolling I,lOI,25 1.30  1.80
(1,20  1.40) (1,50  2,20)
Shot peening l.It)  1,20 1,10  L50
(l,1O  1.30) (1.40  2.50)
Thermal treatment
Inductive hardening 1,20  1,50 1.50  2.50
Flamehardening (1,30  1.60) (1.60  2,80)
Depth of case 0.9 ... 1.5 mm
Surface hardness
51 to 64 !IRC
Cast iron materials
Nitridil!_g_ 1,10 (US ) 1,3 (1,9)
Case hardeniI~g_ 1,1(1,2) 1.2 (1.5)
Cold rolling_ U (1.2) 1,30.5)
Shot pcening 1,1 (1,1) 1.1 (1,4)
Inductive hardening, 1.2 (1,3) 1.5 (1.6)
Flamehardening v I Concerning typical component values and further kinds oftreatments. sec also FVA·worksheet "SchwingfestigkciLsstcigaung (increasing the fatigue strength)".
.;. 2 The given values typically apply 10 the component lilligue limit. Values applying to the variable amplitude fatigue strength arc in gel1eral sornewhat lower.
1110 values arc valid tor specimens of 30 III 40 mrn diameter: values in parenthesis for specimens of 810 15 mm diameter.
<·3 For unnotched Dr slightly notched components.
J 8 Provided thai the procedures or surface treatment can he applied In components of aluminum alloys, the Kovalucs for cast iron material may approximately be taken into account.
2.3 Design parameters
56
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
The coating factor Ks allows for the influence of a surface coating on the fatigue strength of a component made of an aluminum alloy.
For steel and cast iron material there is
KS = 1.
(2.3.29)
For aluminum alloy without coating there is
(2.3.30)
For aluminum alloy with coating there is
Ks < L
(2.3.31)
Ks for example after Figure 2.3.4 (provisional values).
10 100 Thicknessof layer in urn
Figure 2.3.4 Influence of anodic coating on the fatigue limit (at 106 cycles) of a component from aluminum alloy as a function of the layer thickness (after Wilson). Provisional values.
2.3.5 Constant KNL,E
The constant KNL.E accounts for the nonlinear elastic stress strain behavior of GG when loaded in tensioncompression or bending.
For all kinds of material except for GG there is
KNL•E = 1.
KNL,E for GG after Table 2.3.6.
(2.3.32)
Table 2.3.6 Constant KNL,E .>1.
GG GG
GG
GG GG
30 35
15
20 25
1,05
1,025
~? 1 For unnotchcd or slightly notched components in tensioncompression KNL.E '" l.
2.3.6 Fatigue class (FA T)
The fatigue classes (FAT) for nominal stresses allow for the influences of both the form of welded components, of the shape of the weld seam and of the weld seam itself on the fatigue strength of the toe section or of the throat section) * 19.
A complete catalogue of fatigue classes with reference to the IIW Recommendations is given in Chapter 5.4.1 *20
2.3.7 Thickness factor
When using nominal stresses for the calculation of transversely loaded welds the thickness factor ft accounts for the influence of the sheet metal thickness Oil the fatigue strength *21"
The thickness factor f( is of no effect, however,  if there is no weld,
 if there is no transversely loaded weld, or
 if the sheet metal thickness is t :s 25 mm.
In these cases the thickness factor is
(2.3.33)
For a transversely loaded weld and a sheet metal thickness t > 25 mm the thickness factor is a function of the sheet metal thickness t (in mrn):
f( = (25 mm I t) ", n after Table 2.3.7.
(2.3.34)
Table 2.3.7 Exponent n for the thickness factor.
T_Y_l)e of the welded joint in
cruciform joints, transverse T joints, plates with
transverse attachments
 as welded 0.3
 toe ground 0,2
transverse butt welds, I
;
 as welded i 0 2
bUH welds ground flush, base material, longitudi l''~
nal welds or attachments,  as welded or ground i 0,1 19 Different from an assessment with structural stresses or with effective notch stresses. sec Chapter 4.3 and Chapter 5,5.
20 All fati gue classes, except (hose lor the base material, arc consi dercd here: for steel FATS; 140 for normal stress and FATS; 100 for shear stress, for aluminum alloys FAT::: 50 for normal stress and FATS; 36 for shear stress.
The assessment of the base material of'wclded components is to be carried OUl as for nonwelded components,
21 The thickness factor is supposed to be valid for steel. but also for aluminum alloys.
2.4 Component strength 2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
57
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength with nominal stresses
2.4 Component strength
IR24 EN.dol}
Content Page
2.4.0 General 57
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit 58 according to mean stress
2.4.2.0 General
2.4.2.1 Mean stress factor 59
Calculation for type of overloading F2
Calculation for type of overloading F 1 60
Calculation for type of overloading F3
Calculation for type of overloading F4 61
2.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
2.4.2.3 Residual stress factor 62
2.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue
strength 63
2.4.3.0 General
2.4.3.1 Variable amplitude fatigue strength factor 64
Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum
Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
Elementary version of Miner's rule based on the damage potential Calculation according to the consistent
version of Miner's rule 65
Calculation using a class of utilization 66
Calculation using a damageequivalent
stress amplitude
2.4.3.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve
2.4.0 General
According to this chapter the component fatigue strength is to be calculated as follows:
Step I: component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress in considering the design factor, Chapter 2.4.1,
Step 2: component fatigue limit in considering the mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2,
Step 3: component variable amplitude fatigue strength in considering the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor, Chapter 2.4.3.
2.4.1 Component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress
According to this chapter the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress is to be calculated in considering the design factor.
Caution: See the comment in the second paragraph of Chapter 4.4.2.
Rodshaped (ID) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished.
The component fatigue limits of rodshaped (lD) components for completely reversed axial, bending, shear and torsional stress are * I
SWK.zd :::: O"W.zd I KWK.zd ' SWK,b = O"W,zd I KWK.b *2. TWK,s:::: 'Cw.sI K\VK,s ,
TWK.l = 1:w.s I KWK,t,
O"W.zd. 'Cw., material or weld specific fatigue limit for completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.2.1.
(2.4.1 )
KWK.zd ... design factor, Chapter 2.3.1.
Eq. (2.4.1) is based on the fatigue limit for completely reversed stress, Eq. (2.2.1) or (22.3) and (2.2.4), and on the design factor. Eq. (2.3.1) or (2.3.4) and (23.6). It applies to nonwelded and to welded components.
The component fatigue limits of shellshaped (2D) components for completely reversed normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
SWK,x = O"W.zd I KwK.x ' SWK,y"" O"W,zd I KwK.y , TWK = 1:w,s I KWK,s ,
O"W.zd, 'Cw.s material or weld specific fatigue limit for completely reversed stress. Chapter 2.2.1,
KWK.x, ,.. design factor, Chapter 2.3.1.
(2.4.2)
Eq. (2.4.2) is based on the fatigue limit for completely reversed stress, Eq. (2.2.1) or (2.2.3) and (2.2.4), and on the design factor, Eq. (2.3.2) or (2.3.5) and (2.3.7). It applies to nonwelded and to welded components.
I The component fatigue limits for completely reversed stress arc different for normal slre.'' and for shear stress, and moreover because of different stress gradients or different weld chaructcristics depending on the type of stress.
2 The material fatigue limit for COTllpletely reversed stress is the basis for both axial and bending stress. The difference is allowed for by the design factor. For shear and torsion in analogy.
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatiguc limit according to mean stress
58
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength Ilsing nominal stresses
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to
mean stress 1!§!li'Silii.9
2A.2.0 General
According to this chapter the amplitude of the component fatigue limit is to be determined according to a given mean stress, and where appropriate, in considering a multiaxial state of stress.
Comment: For nonwelded components of austenitic steel, or of wrought Of cast aluminum alloys the component fatigue limit is different from the component endurance limit for N = 00 , Chapter 2.4.3.2.
Observing the specific input values the calculation applies to nonwelded and to welded components.
An improved procedure for nonwelded components of steel to compute the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses is given in Chapter 5.9.
In combination with a stress spectrum the indicated stress ratio Rzd, .,. commonly refers to step I of the stress spectrum (maximum amplitude), Rzd,], ... *1 *2.
The mean stress factor, Figure 2.4.1, allows for the influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength. Without mean stress the mean stress factor is
KAK,l.d = ... = I.
(2.4.4)
The residual stress factor accounts for the influence of the residual stress on the fatigue strength. For nonwelded components the residual stress factor for normal stress and for shear stress is
(2.4.5)
Rodshaped (I D) and shell shaped (2D) components arc to be distinguished.
Rodshaped (I D) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component fatigue limit of rodshaped (I D) components for axial, for bending, for shear and for torsional stress arc
SAK.zd = KAK.zd . KE,G SWK.zd' SAK,b = KAK,h . KE,rr . SViK,b , T:\K,s = KAK,s . KE;r . TWK.s . TAK.! = KAK,t . KE,T' TWK,t,
(24.6)
1 This definition is necessary only for mean stress spectra. not for stress ratio spectra or for fluctuating stress spectra, for which the stress ratios or all steps are identical.
2 For more details sec Chapter 5,6.
mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4,2. L residual stress factor. Chapter 2.4.2.3, component fatigue limit for completely' reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
Eq, (2.4,6) applies to nonwelded and to welded
KAK,zd ... KE,rr'" SWK.zd ...
components.
Shellshaped (2D) components
The mean stress dependent amplitudes of the component fatigue limit of shellshaped (2D) components for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress arc
SAK,x = K .• \K.~ . KE,rr' SWK,x, SAK,y = KAK,v . KE,G . SWK,y, TAK'= KAK,s : KE,T . TWK ' .
(2.4.7)
mean stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.1, residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
Eq. (2.4.7) applies to nonwelded and to welded
KAK,.~ ... K!·;.G"· SWK.x ".
components.
Typc of overloading
The mean stress factor KAK,zd, is dependent on the type of overloading, Fl to F4. It distinguishes the way how the stress may increase in the case of a possible overload in service (not by crash). Therefore it is to be determined in the sense of "safety of operation in service", that is for normal stress as follows:
 Type Fl:
the mean stress Sm.zd remains the same,  Type F2:
the stress ratio Rzd remains the same, " Type F3:
the minimum stress Smi!l,zd remains the same,  Type F4:
the maximum stress Smax,zd remains the same.
For bending, shear or torsion Sm.zd, Rzd, ... are to be replaced by Sm.b, Rh, ... , Trn,s, R,;, ... or Tm.t, R, . Intermediate types of overloading are possible. Dependent on the type of overloading the amplitude of the component fatigue limit is different. Figure 2.4.1.
Fields of mean stress
In determining the mean stress factor KAK.zd .... four fields of mean stress arc to be distinguished. These are dependent on the stress ratio Rzd, ... , or on the mean stress Sm.zd, ... , respectively, see Chapter 2.4.2.2.
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
59
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
Figure 2.4.1 Amplitude of the component fatigue strength as a function of mean stress or stress ratio (Haigh diagram). described in four fields of mean stress
Example: Normal stress, types of overloading FI and F2.
Given:
Component fatigue strength for completely reversed
stress SWK,zd, service stress amplitude Sa,zd ' stress ratio RZd '
Derived: Amplitudes of the component fatigue limit S!\K,zd for the types of overloading Fl and F2.
Normal stress:
Field I: Rzd > I, field of fluctuating compression stress, where Rzd"" + or ~ (Xl is the zero compression stress.
Field II:  <Xl ::.:: Rzd::':: 0, where Rzd < I is the field of alternating compression stress, Rzd = ~ 1 is the completely reversed stress, Rzd> I is the field of alternating tension stress.
Field III: 0 < Rzd < 0,5, field of fluctuating tension stress, where Rzd = ° is the zero tension stress.
Field IV: Rzd ;:: 0,5, field of high fluctuating tension stress.
For bending b the index zd is to be replaced by the index b, "tension stress" by "tension bending stress", and "compression stress" by "compression bending stress".
Shear stress: *3:
Field 1:
Field II:  I::.:: Rs::':: 0 Field III: ° < n, < 0,5 Field IV: Rs;:: 0,5
(not existing),
(lower boundary changed), (unchanged),
(unchanged).
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by the index t.
2.4.2.1 Mean stress factor
The mean stress factor KAK.zd ... is dependent on the mean stress and on the mean stress sensitivity.
3 The fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) lor normal stress shows increasing amplitudes for Rzd < 1 (negative mean stress). For negative mean stress the fatigue limit diagram (Haigh diagram) lor shear stress is the same as for positive mean stress and symmetrical to T m s = O. Practically it is restricted to the fields of positive mean stress or a stress ratio R, ::: I , as the mean stress in shear is always regarded to be positive, Tm,s :.. O.
4 The type of overloading F2 is described first because it is of primary practical importance.
Calculation for the type of overloading F2 * 4
In case of a possible overload in service the stress ratio Rzd remains the same.
Normal stress:
Field I: Rzd> 1:
K,\K,zd = I I ( I  Mo) ,
(2.4.9)
(2.4.10)
Field III, 0< Rzd < 0,5: 1+ Ma 13
l+Ma
KAK.zd'" S'
Ma rn.zd
1+······
3 Sa,zd
(2.4.12)
Field IV, Rzd;:: 0,5: 3+Mcr
(2.4.13)
Rzd Mcr Sm,zd Sa,zd
stress ratio *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4, mean stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2,
stress amplitude.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
5 Sm,zd I Sa,zd = (I + Rzd) I (I  RZd)·
(2.4.11)
Using the term Sm,zd J Sa,zd instead of (I + Rzd ) / (I  Rzd ) avoids numerical problems, when the stress ratio becomes Rzd =  oo.
6 Or equivalent mean stress, equivalent minimum stress, equivalent maximum stress, Chapter 2.4.2.2.
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
GO
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
Shear stress;
For Kt\K.s Field I is not existing and Field II is restricted to positive mean stresses Rs::: ~l . For positive mean stress, or R, ::: ~ I , the same equations arc valid if Mer is replaced by Me
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by r.
Calculation for the type of overloading Fl
In case of a possible overload in service the mean stress Sm,zd remains the same.
Normal stress;
Sm.zd
For Sm.zd '" .
K E,er ,SWK,l.d
~l
<~ there is *7
i Me>
(2.4.14)
for ~ 1 I (I  Mer) S Sm,zd S 1 / (l + Mcr) there is
(2.4.15)
Field III
K"'K.zd = 1 + Mer 13 _ Me; . I'
1+ Ma 3' In'
(2.4.1 G)
Field IV
K .. = 3+Mo
AK,zd ( )2
3· I+Mcr
(2.4.17)
Sm.zd KE." SWK,zd
mean stress 'G, Chapter 2.4.2.2, residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3, component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1,
mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
Shear stress:
For KAK,s Field I IS not existing and Field II IS restricted to positive mean stresses tm.s 2' 0 or o S tm,s = Till,s (KE,! . TWK,s) S 1 (1 + M,).
7 The abbreviation sm,zd" Sm,zd! (KE,a' SV'.'K,zd) applies in the followi ng to smi n.zd . '1l1<l x.zd ,1m,s, ... , accord ingly.
For positive mean stresses. tm,s 2: 0 , the same equations arc valid if Sm,zd is replaced by tm,s and Mcr is replaced by Me
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by 1.
Calculation for the type of overloading 1<'3
In case of a possible overload in service the minimum stress Smin,zd remains the same.
Normal stress:
S .
F  mm,zd
or Smin,zd 
KE,a ,SWK zd
2
<  there is '7
l~Mer
KAK,zd = I / (1 ~ M, ),
(2.4.18)
for ~ 2/(1  Mcr)s Smin,zd:S:: 0 there is
1 Mcr . Smin,zd I+Ma
(2.4.19)
Field III
2 3+Mcr
for 0 < smin,zd <  . 2 there is
3 (I + Me;)
"I,:_~o 1 ~ _ Mcr
1 + Ma ]' , smin,zd
1 +Ma /3
(2.4.20)
Field IV
(2.4.21 )
Smin,zd KE,(J SWK,zd
minimum stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2, residual stress [actor, Chapter 2.4.2.3, component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.4, 1,
mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2,4,
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
Shear stress;
For KAK,s Field I is not existing and Field II IS restricted to positive mean stresses Tm,s 2: 0 or  I S tOlin,s = Tmin,s ( (KE" . TWK.s) :::; O.
For positive mean stresses, tm,s 2' 0 , the same equations arc valid if smin,zd is replaced by Imin,s and M" is replaced by Me .
For torsion the index s is to be replaced by t.
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
Calculation for the type of overloading F4
In case of a possible overload in service the maximum stress Slllax,zd remains the same.
Normal stress:
SIll:lx,zd
For Stnax.zd = , < () there is '7
KE•e ,SWKJd
K"\.Kzd = I / (I ~ Me),
(2.4.22)
for 0 S Smax,zd s: 2 / (I + Me) there is
I ~ Mcr ' Smax IMe
(2.4.23 )
Field III
there is
(2.4.24)
Field IV
4. 3+Mcr
for S > there is
max.zd3 (I+Mcr)2
KAK.zd = ( . )2
3· I+Mcr
(2.4.25)
Smax,zd KE.e SWK,zd
maximum stress *6, Chapter 2.4.2.2, residual stress factor, Chapter 2.4.2.3. component fatigue limit for completely reversed stress, Chapter 2.4.1.
mean stress sensitivity, Chapter 2.4.2.4.
For bending the index zd is to be replaced by b.
Shear stress:
For shear stress the type of overloading F4 (Tmax.s remaining constant) can practically not being realized.
2.4.2.2 Individual or equivalent mean stress
In each ease Rzd , .... Slllin.zd ' ... and Smax,zd .... are determined by mean stress and stress amplitude. The mean stress may be taken either as the individual mean stress according to type of stress or as an equivalent mean stress from the individual mean stresses of all types of stress.
61
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
Individual mean stress
As a rule the individual mean stress Sm.zu is used to determine Smin.zd ' Smax,zd and Rzd . For normal stress the respective equations arc
Smin.1d = Sm,zd ~ S~\'zd . Smax,zd = SI1l.zd + Sa.zd ' Rzd = Smin.zd / Smax,zd ,
(2.4.26)
Sa.zd Smin,zJ Smax.zd Rzd
stress amplitude. minimum stress, maximum stress, st rcss ratio,
For bending, shear and torsion the appropriate variables are Smin.b , ... , Rb, Tmin., ' ... , R, or Tmin.t ..... Rt .
Equivalent mean stress
In the case "bending and torsion". which is typical for numerous applications in machine design, and in similar cases, where normal stresses are combined with shear stresses, the variables Smin,l.d.\, • Smax,zd,\, and Rzd,\' arc to be used. They are derived from an equivalent mean stress Sm,\' . to be computed as a function of the respective individual mean stress values. Eq. (2.4.28). For normal stress there is
Smin,zd,\' = Sm.\,  Sa,zll ' Smax,zd,v = Sm,\' + Sa,zd, Rzd, v = Smin.zd, v I Smax,;.d, v ,
(2.4.27)
Sa.zd Rzd.v Smin.7,d.v Smax,zd,v
individual stress amplitude. equivalent stress ratio, equivalent minimum stress. equivalent maximum stress.
For bending, shear and torsion the appropriate variables are Smin,b,\" ... , Rh,\,. Tmin.,,v ..... Rs,v or Tmin.l,v , ... , Rt,\'
The equivalent mean stress, Eq. (2.4.27). for normal stress is
(2.4.28)
where
(2.4.29)
2.4 Component strength
2.4.2 Component fatigue limit according to mean stress
material dependent parameter after Table 2.6.1.
Sm ' Trn individual mean stress, Eq. (2.4.31) and (2.4.32),
q
For shear stress there is
Tm,v = fw" . Sm,\!,
(2.4.30)
fw" shear strength factor, Table 2.2.1.
Rodshaped (ID) components
For rodshaped (lD) components the equivalent mean stress after Eq. (2.4.28) is to be computed only if Srn,zd + Sm,b ;:: O. It is
Sm _. Sm.zd + Sm,b ' Tm = Tm,s + Tm.t .
(2.4.31)
Sm,zd, ... individual mean stresses, Chapter 2.1.1.1.
Sm,zd . Srn,b . Tm,s and Tm,t are to be inserted into Eq. (2.4.31) with proper sign to be added or subtracted.
Shellshaped (2D) components
For Shellshaped (2D) components the equivalent mean stress after Eq. (2.4.28) is to be computed only if Sm,y = 0 and Sm,;>.: ;:: 0 (or in reverse), It is
Srn = Sm,x (or Srn = Sm,y), Tm = Trn,s,
(2.4.32)
Sm,x, ... individual mean stress, Chapter 2.1.1.2.
2.4.2.3 Residual stress factor
The residual stress factor for nonwelded components is
(2.4.33)
For welded components of structural steel and of aluminum alloys the residual stress factor is different for high, moderate or low residual stresses. It is given for normal stress and for shear stress in Table 2.4.1, see also Chapter 5.5.
Table 2.4.1 Residual stress factor KE.a , KE;r and mean stress sensitivity Me!, M, for welded components.
Residual KE,e! Mcr K.· M, ~,I
'",.
stress
high 1,00 0 1,00 0
moderate 1,26 0)5 1, IS 0,09
low 1,54 0,30 1,30 0,l7 ". I For Shear Stress there is M~ ~ fw " Mcr f\V,~·~ 0,577 ,
Table 2.2. J. .•
62
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
High residual stresses are to be assumed in case of welding without residual stress reducing precautions.
Moderate residual stresses are to be assumed in case of welding with residual stress reducing precautions, for example by observing a suitable weld sequence.
Low residual stresses arc to be assumed in case of welding with subsequent stressrelief heat treatment, or if residual stress may evidentially be excluded.
2.4.2.4 Mean stress sensitivity
The mean stress sensitivity M, or M, , in connection with the mean stress factor, describes to what extent the mean stress affects the amplitude of the component fatigue strength, Figure 2.4.1.
For nonwelded components the mean stress sensitivity for normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case of normal or elevated temperature, is
M; = at..! . 10  3. Rul/ MPa + br.;!, M, = fw.t . Mo: '
aM, b~l constants, Table 2.4.2,
fw., shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1.
(2.4.34)
For components that have been surface hardened *8 the mean stress sensitivity is greater because of the tensile strength R,ll of the hardened surface being higher than that of components not surface hardened.
For welded components the mean stress sensitivity for normal stress and for shear stress, applicable in case of normal or elevated temperature, is dependent on the intensity of the residual stress, but independent of the tensile strength R, of the base material. Values are given in Table 2.4.1, see also Chapter 5.5.
Table 2.4.2 Constants aM and bM .
Kind of Steel ".1 GS GGG GT GG
material
aM 0,35 0,35 0,35 0,35 ()
bM 0,1 0,05 0,08 0,13 0,5 ,
Kind of Wrought I Cast
material aluminum alloys aluminum alloys
aM 1,0 I 1,0
bM  0,04 0,2 ". I also stainless steel.
8 Not applicable to components being cold rolled or shotpeened.
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
63
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nomina! stresses
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength l~~'!Ll:_r'!:i,?g
2.4.J.O General
According to this chapter the amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength is to be derived from the stress spectrum and the component constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor Km.:.7.o ' ... , to be calculated depends on the stress spectrum, that is on the required total number of cycles 'I and all the shape of the stress spectrum. as well as on the component constant amplitude SoN curve, and in addition it depends on the type of stress (normal stress or shear stress).
It has to be distinguished, whether in case of a constant amplitude spectrum an assessment of the fatigue limit (or endurance limit) or an assessment of the fatigue strength for finite life is intended, or whether in case of a variable amplitude spectrum an assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength is intended '2.
The calculation for a constant amplitude stress spectrum is a special case of the more general case of calculation for a variable amplitude stress spectrum, In each case the way of calculation is the same, but the variable amplitude fatigue strength factors arc different.
Observing the specific input values the calculation applies to both nonwelded components (component constant amplitude SN curve modell or model II) and to welded components (component constant amplitude SN curve model I only).
Rodshaped (ID) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished.
Rodshaped (ID) components
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum) of rodshaped (I D) components for axial stress, bending stress. shear stress and for torsional stress are, Figure 2.4.2,
SBK.zd = KUK,zd . SAK,zd, SBK.b = KBK,b . SAK,b, TBK.s = KBK.s . T r \K,s,
TBK.t = KBK.t . TAK,t,
KBK,zd, .. variable amplitude fatigue strength factor, Chapter 2.4.3.1,
SAK,zd ... component fatigue limit, Chapter 2.4.2.
(2.4.41)
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply, Figure 2.4.3:
SBK.zd s: 0,75 Rp ,
SBK,b s: 0,75 Rp . Kp,b, TBK,s s: 0,75 fw.t . Rp , TI3K,t s: 0.75 f.,' Rp . Kp.t.
(2.4.42)
Rp
Kp,b, Kp,t r,
yield strength. Chapter 1.2. I. I. plastic notch factors. Table 1.3.2, shear strength factor. Table 1.2.5.
4
N, ft Component fatigue life curve
N Component SN Curve
2
M.2
N, N
Figure 2.4.2 Component constant amplitude SN curve, component fatigue life curve derived by the consistent version of Miner's rule, and influence of the critical damage sum D1\'1 .
Highest amplitude in stress spectrum SUK • component iilliguc limit S,,,,. number or cycles_!:! after the component constant amplitude SN curve . ~mber of cycles N al.!.::_r the conT.?ncnt fatigue lit<: curve for D1v! < I or N • for DM ~ 1. It!.:!.. N '0' N i (N =. N) DM. This formula implies that a number of cycles N ~ N is obtained for s~ctra of increasing damage potential and the exact nu~er of cycles N '" N for the constant amplitude stress spectrum as N *  N~ O.
In German the fatigue life curve is usually termed 'Gassner curve' and _the CO~~~~!~~~~~~_~~.:\~,,0.~::2,ally tern::~~~hlcr car::::.:__._
Figure 2.4.3 Restriction of the amplitudes of the variable amplitude fatigue strength, Sm.:..] , or of the maximum value Sm + SBK and the minimum value S; ~ SSK respectively, in relation to the yield strength,
9_i~pl_~Xe.~_i!~~~EI~lS of the Haighdiagram. _
I Required total number of cycles and required component fatigue life are corresponding denotations.
2 In a simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on the basis of a damageequivalent stress amplitude. Then the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength turns out to be an assessment of the fatigue limit being sufficient.
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
64
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
Shellshaped (2D) components
The amplitudes of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength (highest amplitude in stress spectrum) of shellshaped (2D) components for normal stresses in the directions x and v as well as for shear stress are, Figure 2.4.2,
SIlK.x = KBK,x . SAK,x, SBK,y = KBK,y . SAK,y, TBK,s = KBK,s . TAK,
KBK,x" ... variable amplitude fatigue strength factor, Chapter 2,4,3. I,
SAK,x, ... component fatigue limit. Chapter 2.4.2.
(2.4.43 )
Except for GG, the following restrictions apply. Figure 2.4.3,
SBK.x S; 0,75 Rp , SIlK,y ::::; 0,75 Rp , TBK,s ::::;0,75 fw,!' Rr,
Rp yield strength, Chapter 1.2.1.1,
fw.t shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5.
(2.4.44)
2.4.3.1 Variahle amplitude fatigue strength factor The variable amplitude fatigue strength factors KBK.7.{i, .' .• are to be derived as follows *3:
Calculation for a constant amplitude spectrum *4
Component constant amplitude SN curve modeL 1: horizontal for N > ND.a (steel and cast iron material)
Assessment of the fatigue strength for finite life:
KUK,zd = (N D,(/ /]\f) I ik(/ forN ::::; N[),(/. (2.4.47)
Assessment of the fatigue limit= endurance limit:
KBK,zd = 1
for N > ND,(/. (2.4.48)
Component constant amplitude ,\'N curve model II: sloping for N > ND.a (nollwelded aluminum alloys)
Assessment of the fatigue strength for finite life:
( ) Ilk
KBK,zd = N 1),0" / N 0"
forN S; ND,a'
(2.4.49)
K (N /N)likDO"
BKzd = D,G 'for NJ),,,<N::::; NJ),O".I1.
(2.4.50)
Assessment of the fatigue limit:
forN > N[),(J" .
(2.4,51)
Assessment of the endurance limit:
KBKzd = r I1,a
forN > ND,a,I1. (2.4.52)
N number of cycles of the component constant amplitude SoN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
N required number of cycles.
Nf),a number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SoN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
k., slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < N[).a' Chapter 2.4.3.2.
N o.e.u number of cycles at second knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
kJ),cr slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N > ND.a , Chapter 2.4,3,2.
f II." factor by which the endurance limit is lower than the fatigue limit, Chapter 2.4.3.2, Table 2.4.4.
Calculation for a variable amplitude spectrum
As a rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed by using the elementary version of Miller's rule (not necessary for a constant amplitude stress spectrum). Somewhat more favourable results, however. may be obtained by using the consistent version of Miner's rule. Moreover, the classes of utilization can be applied as a simplified method of calculation; the so derived results approximately correspond to those obtained by the elementary version of Miner's rule. In an even more simplified manner the variable amplitude fatigue strength can be derived on the basis of a damageequivalent stress amplitude.
Elementary version of Miner's rule based on the damage potential
Using the elementary version of Miner's rule, Figure 2.4.4, the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed directly as follows *5. The calculation applies to both component constant amplitude SN curve
model r and model II (2.4.53)
1 lk~ (NJ) )kl
I . D til + 1 . N,(J a,
where the damage potential is *6 *7
, ( )k"
k J h . Sa 7 .. d i
Yzd = rr I _..'.. ._' _. _' ,
i~1 H l Sa.zd,l
(2.4.54)
3 The following is written for axial stress, KIlK,,' • k" ..... but applies to other types of stress accordingly.
4 For welded components only model [ of the component constant amplitude S·N curve is ofconcern, not model Il .
S Direct calculation without iteration. The results obtained from the elementary version of Miner's rule approach the results obtained from the consistent version of Mincrs rule on the safe side.
G When computing the dal~ge potential (and also in the following equations) the values ni and N according to the required total number of cycles can he replaced by the values hi and H according to the total number of cycles in the given standard type spectrum, sec Chapter 2. 1.
7 lnsteud of Akon alter Eq. (2.4.58) is here '\Ie'"!! (Vzd)kcr
(2.4.55)
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
65
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
H
slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < N[),cr . Chapter 2.4.3.2.
critical damage SUIll, Table 2.4.3,
number of cycles at knee point of the component constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2, total number of cycles of the given spectrum,
H "" H) = I h, (summed up for i = 1 to j), related number of cycles in step i,
Hi = I hi (summed up for i = 1 to i) *8, total number of steps in the spectrum, number of the step in the spectruru,
stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum, stress amplitude in step i = 1 of the spectrum.
Sa,zd,i Sa,zdJ
If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model I (horizontal for N > NJ),cr ) a value KBK,zd < 1 is obtained from Eq. (2.4.53), then the value to be used is
KBK,zd = 1.
(2.4.56)
If for a component constant amplitude SN curve model II (sloping for N > N[),cr ) a value KBK,zd is obtained from Eq. (2.4.53) that is smaller than the value obtained from Eq. (2.4.50) or (2.4.52), then the higher value from Eq. (2.4.50) or (2.4.52) is to be used.
s.
(lgt
v· sa.t
Stress spectrum
SAl{
N '
' __ ~._ •. __ . __ ._~ _ _'_...__~.....<....J)~lL... __ . _1:_ __
N (lg) .
2.4.4
Figure 2.4.4 Elementary version of Miner's rule, component constant amplitude SN curve model I, DM = I.
Characteristics of the stress spectrum according to Chapter 2.1, component constant amplitude SoN curve according to Chapter 2.4.3.2.
Table 2.4.3 Critical damage sum DM , recommended value.
nonwelded welded
components components
Steel, GS, 0,3 0,5
Aluminum alloys
GGG, GT, GG 1,0 i.o 8 hi! H may be replaced by n, ! N ,
N Required total numhcr of cycles according to the required fatigue life, N .. ~ l: ni (summed lip for 1 to j),
tli number of cycles in step i according to the required fatigue life.
Calculation according to the consistent version of Miner's rule *9 * 10
Using the consistent version of Miner's rule the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is to be computed iteratively for differing values of S""d,\ , until a value N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained. The respective value of Sa,zd,l is used to derive the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor.
Component constant amplitude SN curve model J: horizontal for N > Nf), a (Steel and cast iron material)
In case of a component constant amplitude SN curve model I ( horizontal for N > ND.cr or slope kD.a == co) the number of cycles N to be computed for an value Sa,zd,l IS (2.4.57)
[s . lk"
N = {[ A  I ] . D + I}' AK ,zd
ken j'd S
a.zd.I
. ND.G,
where
(2.4.58)
(2.4.59)
(2.4.60)
(2.4.6 I)
v h [S I 'lkG N2=Z ~. ~
i=1 H Sa.zd,l
(2.462)
For the summation of the term Z2, Eq. (2.4.60), it is to be observed that Sil,7.d.j'\ = o.
N number of cycles of the component constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2,
ND,cr number of cycles at knee point of the component
constant amplitude SN curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
Dtd critical damage sum, Table 2.4.3,
Sa,zd,i stress amplitude in step i of the spectrum. Sa.zd.l stress amplitude in step i zz: I of the spectrum, SAK,zd amplitude of the component fatigue limit.
k., slope of the component constant amplitude SN curve for N < N[),G' Chapter 2.4.3.2,
J total number of steps in the spectrum,
9 The consistent version of Miner's nile allow, for the fact. that the component fatigue limit will decrease as the damage sum increases.
The decrease applies to component constant amplitude SoN curves model I as well as to model II for N D., ::0 106.
10 The consistent version otMincrs rule was first developed by llaibach, A simplified version allowing for the decrease ofthe fatigue limit became known as the modified version or the Haibach method or Miner's rule
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
66
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
III
number of the step in the spectrum,
number i = III of tile first step below S;\K,zd. total number of cycles in the given spectrum, H '" Hj zz I hi (summed up for I to j),
number of cycles in step i,
Hi = I h, (summed up for I to i) ·x.
The computation is to be repeated iteratively for differing values Sa.zd,1 > SAK,zd , until a...:_alue N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained. From the respective value of Sa.zd.1 the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
H
(2.4.63)
If a value KBK.zd < I is obtained from Eq. (2.4.63), then the value to be applied is
KBK,zd = I.
(2.4.64 )
Component constant amplitude .S'N curve model II: sloping for N > NJ),cr (nonwelded aluminum alloys) *11
In case of a component constant amplitude SoN curve model II (sloping for N > N[),a or slope kD•a < kp,Q < C(;) the number of cycles N is first to be computed for a single value Sa,zd,l '" SAK,zd I (fll.a tJ as follows
[S .. )kO N
N = {[ AI J . D + I}' AK,zd D,(1
kou M S ka!3
a.zd.l (f1I.a)
with (2.4.65)
AkQlI after Eq. (2.4.58) to (2.4.62) and the explanations as before,
flI.a factor by which the endurance limit is lower than the fatigue limit. Table 2.4.4.
If a value N N * > N is obtained then the calculation of N. Eq. (2.4.65), is to be continued for differing values Sa,zd, t > SAK,zd I ( flI,a )113 until a value N equal to the required total number of cycles N is obtained. From the respective value of Sa,zd, I the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor is obtained as
KBK.zd = Sa,zd,1 . ( fll,a to) I SAKzd (2.4.66)
If a value N
N * ::: N is obtained then the variable
amplitude fatigue strength factor is
  11k
KBK.zd '" (N * IN) D.G
(4.4.67)
If a value KUK,zd < f[J,G is obtained from Eq. (2.4.67) then the value to be applied is
KBK,zd = f[I,a .
(2.4.68)
Calculation !Ising a class of utilization
The variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK.zd is to be determined according to the appropriate class of utilization ·1: , Chapter 5,7.
Calculation using a damageequivalent stress amplitude
When using a damageequivalent stress amplitude the variable amplitude fatigue strength factor for both constant amplitude SoN curves model I and model II is
KBK.zd = 1.
(2.4,69)
2.4.3.2 Component COil stant amplitude SoN curve Component constant amplitude SoN curves for nonwelded components (without surface hardening) and for welded components * 13 are shown for normal stress and for shear stress in Figure 2.4.5 and 2.4.6. The particular number of cycles at the knee point ND,a , .. , and the values of slope ka, , .. are given in Table 2.4.4.
The component fatigue limit SAK,zd,... is the reference fatigue strength value for calculation. It follows from Chapter 2.4,2. For SoN curves Model I the fatigue limit SAK and the endurance limit SAK,lI for N = 00 arc identical, while for SN curves Model II (valid for nonwelded components of austenitic steel or of aluminum alloys) they are different by a factor f[[,e; , Table 2.4.4 and Figure 2.4.5.
A lower boundary! of the numbers of cycles is implicitly defined by the maximum stress being limited according to the static strength requirements, Chapter 1.
For surface hardened components '14 the slope of the component constant amplitude SoN curves is more shallow. Instead of the values of slope ka = 5 and k, "" 8 for not surface hardened components, Table 2.4.4, the values that apply to surface hardened components arc ka'" 15 and k, "" 25 .while the number of cycles at the knee point ND,G and ND.t remain unchanged, see also Chapter 5.8,
The component constant amplitude SoN curves for welded components arc valid for the toe section and for the throat section.
II Simplified and approximate calculation.
12 CI,L>' of utilization a.' a characteristic of the stress spectrum. It is an approximately datn.::!;e equivalent combination of the required total number of cycles N with the shape of a particular standard stress spectrum the frequency distribution of which is of binomial or exponential type modified by a spectrum parameter p. It provides a result that corresponds to a calculation based on the elementary version of Miner's mk.
13 With reference to llWRecommendations and Eurocode 3. 14 Not applicable to cold rolled or shotpeened components,
2.4 Component fatigue strength
2.4.3 Component variable amplitude fatigue strength
67
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
Table 2.4.4 Number of cycles at the knee point, slope of the component constant amplitude SoN curves, and values of fll,Q and fIl",
Normal stress
Component
nonwelded
0,74
welded
1,0
S
I .. a,zd
(Ig)
s l_~ ,\1\:. zd
~\K,zd,ll .1 1 L . __ I_I _.
 kD•a=15  i
i~ N____L'o"".u._=_1_0_G_j__ N D a II = 1 081
alf.a bild ... 1
N (lg)
Ta.s I
(lg) ,
[AK.s I!= I 7 ~~  1
T 
AK.s.ll   kD.7 =25 'I
! N oolOG B
_, D,~' __ , NTJ 7.!1 =10 __
"ii, "" •• " N (lg)
Figure 2.4.5 Component constant amplitude SoN curve for nonwelded components *1,1
Top: Nanna! stress S.
Bottom: Shear stress T.
Steel and cast iron materials, except austenitic steel, (Model I): horizontal for N > N[),a, kD,a = C'1
or for N>N[);t. kD.t"'cI)
Aluminum alloys and austenitic steel {Model Il):
Sloping for N > N n,e . kD,a.
or tor N > Nn,'t, kD,t
hcrizontal for N NJ),a,!!, k[),a.ll = (f) Of for N > N [) 1; II ' k D, II = co
Shear stress
Component
s I
a.z d
(Ig)
S AK,zd
l_
nlfil Ml.h .. l2
N (lg)
'lIND"'l
.,o::::_LQ~ _
N (lg)
Figure 2.4.6 Component constant amplitude SN curve for welded components *13
Top: Normal stress S.
Bottom: Shear stress T.
Steel, cast iron materials and aluminum alloys, welded (Model I):
horizontal for N > NJ),a, kJ),a ~ co or far N>ND,~, kD,~=(f) NC is the reference number of cycles
corresponding to the characteristic strength values SAC and TAC. S,\.K,zd / SAC = (NC / ND,cr) II ko ~ 0,736 and
:I:,1tis! TAC ~ (NC! NQ,:tll!~~~~~_?,4S~~
2.5 Safety factors
68
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
2.5 Safety factors *1
Contents
[R25 EN .docl Page
2.5.0 2.5.1
General
Steel
2.5.2 Cast iron materials
2.5.2.0 General
2.5.2. I Ductile cast iron materials
2.5.2.2 Nonductile cast iron materials 69
2.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
2.5.3.0 General
2.5.3. I Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
2,5.3.2 Nonductile wrought aluminum alloys
2.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
2.5.5 Total safety factor 2.5.0 General
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be determined.
The safety factors arc valid under the condition that the design loads arc reliably determined on the safe side and that the material properties correspond to an average probability of survival of Po ~ 97,5 'X) *2.
The safety factors apply both to nonwelded and welded components.
2.5.1 Steel
The basic safety factor concerning the fatigue strength is
.ID = 1,5.
(2.5.1)
This value may be reduced under favorable conditions, that is depending on the possibilities of inspection and on the consequences of failure, Table 2.5.1.
Table 2.5.1 Safety factors for steel '3 (not for GS) and for ductile wrou zht aluminum allo s (A;:: 12,5 %).
JD
1,5
1,3
1.35
1,2
'~I Moderate consequences of failure of a less important component in the sense of "non catastrophic" effects of a failure; for example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statical indeterminate system. Reduction by about 15 %.
·,2 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction about 10 %.
.. " .... " ... ,,_._.__ ......
I Chapters 2.5 and 4.5 arc identical
2.5.2 Cast iron materials 2.5.2.0 General
68
Ductile and nonductile cast iron materials are to be distinguished.
2.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
Cast iron material with an elongation A5 ;:: 12,5 % are considered as ductile cast iron materials, in particular all types of GS and some types of GGG. Values of elongation see Table 5.1.12.
Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given in Table 2.5.2. Compared to Table 2.5.1 they are higher because of an additional partial safety factor jF that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings *4. The factor is different for severe or moderate consequences of failure and moreover for castings that have been subject to nondestructive testing or have not.
Table 2.5.2 Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials
(GS; GGG) (A~;:: 12,5 %).
JD I Consequences of failure
severe I moderate+ I
castings not subject to nondestructive testing ~.2
regular no I 2,1 I 1,8
Inspection yes ~3 I 1,9 I 1,7
castings subject to nondestructive testing <4
regular no I 1,9 I 1,65
Inspection yes v3 I 1,7 I 1,5 <I Sec footnote vi of Table 2.5.1.
·)2 Compared to Table 2.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = [,4 is introduced to account for inevitable but allowable defects in castings.
:3 Regular inspection in the sense of damage monitoring. Reduction by about [0 %.
,>4 Compared to Table 2.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jF = 1,25 is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality
of the castings is~o.bviously guarant~_:_~..:~~_e_tl (estil1_!S. ._ _._
2 Statistical confidence S ~ 50 %.
3 Steel is always considered as a ductile material.
4 In mechanical enginecring cast components arc of standard quality for which a further reduction of the partial safely factor to.iF = 1.0 docs not seem possible up to now.
A safety factor jr = 1,0 may be applied to high quality cast components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cast components have to meet special demands on qualification and checks of the production process, as well as on the extent of quality and product testing in order to guarantee lillie scatter of their mechanical properties.
2.5 Safety factors
69
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nomina! stresses
2.5.2.2 Nonductile cast iron materials
Cast iron materials with an elongation A" < 12,5 % (for GT A3 < 12,5 %) are considered as nonductile materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as all types of GT and GG. Values of elongation for GGG and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG is A5 = O.
For nonductile cast iron materials the safety factors from Table 2.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value t.j, Figure 2.5.1 *5:
t.j = 0,5 JAsI50%,
(2.5.2)
A5 Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT.
20
As, A3 in %
Figure 2.5.1 Value t.j to be added to the safety factor Jn , defined as a function of the elongation A5 or A J~, respectively.
2.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys 2.5.3.0 General
Ductile and nonductile wrought aluminum alloys are to be distinguished.
2.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation A? 12,5 % are considered as ductile materials. Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
Safety factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are the same as for steel according to Table 2.5.1.
5 For example the safety factor for GG is at least
in = 1,5 + 0,5 = 2,0
(2.5.3)
(jD = 1.5 from Table 2.5.2, j = 0,5 after Eq, (2.5.2) for AS = 0).
2.5.3.2 Nonductile wrought aluminum alloy Wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation A < 12,5 % are considered as nonductile materials. Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table 2.5.1 are to be increased by adding a value t.j , Eq. (2.5.2).
2.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as nOI1 ductile materials. All safety factors from Table 2.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value t.j , Eq. (2.5.2). Values of elongation see Table 5.1.31 to 5.1.38.
2.5.5 Total safety factor
Similar to an assessment of the component static strength, Chapter 1.5. 5, a "total safety factor" jge, is to be derived:
. JD
Jges =KT,[)
(2.5.4)
JD Kt,D
safety factor, Table 2.5.1 or 2.5.2, temperature factor, Chapter 2.2.3.
2.6 Assessment
70
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
2.6 Assessment
IR26 ENdoq
Contents
Page 70 71
2.6.0
General
2.6.1 2.6.1.1 2.6.1.2
Rodshaped (I D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress
Shellshaped (2D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress
2.6.2 2.6.2. ] 2.6.2.2
2.6.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
In general the assessments for the individual types of stress and for the combined types of stress are to be carried out separately *1
The procedure of assessment applies to both nonwelded and welded components.
For welded components assessments are generally to be carried out separately for the toe section and for the throat section. They are to be carried out in the same way, but using the respective crosssection values, nominal stresses and fatigue classes F AT as these are in general different for the toe and throat section.
Degree of utilization
The assessment is to be carried out by determining the degree of utilization of the component fatigue strength. In the general context of the present Chapter the degree of utilization is the quotient of the (nominal) characteristic stress amplitude S".ld.1 , ... , divided by the allowable (nominal) stress amplitude of the component fatigue strength at the reference point *2. The allowable stress amplitude is the quotient of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength after Chapter 2.4.3, SBK,zd , ... , divided by the total safety factor j~es . The degree of utilization is always a positive value • .
I It is essential to examine the degree of utilization not only of the combined type, of stress but also that of the individual types of stress in general, and in particular if these may occur separately.
2 The reference point is the critical point of the considered crosssection that observes the highest degree of uti Ii zati 011
J As the degree of utilization is the quotient of two amplitude which always arc positive.
An assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength and an assessment of the fatigue limit or of the endurance limit are to be distinguished. In each case the calculation is the same when using the appropriate variable amplitude fatigue strength factor KBK,zd. .., • Chapter 2.4.3, and when taking
S'.7.(!J " Sa,zd ' ....
(2.6.1)
in case of a constant amplitude spectrum, or
72
Sa,7.(!.1 "Sa,zd.df and N = No."
(2.6.2)
in case of a damageequivalent stress amplitude.
Sa,zd, ... , constant stress arnpli tude for which the required number of cycles is N, damageequivalent stress amplitude, number of cycles at knee point of the
component constant amplitude SN
curve, Chapter 2.4.3.2.
S",zd.dT, ND.a
Superposition
For proportional or synchronous stress components of same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter 2.1.
If different types of stress like axial stress, bending stress, ... *4 act simultaneously and if the resulting stress is multiaxial, Chapter 0.3.5 and Figure 0.0.9, both the individual types of stress and the combined types of stress are to be considered as described below *5.
Kinds of component
Rodshaped (10) and shellshaped (2D) components are to be distinguished. They can be both nonwelded or welded.
4 Bending stresses in two planes, Sa by and Sa b z ' arc different types of
stress, also shear stresses in two planes, Ta,s.y and :ra,s,z . ~
5 Proportional, synchronous and nonproportional multiaxial stresses Me to be distinguished. , Chapter 0.3.5.
Only under special conditions of proportion a! stresses the character ofEq. (2.6.4) and (2.6.12) is that of a strength hypothesis from a materialmechanics point of view. For example the extreme stresses from bending and shear will  as a rule  occur at different points of the crosssection, so that different reference points W arc to be cons idercd. As a rul e bending will be more important. More general Eq. (2.6.4) and (2.6.12) have the character of an empirical interaction formula. They arc applicable for proportional stresses and approximately applicable lor synchronous stresses; an improved procedure for nonwelded components is given in Chapter 5,9, For nonproportional stresses they arc not suitable: an approximate procedure applicable for nonproportional stresses is proposed in Chapter S.l O.
2.6 Assessment
2.6.1 Rodshaped (ID) components 2.6.1.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of rodshaped (10) components for variable amplitude types of stress like axial. bending, shear and torsional stress are
Sd I
,1,Z, <:: L
am':,zd S BK.zJ I .
J err
s.. <:: L
aBK.b SllK,h I .
J eli'
r.; ::; L
<lBK,s TBK.s I .
JerI'
T
a. t.l <:: I,
aBK,t TBK.t I .
J crf (26.3)
Sa.zd, I , .. " characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress amplitude in the spectrum) according to type of stress, Chapter 2.1.1.1 and
Eq, (2.6,1) or (2.6.2).
SBK,zd ... " related amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter 2.4.3,
Jgcs total safety factor, Chapter 2.5.5.
2.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
The degree of utilization of rodshaped (l D) components for combined types of stress is *6
aBK.Sv = q' aNll + (I  q) . am[::; I,
where
aNI! =~'(ISal+Js; +4.t;)'
aGH=~'
sa = aBK,zd + aBK.b ,
(2.6.4)
(2.6.5)
(2.66)
La = aHK.s + aBK.t '
a [3K,zd .... degrees of utilization after Eq. (2.6.3).
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12,5 %) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface hardened or for welded components q = I is to be applied, Otherwise there is, Table 2.6,1.
J3(lIfw,)
q= '
J3 I
(2.6.7)
[v,!:, shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1 or 2.6.1.
71
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nomina! stresses
Table 2.6.1 Values of q as dependent on fw., ,;, I,
!GG
Steel. : GGG ! GT
wrought I' ; cast
, 6}_allg):~L I Al alloys
II""'_ g,?_7~__LQ,§~~[(),?~·
q 0 i 0,264 ! 0,544
1 __ . _
! O,~5
j 0.759
0;> 1 Exceptions: For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12.5 %) q = 0.5 . for surface hardened or welded components
q = l.:_ .. __ .. __ , ,_. , ..
Rules of signs: If the individual types of stress (axial and bending, or shear and torsion, respectively) always act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of utilization ilBK,zd and aBK.b and/or aBK.s and aBK.t arc to be inserted in Eq. (2.6.6) with the same (positive) signs * 7 If they act always proportional or synchronous 1800 out of phase, however, the above degrees of utilization arc to be inserted in Eq. (2.6.6) with oposite signs *8 *9 If the individual types of stresses act nonproportional, that is neither proportional nor synchronous, the Eq. (2.6.4) to (2.6.6) arc not applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied instead.
2.6.2 Shellshaped (2D) components
2.6.2.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of shellshaped (20) components for variable amplitude types of stress like normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as shear
arc
S. '1
n, x, <:: L (2.6.8)
aBK.x SnK, I .
J<Ir
SO.Y.I <:: L
aBK,y SUkY I .
J erf
Ta.1 <:: r.
aBK.s TBK I .
J erf 6 Eq. (2,6.4) or (2.6.12) is a combination of the normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion (G!!). Depending on the ductility of the material the combination is controlled by a parameter q as a luuct ion of fw" according to Eq. (2.6.7) and Table 2.6.1. For instance 'I Ol\)r sled so that only the v, Mises criterion is of effect, while q 0,264 for C;Ge; so that both the normal stress criterion and the v. Miscs criterion are of partial influence.
7 For example a tensile axial stress and a tensile bending stress acting at the reference point that both rcsu It from the sam single external load affect ing the component.
gFor example an tensile axial stress and a compressive bending stress acting at the reference point that both result from the sam single external load affecting the component.
9 Stress components acting opposingly may cancel each other in part or completely.
72
2.6 Assessment
2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses
S'l,X,l .... , characteristic stress amplitude (largest stress amplitude in the spectrum) according to
type of stress, Chapter 2.Ll.2 and Eq, (2.6.1) or (2.6.2),
SBK.x ..... related amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter2.4.3,
.lges total safety factor, Chapter 2.5.5.
2.6.1.2 Combined types of stress
The degree of utilization of shellshaped (2D) components for combined types of stresses is *7
aBK.Sv = q . aNiI + (I "q) . ac;rIs I,
(2.6.9)
where (2.6.10)
aNI! =±{jSa.~ +Sa,yj+J(Sa,x Sa,y)2 +4.t~).
a·. ""Js2 +S2 + S. .. S. ,+t2
(, II a.x a.)' a.x .l,} a ~
sa.x = aBK,x ,
(2.6.11)
Sa,), = aBK.y ,
aBK,x... degrees of utilization after Eq, (2.6.8).
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12,5 (Xl) q = 0,5 is to be applied. For surface hardened or for welded components q = I is to be applied. Otherwise there is, Table 2.6.1,
E (!lfw.,) J3 I
q
(2.6.12)
[W" shear fatigue strength factor, Table 2.2.1 or 2.6.1.
Rules of signs: If the normal stresses S;.: and Sy always act proportional or synchronous in phase the degrees of utilization <lBK,x and aBK,v arc to be inserted in Eq. (26.11) with the same (positive) signs *10. If they act always proportional or synchronous 1800 out of phase, however. the degrees of utilization aBK,x and aBK,yare to be inserted in Eq. (2.6.11) with oposite signs * II If the individual types of stress act nonproportional, that is neither proportional nor synchronous. the Eq. (2.6.9) to (2.6.11) are flat applicable and the procedure proposed in Chapter 5.10 is to be applied instead.
10 For example a tensile stress in direction x and a tensile stress in directions y that both result from the same external load affecting the component
II For example " tensile stress in direction x and it compressive stress in directions y that hath result riorn the same external load affecting the component.
3.1 Characteristic stresses
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses ~L!~B:~~~
3.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the static strength using local stresses is to be carried out *1.
It should be observed that not necessarily the component static strength is determined by a local failure occurring at a notch. Likewise a global failure occurring at a different, unnotched or moderately notched section of the component may be determining, Figure 3.0. L
K'.A
,
.... +._._,
F
.~ F
Figure 3.0.1 Different locations for a static failure occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure (8),
3.1 Characteristic stress values
Contents
Page 73
3,1.0
General
3,1,1 Characteristic stress values
3.1.1,0 General
3. L 1.1 Rodshaped (I D) components
3.1.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components 74
3.1.1.3 Blockshaped (3D) components 7S
3.1.0 General
According to this chapter the characteristic service stress values arc to be determined as clastic stresses,
Relevant arc the extreme maximum and minimum stresses (Jmux,ex and O'min,ex , '" of the individual stress components expected for the most unfavourable operating conditions and for special loads according to specification or due to physical limits *2. Both the
I The assessment of the static strength with local stresses hascd on Neuber's rule and the plasticlimit load, Chapter 33, is an approximation that has to be regarded ,IS provisional and therefore it should be applied with caution, Also the assessment of the static strength for welded components using structural stresses has to be regarded as provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution, as well.
2 In general the values amax,ex and amin,ex for the assessment of the static strength arc the extreme values of a stress history For the
3 Assessment of the static strength lIsing local stresses
maximum and minimum stresses can be positive or negative, It is assumed, that all stresses reach their extreme values simultaneously,
Elevated temperature
In case of elevated temperature the values am""",, , and (Jmm.<' , '" are relevant for a shortterm loading (related to the high temperature strength or high temperature yield strength),
For a longterm loading (related to the creep strength or I % creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in case of a constant (static) tensile stress (Jmax,cx equally distributed over the section of concern,
In all other cases of constant or variable loading the assessment will be more or less all the safe side if the values (J""",.<, , ... and Gmt!l .e x , ." refer to a stress distribution with a stress gradient, andJor if they refer to the peak values of a variable stress history. which arc of short duration only. while for the rest of time the stress is lower.
If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use of the longterm load bearing capacity of the component (because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved) an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present guideline, however.
Superposition
If several stress components act simultaneously at the reference point, they arc to be overlaid. For same type of stress (for example normal stress and normal stress, Gm'lx.ex,1 ' Gm'lx.ex,2, , .. ) the superposition is to be carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single stress value (Gmax,cx , .,,) exists for every type of stress *3 For different types of stress (for example normal stress and shear stress. or normal stress in direction x and normal
assessment of the fatigue strength a stress spectrum IS to be derived [rom that history consisting of stress cycle, of the amplitudes 0a,i and the mean values am,i . Chapter 2. L
The largest amplitude of this stress spectrum is 0a,1 ' and the related mean value is d'm..I . The related maximum and minimum values arc dma.x, I ~ om, I + Ga, I and amin.1 ~ am. I  da.1 ' The values 0max.ex and amin ex rnav be different from the values dmax, I and amin, I ' This is becaus~ extreme, very seldom occuring events are important only for the assessment of the static strength, but hardly for the assessment of the fatigue strength, In a stress spectrum which is supposed to apply lor normal service conditions they do not have to be considered therefore.
3 Stress components having different sign may cancel out each other in part or completely,
3.1 Characteristic stresses
74
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses
stress in direction y) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage, Chapter 3.6.
Stress components acting opposed to each other, and which do not always occur simultaneously, arc not to be overlaid however.
3.l.1 Characteristic stress values
3.1.1.0 General
Rodshaped (ID), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) as well as nonwelded and welded components arc to be distinguished.
For welded components the local stresses arc to be determined as structural stresses. An assessment of the static strength of welded components using effective notch stresses is not possible up to now *4.
When using local stresses it is not necessary that a well defined crosssection docs exist. Hence it cannot be presupposed that nominal stresses can be determined as well.
3.1.1.1 Rodshaped (I D) components Rodshaped ClD) nonwelded components
For rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components a normal stress 0zd '" 0 and a shear stress T, = T arc to be considered *5. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses arc
crmax,cx ~ Tmax,~x ~ crl11in~ex ~ Trnin;e.\: .
(3.1.1 )
Stresses of different sign (0max,ex positive, 0min,~x negative for instance) arc generally to be considered separately t6. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant.
4 See Figure 0.0.6 and D.O.7 for definition of structural stresses and of effective notch stresses. For effective notch stresses the assessment procedure has not been developed up to now.
5 For rodshaped (lD) component, the different types of stress (axial, bending, shear and/or torsion) may also occur independent of each other. This case is not considered in the following, however, as it is supposed that ° will contain all normal stresses and 1 will contain all shear stresses.
6 Particularly in the case of cast iron material, with different tension and compression strength values, and moreover because or the nonlinearclastic stressstrain characteristic of grey cast iron.
O'J._ ";:1::::::_
1: ,~/.::;,>,1)
.L < . .> ...... f'l /_~
// : '~::;pr~)/II <I
/ .' 1:ill,'l/,i ,L.~
1~.i1·.C"'~1.:I! ' o,
'1:1 r , II j..... __i_.
/ Ii'
r·· 1:1.
,/ I /
0"/1 ! .:
I .
L._,
Figure 3.1.1 Structural stress components 011. T,' 0 and T1 in welds. After DIN 18 SOD part 1.
Lell: But! weld. Right: Fillet weld, 'I1K structural stress is to be computed with the throat thickness a.
Rodshaped (In) welded components
For rodshaped (I D) welded components the local stresses (structural stresses only) arc generally to be determined for the weld lac and for the root of the weld separately *7.
For the weld toe the local stresses arc to be computed as for nonwelded components, Eq, (3.1.1).
For the root of the weld equivalent structural stresses have to be computed from the structural stresses resulting from the normal and shear loadings, Figure 3.1.1, *8
(3.1.2)
01. normal stress normal to the weld seam *9, ".! shear stress normal to the weld scam,
T,I shear stress parallel to the weld scam.
Twv in analogy.
The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent nominal stresses are
() max, "::X! \~"V and (J min, ~X~ wv '
(3.1.3)
Stresses of different sign (0rnax,cx,wv positive, 0min,cx.wv negative for instance) arc generally to be considered separately. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant.
7 For welded components in general an assessment of the static strength is to be earned out for the toe section and for the throat section, because the cresssectional areas may be different and because the strength behavior is evaluated in a different way. The assessment for the toe section is to be carried out as for nonwelded components. The assessment tor the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent structural stress (J\\,v .
8 According to DIN 18 800 part I. page 36. The structural stress (I. (nonual stress parallel to the orientation of the weld) is to be neglected.
9 Normally 0wv will result mainly from 0, . TwV in analogy
3.1 Characteristic stresses
75
3 Assessment of thc static strength using local stresses
3.1.1.2 Shellshal)cd (2D) components
The calculation for shellshaped (20) components can be applied also for blockshaped (3D) components, if the stresses ax. ov, T at the surface arc of interest only, otherwise Chapter 3.1.1.3 applies.
Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components
For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components normal stresses in the x and ydirections Ozd., = tT, and tTzd.y= c, as well as a shear stress 1, = 1 are to be considered. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
ama.x.cx.x ~ (Jma ... x,cx,y ~ "tma.x.cx ~ amin,cx.x , (j'min,e;;..y • Lmin,ex .
(3.1.4)
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses (negative) arc generally to be considered separately * 1 0 . For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6, the local stresses (structural stresses only) are in general to be determined separately for the weld toe and for the root of the weld '7.
For the weld toe the local stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components. Eq, (3.1.4).
For the root of the weld an equivalent structural stresses, tTwv,x , has to be computed from the structural stresses resulting from the loading in xdirection, Eq. (3.1.2) and Figure 3.1.1. Stresses (Jwv,y and LWV in analogy. The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent stresses are
tTmax.ex.wv.x and tTmin,cx,wv.y,'"
(3.1.5)
Stresses of different sign (O'max,cx,wv,x positive, Gmin.ex,wv,x negative for instance) arc generally to be considered separately. Tension and compression are generally to be considered separately. For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
3, L 1.3 Blockshaped (3D) components Blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components
For blockshaped (3~) nonwelded components the principal stresses O'I.zd = 0'1 , 0'2.zd = 02 and 03.zd = 0) are to be considered. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
10 Sec footnote'''. And moreover because the second normal stress cry may reduce the degree of utilization. .
01.max.ex , 02,max,ex . G),max.cx ' 01,min.e.\ . 02.rnin.ex , O').min.ex .
(3.1.6)
Note: Independent of the value of the stresses the directions of the stresses 01 and 0'2 arc parallel to the free surface, and direction 3 points normally to the surface into the interior of the component.
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses (negative) are generally to be considered separately * II.
Blockshaped (3D) welded components
For certain applications blockshaped (3~) components may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (20) welded components, if the stresses at the surface, ax, O'y and '(: , arc of interest only.
11 Sec footnote *6. An moreover because the second and/or third principle stress cr2 and 0) may reduce Ow degree of utilization.
3,2 Material properties
76
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
3.2 Material properties
IR32 EN.dol]
Contents
Page
3.2.0
General
3.2.1 Component values according to standards 77
3.2.1.0 General
3.2.1. J Component values according to standards of semifinished products or lest pieces .1.2.1.2 Component values according to
the drawing
3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values
3.2.2 Technological size factor
3.2.2.0 General
3.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter 3.2.2.2 Effective diameter
3.2.3 Anisotropy factor
3.2.4 Compression strength factor and
shear strength factor :; .2.4.0 General
3.2.4.1 Compression strength factor 3.2.4.2 Shear strength factor
3.2.5 Temperature factors
3.2.5.0 General
3.2.5.1 Normal temperature 3.2.5.2 Low temperature 3.2.5.3 Elevated temperature
3.2.0 General
According to this chapter the mechanical material properties like tensile strength Rill' yield strength R, and further characteristics for nonwelded and welded components are to be determined.
All mechanical material properties arc those of the material test specimen. Values according to standards, component values and component values according to standards are to be distinguished, Figure 3.2.1.
Material test specimen
In the context of this guideline the material test specimen is an unnotchcd polished round specimen of do'" 7,5 mm diameter * I
1 This definition is the basis of the present calculation, alihough specimens for tensile tests ruay usually have diameters different from 75 mill.
76
1.2.1
78
80
81
Figure 3.2,1 Values according to standards and component values according to standards, Rm and Rp, or values specified by drawings, Rm.! and Rp.l .
Top: All kinds of material except GG, Roo Rm.N, Rp ~~ R".N . Semilogarithmic decrease of the rnechanical matcrial properties with the effective diameter d'ff'
Bottom: GG, Ron :0 or 2: RncN Doublelogarithmic decrease of the
mechanical material properties with the effective diameter dol,.
Values according to standards
The values according to standards (R"'_N , Rm, Rp,N , Rp) correspond to an average probability of survival Pu = 97,5 (% and depend on the effective diameter ddf and on the technological size factor.
Component values
The component values (R,,, , R,,,.z , R, , RI',z ) are valid for the effective diameter doff of the component, they may correspond to different probabilities of survival PI) . however.
Special case of actual component values
If specific values for a component (Rm.I , Rp,I) have been determined experimentally, they normally apply to a probability of survival PI! = 50 {X, , and therefore they are valid only for the particular component, but not for the entirety of all those components. They may be used, for instance, for a subsequent assessment of the strength
3.2 Material properties
of the particular component in case of a service failure, if for that purpose all safety factors arc set to 1,00 in addition.
Component values according to standards
The component values according to standards (Rill, Rp) apply to an average probability of survival Po = 97,5 (% and are valid for the effective diameter. den, of the component. Their application is not limited to a particular component. and therefore they may be used for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of all those components.
To determine the tensile strength R, and the yield strength R" *2 the technological size factor, the anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be considered in general. Furthermore compression strength and shear strength values are to be considered.
3.2.1 Component values according to standards
3.2.1.0 General
The component values according to standards, Rill and R, . are to be determined from the values of semifinished products or of test pieces defined by standards, Rm•N and Rp.N , or from the component value specified in the drawing, Rm.z . As a special case the experimentally determined actual component values, RIIJ.l and Rp.l , can be applied.
For GG the yield strength is not defined and Eq. (3.2.1) is not applicable.
3.2.1. I Component values according to standards of semifinished products or of test pieces
The component values according to standards of the tensile strength, Rn , and of the yield strength, ~). are
R", '" Kd.lII . K,\' RIIl,N, R, '" Kd.p . KA Rp,N .
(3.2.1)
technological size factors, Chapter 3.2.2, anisotropy factor, Chapter 3.2.3,
values of the semifinished product or
of a test piece according to standards,
Chapter 5.1 ,
In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the tensile strength, Rm•N , is the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished
Kd.m• Kd.p KJ\
Rm,N, Rp,N
2 The term yield strength is used as a generalized term for the yield stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2 proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as aluminum alloys).
77
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
product *3 . in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it is the value from the test piece according to the material standard.
The yield strength. Rp.N ' is the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished product *3 or [or the test piece defined by the material standard *4
Moreover there are to be considered: [or compressive stresses the compression strength factor fo . Chapter 3,2.4. for shear stresses the shear strength factor C , Chapter 3.2.4. and for elevated temperature the temperature factors K1,1I1 , •..• Chapter 3.2.5.
3.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing The component value of the tensile strength, Rill, is
(32.2)
The component value according to the drawing R",] is the tensile strength of the material specified OIl the drawing. As the value Rm,z is normally verified by random inspection of small samples only *5. it is assumed to have a probability of survival less than Pc= 97.5 %. Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value RmI to a component value Rm that is expected to conform with the probability of survival of Po'" 97,5 'X ..
The yield strength RI' corresponding to the tensile strength Rill is *6 .
(3.2.3)
Kd,IIl' Kd.p Rm,N, Rp.N
technological size factors. Chapter 3.2.2, values of the semifinished product or
of a test pieces defined by standards, Chapter 5.1
3 If different dimensions of that semifinished product arc given by the standard.
4 A prnhability of survival f'(i c' 97.5 '!'" is assumed lor the component properties according to standard, RIll,N , Rp.N This probability of survival should also apply to the values Rm . Rp is calculated therefrom.
5 The value Rm,Z is checked by thrc c hardness measurements (n=3) for example. where every test has to reach or to exceed the required value. The probability of survival of the lowest of n ~ 3 tests may be estimated to 75 % (~ 1 _. li(n·'l) 1  li(3 'I) '" 0,75). and may be assigned to Rm,Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of 4% the conversion to P(i 97.5 % follows from Eq , (3.2.2).
6 A conversion proportional to Rp N I Rm N would not be correct since the technological size effect {, more pronounced for the yield strength than for the tensile strength.
3.2 Material properties
3.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm.I is known the value of the yield strength Rp.J may be computed from Eq. (3.2.3) with R; '" Rm.1.
3.2.2 Technological size factor 3.2.2.0 General
The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of the material strength values usually observed with increasing dimensions of the component. It is specified as a function of the effective diameter, Figure 3,2,1. It is different for nonwelded and for welded components *7
3.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter Nonwelded components
Steel lind cast iron materials
For GG the following technological size factor applies to the tensile strength: For deff ::; 7.5 mm
Kd,m'" 1,207.
for defl' > 7,5 mm *8
Kd,m'" 1 ,207 . (ddl/ 7.5 nun)  0,1922 .
(3.2.4)
(3.2.5)
For stainless steel within the dimensions given in material standards there is
Kd,m = Kd,p =1.
(3.2.7)
For all other kinds of steel and cast Iron materials the technological size factor is: For detl" ::; defl',N,m
Kd,rn = Kd,p = I, (3.2.8)
for d~ff;N,m < dell"::; ddI:max,tll *9: (3.2.9)
1 0, 7686, ad,1ll .Ig( dell /7, Srnm)
IO,7686·ad.m ,lg(deff.N.m /7,5mm)
for ddT ~ deff.rnax.m it is:
Kd,1ll = Kd.m (den;rnax,m).
(3.2.10)
deff'
deff·.N.m' ad,rn
effective diameter, Chapter 3.2.2.2 , constants, Table 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 .
Considcring the yield strength thc values Kd,m, dctr.N.rn, and ad,rn have to be replaced by the values Kd,p , ddJ;N.p , and ad,p (except for GG).
7 The influence factors according to Chapter 3.2.3 (KA ), Chapter 3.2.4 (fa, ft ) and Chapter 3.2.5 (KT,1l1' ... J are supposed to be valid lor both nonwelded and welded components.
8 Footnote an Eq. (3.2.6) cancelled. 9 0,7686 = 1 Ilg 20.
78
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
For milled steel there is ddf.max,m = dcft:max,p = 250 mm. For all other kinds of material there arc no upper limit values dctImax,
(3.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.
Aluminum alloys
For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of the tensile strength, R", , and of the yield strength, R". arc given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material and its condition, and depending on the thickness or diameter of the semifinished product. To these values the technological size factors KI,m = KLp = I apply.
For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as follows: For deff:::: deff,N.m = derr,N,p = 12 mm
Kd.m = Kd.p = I,
for 12 mm < deff < dCff.""Lx,m = dolT.,n"x.1' = 150 111m KJ.m = KJp = 1,1 . (delTl 7,5 nun) .0.2,
(3.2.12)
(3.2.13)
for delT~ d<ff.nliLx,m = de[f.tnax,p = ISO mm
(3.2.14)
Welded components * 10
For all kinds of material the technological size factor for the toe section and for the throat section of welded components is * II
(32.15)
For materials such as conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution.
3.2.2.2 Effective diameter
For components with a simple shape of the cross section  as far as a cross section may be defined  the effective diameter is given according to the cross section in Table 3.2.3.
In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is specified in the material standards.
For the determination of the effective diameter defy two cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.
Table 3.2.1 Constants dcrf,N,m, ... , and adm' "" for steel
1 0 Valid for stcc], C<L,\ iron material and aluminum alloys
! 1 For structural steel and fine grain structural s;ccl according to DIN 18 800, part 1, pnge 40.
3.2 Material properties
79
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Table3.2.2 Constants dcrLN,ll1 , .... and adrn, ... , for cast iron materials
Table 3.2.1 Constants doff.N•m, ... , and ad"" ... , for steel
Values in the upper row refer to the tensile strength Rm . Values in the lower row refer 10 the yield strenglh Rp .
Kinds of material" I dctr.N.m a
d.HI
ddT,N,p a
d.p
in mm ~·2
Nonalloyed structural steel 40 0,15
DINEN 10025 40 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 70 0,2
DIN 17 102 40 0,3
Fine grain structural steel 100 0,25
DINEN 10 113 30 0,3
Heat treatable steel, q&t 16 ,'3 0,3
DIN EN 100831 16 0.4
Heat treatable steel, n 16 0, I
DIN EN 100831 16 0,2
Case hardening steel, bh 16 0,5
DIN EN 100831 16 0,5
Nitriding steel, q&t 40 0,25
DIN EN 10 0831 40 0,30
stainless steel  
DIN EN 10 0882 ,'4
Steel for big forgings, q&t 250 0,2
SEW 550.;·5 250 0,25
Steel for big forgings, n 250 0
SEW 550 250 0,15 q&t= quenched a. tempered, u =normalized, bh= blank hardened
v I Within the kinds of material there are the types of material.
~~2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except for nunalloyed structural steel) see Table 5.1.2 to Table 5.1.7 .
.;.2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo 16: deff,N,m = 40 mm, values ad,1ll and ad,p as given above.
.;4 No technological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in the material standards.
.;.5 For 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 or 33 NiCrMo 145; deff.Nan = derf,N,p = 5f22rt:~1.[)~.I.£~9~:l"Irt'~_rC:'p:,"'1l1\l_c~~~~Lm and <!(!_,p as given above.
Case 1
Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel, of case hardening steel, of nitriding steel both nitrided or quenched and tempered, of heat treatable cast steel, of GGG, GT or GG.
The effective diameters detl from Table 3.2,3, Case 1, apply,
In general it is:
dell' = 4 . Y I 0 , (3.2. 16)
Y, 0 Volume and surface
of the section of the component considered.
Values in the upper row refer 10 the tensile strength Rill ' Values in the lower row refer 10 the yield slrenglh Rp .
Kinds of material dC([N,nl ild,m
ddtN.p ad,p
in nun
Cast steel 100 0,15
DIN 1681 100 (U
Heat treatable steel casting, 300 ,'I 0,15
DlN 17205 30n o.s
Heat treatable steel casting.
q&t, DIN 17 205, 100 0,3
types ,,2 No. I. 3, 4 100 0.3
as above 200 0,15
types d No.2 200 0,3
as above 200 0,15
types No.5, 6, 8 200 0.3
as above 500 {US
types No.7, 9 500 0,3
GGG 60 0,15
DIN EN 1563 60 0,15
GT .;..4 IS 0.15
DlN EN 1562 15 0,15 (1&1= quenched mid tempered
e I For GS30 Mn 5 or GS25 CrMo 4 there is deff,N,m = 800111111 or 500 mill respectively, values ad,m and ad.p as given above.
.;.2 Material numbers see Table 5.1.11.
>3 Valid for strength level V I, for loyd V 11 deff.N .m = dcff.N ,p 100 mm with values ad,m and ad.p as above.
ease 2
Components (also forgings) made of nonalloyed structural steel, of fine grained structural steel, of normalized quenched and tempered steel, of cast steel, or of aluminum materials.
The effective diameter deff is equal to the diameter or the wall thickness of the component Table 3.2.3, case 2.
Rodshaped (ID) components made of quenched and tempered steel
The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the heat treatment is performed.
In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment the effective diameter deff is the largest diameter of the rod. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the effective diameter deff is defined as the local diameter in question. The diameter deff according to the first sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side.
3.2 Material properties
Tablc 3.2.3 Effective diameter ddT
80
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
The compression strength factor allows for the fact that in general the material strength is higher in compression than in tension.
Steel and cast iron material The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the
The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is material strength in shear is different from the tensile strength.
No. Cross section ddr defr
Case 1 Case 2
1 ~ d d
2 ~ 2s s
~.__1
J 2s s
4 ib 2b s s

bi s
5 bY~ hI b b 3.2.3 Anisotropy factor
The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower transverse to the main direction of milling or forging than in the main direction of processing. It is to be supposed that the specified strength values are valid for the main direction of processing.
In case of multiaxial stresses, and also with shear stress, the anisotropy factor is
KA = I.
(3.2.17)
KA= 1. (3.2.18)
For milled steel and forgings *i2 the anisotropy factor in the main direction of processing is
KA = 1.
(3.2.19)
For the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 3.2.4 is to be applied.
12 With material properties depending on the direction.
Aluminum alloys
The anisotropy factor fix cast aluminum alloys is
(3.2.20)
For forgings '13, for which material standards specify the strength values as depending on the testing direction, the anisotropy factor is not to be applied:
(3.2.21)
For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the strength values in the main direction of processing is
(3.2.22)
for the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 3.2.4 is to be applied.
Table 3.2.4 Anisotropy factor KA .
Steel:
Rm up to 600 from 600 from 900 above
in Mpa to 900 to 1200 1200
KA 0,90 0,86 0,83 0,80 Aluminum allovs:
Rm up to 200 from 200 from 400
in Mpa to 400 to 600
KA 1,00 0,95 0,90 3.2.4 Compression strength factor and shear strength factor
3.2.4.0 General
3.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression strength factor is
(3.2.23)
For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced by the compression strength Re.m and the yield strength in compression Rc,p:
Rc.m = fo . Rm , Re, F = I, . Rp ,
(3.2.24)
3.2 Material properties
81
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
fd compression strength factor, Table 3.2.5,
Rm, Rp tensile strength and yield strength, see Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3).
The values Rc,m and Rc,p are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength, as only the compression strength factor fd is needed. *13.
Table 3.2.5 Compression strength factor I, and shear strength factor ft
Kinds of material r, fa ft
for for " 1
tension compress.
Case hardeu'u steel I 1 0,577
Stainless steel I I 0,577
Forging steel 1 1 0,577
Other kinds of steel I I 0,577
GS I 1 0,577
GGG I 1,3 0,65
GT 1 1,5 0,75
GG 1 2,5 0,85
Wrought aluminum 1 1 0,577
Cast aluminum 1 1,5 0,75 .;.1 0,5 77 ~ 1 / J3 , according to v, M ises criterion,
__ al.!;.':'"valid for we.I.~"d compofj':.'.l.t:':.__ __ . .. ...
3.2.4.2 Shear strength factor
For shear stresses the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength Rs,m and the yield strength in shear Rs,p:
Rs,m '" f, . Rill , Rs,p '" ft . Rp ,
f, shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5
Rm, Rp tensile strength and yield strength, Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3).
(3.2.25)
The values Rs,m and Rs,p are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the strength, as only the shear strength factor f, is needed.
lJ'I"1 tJ .
. cnsi e streng 1 and YIeld strength in compression arc supposed to he
positive. Rc,m. Rc,p > 0, therefore for compression fa > I.
3.2.5 Temperature factors 3.2.5.0 General
The temperature factors allow for the fact that the material strength decreases with increasing temperature.
Normal temperature, low temperature and higher temperature are to be distinguished.
3.2.5.1 Normal temperature Normal temperatures are as follows:
for fine grain structural steel from 40"C to 600 C, for other kinds of steel from 40°C to + 100°C,
for cast iron materials from 25°C to + 10{)°e,
for agehardening aluminum alloys
from 25°C to 50°e,
for nonagehardening aluminum alloys from  25°C to !OOcC.
For normal temperature the temperature factors are
KT,tll '" '" = 1.
(3.2.26)
3.2.5.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside the field of application of this guideline,
3.2.5.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures  lip to 500°C for steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for aluminum materials  the influence of the temperature on the mechanical properties is to be considered, In case of elevated temperature the tensile strength Rm is to be replaced by the high temperature strength Rm,T Of by the creep strength Rm,Tt . The yield strength Rp is to be replaced by the high temperature yield strength Rp,T or by the 1 % creep limit Rp.Tt *14.
For the shortterm values Rm,T and Rp,T as well as tor the longterm values Rm.Tt and Rp,Tt the Eq. (3.2.27) to (3.2.35) apply.
14 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in cornbination with the safety factors at the assessment stage.
3.2 Material properties
Shortterm values
For GG a yield strength value is not defined and therefore the value Rp,T does not exist.
Short term values of the static strength are
Rm.T = KT,m . Rill ' Rp,T = KT,p . Rp ,
KT.m, Kt,p. temperature factors,
Eq. (3.2.28) to (3.2.33),
Rm, Rp tensile strength and yield strength, Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2,3),
(3.2.27)
The values Rm,T and Rp,T are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength, as only the temperature factors KT,lll and KT,p are needed.
Steel and cast iron materials
According to the temperature T the temperature factors KT,1l1 and KT,p apply as follows:
for fine grain structural steel, T > 60°C *15:
Kr.on = KT.p = 1  1,2' 10.3. T 1°C, (3.2,28)
for other kinds of steel *16, T > 1000e, Figure
1.2.2: (3.2.29)
Kr,m = KT.r = I  1,7 . 10.3. (T I °C  100),
for GS, T> 1000e: (3.2.30)
KT.m = KT.p "" 1 ~ 1,5 . 10 3. (T / °c  1(0),
for GGG, GT and GG, T> 100°C. Figure 3.2.2:
Kr.rn = Kr.p = I ~ aT,m . (10 3. T / "C) 2. (3.2.31)
aT.m Constant
Eq. (3.2.28) to (3.2.31) are valid from the indicated temperature T up to 5000C. For a temperature above 350°C they are valid only, if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
Table 3.2.6 Constant aT,m .
Kind of material GGG GT GG
aT,m 2,4 2,0 1.6 15 There is all insignificant discontinuity at T ._. (il) "c.
1 G For stainless steel no values arc known up to now.
82
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
O,5~~'r~
Rm.T I High temperature
/ ~. i7 strength Rm•T
!,,,....p,f Rp,T Rp High temperature
~. Rm . jp yield strength R".T
! LI 1% creep limit Rp•l,
? I Rp,Tt_2._!_
1\ Rp Rrn jpt
I '
, I Creep Strength Rm•T1
J{m.TI P:;;:;'jmt
0,3
o ,2 Ii_....j,.....~_+_
o
o
100 200 300 400 500 Tin'C
1.2.2
High temperature strength R"'.T
Creep Strength R,,,.T!
Rm It ~'jmt
o
o 100 200 300 400 500
J.2.2b
Tin'C
Figure 3.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of nonalloyed structural steel and of GG plotted for comparison.
Safety factors after Chapter 3.5 .
Rm.T I Rm ~ KT,m . Rm.Tt I Rrn '" K·n.m '
Top: ~on~t1lo:'cd ',tnlctural s.t~c1 wi.t~' Hp! I~m l(c Rm 0,65. Rm,I,Rp,I ,IS well as Rm,lt.Rp,It for(·····IO h,
Jrn ~ 2,0, .ip ~ jmt 1.5. Jpt '" 1,0.
Bottom: GG,
RIll,T as well as Rm.Tt for ( 105 h.
jrn " 3.0, jillt 2,4.
3.2 Material properties
83
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Aluminum alloys
According to the temperature T the temperature factors Kr,1ll and Kr,p [or aluminum alloys apply as follows:
for agehardening aluminum alloys: T> 50 "C.
Figure 3,2,3 (3,2,32)
Kr,I11 "" 1  4,5 . 103. (T / °C  50) ;:: 0,1.
Kr.l' "" I  4,5 . 10 3 . (T I °C  50) ?:: (l.L,
for nonagehardening aluminum alloys:
T> 100°C, Figure 3_2.3 (3_2.33)
KT.m"" 14,5 ·In3• (T/OClOO) 2': n,!.
KTp"" 14,5' 103. (T/OClOO) 2': 0,1,
Eq. (3.2.32) and (3.2.33) are valid [rom the indicated temperature T up to 200°e, and in general only, if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
0,5
fhgh temperature st re ngth Rrn, T
Rm,T 1
R ...  j", 0,4 I+\\+:>~+~:l Creep Strength
I R .... TI Rm,TI 1 "R;" jml
0,3
0,2
0,] . crW,zd, T tt\j4.t'I.i aW .• e.r O'W,.d
aw.ul '~'jD
o
30G
100
200
250
150
50
1.:U
Tf'C
Figure 3.2.3 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison.
Static strength values:
Rm,T! Rm'" kr,m ~ Rp,T / Rp ~ KT,p . Rm,Tl! Rill = KTt,m ~ Rp,Tt! Rp ~ KTt,p .
Rrn,Tt. Rp_T! lor t ~~ 105 h
Fatigue limit for completely reversed stress (N c 106 cycles):
ClW.,d / R", 0.30; Gw,,(T i Clw.,d Kr,D'
Safety factors according to Chapter 3.5 and 4_5:
Longterm values
Long term values of the static strength are
(3.2.34)
Rm,TI = K'n,m . Rm, Rp,TI = KTI•P • R, ,
Kn•m , Kr"p temperature factors,
Figure 3_2_2 and 3,2_3, Eq. (3.2_35),
Rm, R, tensile strength and yield strength, Eq. (3.2.1) to (3.2.3),
The values Rm.T, and Rl',Tt are not needed explicitly for an assessment of the static strength, as only the temperature factors Kn.m and Kn,p are needed.
Steel and cast iron material
For GG a yield strength value is not defined and therefore the value Rp,TI does not exist.
Depending on the temperature T and on the operation time t at that temperature the temperature [actors KTt,m and KTt,papply, Figure 3.2.2 *17
2
K. '" 1 ()(aTt,m+ bTl,m' I'm+ n,m . Pm )
1t,m
2
~ (aTt,p+bTt,p,Pp+cn.p·Pp)
KTt,p  10
Pm = 10  4. (T I C + 273) (Cm + 19«( I h)),
(3.2.35)
Pp =IO4'(T/C+273) (Cn1+lg(t/h»)_ aT[,m, ... , Cp constants, Table 3_2.7,
t operation lime in hours h at the temperature T_
Eq. (3.2_35) applies to temperatures [rom approximately 350°C up to 500°C, but only for stresses acting on long terms. In general they do not apply to temperatures below about 350°C * l8
17 LarsenMillerparameter P and LarsenMillerconstant C.
18 Because the values would be unrealistic for temperatures T < 350 "C, where the values KT,m and KT.p are relevant instead.
3.2 Material properties
Table 3.2.7 Constants <lTun ..... Cp ~l
Steel Non Fine grain Heat
alloyed structural treatable
structural steel steel
steel
(>2 ~ 3 v4 ,5
Creep strength
<t:rUn  0,994 1, 127  3,001
b·1"t1ll 2.485 2,485 3.987
Cn III  1,260  1,260  1.423
Cm 20 20 24,27
1 % Creep limit
(Jn 1  5'() 19  6,352  3.252
b'n 1 7,227 9.305 5.942
Con 1  2,636  3,456  2.728
Cll 20 20 17.71 Cast iron GS GGG. GT GG
material ...:>6 ·,7 ·:8
Creep strength
aTt rtl 7.524 2.50 1,46
bn III 9.894  1,83 2,36
C'I'I III  3.417 0 0,90
Cm 19,57 20 25
1 % Creep limit
aTt,n  10.582 0,12 
bn.n 8.127 1,52 
CTLn  L607  1,28 
Cn 35,76 18  .> I Approximate values. applicable from about 350°C to 500DC.
·:2 Nol valid for stainless steel.
:J Initially tor St 38. Rill 360 Ml'a. similar to St 37.
·;4 Initially Jor I! 52, Rm .• 490 ~Il'a, similar to SIE 355: the absolute values Rm.Tt arc the same as lor St 38.
d lnitiallv for C 45 N (normalized) with Rm 620 Ml'a. For C 35 N. with Rm 550 Ml'a the constants 3,001 and .. 3.252 arc to he replaced by ·2.949 and), 198. The absolute values Rm.Tt arc the same as for C45 N .
. ;.(, Initially for GSC 25 with R'll 440 i\tl'a.
;7 Initially tor GGCi40 with R'n 423 MPa
84
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Aluminum alloys
For aluminum alloys and t = lOs hours KII.", is given by Figure 1.2.4 ,,<19
1,0
\
\
\
\
I '4 R""Tt I R".
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
°
RTIOO
200
300 400
Tf"C
Figure 3.2.4 Temperature factor KrUll R",.Tt I Rill for aluminum alloys and t = lO5 hours.
The given curve is the same as in Figure 3.23. except that the factor (I .' jill ) is different.
19 The temperature factor Kt,p is not defined up to now. It may be assumed, however, as it is essential for the assessment of the static strength, that the term Rp,Tti jpt is more or less equal to Rm,Tt / imt ' sec Figure 1.2.2 (required safety factorsjpt ~ 1,0 andjrnt ~ 1,5).
A LarsenMiller equation similar to E'I' (3.2.32) or (3.2.33) applicable to derive the values of KTt III and KTt according to temperature T and operation time T has not been specific!for aluminum alloys up (0 now.
3.3 Design parameters
85
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses
3.3 Design parameters
Contents
Page
3.3.0 General
3.3.1 3.3.LO 3.3.Ll 3.3.1.2
Design factors General
Nonwelded components Welded components
Section [actors
Plastic notch factors Weld factor (Xw
Constant KNL
3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.3.5
3.3.0 General
According to this chapter the design parameters are to be determined.
3.3.1 Design factors 3.3.1.0 General
Nonwelded and welded components arc to be distinguished. They can be both rodshaped (10), shellshaped (20) and blockshaped (3D).
3.3.1.1 Nonwelded components
The design factors of rodshaped (10) nonwelded components for normal stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress are
KSK,a = I (Hpl,a . KNL), KSK,1 = I I I1pl,1 .
The design [actors of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for normal stress (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear arc
(3.3. I)
KSK, ax = I I (npl,cr . KNL), KSK, cry '" 1 I (Upl,a . KNL), KSK,t '" I / npl,t .
The design [actors of blockshaped (3D) nonwelded components for the principle stresses (tension or compression) in the directions 1, 2 and 3 (normal to the surface of the component) *1 are
(3.3.2)
KSK.al = 1 I (npl,a . KNL), KSK,a2'" I I (npl,a . KNL), KSK.cr3 = I I KNL. * I,
npl,a section factor, Chapter 1.3.2,
KNL constant for GG, Chapter 3.3.4
(3.3.3)
85
3.3.1.2 Welded component'>
For welded components the design factors are generally to be determined separately [or the toe and for the root of the weld,
87
For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.
For the root of the weld of rodshaped (10) welded components the design factors for normal stress (tension or compression) and [or shear stress arc
KSK,a = II (npl,O" c/'w' KNrJ, (33'+)
KSK,t = I I (npl,t . (X,,) .
For the root of the weld of shellshaped (20) welded components the design factors for norma! stress (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear are
88
KSK,ax = 1 I (npl,ax . C1:w' KNL ), KSK,ay = I I (HpJ,ay . (I,w' KNL ), KSK,t = 11 (npl;I;' (Xw),
I1pI,O',... section [actor, Chapter 3.3.2
c/'w weld factor, Chapter 3.3.4.
KNL constant for GG, Chapter 3.3.5
(3,3.5)
Weld factors (xw are given for tension, for compression, for shear and fix torsion of the throat section.
For certain applications blockshaped (3D) components may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses at the surface (Jx, (Jy and r are of interest only.
3.3.2 Section factors
The section factors HpLa ' ... allow for the influence of the stress gradient in connection with the shape of the cross section on the static strength of the component, Figure 1.3. I. They serve to make best use of the load carrying capacity by accepting some yielding as the outside fiber stress exceeds the yield strength.
An essential condition is the existence of a stress gradient of the stress (J and/or T normal to the surface of the component, Figure 3.3.1. A stress gradient parallel to the surface is not considered [or the section [actor * I.
1 For the stress components cr, • G'y. 1:, CYl and U1 the stress gfadi~!H of interest is normal to the direction of the stress, Figure 3.3. J . A stress gradient of a., it is not considered and npl,,) I. because the stress gradient as defined above is parallel to C'iJ .
3,3 Design parameters
n :::::(TrrLr
pl,l;" R
,
n I.~.;Z
K
,.,
=;»:: I
dependent .
on design and loading
[~rH high
o 1
10
:l,J.1
Figure 3.3.1 Definition of the section factor llpl,a of a notched component, for instance.
Top: Dt:!(ail of the component. Yidd
static strength for normal stress
llpl,a = <"!SK / Rp , load F.
Continuous curve: Fictitious distribution of the elastically computed stress. Curve limited to Rp: Real stress distribution providing elastic idealplastic material behavior.
strength Rp , component (JSK section factor
Bottom: Stressstrain curve: of the component {rei alive: scales). Plastic notch factor Kp,a ' limit value of total strain f:c11r , Young's modulus E.
•..•............................................................
Surface hardened components
The section factors arc not applicable if the component has been surface or case hardened , see Table 2.3.5 *2:
llpl,(J =
1.
(3.3.6)
Steel and cast iron material
For GG as well as for types of GT or GGG with small elongation, A3 < 8 'X, or A5 < 8 %, the section factors arc *J:
npl.cr = '"> = I.
(3.3.7)
2 A hard surface layer  for example as a result of case hardening and particularly at notches  may ohserve cracks when yielding occurs because of the limited plasticity of the hardened surface layer.
Possihly this rule is too far on the ,ate side, as npl I, I is allowed lor case hardened shafts according 10 the recent DIN 743 (launched in 20()O)
86
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses
For austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition according to Table 5.1.8 the section factors for normal stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress arc *4
(3.3.8)
llpl,(J = Kp.cr ' npl,t '" Kp,! .
For all other kinds of material the section factors for
normal stress and for shear stress are *5 *G
E
npl.a'" MIN (JE'~;el1r I Rp : Kp.(J)' I1pl,t = MIN (JE,certr / Rp ; Kp,!).
Young's modulus, Table 3.3.1,
limit value of lata I strain, Table 3.3. L
(."U.9)
Certr Rp
Kp,t, Kp,!
yield strength. Chapter 3.2, plastic notch factors.
Aluminum alloys
For cast aluminum alloys as well as for wrought aluminum alloy with small elongation. A < 8 %. the section factors are *3:
npl,cr "' ... "" I.
(3.3.10)
For ductile wrought aluminum alloys, A ~ 8 %, the section factors arc to be determined from Eq. (3.3.9).
Table 3.3.1 Young's modulus E and limit values of total strain C"rtr .
Kinds of material Steel GS GGG GT i Al
alloys
105 , E / MPa 2, I 2, I 1,7 1,8 I 0,70
ECrIr I % ,;. I 5 5 2 ~. 2 2 I 2 ·;·3 «I fcrtr! % = 5 means f:c,ir OC" 0,05
,·2 Valid for :\, 12.5 % c For A5 2: 12.5 % there is f:cl1r 4 %. ,·3 Valid for A" 12,5 % . For A 2: 12,5 % there is "cltr 5 ')'0.
3 Because of the low plasticity of tlw," materials,
4 Because of the high ductility of austenitic steel in the solution annealed condition the plastic notch factors Kp,n and Kp:r arc relevant instead of the material dependent section factors.
5 :vHN !HCanS thnt the smaller value from the right side or the equation is valid.
(j Section factor based on Ncuherx formula.
3.3 Design parameters
87
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses
3.3.3 Plastic notch factors
Table 3 3 2 Plastic notch factors K and K
The section factors according to Eq. (3.3.8) and (33.9) arc limited by the plastic notch factors Kp,c; and Kp:r that depend on the plastic limit load:
plastic limit load
Kp,c; , Kp:t = '~
elastic limit load
(3,3.11)
The elastic limit load for normal stress (and for shear stress) is defined as the load for which the maximum local stress exceeds the yield stress.
The plastic limit load of a component may be obtained most reliable from an clasticplastic finite clement analysis. To reduce the computing effort for such an analysis a simplified clasticidealplastic stress strain curve may be used and the finite element mesh may be less fine than for computing notch stresses,
Approximately the plastic limit load may be derived as follows:
Definition and plotting of the cross section which will determine the limit state.
Entering the yield stresses o '" ± Rp and T '" ± f~' Rp into the plotted cross section (f, from Table 3.2.5). Balancing the areas of the section under + Rp and
Rp to obtain a similarity between these stresses and the external loading situation.
in general realization of the described procedure is not easy and the formulation of an appropriate algorithm is difficult.
Particular case
In case of a component for which nominal stresses may be defined for the section of concern, and the corresponding stress concentration factors for tension or compression, for bending, for shear and for torsion arc known *7 *8, the plastic notch factors are as follows:
Kp,c; '" Kt,zd,
Kp.c; = Kp,b . Kl.b ' Kp,~ = Kt,s .
Kp,~ = Kp,l . Kl,l .
Kl.zd, stress concentration factor, Chapter 5.2,
Kp,h plastic notch factors, Table 3.3,2.
It has to be observed, however. that the soderived plastic notch factors only apply to the notched section considered and not to the component as a whole. Therefore other sections may have to be considered in addition, see Chapter 3.n and Figure 3.0. I.
(3.3.13)
7 Usually stress concentraction factors do nor exist in combination with local stresses.
8 The stress cunccntration factors K .. u and K,., given in Chapter 5.12 for a substitute structure arc intended to be used in Chapter 4.3.1.1 only and shou ld not be used in the present context.
. , c "'P.(T (_ 1 ~ ,
Cross section Bending Torsion
Kp,b Kp.t
rectangle ·,1 1.5 
circle 1,70,;,2 1.33 d
circular ring 1,27 ,>4 1,'5
I section or box ,'6  ~·I or plate, ,c21,70o·IGi(3·IT),
,,4 thinwalled, 1,27 .c 4/ IT.
,,5 thinwalled, otherwise there is 1 (d! D)3 Kp,1 = 1,33
1(d/D)4
d 1.33 4/3.
(33.14)
d. D inner and outer diameters, 1 (b .' B) ·(hi 11)2
],5 '.. ·1
1 (b I B)·(h ill)'
(3.3.15)
3.3.4 Weld factor Uw
The weld factor (J..w accounts for the effect of a weld. It applies to the root of the weld of welded components only, Table 3.3.3 *9.
Table 3.3.3 Weld factor c!.w .;.J .
Type of RmS: Rm >
Joint Weld quality
stress 360 MPa 360 MPa
full all Compression
penetration ,·2
weld verified 1,0 i.o
or with Tension 1,0
hack weld not
verified
partial "II Compression 0,95 0.80
penetration 0(" or 1),80
fillet weld Tcnsinn
all all Shear
butt weld ~·3 Tension 0.55
0,55 '> 1 According 10 DIN 18800 part i. T"blc 21 and Eq. (75)
'>2 For aluminium alloys (independent of 1<,,, ) the values typed in boldface should be applied for the time being.
'>3 Butt weld, of sectional steel horn St 372 and USt 372 with it
16 nUll.
9 For the toe of a weld the calculation is to be carried out as for non, welded components.
3.3 Design parameters
88
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses
3.3.5 Constant KNL
The Constant KNL allows for the nonlinear clastic stress strain characteristic of GG in tension and compression or in bending.
For all kinds of material except for GG there is
KNL == 1.
For GG the values
(3.3.16)
(3.3.17)
apply to the tension side of the cross section (tension or tension from bending).
The reciprocal values
KNL.Dmck = I / KNL.7.lIg
(3.3.18)
apply to the compression side of the cross section (compression or compression in bending).
Values of the KNL.7.ug and KNL,Druck from Table 3.3.4.
Table 3.3.4 Constant KN[. d.
Type of GG GG GG GG GG GG
material 10 IS 20 25 30 35
KNL.7.ug 1,15 US 1,10 1,10 1,05 1,05
KNL,Druck 0,87 0,87 0,91 0,91 0,95 0,95 ~. I For unnotchcd and slightly notched components at tension or compression there is KNL c·· 1.
JA Component strength
89
3 Assessment of the static strength usinj; local stresses
3.4 Component strength
/R34 EN.doL1
3.4.2 Welded components
Contents
Pagc
3.4.0 General
3.4.1 Nonwelded components 3.4.2 Welded components
3.4.0 General
According this chapter the local values of the component static strength are to be determined.
Nonwelded and welded components are to be distinguished. They can be both rodshaped (Hr), shellshaped (20), or blockshaped (3D).
3.4.1 Nonwelded components
The local values of the component static strength of rodshaped (10) components for normal stress (tension or compression) and for shear stress arc *] *2
Cl"SK = fa . Rm I KSK,a , 1SK = f,' ROll KSK, •.
The local values of the component static strength of shellshaped (20) components for normal stresses (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
(3.4.1)
Cl"SK,;>; = fa . Rm I KSkax , Cl"SK,), = fa . Rm I KSK,ay , 1:SK = f,' Rill I KSK,"(·
compression strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4, shear strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4,
tensile strength, Chapter 3.2.1,
design factor, Chapter 3.3.1.
(3.4.2)
The local values of the component static strength of blockshaped (3D) components for the principal stresses (tension or compression) in the directions I, 2 and 3 arc
Cl"1,SK = fa' Rill I KSK,a] . Cl"2,SK = fa . Rm I KSK.a2 , Cl"3.SK = f~ . Rm I KSK,a3 ,
compression strength factor, Chapter 3.2.4. tensile strength, Chapter 3.2. L
design factor, chapter 3.3.1.
(3.4.3)
Rill KSK.a1 '"
I The component static strength values arc different for normal stress and lor shear stress, and moreover they arc different due to different section factors according to the type of stress.
2 Basically the tensile strength Rm is the reference value of static stre ngth, even i f in the case of a low Rp! Rm rati 0 the yield strength is to be used lor the assessment ofthe static strength, a bet that is accounted for ill Chapter 1. 5. 5
For welded components the strcngth values arc generally to be determined separately for the toe and for the root of the weld.
89
For the toe of the weld the calculation is to be carried out as for nonwelded components.
For the root of the weld of rodshaped (ID) welded components the local values of the component static strength for normal stress (tension or compression) as well as for shear stress are
(JSK = fo . Rm I KSK,o ' 1:SK = ft . Rill I KSK t .
For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the local values of the component static strength for normal stresses (tension or compression) in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress are
(JSK,x = fa . Rm I KSK,ax , (JSK.y = fo . Rm I KSK,ay , TSK = f,' Rml KSK."
compression strength factor. Chapter 3.2.4, shear strength factor, Chapter 3 .2.4.
tensile strength, Chapter 3.2. L
design factor, Chapter 3.3. I.
(3.4.5)
Rm
KSK, a, ...
For certain applications blockshaped (30) components may be welded at the surface, for example by surfacing welds. Then the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) welded components, if the stresses at the surface ax , (Jy and 1: are of interest only.
3.5 Safety factors
90
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses
3.5 Safety factors
!R35 EN. docl
Contents
Page
3.5.0 3.5.1
General Steel
3.5.2 Cast iron materials
3.5.2.0 General
3.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials 3.5.2.2 Nonductile cast iron materials
3.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys
3.5.3.0 General
3.5.3.1 3.5.3.2 3.5.4
Ductile wrought aluminum alloys Nonductile wrought aluminum alloys Cast aluminum alloys
Global safety factor
3.5.5
3.5.0 General
According to this chapter the safety factors are to be determined *1.
The safety factors arc valid under the condition that the design loads are reliably determined on the safe side and that the material properties correspond to an average probability of survival of Po = 97,5 % *2
The safety factors may be reduced under favorable conditions, that is depending on the probability of occurrence of the characteristic stress values in question and depending on the consequences of failure.
The safety factors are valid both for nonwelded and welded components.
The safety factors given in the following arc valid for ductile and for nonductile materials. In this respect any types of steel are ductile materials, as well as cast iron materials and wrought aluminum alloys with an elongation As?:. 12.5 'x" while GT, GG and cast aluminum alloys arc always considered as nonductile materials here, *}
3.5.1 Steel
Safety factors applicable to the tensile strength and to the yield strength, to the creep strength and to the creep limit are given in Table 3.5.1.
I The ~a!(:ty 1;l(tors in Chapter 1.5 are the sarne . hut with the difference. that nonductile cast iron materials lind nonductile aluminum alloys arc considered here as well.
3 AI! types of GT, GG and cast aluminum alloys have elongatlOllS A, 12,5 <,,,, and arc considered as nonductile materials here. Wrought aluminum nlloys with elongations /\:; ':,. 12,5 qi~ arc considered as nonductile materials. too. FOI nonductile materials the assessment or the static strength is to he carried out witn IOL.'al stresses.
Table 3.5.1 Safety factors j'll and jp for steel (not for GS) and for ductile wrought aluminum alloys (A<;> 12 5 '%)
90

Jm d Consequences of failure
.ip {·2 severe moderate
jml ..:,J
·;·5
.lpt ~·4
high 2,0 1,75
1,5 1,3
Probability of 1.5 /,3
occurrence of 1.0 1,0
the characteristic low 1.8 LG
service stress ·:·6 1,35 1,2
values 1,35 1.2
t.o t.o 91
92
,. I referring to the tensile strength Rm or to the strength at elevated temperature RmT ,
,·2 referring to the yield strength Rp O[ to the hot yield strength Rp.T , ·;·3 referring to the creep strength Rm, Tt ,
,·4 referring to the creep I imi t Rp, Tt .
{o5 moderate consequencc, of failure of a less important component in the sense of "no catastrophic "fleets" being associated with a failure; for example because of a load redistribution towards other members of a statically undeterminate system. Reduction by approximately 15 %.
",6 or only infrequent occurrences of the characteristic service stress values. for example due 10 an application of proof loads or due to loads ~urit1g an iI$~~mbling opc_ra.tion. Reduc~~?!.~ by aJlPro,illl'~~ly J 0 !<~:""
3.5.2 Cast iron materials
3.5.2.0 General
Ductile and nonductile cast iron materials are to be distinguished.
3.5.2.1 Ductile cast iron materials
Cast iron materials with an elongation AS ?:.12,5 % are considered as ductile, in particular all types of GS and some types of GGG (not OT and not GO). Values of elongation see Table 5.1.12.
Safety factors for ductile cast iron materials are given by Table 3.5.2. Compared to Table 3.5.1 they are higher because of an additional partial safety factor .iF that accounts for inevitable but allowable defects in castings. The factor is different for castings that have been subject to nondestructive testing or have not *4.
4 In mechanical engineering cast components arc of standard quality for which if further reduction of the partial SiI[(:IY factor to jF = 1,0 docs not seem possible up to nov ... ·.
A safcry factor jr = 1.0 may be applied to high quality cast components in the aircraft industry however. Those high quality cust components have to meet special demands and (corn 'd pngc 91)
3,5 Safety factors
Table 3,5,2 Safety factors jm and jp for ductile cast iron materials (GS; GGG with A5:::: 12,5 %) ,,1
jm Consequences of failure
j" severe moderate
.lmt
Ipt
castings not subject to nondestructive testing <>2
high 2,8 2,45
2,1 1,8
Probability of 2.1 1.8
occurrence of 1.4 1.4
the characteristic low 2,55 2,2
service stress 1,9 1,65
values 1,9 1.65
1.4 1.4
castings subject to nondestructive testing d
high 2,5 2,2
1,9 1,65
Probability of 1,9 1.65
occurrence of 1,25 1.25
the characteristic low 2,25 2,0
service stress 1,7 1,5
values 1.7 1,5
1,25 1,25 "I Explanatory notes for the safety factors see Table 3.5.1.
,,2 Compared to Table 3.5.1 an additional partial safety factor ir " 1,4 is introduced to account for inevitable hut allowable defects in castings.
,,3 Compared to Table 3.5.1 an additional partial safety factor jF ~ 1.25 is introduced, for which it is assumed that a higher quality of the castings
is obviously guafa~~tc~~ .. whcn testing. _
3.5.2.2 Nonductile cast iron materials
Cast iron materials with an elongation A5 < 12,5 % (A3 < 12,5 % for GT) are considered as nonductile materials, in particular some types of GGG as well as all types of GT and GG, Values of elongation for GGG and GT see Table 5.1.12 or 5.1.13. The value for GG is As = ° *5.
F or nonductile cast iron materials the safety factors from Table 3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value 6j, Figure 3.5.1 *6;
6j = 0,5 J As / 50'Yr,.
A5 Elongation, to be replaced by A3 for GT.
(3.5.2)
checks on quuliflc ation of the production process, as well as on the qualuy and extent of product testing in order to guarantee little scatter of their mechanical properties.
5 For (;C; the values j and jpt are not relevant since the yield strength and the creep limit of dG are not specified.
91
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses
GG 0,5
t'1' .I
GTI~:GI I"l
~~~~o :
o IU 12,5 20
As, A3 in %
Figure 3.5.1 Value 6j to be added to the safety factors .im and jp , defined as a function of the elongation As Of
A3 r~~E~~~~vely .. _. . .. ~"" __ "" '.".'''. .
3.5.3 Wrought aluminum alloys 3.5.3,0 General
Ductile and nonductile wrought aluminum alloys are to be distinguished.
3.5.3.1 Ductile wrought aluminum alloys
Wrought aluminum alloy with an elongation A 2:: 12,5 % are considered as ductile materials. Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
The safely factors for ductile wrought aluminum alloys are the same as for steel, Table 3.5. 1.
3.5.3.1 Nonductile wrought aluminum alloys Wrought aluminum alloy with an elongation A < 12,5 % are considered as nonductile materials. Values of elongation see Table 5.1.22 to 5.1.30.
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table 3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value 6,j, Figure 3.5. J and Eq. (3.5.2).
3.5.4 Cast aluminum alloys
Cast aluminum alloys are always considered as nooductile materials. Values of elongation see Table 5.1. 31 to 5.1.38.
For cast aluminum alloys all safety factors from Table 3.5.2 are to be increased by adding a value 6j, Figure 3.5.1 and Eq. (3.5.2).
6 For example the safety factor Jm for GG is at least
jill = 2,0 + 0,5 = 2.5 .
(3.5.3)
jm = 2,0 from Table 3.5.2, moderate consequences, 11011 destructively tested, low probability, ;\j = 0,5 for AS = 0 from Eq. (3.5.2) ).
3.5 Safety factors
92
3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses
3.5.5 Total safety factor
.~~
From the individual safety factors the total safety factor .iges is to be derived *7:
Jill ... Kt,!l)'"
safety factors, Table 3.5.1 and 3.5.2, temperature factors, Chapter 3.2.5 *8
Simplifications
The following simplifications apply to Eq. (3.5.4):
In the case of normal temperature the third and fourth term have no relevance *9. and moreover there is Kr,!l1 = Kr,ll = 1 ,
for Rp / Rill:::: 0,75 the first term has no relevance, for Rp / Rm > 0,75 the second term has no relevance *10.
for GG the second and fourth term have no relevance *11.
7 : 'v 1;\"" means that the maxunum value of the {our terms in the parenthetical expression is valid.
8 Applicable to the tensile strength Rm or to the yield strength Rp to allow for the tensile strength at elevated temperature l\n,T ' the hot yield strength Rp,T' the creep strength Rlll,Tt . or the creep limit Rp,Tl, respecti vel y'
9 The terms containing the factors K'n,m and Kn,p must not be applied in the case of normal temperature, as they will produce misleading results.
10 If there is a ratio of the safety factors jp I jm = 0,75. I ! Since a yield strength and a cre~p limit arc not specified.
3.6 Assessment
93
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
3.6 Assessment
JR36 EN .dol}
strength, (JSK ' ... , divided by the total safety factor jg~~. The degree of utilization is always a positive value.
Contents
Page
3.6.0
General
3.6.1 3.6.1.1 3.6.1.2
3.6.2 3.6.2.1 3.6.2.2
3.6.2 3.6.2.1 3.6.2.2
Rodshaped (lD) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress
Shellshaped (2D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress
Blockshaped (3D) components Individual types of stress Combined types of stress
3.6.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the component static strength using local stresses is to be carried out
In general the assessments for the individual types of stress and for the combined stress are to be carried out separately * I *2
In general the assessments for the extreme maximum and minimum stresses (normal stresses in tension and compression and/or shear stress) are to be carried out separately. For steel or wrought aluminum alloys the highest absolute value of stress is relevant *3.
The calculation applies to both nonwelded and welded components. For welded components assessments are generally to be carried out separately for the toe and for the root of the weld as indicated in the following.
Degree of utilization
The assessments are to be carried out by determining the degrees of utilization of the component static strength. In the context of the present Chapter the degree of utilization is the quotient of the characteristic stress (extreme stress O"max,cx, ' ... ) divided by the allowable static stress at the reference point *4. The allowable static stress is the quotient of the component static
I It is a general principle for an assessment of the static strength to suppose that all types of stress observe their maximum (or minimum) values at the same time.
2 This is in order to examine the degrees of utilization of the individual types of stress in genera], and in particular if they may oCCUr separately.
3 Different in the case of cast iron materials or cast aluminium alloys with different static tension and compression strength values.
4 The reference point is the critical point of the cross section that observes the highest degree of utilization.
93
94
Superposition
For stress components of the same type of stress the superposition is to be carried out according to Chapter 3.1.
95
If different types of stress like normal stress and shear stress act simultaneously and if the resulting state of stress is multiaxial. see Figure 0.0.9 *5, the particular extreme maximum stresses and the extreme minimum stresses are to be overlaid as indicated in the following.
96
Kinds of component
Rodshaped (ID), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished. They can be both nonwelded or welded.
3.6.1 Rodshaped (ID) components 3.6.1.11ndividual types of stress Rodshaped (1 D) nonwelded components
The degrees of utilization of rodshaped nonwelded components for the different types of stress like normal stress or shear stress are
cr max, ex ::; 1, (3.6.1)
aSK,a =
O"SK / hcs
t max.ex ::; L
aSK;t =
1:SK / jgcs (Jmax,cx, , ... extreme maximum stresses according to type of stress: the extreme minimum stresses, <Jmin,e)(, ' ... , are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses, Chapter 3. 1.1.1,
(JSK, ... related component static strength,
Chapter 3.4. L
jges total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
All extreme stresses arc positive or negative (or zero). In general normal stresses in tension or compression are to be considered separately. For shear the highest absolute value of shear stress is relevant.
5 Only in the case of stresses acting simultaneously the character of Eq, (1.6.4) and (1.6.12) is that of a strength hypothesis . If Eq. (1.6.4) and (1.6.12) are applied in other cases, they have the character of an empirical interaction formula only. For example the extreme stresses from bending and shear will • as a rule  occur at different points of the crosssection, so that different reference points W arc to be considered. A~ a rule bending will be more important. Moreover see Footnote I.
3.6 Assessment
94
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Rodshaped (1D) welded componcnts
For the toe of the weld of rodshaped (lD) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components,
For the root of the weld of rodshaped (ID) welded components the degrees of utilization for normal stress and/or shear stress follow from the equivalent nominal stresses, Chapter 3. L L L
aSK.wv.a = O'max.cx,w\' :::; I, (3.6.2)
CJSK I jgcs
aSK,wv,t '" 1: max, ex, \VV :::; 1.
CSK I jg~s amax,~x.wv .... Extreme maximum equivalent structural stresses; the extreme minimum stresses. Smin,ex.wv.zd ... , afe to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses, Chapter 3.1. 1.1,
related component static strength values, Chapter 3.4.2,
total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
All extreme stresses arc positive or negative (or zero). In general normal stresses in tension or compression are to be considered separately. For shear the highest absolute value of shear stress is relevant.
3.6.1.2 Combined types of stress Rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components
For rodshaped (I D) nonwelded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stress is *6
aSK,a\' = q . aNiI + (I  q)' aGlI:::; I. where
aNH=±{lsl+Js2 +4.t2)'
(3,6.4)
(3.6.5)
s = aSK.a ,
(3.6.6)
t = aSK,a .
aSK.a. ". degree of utilization, Eq. (3.6.1).
6 The applied strength hypothesis for combined types of stress is a combination of the normal stress criterion (NH) and the v. Mises criterion (Gil). Depending on the ductility of the material tile combination is controlled by a parameter q as a function of f, according to Eq. (L6,7) and Table 1.6.1. For steel is q = 0 so that only the v. Mises criterion is of effect. For GG is q ~ 0.759 so that both the normal stress hypothesis and the v. Mises criterion arc of partial influence.
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12,5 'Yo) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
J3~(lIf1) *7 J3~1
q
(3.6.7)
f, shear strength factor. Table 3.2.5.
Rodshaped (1 D) welded components
For the toe of the weld of rodshaped (l D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for rodshaped (I D) nonwelded components.
For the root of the weld of rodshaped (l D) welded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stress (or loadings) is *8
2 2
aSK.swv'" aSK,wv.a +aSK,wv,1 . (3.6.8)
aSK,wv,a, ". degree of utilization .Eq. (3.6.2).
3.6.2 Shellshaped (2D) components 3.6.2.1 Individual types of stress Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components
The degrees of utilization of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for the types of stress like normal stress in the directions x and y as well as shear stress are
CJ max.ex.x I
aSK.ax'" :::; ,
O'SK.x I jgcs
(3.6.9)
:::; I,
Extreme maximum stresses according to type of stress, Chapter 3.1. 1.1; the extreme minimum stresses, (Jlllin,ex,x .... , are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.2.
7 Table 1,6.1 Constant q(t~),
Caution: For nonductile wrought aluminium alloy, (elongation
~~<:__J_2,~<>;;,2tJ::re is q ~ 0,5 ._"..~~____ ,_" ,,
8 Eq. (3,6.8) does 110t agree with the structure of Eq. (3,1.2) on page 74. It is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution.
3.6 Assessment
95
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
(jSK,x , ...
.lgcs
related static component strength, Chapter 3.4.1,
Total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In general normal stresses in tension or compression arc to be considered separately. For shear stress the highest absolute value is relevant.
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For the toe of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components.
For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the degrees of utilization for normal stresses in the directions x and y as well as for shear stress follow from the equivalent local stresses, Chapter 3.1.1.2:
aSK,wv,ax = (J max, ex, \W 1 X S" 1, (3.6.10)
GSK,x / jges
aSK,wv,ay = (Jmax,cx,\\'"V,y S" 1,
GSK,), I jges
"tmax.ex,wv S" I,
aSK.wv,t =
<SK I jges Gmax,ex,wv, .. , extreme maximum stresses (equivalent local stresses); the extreme minimum stresses, Gmin.c)(,wv, ... , are to be considered in the same way as the maximum stresses, Chapter 3.1. 1. I,
related static component strength values, Chapter 3.4.2,
GSK,x ...
Jges
total safety factor, Chapter 3.5.5.
All extreme stresses are positive or negative (or zero). In general normal stresses in tension or compression are to be considered separately. For shear stress the highest absolute value is relevant.
3.6.2.2 Combined types of stress Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components
The degree of utilization of shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components for combined stresses is *6
aSK,a\" = q . aNH + (1  q) . aG]!s 1, where
(3.6.12)
J 2 2 2
aml= Sx+\sx'Sy+t .
S;.: = aSK,ITx '
(3.6.14)
t=aSK."
aSK,ax' ... degree of utilization, Eq. (3.6.9).
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12,5 %) there is q = 0,5 , otherwise
..[3 (lIf,) *9 ..[3 1
q
(3.6.15)
f, shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
Rules of sign: If the individual types of stress always act unidirectionally at the reference point *9, the degrees of utilization aSK,ax and aSK,cry are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.14) with equal (positive) signs (summation). If they always act opposingly, however * 10, the degrees of utilization aSK.Gx and aSK,cry are to be inserted into Eq. (3,6.14) with different signs.
In the general case  without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly * II  the degrees of utilization arc to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.14) both with equal or with different signs; then the least favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with (jmm.<"., , (jrnin,ex,y and <lIlin,ex,s are to be included in this comparative evaluation.
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For the toe of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the calculation is to be carried out as for shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components.
For the root of the weld of shellshaped (2D) welded components the degree of utilization for combined types of stress (or loadings) is "8
(3.6.16)
aSK, owv =
a2 .,.a2 .,2
SK, ,,"V, ax' SK. wv,cry .,. aSK, wv. r '
aSK. WV,GX , ... degrees of utilization, Eq. (3.6. 10).
9 For example tension in direction x and tension in direction y from a single loading affccting the component.
10 For example tension in direction x and compression in direction), from a single loading affecting the component.
II For example, if two loadings vary with time in a different manner.
3.6 Assessment
96
3 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
3.6.3 Blockshaped (3D) components
For nonductile wrought aluminum alloys (elongation A < 12,5 'Xl) there is q = (},5 , otherwise
3.6.3.1 Individual types of stress
The degrees of utilization of blockshaped (3D) nOI1 welded components in terms of the principal stresses in the directions L 2 and 3 are
a ~ O"],ma~, ex I
SK,ol ~ I . .:::::,
O"],SK .lgos
. . _I 0" 2, max. ex 1 < 1
dSK,02  .  ,
0" 2.SK / J,r
(3.6.17)
. _I Ci 3. mel", ex 1 < I
<lSK,a3  . ,
rr 3.SK / .lerf
O),max,cx, ... extreme maximum principal stresses; the extreme minimum principal stresses,
a I .rnin.ex , 0<., arc to be considered in the same way as the extreme maximum principal stresses, Chapter 3.1. 1.3,
aSK,l ' ... related static component strength, Chapter 3.4.1,
Jges
total safety factor. Chapter 1. 5.3.
All extreme principal stresses may be positive or negative (or zero). Tension and compression arc generally to be considered separately.
3.6.3.2 Combined types of stress
The degree of utilization of blockshaped nonwelded components for the combined principal stresses is '8
aSK,ffi' = q . aNJ[ + (1  q}: amI'::::: I, where *12
(3.6.20)
(3.6.2 I)
(3,6.22)
S2 = aSK,cr2 ,
s} = aSK,a3 ,
aSK, a I •... degrees of utilization, Eq. (3.6.17).
12 Max means that the maximum value of the three terms in the parenthetical expression is valid.
q
J3  ( 11 f ~) *9 431
(3.6.23)
f~ Shear strength factor, Table 3.2.5.
Rules of sign: If the individual principal stresses always act unidirectionally at the reference point *!3, the degrees of utilization aSK,al , aSK,a2 and aSK,a} are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) with equal (positive) signs (summation), If they always act opposingly however * 14, the degrees of utilization aSK,al , aSK,a2 and aSK,aJ are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) with different signs.
In the general case  without knowing whether the stresses act unidirectionally or opposingly  the degrees of utilization are to be inserted into Eq. (3.6.22) both with equal or with different signs; then the least favorable case is relevant.
Moreover the degrees of utilization calculated with {f],min,ex , 0'2,mm,ex and {f3,min,ex are to be included in this comparative evaluation.
13 for example tension in direction I and tension in direction 2 tram a single loading affecting the component.
14 For example tension in direction I and compression in direction 2 from a single loading affecting the component.
4.1 Characteristic service stresses
97
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses *1
"'[R41 ~1:~'N"' .d.,...o....,cl
4.0 General
According to this chapter the assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses is to be carried out.
4.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum
Contents Page
4.1.0 General 97
4.1. 1 Characteristic service stresses
according to the kind of component
4.1.1.0 General
4. L 1.1 Rodshaped (lD) components 98
4.1.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components
4.l.l.3 Blockshaped (3D) components 99
4.1.2 Parameters of the service stress spectrum
4.1.2.0 General
4.1.2.1 Mean stress spectrum
4.1.2.2 Stress ratio spectrum
4.1.3 Adjusting a stress spectrum to match the 100
component constant amplitude SN curve
4.1.4 Determination of the parameters
of a service stress spectrum
4.1.4.0 General
4.1.4.1 Standard stress spectrum
4.1.4.2 Class of utilization 102
4.1.4.3 Damageequivalent stress amplitude 4.1.0 General
According to this chapter the parameters of the service stress spectra are to be determined (spectra for elastically determined local stresses). Spectra arc applicable for N > 10.1 cycles approximately.
Relevant arc the stress spectra of the individual stress components. They arc specified by a number of steps, i :::: 1 to j . giving the amplitudes Cia,i, ... and the related mean values um,i , ... of stress cycles, Figure 4.1 .1, as well as the related numbers of cycles n, according to the required fatigue life *2,
1 Chapters 4.1 and 2.1 arc basically identical.
2 A~ a ru I e a stress a spectrum is tu be determined for norma I service conditions. sec Footnote 2 on page 73. The largest amplitude aa,! of a service stress spectrum with its related mean stress value Om 1 serves as
the characteristic stress value, 1
Figure 4.1.1 Stress cycle Example:
stress cycle (normal stress), stress ratio
a .  0 .
R ."" m,l a,l
0",1 dm.i + O'a,i
t
A special case is the constant amplitude spectrum, consisting of one step i :::: j :::: 1 only. For normal stress there is (Ja = (In.i = era, I , (Jm = (J1ll.i = (Jm.l·
Superposition
Proportional or synchronous stresses
If several proportional or synchronous stress components act simultaneously at the reference point, Chapter 0.3.5, they are to be overlaid. For the same type of stress (for example unidirectional normal stresses era,l, (Jm,1 and Ga.2 ' Gm,2) the superposition is to be carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single stress component (era, erm ... ) exists for each type of stress 't<3 For different types of stress (normal stress and shear stress or normal stress in x and ydirectiou) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage. Chapter 4.6,
Nonproportional stresses
If several nonproportional stress components act simultaneously at the reference point. Chapter 0.3.5. they are to be overlaid according to Chapter 5. 10.
4.1.1 Characteristic service stresses according to the kind of component
4.1.1.0 General
Rodshaped (lD), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished. They may be both nonwelded or welded.
For welded components the local stresses may be determined as either structural stresses or effective notch stresses.
Local stresses may be applied even if nominal stresses can not be computed because a nominal crosssection can not be clearly defined.
3 Stress components acting opposingly can cancel each other in part or completely.
4.1 Characteristic service stresses
98
4 Assessment of the fatigue strength usin g local st resses
4.1.1.1 Rodshaped (11)) components Rodshaped (11)) nonwelded components
For rodshaped OD) nonwelded components a local normal stress Cl"zd = cr and a shear stress Ts = T arc to be considered *4 The respective amplitudes and mean values are
rr a.i • Ta,i , Cl"m.i ' Tm,i '
(4,1.1)
Rodshaped (10) welded components
For rodshaped (I D) welded components the local stresses (structural stresses or effective notch stresses *5) arc in general to be determined for the toe and the root of a weld separately *6
Calculation with structural stresses
Structural stresses arc to be applied to the toe of a weld only. For the root of a weld the calculation is to be carried out with effective notch stresses *7
When performing a calculation of welded rodshaped (lD) components with structural stresses a normal stress (normal stress) o and a shear stress T are to be considered. The respective amplitudes and mean values arc
ITa,[ ~ La) ~ O'nl,l , '([11:11 .
(4.1.2)
Calculation with effective notch stresses
Effective notch stresses may be applied to the toe and to the root of a weld '6
When performing a calculation of welded rodshaped (ID) components with effective notch stresses a normal stress GK and a shear stress 'K are to be considered. The respective amplitudes and mean values are
CJKja,l , 'IK,a,i I Cl"K,m,i , 'K,m,i·
(4.1.3)
4 Rodshaped (1 D) components may be subject to nonnal stresses resulting from tensioncompression and from bending and to shear stresses resulting from shear and torsion. The case that these stresses may occur separate from each other, is not considered here, however, as boti, tensioncompression stresses and bending stresses ,LS well as both shear stresses and torsion stresses are supposed to be contained in a or in t , respectively,
5 Definition of structural stresses and of effective notch stresses sec Figure 0,0,6 and Figure 0,[),7, Chapter 5.4 and 5.5
6 For welded components separate assessments of the fatigue strength for both the toe and the root of the weld are to be carried out Both assessments are of the same kind, but in general the respective stresses and fatigue classes FAT are different.
7 An alternative is an assessment of tile throat section using nominal stresses,
4.1.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components
The calculation for shellshaped (2D) components may also be applied to blockshaped (3D) components, if the stresses Cl"x , Cl"y and T at the surface arc of interest only.
Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components
For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components the (local) normal stresses in x and ydirection, Cl"zdx = Cl"x and Gzdy = Cl"y, as well as a shear stress 's = , arc to be considered. The respective amplitudes and related mean values arc
Ga.x,l ~ Ga,y,i ~ 'Ta,i l 0rll,x,l , <Jn1,y,i , em.t .
(4.1.4)
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) welded components. Figure 0,0.6 and 0.0.7, the local stresses (structural stresses or effective notch stresses) arc in general to be determined for the toe and the root of a weld separately "6.
Calculation with structural stresses
Structural stresses are to be applied to the toe of a weld only. For the root of a weld the calculation is. to be carried out with effective notch stresses *7.
When performing a calculation of welded shellshaped (2D) components with structural stresses, the normal stresses in the directions x and y , Cl"x and Cl"y , as well as a shear stress , arc to be considered. The respective amplitudes and mean values arc
G.a.x..i , Ga,y,i, "[a,i,
Cl" . G . T .
m.x.t' rn.y.: ~ m.t L
(4.1.5)
Calculation with effective notch stresses
When performing a calculation of welded shellshaped (2D) components with effective notch stresses, the normal stress in the direction of the maximum effective notch stress, Cl"K , as well as the shear stress, 'K , arc to be considered. The respective amplitudes and mean values arc
GK,a,;o;,i , Cl"Ka,y,i ' TKa,i, Cl"K,m,x,i' Cl"K,m,y,i ' TK,m,i·
( 4.1.6)