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Black Sun (occult symbol)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term Black Sun (German Schwarze


Sonne), also referred to as the Sonnenrad
(the German for "Sun Wheel"), is a
symbol of esoteric and occult significance.
Its design is based on a sun wheel
incorporated in a floor of Wewelsburg
Castle during the Nazi era. Today, it may
also be used in occult currents of
Germanic neopaganism, and in
Irminenschaft or Armanenschaft-inspired
esotericism - but not necessarily in a racial
or neo-Nazi context. Despite its
contemporary use, the Black Sun had not
A depiction of the "Black Sun" the
been identified with the ornament in the
design of which is based primarily on
Wewelsburg before 1991, although it had
the shape of the Wewelsburg
been discussed as an esoteric concept in
sunwheel mosaic in the
neo-Nazi circles since the 1950s.[1]
"Obergruppenführer"-Hall (SS
Generals' Hall).

Contents
1 Historical background
2 The Wewelsburg mosaic
3 The Vienna Circle
4 Nazi and Neo-Nazi significance
5 Contemporary esotericism
6 Alternative design
7 Popular culture
8 See also
9 References
10 Further study
11 External links The former SS Generals' Hall
(German: "Obergruppenführersaal")
in the first floor of the North Tower
Historical background of Wewelsburg Castle. In the middle
of the hall the dark green sun wheel
The mosaic is located which is called the
"Black Sun" since the post-war years.
The architects who redesigned the
castle during the Nazi era called the
axis of the North Tower the "Center
of the World".
Alemannic brooches with designs
reminiscent of the Wewelsburg design has loose visual parallels in
symbol.[2] Migration Age Alemannic brooches
(Zierscheiben), possibly a variation of the
Roman swastika fibula, thought to have
been worn on Frankish and Alemannic women's belts.[3] Some Alemannic or
Bavarian specimens incorporate a swastika symbol at the center.[4] The number
of rays in the brooches varies between five and twelve.

Goodrick-Clarke (2002) does connect the Wewelsburg design with the Early
Medieval Germanic brooches, and does assume that the original artifacts had a
solar significance, stating that "this twelve-spoke sun wheel derives from
decorative disks of the Merovingians of the early medieval period and are
supposed to represent the visible sun or its passage through the months of the
year."[5] He further refers to scholarly discussion of the brooches in Nazi
Germany,[6] allowing for the possibility that the designers of the Wewelsburg
mosaic were indeed inspired by these historical precedents.

The Wewelsburg mosaic


The shape of the symbol as it is used within Germanic mysticist esotericism and
Neo-Nazism today is based primarily on the design of a floor mosaic at the castle
of Wewelsburg (built 1603), a Renaissance castle located in the northwest of
North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

During the Third Reich the castle became the representative and ideological
center of the order of the SS. Heinrich Himmler, the leader of the SS, wanted to
establish the "Center of the New World".[7] A focus of the actual SS-activities at
the castle were archaeological excavations in the surrounding region and studies
on Germanic early history.[8][9]

The mosaic is located in the ground floor room of the North-Tower of the castle,
in the so-called Obergruppenführersaal ("Obergruppenführer hall", completed
1939-1943).[10] ("Obergruppenführer" (literally: "Upper-Group-Leader") was
the SS-rank parallel to General in the Wehrmacht or Lieutenant-General in the
US and British armies.) It is not known if the SS had a special name for the
ornament, or if they attributed a special meaning to it. The sun wheel is
significant for the Germanic light-and-sun mysticism[11] which was propagated
by the SS. In their studies on sense characters, the sun apart was interpreted as
"the strongest and most visible expression of god", the number twelve as
significant for "the things of the target and the completion".[12] The mosaic at
Wewelsburg itself is dark green (see two photos: top view
(http://www.ruedigersuenner.de/schwarze%20sonne.jpg) and close-up in high-
resolution (http://static.panoramio.com/photos/original/3924696.jpg) (1.1 MB))
on a whitish/greyish marble floor. Probably a golden disc was originally located
in the middle of the ornament.[13][14]

Traditional Christianity was to be replaced by a "völkisch" (folkish or racial) cult.


Instead of Christianity, Himmler wanted a moral doctrine derived from the pre-
Christian pagan Germanic heritage. Cultic ceremonies and rituals were part of the
everyday life of the SS. The Wewelsburg was to be a center of a "species-
compliant" religion (German: "artgemäße" Religion)[15][16]

The North-Tower of the castle was to be the center of a planned circular estate,
1.27 kilometres in diameter.[17][18] The architects called the complex the "Center
of the World" from 1941 onwards.

The North-Tower, which had survived a ruin after 1815, only assumed
importance for Himmler starting in the autumn of 1935. In the process of
Himmler establishing the castle as a cult site (an ideological and religious center
of the SS), the tower was to serve the highest-ranking SS leaders as a meeting
place and probably as location for quasi-religious devotions. Nothing is known
about the possible way and the kind of arrangement of designated ceremonies in
the tower—the redesigned rooms were never used.[19] According to the
architects, the axis of the North-Tower was to be the actual "Center of the
World".[20]

The inside of the complete castle was redesigned in an Nazi-specific


mythological way (see the Wewelsburg SS School). SS architect Hermann
Bartels presented a first draft of plans that envisioned using the North Tower on
three different levels. However, a meeting in the first floor mosaic room never
occurred—the building work at the room was stopped in 1943.[21] In 1945,
when the "final victory" did not materialize, the castle was partially blasted and
set on fire by the SS, but the two redesigned rooms in the North-Tower stayed
intact.

It is not known with any certainty whether this symbol was placed in the marble
floor at Wewelsburg before or after the National Socialist Regime. There remains
speculation as to whether the symbol was placed in the hall by the Nazis or
whether it was there previously but there is no definitive proof either way. The
book sold by the Wewelsburg museum on the history of the castle from 1933 to
1945 makes no mention of who put it there. The plans for the North Tower by
SS architect Hermann Bartels make no mention of it. Scholars today are reluctant
to say with any certainty why it was put there, or by whom.[5][22] Because the
ceilings of the North-Tower were cast in concrete and faced with natural stone
during the Third Reich, it is more likely that the ornament was created during the
Himmler era.

There is, although its origins are unknown, an identical rendition of the
Wewelsburg Schwarze Sonne in a wall painting at a World War II military
bunker memorial to Bismarck at Hamburg below a statue of Bismarck (see
Bismarck-Monument (Hamburg)). It is with a central piece incorporating a
sunwheel and swastikas and the texts "Nicht durch Reden werden große Fragen
entschieden, sondern durch Eisen und Blut" ("Great questions will not be
resolved by talk, but by iron and blood").[23][24][25][26]

The Vienna Circle


The "Black Sun" is often associated with the mystic-esoteric aspects of National
Socialism. Origin of a phantastic post war "SS mysticism" which refers to the
"Black Sun" is a right-wing esoteric circle in Vienna in the early 1950s.[27]

The former SS member Wilhelm Landig of the Vienna Circle "coined the idea of
the Black Sun, a substitute swastika and mystical source of energy capable of
regenerating the Aryan race".[5] Rudolf J. Mund (also a former SS member and
later also member of the Vienna Circle) discusses a relationship of the Black Sun
with alchemy. The visible sun is described as a symbol of an invisible anti-sun:
"Everything that can be comprehended by human senses is material, the shadow
of the invisible spiritual light. The material fire is - seen in this way - also just the
shadow of the spiritual fire."[28]

The ideas of the Vienna Circle were later continued by the


Tempelhofgesellschaft. The German scholar Julian Strube has shown a direct
exchange of idea between this younger generation and the circle surrounding
Landig.[1] After the Tempelhofgesellschaft had been dissolved, its member Ralf
Ettl founded the Freundeskreis (circle of friends) Causa Nostra that remains
active.

It should be noted that the speculations of the Vienna Circle did not relate the
Black Sun to the ornament in the Wewelsburg. This identification took place as
late as 1991, in the novel Die Schwarze Sonne von Tashi Lhunpo.

Nazi and Neo-Nazi significance


The term Black Sun may originate with the mystical "Central Sun" in Helena
Blavatsky's Theosophy. This invisible or burnt out Sun (Karl Maria Wiligut's
Santur in Nazi mysticism) symbolizes an opposing force or pole.[citation needed]
Emil Rüdiger, of Rudolf John Gorslebens Edda-Gesellschaft (Edda Society),
claimed that a fight between the new and the old Suns was decided 330,000
years ago (Karl Maria Wiligut dates this 280,000 years ago), and that Santur had
been the source of power of the Hyperboreans.[citation needed]

The Wewelsburg symbol can be deconstructed into three swastikas; a "rising", a


"zenith" & a "setting" one, the design is popular among German Neo-Nazis as a
replacement for the outlawed singular swastika symbol. Another interpretation is
that the symbol incorporates twelve reversed "Sig runes" of the Armanen runes.

Allegedly, the design was drawn for Heinrich Himmler from an "old Aryan
emblem",[29] and was meant to mimic the Round table of Arthurian legend with
each spoke of the sun wheel representing one "knight" or Officer of the "inner"
SS. The symbol of the Black Sun is purported to unite the three most important
symbols of Nazi ideology - the sun wheel, the swastika and the stylized victory
rune." and that it is symbolic in its form representing "the twelve SS Knights of
The Order of the Death's Head and their three retainers".[30]

Erich Halik was the first to link the esoteric SS with the Black Sun roundel
insignia carried by German aircraft in the polar region at the close of World War
II.[5][31]

Contemporary esotericism
The symbol has been used by a variety of esotericists; for example, as the official
symbol of the occult group Black Order of the Theozoa. The name of the well-
known Black Sun Press (a private literary press active in Paris in the 1920s and
1930s) reflects the occult interests of one of its founders, Harry Crosby, but pre-
dates the emergence of the esoteric Nazi symbol.

Occasionally, and unscientifically, black dwarfs are referred to as black suns.


This is not entirely unrelated to the esoteric meaning, since ariosophy alleges a
burnt out sun that was the source of power of the Aryans in some mystical past
(see also Karl Maria Wiligut). Others regard the Black Sun as a black hole;
before the term black hole was coined in 1967, black holes (then still theoretical)
were sometimes called black stars or dark stars. Still others, such as Miguel
Serrano, think of the Black Sun as a wormhole. Uses of the term in science
fiction and fantasy literature are influenced by a combination of the esoteric and
the astronomical meaning. See Black Sun (disambiguation) for examples of the
term as used in popular culture.

Alternative design
In 1988/1990 and 1992, the Austrian
authors Norbert Jürgen Ratthofer and Ralf
Ettl produced the documentaries "UFO -
Das Dritte Reich schlägt zurück?
(1998/1990) (UFO - The Third Reich
Strikes Back?)"[34][35] and "UFO -
Geheimnisse des Dritten Reichs (1990)
(UFO - Secrets of the Third Reich)"[36][37]
which talks of the Thule Society with the
Geheimnis Schwarze Sun flashing on
screen and talking about it. Professor
Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke states that "In
the early 1990s, the Austrians Norbert The symbol described by Peter Moon
Jürgen Ratthofer and Ralf Ettl and and Joseph Farrell, described as the
developed new nazi UFO myths involving symbol of the Black Sun.[32][33] It
ancient Babylon, Vril energy and was first used in a publication of the
extraterrestrial civilisation in the solar Tempelhofgesellschaft, in 1987 [1]
system of Aldebaran. These colourful
ideas are integral elements of a dualist
Marcionite religion propagated by Ralf Ettl through his Tempelhofgesellschaft
(Temple Society) in Vienna, identified as a secret successor to the historic
Templars, who had absorbed Gnostic and heretical ideas in the Levant"[38]
Ratthofer and Ettl state in "UFO - Geheimnisse des Dritten Reichs (1990) (UFO -
Secrets of the Third Reich)"[36] that "Within the SS the Thule Society created a
separate secret organisation called the "Black Sun"" with the "Geheimnis
Schwarze Sonne" as its logo. This is a reference to the older narrative developed
by the Vienna circle.[1]

Jürgen-Ratthofer and Ettl were members of the Tempelhofgesellschaft that was


originally founded in the 1980s. Its first major publication, Einblick in die
magische Weltsicht und die magischen Prozesse (1987), maintained an esoteric
interpretation of the Black Sun that later resurfaced in Landig's Rebellen für
Thule, making the exchange between this younger generation and the Vienna
Circle evident. The ideas of the THG were further disseminated by their brochure
Das Vril-Projekt. They significantly contributed to the identification of the Black
Sun with the ornament in the Wewelsburg that had first been suggested in the
novel Die Schwarze Sonne von Tashi Lhunpo.[1]

In 1997 author Peter Moon (real name: Vince Barbarick), wrote a book entitled
'The Black Sun: Montauk's Nazi-Tibetan Connection' in which he refers to an
image (pictured) as the 'Signet of the Black Sun' (a secret order in Germany, also
referred to as the 'Order of the Black Sun') and that it is "the symbol of the
innermost secret society of Nazi Germany: the Black Sun. It is illegal to print or
display this symbol in Germany today."[39] This image and information was,
according to Moon, originally provided to him by van Helsing around 1996,
along with additional information on Nazi flying discs. Moon alleges that
Helsing allegedly got it from Templar groups who emerged from East Germany
after the Berlin Wall fell and Germany reunited. The German edition of Moon's
book on the Black Sun had to have the image removed.

Van Helsing, however, did not write specifically on this symbol and mentioned
the Black Sun just in a few phrases. But, from what Moon states, van Helsing
could be talking about Ralf Ettl and his Tempelhofgesellschaft (Temple Sociey)
in Vienna, identified as a secret successor to the historic Templars.

In 2005 American Scholar Dr. Joseph P. Farrell, in his book 'Reich of the Black
Sun', also states that the symbol was adopted by the Thule Society but also
adopted as an emblem for von Liebenfels' New Templars.[40] Farrell also states
that in contemporary German Federal Law it is forbidden to be displayed.[40]
Farrell doesn't cite any sources, not referring to Norbert Jürgen Ratthofer and
Ralf Ettl, Jan van Helsing or Peter Moon. Additionally, he states it was adopted
by the Thule Society and the New Templars, without citation, and in
contradiction to the information supplied by van Helsing and Moon. Farrell has
stated that as for primary sources, he does not have one other than Ralf Ettl and
Juergen Ratthofer for the Black Sun concept.[41]

In 2007 author Ron McVan published written works within a Wotanist context
utilising the Alternative Black Sun Symbol.[42]

British Professor Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke B.A. doesn't mention this image in


either of his books on the history of occultism in Nazi Germany but shows the
Thule Society emblem to have been this image
(http://morb.files.wordpress.com/2007/02/thule-gesellschaft_emblem.jpg)[43][44]
and Liebenfels' New Templars logo to be this image
(http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/images/d/de%7Dont.gif).[45]

Popular culture
Scottish comics writer Grant Morrison, in his 2000 AD series Zenith, makes
repeated references to a Black Sun cult, which is a combination of Nazi and
Lovecraftian ideas. They are the main agents in this world for the
extradimensional running villains of the series, the Lloigor, and are the ones at
the start of the series who engineer the resurrection of Master Man, the vessel of
Iok-Sotot.

In Peter Hogan and Chris Sprouse's America's Best Comics limited series, Tom
Strong & the Robots of Doom, Albrecht Strong, the Nazi son of Tom Strong,
uses the symbol as his own when he overwrites the timestream with his own
worldwide neo-Nazi empire.

The symbol is used on the cover of the novel The Black Sun by James
Twining[46] and is mentioned extensively, although the cover image is not
strictly the same - it faces in the wrong direction. The symbol is also used on the
cover of the fiction novel "Black Order" by James Rollins and is mentioned
extensively therein.

In the Outlanders novel, Satan's Seed by Mark Ellis, the Brotherhood of the
Black Sun and Aleister Crowley use geomancy to travel through time. It features
in the novel Swastika by Michael Slade.

In the occult-Nazi thriller Die Schwarze Sonne von Tashi Lhunpo (The Black Sun
of Tashi Lhunpo) by Russell McCloud (Stephan Mögle-Stadel) [7] (http://welt-
buerger.org/bio_sms.php) in 1991, the assassinations of the president of the
European Bank and a leading member of the UN Security Council are linked by
a brand mark of the symbol of the Black Sun on the foreheads of the victims.
McCloud is the first writer to identify the Wewelsburg sun wheel with the Black
Sun myth (of Wilhelm Landig), thereby indicating the esoteric influence of
Wiligut and the SS heritage and Aryan-theosophical lore at the heart of
Himmler's imaginative world. Arun-Verlag in Engerda (in the former German
Democratic Republic) have published further editions and a film script of the
book.

The book Unheilige Allianzen by Christian Dornbusch and Hans-Peter Killguss


discusses the symbol.[47] The symbol is also used on the book cover for the
2011 novel Order of the Black Sun by Jack Follett, which features a secret nazi
base in New Swabia in Antarctica as one of the settings in the occult tech-
thriller.[48]

The Jayne Heller book series by Daniel Abraham writing under the name M.L.N.
Hanover features a semi-benevolent spirit who possesses the protagonist, calling
itself "Sonnenrad, the Black Sun's Daughter." It is described as a Prince of Hell,
but its intentions are ambiguous and may not be evil.

The Wewelsburg design is used in the artwork of musical groups from the Neo-
Nazi subculture and other bands using Nazi aesthetics, e. g. for shock value. It is
used as well as in the in lyrics of the experimental music groups Coil who
released a song called Solar Lodge, found on the album Scatology, containing
the lyrics "See the black sun rise from the Solar Lodge", Death in June, Von
Thronstahl and as the title of a song by Dead Can Dance and E Nomine.[49]

Gotos=Kalanda (1995) by Allerseelen is adapted from Wiligut's pagan calendar


cycle of poems presented to Himmler in 1937. The Wewelsburg Black Sun is
prominent on Petak's letterhead and the Allerseelen label.[5][50]

In the game Wolfenstein by Id Software, the Black sun was actually another
dimension. In the game, the Nazis try to uncover the secrets of the Thule people,
an ancient civilization that discovered how to enter the Black sun dimension
through the use of portals. The main protagonist called William "B.J."
Blazkowicz, a secret agent tries to prevent the Nazis from entering the dimension
because they try to build a super weapon to win the war. The main character took
an ancient artifact from a Nazi dig site, giving him special abilities that make
gameplay easier throughout the game.
See also
Black Sun (mythology)
Esoteric Nazism
Esotericism in Germany and Austria
Fascist symbolism
Five Suns (mythology)
Karl Maria Wiligut
Nazi occultism
Neo-völkisch movements
Rahu (mythology)
Solar symbols
Sun cross
Suns in alchemy
Thule-Seminar

References
1. ^ a b c d e Strube, 2012
2. ^ Left image: decorative brooch found in Inzing, Innsbruck-Land, dated to ca. AD
400, from Hermann Wirth, ‘’ ‘Die heilige Urschrift der Menschheit’ ‘’, Leipzig
1936, BD. II, Bilderatlas, Tafel 42 (at the time kept in the Staatl. Museen Berlin.)
Right image: Migration age Alemannic decorative brooch, from Hans-Joachim
Diesner, ‘’ ‘Die Völkerwanderung’ ‘’, Gütersloh 1980, used on the title cover of a
1982 Artgemeinschaft booklet.
3. ^ 'Derhain website article (In German)
(http://www.derhain.de/SchwarzeSonne.html) on the Schwarze Sonne (In English
(http://translate.google.com/translate?
hl=en&sl=de&u=http://www.derhain.de/SchwarzeSonne.html&sa=X&oi=transla
te&resnum=2&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%2BDerhain%2Bschwarze%2
6hl%3Den%26lr%3D)); Jadu article
(http://www.jadu.de/mittelalter/germanen/gk/pages/zierscheiben_jpg.htm); Haag
Museum (http://www.museum-haag.de/museum/geschos1.htm); 'Personal website
(http://www.jamestwining.com/TBS_Facts/BS_Sun.htm)' of James Twining.
4. ^ 'Jadu article
(http://www.jadu.de/mittelalter/germanen/gk/pages/zierscheiben_jpg.htm); Haag
Museum (http://www.museum-haag.de/museum/geschos1.htm)'
5. ^ a b c d e Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity by
Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke.
6. ^ References in Rüdiger Sünner, Schwarze Sonne: Entfesselung und Mißbrauch
der Mythen in Nationalsozialismus und rechter Esoterik (Freiburg: Herder, 1999),
pp. 148, 245 (note 426):'Die durchbrochenen Zierscheiben der Merowingerzeit'
(Mainz: Röm-German. Zentralmuseum, 1970) by Dorothee Renner. Examples of
symbols very similar to the Wewelsburg sun wheel occur in Mannus 28 (1936),
270; Walther Veeck, Die Alemannen in Württemberg (Berlin and
Leipzig:DeGruyter, 1931); Hans Reinerth (ed.), Die Vorgeschichte der Deutschen
Stämme, 3 vols. (Berlin: Bibliographisches Institut, 1940), vol. 2, plate 219.
7. ^ SS - Die Wewelsburg (http://www.nationalsozialismus.de/lexikon/ss-die-
wewelsburg) In German: SS - The Wewelsburg; quote: "... es sollte nach dem
Endsieg das Zentrum der neuen Welt entstehen." - "... after the final victory the
Center of the New World was to arise (here)."
8. ^ Takeover of the Castle by Himmler 1934 (http://www.lwl.org/westfaelische-
geschichte/portal/Internet/finde/langDatensatz.php?
urlID=474&url_tabelle=tab_medien) (German)
9. ^ Information about archaeological activities (http://www.ns-
gedenkstaetten.de/nrw/de/wewelsburg/thema_3/ss_zweckforschungen.html)
(German)
10. ^ 'Wewelsburg 1933 bis 1945. Kult-und-Terrorstätte der SS. Eine Dokumentation
(Schriftenreihe des Kreismuseums Wewelsburg 1), 2nd Edition Paderborn 1987.'
by Karl Hüser and translated into English in 2000 by Robin Benson
11. ^ Drachen, Helden, Nachtmeerfahrten - Die Archetypenlehre von C.G. Jung
(http://www.ruedigersuenner.de/drachen.html)
12. ^ Walther Blachetta: Das Buch der deutschen Sinnzeichen (The book of German
sense characters); reprint of 1941; page 15/16: interpretation of the sun and page
80: interpretation of the number twelve.
13. ^ The Schwarze Sonne documentary by Rüdiger Sünner contains as bonus
material an interview with the DVD's producer in which he states this.
14. ^ At the end of this (http://www.nationalsozialismus.de/lexikon/ss-zukunftsplane)
article a "plate of pure gold in the axis of the sun wheel" is mentioned.
15. ^ "SS - Wewelsburg (Castle)" (http://www.nationalsozialismus.de/lexikon/ss-die-
wewelsburg); quote: Sie sollte ein Mittelpunkt der "artgemäßen" Religion werden
und einen Repräsentationsbau für das SS-Führerkorps darstellen - (Wewelsburg
Castle) was to be a center of the "kind-accordant" religion and a representative
building for the SS-leader-corps.
16. ^ Heinrich Himmler (http://www.nationalsozialismus.de/lexikon/heinrich-
himmler), quote: "Sie sollte nach dem “Endsieg” zum “Zentrum der neuen Welt”
und “artgemäßen Religion” werden." (Wewelsburg Castle) was to become "Center
of the New Word" and the "species-compliant religion" after the "final victory".
17. ^ Nationalsozialismus.de » SS - Die Wewelsburg
(http://www.nationalsozialismus.de/lexikon/ss-die-wewelsburg)
18. ^ Kreismuseum Wewelsburg - Die SS Schule Haus Wewelsburg (http://www.ns-
gedenkstaetten.de/nrw/de/wewelsburg/thema_3/index.html#architektur)
19. ^ In the German article (http://www.ns-
gedenkstaetten.de/nrw/de/wewelsburg/thema_3/index.html) this is stated.
20. ^ The Schwarze Sonne documentary by Rüdiger Sünner contains as bonus
material an interview with the DVD-producer in which he states this.
21. ^ Wewelsburg 1933 bis 1945. Kult-und-Terrorstätte der SS. Eine Dokumentation
(Schriftenreihe des Kreismuseums Wewelsburg 1), 2nd Edition Paderborn 1987.
Karl Hüser; translated into English in 2000 by Robin Benson and Interview with
Kirsten John-Stucke, Vize-Director of the memorial-place Wewelsburg (in
German) (http://www.dergral.de/rlc/interviews/john-stucke.htm)
22. ^ 'Wewelsburg 1933 bis 1945. Kult-und-Terrorstätte der SS. Eine Dokumentation
(Schriftenreihe des Kreismuseums Wewelsburg 1), 2nd Edition Paderborn 1987.'
by Karl Hüser and translated into English in 2000 by Robin Benson and extensive
pictorial illustration is provided by Stuart Russell and Jost W. Schneider, Heinrich
Himmler's Burg. Das weltanschauliche Zentrum der SS: Bildchronik der SS-
Schule Haus Wewelsburg 1934-1945 (Landshut, Germany: RVG, 1989).
Photographs of the Sun Wheel appear ibid, pp. 81-82 - this has been translated
into English and is sold by the Wewelsburg museum
23. ^ 'Die Schwarzesonne (Revised) (http://www.webcitation.org/query?
url=http://www.geocities.com/irminenschaft/Cosmology/Schwarzesonne.html&da
te=2009-10-26+00:33:25)' by Steve Anthonijsz (Radböd Ártisson).'
24. ^ Hamburg Morning Post article
(http://www.mopo.de/2006/20060720/hamburg/panorama/der_titan_vom_kiez_w
ird_100.html)
25. ^ Braune Lichtmenschen. Anmerkungen zum Heidentum in rechtsextremen
Szenen (http://www.politische-bildung-brandenburg.de/extrem/heiden.htm)
26. ^ Hamburger Morgenpost - www.mopo.de - Nachrichten Hamburg Panorama
(http://www.mopo.de/2006/20060720/hamburg/panorama/der_titan_vom_kiez_w
ird_100.html)
27. ^ Wien als Brutstätte des okkulten Faschismus (http://www.iivs.de/~iivs01311/H-
B-K/deba.hi.05.htm) Vienna as hatchery of occult fascism: "Die beiden Wiener
Wilhelm Landig und Rudolf J. Mund müssen als die eigentlichen Stifter dieses
"SS-Mystizismus" angesehen werden, der sich heute um das Symbol der
Schwarzen Sonne gruppiert." The two Vienneses Wilhelm Landig and Rudolf J.
Mund must be seen as the actual founders of this SS mysticism which refers to the
Black Sun nowadays.
28. ^ Rudolf J. Mund: Das Mysterium der Schwarzen Sonne; Kapitel: Die Esoterik der
"Schwärze" (The mystery of the Black Sun; chapter: The esotericism of the
"black")
29. ^ [1] (http://altreligion.about.com/library/glossary/symbols/bldefsblacksun.htm)
30. ^ 'Personal website (http://www.jamestwining.com/TBS_Facts/BS_Sun.htm)' of
James Twining.'
31. ^ "Um Krone und Gipfel der Welt" (Mensch und Schicksal 6, No. 10 (1 August
1952), pp. 3-5) by Erich Halik (Claude Schweikhart)
32. ^ [2] (http://www.benpadiah.com/otherstuff/BlackSun.jpg)
33. ^ [3] (http://webfairy.org/missilegate/rfz/swaz/index.htm)
34. ^ Goodricke Clarke in Black Sun says 1990 but Henry Stevens in Hitler's Flying
Saucers says 1988
35. ^ (viewable here in German (http://video.google.com/videoplay?
docid=4272650740694543202))
36. ^ a b (viewable here in German (http://video.google.com/videoplay?
docid=6396691278471371052) and here in English
(http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8291386537788537096))
37. ^ Kasen, Victor Ordell L: 'Das Geheimnis der Schwarze Sonne: Hinter der
Geheimnis Schwarze Sonne', Salop 1993.
38. ^ Goodricke-Clarke, Black Sun, page 194
39. ^ Moon, Peter; 'The Black Sun: Montauk's Nazi-Tibetan Connection'
40. ^ a b Farrell, Joseph P.; 'Reich of the Black Sun' p175
41. ^ Norbert Jürgen Ratthofer and Ralf Ettl - Das Vril-Projekt; Norbert Jürgen
Ratthofer - Demnachst "Kampf um die Erde"?!"; Norbert Jürgen Ratthofer and
Ralf Ettl: UFO - Das Dritte Reich schlägt zurück? (video, 1990) (UFO - The Third
Reich Strikes Back?) (viewable here in German
(http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4272650740694543202)); Norbert
Jürgen Ratthofer and Ralf Ettl: UFO - Geheimnisse des Dritten Reichs (video,
1992) (UFO - Secrets of the Third Reich) (viewable here in German
(http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=6396691278471371052) and here in
English (http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-8291386537788537096));
Norbert Jürgen Ratthofer - Lichtreiche auf Erden (1997); Das Vril-Projekt 2
(1999) Der Z-Plan (1999, 4 volume novel)
42. ^
http://www.vinlandfolkresistance.com/articles/200710/McVan_TheBlackSun.html
43. ^ Goodricke-Clarke, Nicholas; 'Occult Roots of Nazism
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Occult_Roots_of_Nazism%7CThe): The
Ariosophists of Austria and Germany, 1890-1935'
44. ^ Goodricke-Clarke, Nicholas; 'Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism, and the
Politics of Identity'
45. ^ http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/de%7Dns_or.html
46. ^ [4] (http://www.jamestwining.com/Resources/Black_Sun_Cover.htm) [5]
(http://www.jamestwining.com/TBS_Facts/BS_Sun.htm)
47. ^ [6] (http://www.turnitdown.de/526.html)
48. ^ http://www.amazon.com/dp/B004R9QJ14
49. ^ Appears as 'Schwarze Sonne'. Tracklisting at Amazon.com
(http://www.amazon.com/dp/B0006IRMWU)
50. ^ Die Schwarze Sonne von Tashi Lhunpo. Das Drehbuch (Schatten der Macht:
Polit-Thriller) by Norbert Hess (Engerda, Germany: Arun-Verlag, 1995) - An
Interview With Kadmon (Allerseelen/"Aorta"), The Nexus, No. 2 (November 1995)
pp. 1-6.

Further study
Scholarly
Rüdiger Sünner: Schwarze Sonne. Entfesselung und Missbrauch der
Mythen in Nationalsozialismus und rechter Esoterik. Freiburg i. Br. Verlag
Herder/Spektrum, 1999, ISBN 3-451-27186-9. Sünner also produced the
DVD documentary of the same name to accompany his book.
Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas: Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and
the Politics of Identity. New York University Press, New York 2003.
Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas: The Occult Roots of Nazism
Friedrich Paul Heller, Anton Maegerle: Die Sprache des Hasses.
Rechtsextremismus und völkische Esoterik. Schmetterling-Verlag, Stuttgart
2001
Friedrich Paul Heller, Anton Maegerle: Thule. Vom völkischen
Okkultismus bis zur Neuen Rechten. 2. Aufl. Stuttgart, Schmetterling-
Verlag 1998
Stephen Cook, Heinrich Himmler's Camelot: Pictorial/documentary: The
Wewelsburg Ideological Center of the SS, 1934-1945 (Kressmann-
Backmeyer, 1999)
Julian Strube: Die Erfindung des esoterischen Nationalsozialismus im
Zeichen der Schwarzen Sonne. In: Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft
20/2, 2012, pp. 223–268

Occult

M. B. Hasler, Die Schwarze Sonne. Göttliches Licht der Erkenntnis, ISBN


3-9808794-0-2
Rudolf J. Mund, Mythos Schwarze Sonne, ISBN 3-8334-1122-8

Documentary

Schwarze Sonne documentary by Rüdiger Sünner. Sünner also produced a


book to accompany this documentary.
Nazis: The Occult Conspiracy (1998), directed by Tracy Atkinson and
Joan Baran, narrated by Malcolm McDowell.
The Occult History of the Third Reich, Starring: Patrick Allen, Director:
Dave Flitton
Adolf Hitler - Occult History Of The Third Reich
The SS: Blood And Soil - Occult History Of The Third Reich
Himmler The Mystic - Occult History Of The Third Reich
The Enigma Of The Swastika - Occult History Of The Third Reich
"Decoding the Past" Episode: The Nazi Prophecies" by the History
Channel [8]
(http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/tv_guide/full_details/Conflict/pro
gramme_3089.php) [9] (http://store.aetv.com/html/product/index.jhtml?
id=74536&browseCategoryId=&location=&parentcatid=&subcatid=)
Hitler and the Occult by the History Channel [10]
(http://store.aetv.com/html/product/index.jhtml?id=72289)
The Riddle Of Rudolph Hess/Himmler's Castle: Wewelsburg
In 1994, Channel 4 ran a Michael Wood documentary entitled Hitler's
Search for the Holy Grail, as part of its "Secret History" series. [11]
(http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/n-
s/nazimyths.html)
Unsolved Mysteries of World War II: Occult & Secrets, also known as
Volume 3 in the series.
Rudolf Hess (Occult)
Hitler's Secret Weapons
Enigma of the Swastika (Occult)
Himmler's Castle: Wewelsburg (Occult)
The Last Days of Hitler
Decision At Dunkirk/Stalin's Secret Armies
hi danny wuu2?

(Different editions have different episodes) [12]


(http://www.amazon.ca/dp/6305202885) [13]
(http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?
q=cache:OKxPi3EdqgwJ:www.bestprices.com/cgi-
bin/vlink/056775007195.html+%22Unsolved+Mysteries+of+World+War+II%2
2+VOLUME+3&hl=en&gl=uk&ct=clnk&cd=5) [14]
(http://www.amazon.com/dp/6305202958) [15]
(http://web.singnet.com.sg/~jollyroger/GM2/books/dvd1.htm)

External links
Topview on the floor-ornament in the Obergruppenführersaal (just an
image) (http://www.ruedigersuenner.de/schwarze%20sonne.jpg)
Alt Religions entry for the Black Sun
(http://altreligion.about.com/od/symbols/a/Black-Sun.htm)
James Twining on the black sun (http://www.jamestwining.com/learn-
more/the-black-sun/the-black-sun)
Hans-Jürgen Lange: Im Zeichen der Schwarzen Sonne
(http://www.antiquariatlange.de/texte/schwarze-sonne/) (German)
Von Aldebaran bis Vril. Interview über esoterischen Neonazismus
(http://www.remid.de/blog/2013/04/von-aldebaran-bis-vril-interview-
ueber-esoterischen-neonazismus/) (German)

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