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evtl.

ausleihen / kaufen:
Manfred Scheler: Der englische Wortschatz (= Grundlagen der Anglistik und
Amerikanistik. Band 9). Schmidt, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-503-01250-8
Hans-Dieter Gelfert: Englisch mit Aha. Beck, Mnchen 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-
57148-0

castra, orum n. Lager (vgl. Man-chester, Ro-chester)

KEINE VERNDERUNG
Keine Vernderung Verfall des Endvokals Verfall bei
-Verben Substantiven
bei by [ba] bringen bring best(er, e, es) best
bitter bitter [br] [best]
[bt] hindern Bulle bull [bl]
Bord board [b:d] hinder [hnd] Herde herd [h:d]
Busch bush (=bosco, lernen learn [l:n] Lippe lip [lp]
bois) [b] pissen piss [ps] Pisse piss [ps]
Busen bosom (um)ringen ring [r] Schere share
[bzm] scheinen shine [an] (=[An]Teil) [e]
faul foul scheren share Weile while
(=schmutzig) [fal] [e] [(h)wal]
Fisch fish [f] senden send Westen west
Fischer fisher [send] [west]
[f] singen sing Wille will [wl]
Frist frist [s]
Grass grass (ver)weilen while
[gr:s] [(h)wal]
harsch harsh (ge)winnen win [wn]
[h:]
(=rau, hart)
Haus house
[has]
Hering
herring [her]
hier here [h]
Korn corn
Lamm lamb [lm]
Laus louse [las]
Mast (Schiff) mast
[m:st]
Mast (Eicheln) mast (=food
for swine)
Maus mouse/mice
[mas/mas]
rasch rash
[vorschnell]
Ring ring [r]
sauer sour [sa]
Schein shine
(=Glanz) [an]
Schrein
shrine [ran]
schrill shrill [ri:l]
Schuh shoe [u:]
Vieh fee (=Gebhr)
[fi:]
Volk folk
vor fore [f:]
Wind wind [wnd]
Winter
winter [wnt]

VOKALE
A

a a o
an on alt old
(Ge)sang song
waschen wash
a : a
alle all falten fold
fallen fall kalt cold
warm warm Nase nose
a u: ae
(Ge)Spann spoon (=Lffel) Gast guest
Nacken neck
rasten rest
Rast rest
Stamm stem
wallen (kipie) well (=aufsteigen)
a :, a i:
waren were Nadel needle
a a e
Apfel apple bar bare
Asche ash Haar hair
Band band
Fang fang
Flagge flag
Hand hand
Mann man
Wachs wax
wachsen wax
a e
Acker acre (=Morgen, ca. 3500 m2)
blass blaze (=Feuer, Glanz)
E

e e
denn than geben give
Esche ash leben live
Leben life
Jahr year [j]
e : e a
fern far Efeu ivy
Stern star Leben life
e i: e e
See sea (=Meer) Ecker (=bukiew) acorn (=Eichel)
wecken wake
e :
Werk work
werken work (=arbeiten)

i a i
binden bind ficken fuck
finden find
blind blind

o o
(be)nommen numb (=taub, Gold gold
benommen) golden golden
Honig honey rollen roll
kommen come so so
Sonne sun
o o
Ochse ox wollen will
o :
Borke bark

u : u
Flur floor (=[Fu]Boden) Burg borough (=Bezirk, Gemeinde)
dumm dumb [dumm; stumm]
Furche (=bruzda) furrow
hundert hundred
Hunger hunger
jung young
Lust lust
u i: u a
besuchen beseech (=betteln) Hund hound (=Jagdhund)
Bruch breach rund round
Buche beech

i:
fhlen feel Brcke bridge
(Ge)fhl feeling fllen fill
grn green Fllung filling
Snde sin
snd(ig)en sin

Bchse box

DIPHTHONGE
AU

au au :
Pflaume plum Klaue claw (=Kralle)
au i: au a
Baum beam (=Strahl) (Augen)Braue (eye)brow
au
Faust fist

EI

ei i: ei i
bleichen bleach Speichel spittle
reichen reach

EU

eu a
Eule owl
heulen howl (+schreien)
(Ge)hule howl (+Geschrei)

KONSONATEN
Labiale

f/pf p b v/f pb
Anlaut: Intervokalisch: Rippe rib
Pflaume plum (be)hebig heavy
Pfeffer bleiben leave
pepper geben give
Intervokalisch: glauben believe
greifen grip Glaube belief
Haufe(n) heap Grab(en) grave
helfen help haben have
Hilfe help Habicht hawk
hoffen hope heben heave (vgl.
Hoffnung hope heavy)
Hfte hip Herbst
offen open harvest
ffnen open Kalb/Klber calf/calves
schaffen shape leben live
(=formen, gestalten) Leben life
(Schaffung) shape (=Form,
lieben love
Gestalt)
Liebe love
schlafen sleep
Rabe(n) raven
schleifen slip
sieben sieve
stampfen stamp
sieben (7) seven
streifen strip
streben strive
Streifen stripe
Taube dove
triefen drip
treiben
Waffe weapon
(re)trieve
ber over
Auslaut:
auf up
Auslaut:
(aufer) upper
ab of
reif ripe
Dieb thief
Schaf sheep
lieb lief (=gerne)1
scharf sharp
Sieb sieve
Schiff ship
Stab staff
tief deep (=Stab/Stock)
Weib wife

Dentale

td d th t th
Anlaut: Anlaut: Anlaut:
Tag day danken thank tauen thow
Tal dale dann then
Taube dove das this Intervokalisch:
teuer dear dass that/yt4 Gatte gather
tief deep Daumen thomb (=sammeln)

Tier deer (=Reh) de-/dnken think Latte lath


Tochter der the/ye4 Mutter
daughter dich thee mother
trnken dick thick Vater father
drench Dieb thief (ver)wittern wither
(=verkommen)
treiben drive Ding thing
(=fhren)
werden worth
Dorn thorn
triefen drip Wetter
drei three
Trift (=das Treiben) drift weather

1 I want and I'd love to are overworked and misused to fill the hole left in the
language when I would lief faded in 17c.
triften (=treiben) drift du thou (obsolet)
trinken drink durch through Auslaut:
(Ge)trnk drink dnn thin Leid loath(=ungern,
tropfen drop unwillig)

Tropfen drop Intervokalisch: Math (=koszenie) math


tun do beide both Monat month
Tat deed Bruder seit sith
in der Tat indeed brother (obsolet)
Erde earth weder with (???)
Intervokalisch: Feder feather Wert worth
bieten bid Leder leather
bitten bid Norden north
Blatter2 (=Blase)bladder Sden south
(=Harnblase) Schwade (=pokos)
brten breed swathe (=Bahn,
eitel idle Streifen)
Eltern elder (=lter) Auslaut:
falten fold Bad bath
Falte fold Eid oath
Garten Heide heath
garden3 Herd hearth
gleiten glide Kleid cloth
grten gird kund couth
Hirte herd(sman) (=kultiviert)

hten heed Mund mouth


(=beachten) Pfad path
laufen leap Schmied smith
(=springen)
Lauf leap (=Sprung)
leiten lead

2 Sehr ansteckende Infektionskrankheit des Menschen, bei der sich auf der Haut
eitrige Blschen bilden, die spter vernarben, Pocken

3 late 13c. (late 12c. in surnames), from Old North French gardin "(kitchen)
garden; orchard; palace grounds" (Old French jardin, 13c., Modern French jardin),
from Vulgar Latin hortus gardinus "enclosed garden," via Frankish *gardo or some
other Germanic source, from Proto-Germanic *gardaz. (Das urgermanische
garden erlag Palatalisierung zu yard)

4 ye (article) old or quaintly archaic way of writing the, in which the -y- is a 16c.
graphic alteration of , an Old English character (generally called "thorn,"
originally a Germanic rune; see th-) that represented the -th- sound (as at the
beginning of thorn). The characters for -y- and -- so closely resembled each
other in Old English and early Middle English handwriting that a dot had to be
added to the -y- to keep them distinct. In late 15c., early printers in English,
whose types were founded on the continent, did not have a in their sets, so
they substituted y as the letter that looked most like it when setting type. But in
such usages it was not meant to be pronounced with any of the sounds
associated with -y-, but still as "-th-." Ye for the (and yt for that) continued in
manuscripts through 18c. Revived 19c. as a deliberate antiquarianism; the Ye
Olde _____ construction was being mocked by 1896.
Leiter ladder
(Stroh)Matte meaed(ow)
(=Wiese)
Miete meed (=Lohn)
mitten mid
inmitten amid
Natter/Otter adder
raten read (=lesen)
Rtsel riddle
reiten ride
Sattel saddle
Schatten shadow
selten seldom
berschatten
overshadow
Schulter shoulder
Witwe widow
Auslaut:
alt old
lter elder
ltest eldest
(be)reit ready
Bett bed
Braut bride
breit broad
(in der Breite)
abroad (=im Ausland)
Brett board (=Tafel;
Amt)
fluten flood
Flut flood
Furt ford
Ochsenfurt Oxford
Gott god
gut good
Haupt head
Haut hide (=Fell)
laut loud
lind lithe
(=geschmeidig)
hart hard
Met mead
Not need
(be)ntig(en) need
rot red
Saat seed
tot dead
warten ward
(=abwehren)
Wart(e) ward
-wrts -ward(s)
*zuwrts towards
*nachwrts afterward(s)
vorwrts forward
rckwrts backward
weiter onward
weit wide
Wort word

Sibillantes (Zischlaute)

(sch) s b, p v/f s (s, ss, ) t


Anlaut: Intervokalisch: Intervokalisch:
schlafen sleep (be)hebig heavy beien bite
schlau sly Biber beaver Biss bit
schleifen slip bleiben leave besser better
Schleim slime eben even (=gleich) essen eat
schmal small haben have (aen) (ate)
schmieren smear Habicht hawk flssen float
Schwein swine Herbst gren greet
schwellen swell harvest hassen hate
Schwester sister geben give Kessel kettle
schwimmen swim Gabe gift lassen let
sphen spy Grab(en) grave rasseln (grzechotac)rattle
spannen span Herbst scheien shit
spinnen spin harvest (=Ernte) Scheie shit
splitten split lieben love schieen shoot
stecken stick an + oben above (=ber) Schuss shot
stehlen steal Rabe(n) raven *gessen get
steif stiff selbst self vergessen forget
stemmen stem sieben sieve Wasser water
Stamm stem sieben (7) seven wissen wit
stinken stink Silber silver
Stoff stuff schleifen slip Auslaut:
stopfen stop streben strive aus out
Strang string Taube dove on+bei+aus about
Sturm storm treiben drive das that
bel evil Gei (=koza) goat
bel evil Fu foot/feet
ber over Los lot
Nuss nut
Auslaut: reien write
Dieb thief (=schreiben)

Kalb/Klber calf/calves Schwei sweat


Laib loaf was what
Leib life (=Leben) wei white
Sieb sieve
(Ur)Laub leave (vgl.
erlauben)

z/zt t
Anlaut:
Zahn tooth/teeth
Zange tongs
Zarge (futryna) target
(=Ziel)
Zaun town (=Stadt)
zehn ten
Zeit tide (=Ebbe)
zielen till (=den
Boden bestellen)
Ziel tillth
(=Bodenbestellung)
ans Ziel untill
(=bis)
Zimmer
timber
Zinne tine
Zoll toll
zu to
Zunge tongue
zwei two
zwitchern twitter
zwlf twelve

Intervokalisch:
Bolzen bolt
heizen heat
Hitze heat
Katze cat
kitzeln kittle
kratzen grate
5
Minze mint
Mnze6 mint
(frisch geprgt) mint
(=nagelneu)
schmelzen smelt/melt
wlzen
welter

Auslaut:
Herz heart
setzen set
Satz set
Wurz wort (=Kraut)

5 a borrowing from Latin menta, mentha "mint," from Greek minthe, personified
as a nymph transformed into an herb by Proserpine, probably a loan-word from a
lost Mediterranean language.

6 vom Lat. moneta.


Gutturale

g/k ch k k , ch t
Verfall/Palatalisierung (ch)
Anlaut: Intervokalisch: Anlaut:
Garten yard brechen break Kaff (=Spreu) chaff
(=Hof, Garten) machen make Kse cheese
gelb yellow Sache sake (=Grund, kiesen (wybierac)
(ge)bren bear (=tragen) Ziel) choose
(ge)boren born Sichel sickle Kinn chin
(Ge)fecht fight sprechen speak Kirche church7
(ge)sund sound streichen strike Kiste/Kastenchest
glauben (be)lieve (=schlagen)

Glck luck Strich strike


(=Schlag) Intervokalisch:
suchen seek Krcke
Intervokalisch: crutch
besuchen beseech
Auge eye (=anflehen) Kche kitchen
fliegen fly wachen wake Recke (=Held) wretch
Fliege fly Woche week Wache halten watch
folgen follow
Hagel hail Auslaut: Auslaut:
Honig honey Buch book Deich ditch
Hgel hill Deich dike (=Graben)
Jugend youth gleich (a)like
Kragen craw Habicht hawk
lausig lousy Joch yoke
legen lay kochen cook
erlegen allay Koch cook
(=beschwichtigen)
Milch milk
liegen lie
Schmauch smoke
lgen lie
Storch stork
Magd maid(en)
Magen maw
manch(er, e, es) many
(vgl. Menge)
mgen may
Nagel nail
Pfennig
penny
pflegen play
(=spielen)
pflgen plow
Regen rain
Roggen rye
sagen say
schlagen slay
(be)siegeln seal
Siegel seal
sorgen
sorrow
Sorge sorrow
steigen sty

7 probably [see note in OED] from Greek kyriake (oikia), kyriakon doma "Lord's
(house)," from kyrios "ruler, lord," from PIE root *keue- "to swell" ("swollen,"
hence "strong, powerful"); see cumulus.
(obsolet)
(Steiger) stair
(Steigel??) stile
(=Zaunbertritt)
Tag day
tragen draw
(=ziehen)
trocken dry
[dra]
Vogel fawl
(=Geflgel)
Wagen wain
(=wagon)
Weg way
wiegen weigh

Auslaut:
einig any
(=irgendein)
Flug flight
genug enough
(be)hebig heavy
(=schwer)
heilig holy
tchtig/Tugend
daughty (=tapfer,
khn)
ch Verfall h Verfall ck dg / tch
(Brechung)
acht eight blehen blow Brcke
fechten fight ehe(r) ere bridge
(Ge)fecht fight eher early (=frh) Ecke edge
Flucht flight fliehen flee Hecke hedge
hoch high glhen glow Mcke midge
ich I mhen mow Rcken ridge
(mich me) sehen see (geology)
Knecht vor(her)sehen
knight foresee
lachen laugh stehlen steal
leuchten light
Licht light
leicht light
mchten might
Macht might
mchtig mighty
allmchtig almighty
Nacht night
nah nigh
Recht right
sah saw
schlachten slaughter
Schlachthof
slaughterhouse
schli-/schlecht slight
Sicht sight
Tochter
daughter

Nasale

n Verfall
(Entnasalisierung)
Anlaut:
Natter adder

Intervokalisch:
anderer other
Biene bee
fnf (5) five
Gans
goose/geese
Mund mouth
Stern star
uns us

Metathese:

r
Erle (=olcha) alder
brennen burn
Ross horse

NOCH ZUZUORDNEN:

Arsch arse [:s] Kamm comb Sau sow


(ver)arschenarse kmmen comb saugen suck
(=herumbldeln) keck (chwacki) quick Scham
Brhe broth (=schnell) shame
Butt (=pastuga) but Kind kin seit(dem) since
[bt] (=Verwandter)
sengen (opala) singe
ein(s) a(n) / one khn keen
(=begeistert) Sense scythe
fahren fare sen sow
kssen kiss
fassen fetch Schande shend
(=holen, bringen)
Kuss kiss
Klaue clow schauen show (= [sich]
fassend zeigen)
fetching klein clean
(=sauber) scheu shy
(=bezaubernd)
klimmen climb Schiefer shale
Feind fiend
Knie knee Schind (dialekt.) skin
Feld field
knnen can schlafen sleep
Feuer fire
Knig king schleifen sleave
frei free (=fachen)
Freund friend kriechen creep
schlpfen sleeve (???)
Frosch frog Kuh cow
Schnee snow
fr for Land land schreien scream
Frst first (=erste,- lang long Schei scream
r,-s) Lnge length schrubben scrub
Geist ghost laufen leap Schwert sword
Glied limb (=springen) schwimmen swim
glitzern (ver)lieren lose schwren swear
glister lsen loose (Anschwur) answer
Hacken hook lsen, lockern sechs six
heil whole (=ganz) loosen Seele soul
Heil health (< lse loose Sehne sinew
whole) lugen (dialekt) look siedeln settle
heischen (da) ask lungern Sohn son
ihm/ihn him lounge (???) solch(er, e, es) such
Hirte (shep)herd (Ver)lust loss sollen shall
hohl hollow Mahr (night)mare
[hl] Sommer summer
(=Albtraum)
Hlle hell Sonne sun
Mahl meal
Hure whore speien
Mdchen maid(en)
jammern yammer spew/spue
Mehl meal (=grobes
Mehl) Spung spring
(=Frhling)
mehr more
spcken spit
meist most
Stahl steel
(ver)mengen
stauen stow
mingle (=mischen)
Stau stow
in Menge among
Stein stone
mit mid (???)
sticken stitch
Mond moon (=sticken, nhen)
Mord murder Stich stitch
mssen must stopfen stuff
Muss must (=ausstatten)
Neffe nephew Stopf stuff (=Stoff)
Nichte niece streng strong
nun now (=krftig)

Ohr ear Strnge


Osten east strenght
predigen pray (???) strmen stream
Prediger prayer Strom stream
raspeln rasp treu true
rauh raugh Ulme elm
Raum room voll full
reich rich Weh woe
rennen run welch(er, e, es) which
(be)reuen rue Welt world
Rinde rind wen/wem whom (???)
wenn when
werken work
Werk work
Wespe wasp
wie why (???)
Wiede wood (???)
wir we
wirr war
(=Krieg)
(ver)wirren war
wohl well
Wolf wolf
Wolle wool
wollen will
Wurm worm
wnschen wish
zischen hiss

GERMANISCH aber nicht im DEUTSCHEN:


abide (=verweilen), ache, addle (=Urin), affray, ago, ail, ale, bad (???), bale, bliss,
body, bold, but, butterfly, buy, child, die, fair, grow, keep, know, knowledge,
much, narrow, pith (=Mark), ring, sky, skill, spell, truth, war, woman, worse/worst

LATEINISCH im Deutschen und im Englischen:

as (=Eins) Ass movitia Meute


ace mutiny
acetum Essig numerous Nummer
acid (=Sure) number
acquirere aquirieren quietus (=Ruhe) quitt
acquire quit (=schuldenfrei)
agere agieren schola (< gr. ) Schule
act school
actus Akt/Akten act scholarius Schler
actio Aktion action scholar (=Gelehrte)
activus, a, um aktiv
active
activare aktivieren
activate
activitas Aktivitt
activity
actualis, is, e aktuell
actual (=tatschlich)
actualitas Aktualitt
actuality (=Realitt)
actualisare aktualisieren
actualize(=realisieren)
acus+pungere Akupunktur
acupuncture
acutus, a, um akut
acute
adaptare adaptieren adapt
adapter Adapter
adapter
addere addieren
add
*addirectiare adressieren
address
*addirectus Adresse
address
adaequatus, a, um adquat
adequate
adiectivus Adjektiv
adjective
adiustus, a, um (ad)justieren
adjust
adiutans Adjutant
adjutant
administrator
Administrator
administrator
adoptare adoptieren adopt
adverbium Adverb
adverb
affinitas Affinitt affinity
agentia/agentura Agentur
agency
agenda Agenda
agenda
agens Agent agent
agressio Aggressio
aggression
aggressivus, a, um aggressive
aggressive
aggressor Aggressor
aggressor
agricultura Agrikultur
agriculture
album Album album
alias alias alias
alibi Alibi alibi
alienatio Alienation
alienation
alligare alliert
ally/alliance
ambulare Allee alley
crux, crucis Kreuz cross
flamma Flamme
flame
lineare (Linie)
align

ARABISCH im Deutschen und im Englischen:


admiral, alchemy, alcohol, alcove, algebra, algorithm
FRANZSISCH im Deutschen und im Englischen:
faire (=zu tun) Affre affair (=Angelegenheit)
alarm,
GRIECHISCH im Deutschen und im Englischen:
= Diskus Tisch dish (=Geschirr)
= Akazie acacia
acoustics, acrobat(ics), aesthete, aesthetic, aesthetics, agony, air, allegory,
allergy
ITALIENISCH im Deutschen und im Englischen:
allarme Alarm alarm
allerta (=to he height) alert

ONOMATOPOIE:
buzz (=summen, brummen),

ZUSAMMENSETZUNGEN:
ado (< at + do) again (=on + gegn gegen)
against (=on + gegn + st) albeit (= al[though] + be + it)
gospell (< god + spell) lord (< loaf + ward)
orchard (< wort + yard) lady (< loaf + dey Magd)

WORTBILDUNG:
Prfixe
a- prefix meaning of as in akin ME. a-, from OE of. See a, prep. meaning of.

kin (=Verwandschaft) akin field afield


(=hnlich) (=entfernt)
light alight (=aussteigen)

a- prefix meaning on used to form adverbs from nouns as in abroad, ashore.


OE an, on. See a, prep. meaning on.

broad abroad shore ashore (=an back aback (=nach hinten)


blaze (=Feuer, Glanz) Land)

ablaze (=entflammt)
board (=Bord) aboard (=an
Bord)
cross across (=hinber)
drift adrift
far afar (=weit weg)
fire afire (=in Flammen)
flame aflame (=in Flammen)
float afloat (=ber Wasser)
foot afoot (=im Gange, zu
Fu)
for afore (=vorher, bevor)
fresh afresh (=noch einmal)
ground aground
(=auf Grund)
head ahead (=vorwrts)
light alight (=in Flammen)
live alive (=am Leben)

a- intensive prefix. OE. -, rel. to OS., OFris. ur-, or-, Du. oor-, OHG, MHG. ur-
(unstressed: OHG. ir-, ar-, MHG., G. er), Goth. us. The original meaning of these
prefixes was out, away. Cp. the pref. in oakum, ordeal.

bide (=abwarten) abide


(=verweilen)

a- prefix meaning away from, from (occurring only before v), as in avert.
L. -, fr. , short form of ab away from, from, rel. to Oscan aa-, Umbr. aha away
from, from. See ab-.
a- prefix corresponding to L. ad-, fr. ad to, toward, either directly or through
the medium of OF. a- or F. . Cp. the pref. in abandon, acknowledge, ascend,
ascribe, and see ad-. Cp. also .

knowledge
acknowledge

a- (1) in native (derived from Old English) words, it most commonly represents
Old English an "on" (see a (2)), as in alive, asleep, abroad, afoot, etc., forming
adjectives and adverbs from nouns; but it also can be Middle English of, as in
anew, abreast (1590s); or a reduced form of Old English past participle prefix ge-,
as in aware; or the Old English intensive a-, as in arise, awake, ashame, marking
a verb as momentary, a single event. In words from Romanic languages, often it
represents Latin ad- "to, at." [I]t naturally happened that all these a-
prefixes were at length confusedly lumped together in idea, and the resultant a-
looked upon as vaguely intensive, rhetorical, euphonic, or even archaic, and
wholly otiose. [OED]
a- (2) prefix meaning "not," from Latin a-, short for ab "away from" (as in
avert); see ab-.
a- (3) prefix meaning "not," from Greek a-, an- "not," from PIE root *ne "not"
(see un-).
ab- word-forming element meaning "away, from, from off, down;" from Latin
ab-, ab "off, away from," cognate with Greek apo "away from, from," Sanskrit apa
"away from," Gothic af, Old English of, from PIE root *apo- (see apo-). Reduced to
a- before -m-, -p-, or -v-; sometimes abs- before -c- or -t-.
ad- word-forming element expressing direction toward or in addition to, from
Latin ad "to, toward" in space or time; "with regard to, in relation to," as a prefix,
sometimes merely emphatic, from PIE *ad- "to, near, at" (cognate with Old
English t; see at). Simplified to a- before sc-, sp- and st-; modified to ac- before
many consonants and then re-spelled af-, ag-, al-, etc., in conformity with the
following consonant (as in affection, aggression). In Old French, reduced to a- in
all cases (an evolution already underway in Merovingian Latin), but written forms
in French were refashioned after Latin in 14c. and English did likewise 15c. in
words it had picked up from Old French. In many cases pronunciation followed the
shift.
ambi- word-forming element meaning "both, on both sides," from Latin ambi-
"around, round about," from PIE *ambhi "around" (cognates: Greek amphi "round
about;" Sanskrit abhitah "on both sides," abhi "toward, to;" Avestan aibi; Old
English ymbe, German um; Gaulish ambi-, Old Irish imb- "round about, about;"
Old Church Slavonic oba; Lithuanian abu "both"). The PIE root probably is an
ablative plural of *ant-bhi "from both sides," from *ant- "front, forehead" (see
ante).
apo- before vowels ap-, word-forming element meaning "from, away from,
separate, free from," from Greek apo "from, away from; after; in descent from," in
compounds, "from, asunder, away, off; finishing, completing; ceasing from; back
again," from PIE root *apo- "off, away" (cognates: Sanskrit apa "away from,"
Avestan apa "away from," Latin ab "away from, from," Gothic af, Old English of
"away from").
be- word-forming element with a wide range of meaning: "thoroughly,
completely; to make, cause seem; to provide with; at, on, to, for," from Old
English be- "on all sides" (also used to make transitive verbs and as a privative or
intensive prefix), from weak form of Old English bi "by," probably cognate with
second syllable of Greek amphi, Latin ambi and originally meaning "about" (see
ambi-). This sense naturally drifted into intensive (as in bespatter "spatter
about," therefore "spatter very much"). Be- can also be privative (as in behead),
causative, or have just about any sense required. The prefix was productive 16c.-
17c. in forming useful words, many of which have not survived, such as bethwack
"to thrash soundly" (1550s), betongue "to assail in speech, to scold" (1630s).
bi- word-forming element meaning "two, twice, double, doubly, once every
two," etc., from Latin bi- "twice, double," from Old Latin dvi- (cognate with
Sanskrit dvi-, Greek di-, Old English twi- "twice, double"), from PIE root *dwo-
"two." Nativized from 16c. Occasionally bin- before vowels; this form originated in
French, not Latin, and might be partly based on or influenced by Latin bini
"twofold" (see binary).
co- in Latin, the form of com- in compounds with stems beginning in vowels
and h- and gn- (see com-). Taken in English from 17c. as a living prefix meaning
"together, mutually, in common," and used promiscuously with native words and
Latin-derived words not beginning with vowels, sometimes even with words
already having it (such as co-conspiritor).
com- word-forming element usually meaning "with, together," from Latin com,
archaic form of classical Latin cum "together, together with, in combination,"
from PIE *kom- "beside, near, by, with" (compare Old English ge-, German ge-).
The prefix in Latin sometimes was used as an intensive. Before vowels and
aspirates, reduced to co-; before -g-, assimilated to cog- or con-; before -l-,
assimilated to col-; before -r-, assimilated to cor-; before -c-, -d-, -j-, -n-, -q-, -s-,
-t-, -v- assimilated to con-.
em- word-forming element meaning "put in or into, bring to a certain state,"
sometimes intensive, from French assimilation of en- "in, into" (see en- (1)) to
following labial stop (-b-, -p-, and often -m-), or from the same development in
later Latin in- (to im-). "This rule was not fully established in spelling before the
17th c." [OED], but it is likely the pronunciation shift was in Old French and Middle
English and spelling was slow to conform. Also a living prefix in English used to
form verbs from adjectives and nouns (embitter, embody). In words such as
emancipate, emerge, emit, emotion the e- is a reduced form of Latin ex- (see ex-)
before -m-.
en- (1) word-forming element meaning "in; into," from French and Old French
en-, from Latin in- "in, into" (see in- (2)). Typically assimilated before -p-, -b-, -m-,
-l-, and -r-. Latin in- became en- in French, Spanish, Portuguese, but remained in-
in Italian. Also used with native and imported elements to form verbs from
nouns and adjectives, with a sense "put in or on" (encircle), also "cause to be,
make into" (endear), and used as an intensive (enclose). Spelling variants in
French that were brought over into Middle English account for parallels such as
ensure/insure, and most en- words in English had at one time or another a variant
in in-, and vice versa.
en- (2) word-forming element meaning "near, at, in, on, within," from Greek en
"in," cognate with Latin in (see in), and thus with en- (1). Typically assimilated to
em- before -p-, -b-, -m-, -l-, and -r-.
for- prefix usually meaning "away, opposite, completely," from Old English for-,
indicating loss or destruction, but in other cases completion, and used as well
with intensive or pejorative force, from Proto-Germanic *fur "before, in"
(cognates: Old Norse for-, Swedish fr-, Dutch ver-, Old High German fir-, German
ver-); from PIE *pr-, from root *per- (1) "forward, through" (see per). In verbs
the prefix denotes (a) intensive or completive action or process, or (b) action that
miscarries, turns out for the worse, results in failure, or produces adverse or
opposite results. In many verbs the prefix exhibits both meanings, and the verbs
frequently have secondary and figurative meanings or are synonymous with the
simplex. [Middle English Dictionary]. Probably originally in Germanic with a
sense of "forward, forth," but it spun out complex sense developments in the
historical languages. Disused in Modern English. Ultimately from the same root as
fore (adv.). From its use in participles it came to be an intensive prefix of
adjectives in Middle English (for example Chaucer's forblak "exceedingly black"),
but all these now seem to be obsolete.
forlorn (=verlassen, einsam, verzweifelt)
fore- Middle English for-, fore-, from Old English fore-, often for- or foran-, from
fore (adv. & prep.), which was used as a prefix in Old English as in other
Germanic languages with a sense of "before in time, rank, position," etc., or
designating the front part or earliest time.
forerunner, foresee
in- (1) word-forming element meaning "not, opposite of, without" (also im-, il-,
ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant, a tendency which began in
later Latin), from Latin in- "not," cognate with Greek an-, Old English un-, all from
PIE root *ne "not" (see un- (1)). In Old French and Middle English often en-, but
most of these forms have not survived in Modern English, and the few that do
(enemy, for instance) no longer are felt as negative. The rule of thumb in English
has been to use in- with obviously Latin elements, un- with native or nativized
ones.
in- (2) element meaning "into, in, on, upon" (also im-, il-, ir- by assimilation of
-n- with following consonant), from Latin in- "in" (see in). In Old French (and
hence in Middle English) this often became en-, which in English had a strong
tendency to revert to Latin in-, but not always, which accounts for pairs such as
enquire/inquire. There was a native form, which in West Saxon usually appeared
as on- (as in Old English onliehtan "to enlighten"), and some of those verbs
survived into Middle English (such as inwrite "to inscribe"), but all now seem to
be extinct. Not related to in- (1) "not," which also was a common prefix in Latin,
causing confusion: to the Romans impressus could mean "pressed" or
"unpressed;" inaudire meant "to hear," but inauditus meant "unheard of;" in Late
Latin investigabilis could mean "that may be searched into" or "that cannot be
searched into." Latin invocatus was "uncalled, uninvited," but invocare was "to
call, appeal to." The trouble has continued in English; the hesitation over what
is meant by inflammable being a commonly cited example. Implume (1610s)
meant "to feather," but implumed (c. 1600) meant "unfeathered." Impliable can
mean "capable of being implied" (1865) or "inflexible" (1734). Impartible in 17c.
could mean "incapable of being divided" or "capable of being imparted."
Impassionate can be "free from passion" or it can mean "strongly stirred by
passion." Inanimate (adj.) is "lifeless," but Donne uses inanimate (v.) to mean
"infuse with life or vigor." Irruption is "a breaking in," but irruptible is
"unbreakable." In addition to improve "use to one's profit," Middle English also
had a verb improve meaning "to disprove" (15c.). To inculpate is "to accuse," but
inculpable means "not culpable, free from blame." Infestive has meant
"troublesome, annoying" (1560s, from infest) and "not festive" (1620s). In Middle
English inflexible could mean "incapable of being bent" or "capable of being
swayed or moved." In 17c., informed could mean "current in information,"
formed, animated," or "unformed, formless" ("This was an awkward use" [OED]).
Inhabited has meant "dwelt in" (1560s) and "uninhabited" (1610s); inhabitable
likewise has been used on opposite senses, a confusion that goes back to Late
Latin.
over- word-forming element meaning "above; highest; across; too much; above
normal; outer," from Old English ofer (see over). Over and its Germanic relations
were widely used as prefixes, and sometimes could be used with negative force.
This is rare in Modern English, but compare Gothic ufarmunnon "to forget," ufar-
swaran "to swear falsely;" Old English ofercrft "fraud."
re- word-forming element meaning "back to the original place; again, anew,
once more," also with a sense of "undoing," c. 1200, from Old French and directly
from Latin re- "again, back, anew, against," "Latin combining form conceivably
from Indo-European *wret-, metathetical variant of *wert- "to turn" [Watkins].
Often merely intensive, and in many of the older borrowings from French and
Latin the precise sense of re- is lost in secondary senses or weakened beyond
recognition. OED writes that it is "impossible to attempt a complete record of all
the forms resulting from its use," and adds that "The number of these is
practically infinite ...." The Latin prefix became red- before vowels and h-, as in
redact, redeem, redolent, redundant.
semi- before vowels sem-, word-forming element meaning "half, part, partly;
partial, imperfect; twice," from Latin semi- "half," from PIE *semi- "half"
(cognates: Sanskrit sami "half," Greek hemi- "half," Old English sam-, Gothic
sami- "half"). Old English cognate sam- was used in such compounds as samhal
"poor health," literally "half-whole;" samsoden "half-cooked," figuratively "stupid"
(compare half-baked); samcucu "half-dead," literally "half-alive;" and the last
survivor of the group, sandblind "dim-sighted" (q.v.). Common in Latin (as in
semi-gravis "half-drunk," semi-hora "half hour," semi-mortuus "half-dead," semi-
nudus "half-naked," semi-vir "half-man, hermaphrodite"). The Latin-derived form
in English has been active in forming native words since 15c.
un- (1) prefix of negation, Old English un-, from Proto-Germanic *un- (cognates:
Old Saxon, Old Frisian, Old High German, German un-, Gothic un-, Dutch on-),
from PIE *n- (source of Sanskrit a-, an- "not," Greek a-, an-, Old Irish an-, Latin
in-), comb. form of PIE root *ne "not" (cognates: Avestan na, Old Church Slavonic
and Lithuanian ne "not," Latin ne "that not," Greek ne- "not," Old Irish ni, Cornish
ny "not"). Often euphemistic (such as untruth for "lie"). The most prolific of
English prefixes, freely and widely used in Old English, where it forms more than
1,000 compounds. It underwent a mass extinction in early Middle English, but
emerged with renewed vigor 16c. to form compounds with native and imported
words. It disputes with Latin-derived cognate in- (1) the right to form the negation
of certain words (indigestable/undigestable, etc.), and though both might be
deployed in cooperation to indicate shades of meaning (unfamous/infamous),
typically they are not. It also makes words from phrases (such as uncalled-for,
c. 1600; undreamed-of, 1630s; uncome-at-able, 1690s; unputdownable, 1947, of
a book; un-in-one-breath-utterable, Ben Jonson; etc., but the habit is not
restricted to un-; such as put-up-able-with, 1812). As a prefix in telegramese to
replace not and save the cost of a word, it is attested by 1936.
tri- word-forming element meaning "three, having three, once every three,"
from Latin tres (neuter tria) or Greek treis, trias "three" (see three).
y- perfective prefix, in yclept, etc.; a deliberate archaism, introduced by
Spenser and his imitators, representing an authentic Middle English prefix y-,
earlier i-, from Old English ge-, originally meaning "with, together" but later a
completive or perfective element, from Proto-Germanic *ga- "together, with"
(also a collective and intensive prefix), from PIE *kom "beside, near, by, with"
(cognate with Sanskrit ja-, Latin com-, cum-; see com-). It is still living in German
and Dutch ge-, and survives, disguised, in some English words (such as alike,
aware, handiwork). Among hundreds of Middle English words it formed are
yfallen, yhacked ("completely hacked," probably now again useful), yknow,
ymarried, ywrought.

Suffixe
-able word-forming element expressing ability, capacity, fitness, from French,
from Latin -ibilis, -abilis, forming adjectives from verbs, properly -bilis (the vowels
being generally from the stem of the word being suffixed), from PIE *-tro-, a suffix
used to form nouns of instrument, cognate with the second syllables of rudder
and saddle (n.). In Latin, infinitives in -are took -abilis, others -ibilis; in English,
-able tends to be used with native (and other non-Latin) words, -ible with words of
obvious Latin origin (but there are exceptions). The Latin suffix is not
etymologically connected with able, but it long has been popularly associated
with it, and this has contributed to its survival as a living suffix.
actionable, adaptable, adjustable, affordable, foreseeable
-ability word-forming element expressing ability, fitness, or capacity, from
Latin -abilitas, forming nouns from adjectives ending in -abilis (see -able). Not
etymologically related to ability, though popularly connected with it.
adaptability,
-age word-forming element in nouns of act, process, function, condition, from
Old French and French -age, from Late Latin -aticum "belonging to, related to,"
originally neuter adjectival suffix, from PIE *-at- (source of Latin -atus, past
participle suffix of verbs of the first conjugation) + *-(i)ko-, secondary suffix
forming adjectives (see -ic).
acreage, cleavage
-al (1) suffix forming adjectives from nouns or other adjectives, "of, like, related
to, pertaining to," Middle English -al, -el, from French or directly from Latin -alis
(see -al (2)).
adenoidal, adjectival, aerial,
-al (2) suffix forming nouns of action from verbs, mostly from Latin and French,
meaning "act of ______ing" (such as survival, referral), Middle English -aille, from
French feminine singular -aille, from Latin -alia, neuter plural of adjective suffix
-alis, also used in English as a noun suffix. Nativized in English and used with
Germanic verbs (as in bestowal, betrothal).
-al (3) word-forming element in chemistry to indicate "presence of an aldehyde
group" (from aldehyde). The suffix also is commonly used in forming the names
of drugs, often narcotics (such as barbital), a tendency that apparently began in
German and might have been suggested by chloral (n.).
additional,
-ance word-forming element attached to verbs to form abstract nouns of
process or fact (convergence from converge), or of state or quality (absence from
absent); ultimately from Latin -antia and -entia, which depended on the vowel in
the stem word, from PIE *-nt-, adjectival suffix. As Old French evolved from
Latin, these were leveled to -ance, but later French borrowings from Latin (some
of them subsequently passed to English) used the appropriate Latin form of the
ending, as did words borrowed by English directly from Latin (diligence, absence).
English thus inherited a confused mass of words from French and further
confused it since c. 1500 by restoring -ence selectively in some forms of these
words to conform with Latin. Thus dependant, but independence, etc.
admittance,
-ate (1) word-forming element used in forming nouns from Latin words ending
in -atus, -atum (such as estate, primate, senate). Those that came to English via
Old and Middle French often arrived with -at, but an -e was added after c. 1400 to
indicate the long vowel. The suffix also can mark adjectives, formed from Latin
past participals in -atus, -ata (such as desolate, moderate, separate), again, they
often were adopted in Middle English as -at, with an -e appended after c. 1400.
affectionate
-ate (2) verbal suffix for Latin verbs in -are, identical with -ate (1). Old English
commonly made verbs from adjectives by adding a verbal ending to the word
(such as gnornian "be sad, mourn," gnorn "sad, depressed"), but as the
inflections wore off English words in late Old and early Middle English, there came
to be no difference between the adjective and the verb in dry, empty, warm, etc.
Thus accustomed to the identity of adjectival and verbal forms of a word, the
English, when they began to expand their Latin-based vocabulary after c. 1500,
simply made verbs from Latin past-participial adjectives without changing their
form (such as aggravate, substantiate) and it became the custom that Latin
verbs were anglicized from their past participle stems.
activate,
-ate (3) in chemistry, word-forming element used to form the names of salts
from acids in -ic; from Latin -atus, -atum, suffix used in forming adjectives and
thence nouns; identical with -ate (1). The substance formed, for example, by
the action of acetic acid (vinegar) on lead was described in the 18th century as
plumbum acetatum, i.e. acetated lead. Acetatum was then taken as a noun
meaning "the acetated (product)," i.e. acetate. [W.E. Flood, "The Origins of
Chemical Names," London, 1963]
-cy abstract noun suffix of quality or rank, from Latin -cia, -tia, from Greek -kia,
-tia, from abstract ending -ia (see -ia) + stem ending -c- or -t-. The native
correspondents are -ship, -hood.
-dom abstract suffix of state, from Old English dom "statute, judgment" (see
doom (n.)). Already active as a suffix in Old English (as in freodom, wisdom).
Cognate with German -tum (Old High German tuom).

-dom = -tum -dom = -heit -dom = sonstige


Suffixe
Christentum Freiheit Langeweile boredom
Christendom freedom
Knigtum kingdom Weiheit wisdom
random ? / seldom ?
-ed past participle suffix of weak verbs, from Old English -ed, -ad, -od (leveled
to -ed in Middle English), from Proto-Germanic *-da- (cognates: Old High German
-ta, German -t, Old Norse -a, Gothic -da, -s), from PIE *-to-, "suffix forming
adjectives marking the accomplishment of the notion of the base" [Watkins]
(cognates: Sanskrit -tah, Greek -tos, Latin -tus; see -th (1)). Originally fully
pronounced, as still in beloved (which, with blessed, accursed, and a few others
retains the full pronunciation through liturgical readings). In Old English already
first and third person singular past tense forms of some "weak" verbs was -te, a
variant of -de (see -ed), often accompanied by a change in vowel sound (as in
modern keep/kept, sleep/slept). A tendency to shorten final consonants has left
English with many past tense forms spelled in -ed but pronounced "-t." In some
older words both forms exist, with different shades of meaning, as in gilded/gilt,
burned/burnt.
-ee word-forming element in legal English (and in imitation of it), representing
the Anglo-French - ending of past participles used as nouns. As these sometimes
were coupled with agent nouns in -or, the two suffixes came to be used as a pair
to denote the initiator and the recipient of an action.
addressee (=Empfnger),
-en (1) word-forming element making verbs (such as darken, weaken) from
adjectives or nouns, from Old English -nian, from Proto-Germanic *-inojan (also
source of Old Norse -na), from PIE adjectival suffix *-no-. Most active in Middle
English.
lighten, darken, weaken
-en (2) suffix added to nouns to produce adjectives meaning "made of, of the
nature of" (such as golden, oaken, woolen), corresponding to Latin -anus, -inus,
Greek -inos; from Proto-Germanic *-ina-, from PIE *-no-, adjectival suffix. Common
in Old and Middle English (e.g. fyren "on fire; made of fire;" hunden "of dogs,
canine"), the few surviving uses are largely discarded in everyday use, and the
simple form of the noun doubles as adjective (gold ring, wool sweater). Some are
used in special contexts (brazen, wooden).
golden, oaken, woollen, brazen, wooden
-er (1) English agent noun ending, corresponding to Latin -or. In native words it
represents Old English -ere (Old Northumbrian also -are) "man who has to do
with," from Proto-Germanic *-ari (cognates: German -er, Swedish -are, Danish
-ere), from Proto-Germanic *-arjoz. Some believe this root is identical with, and
perhaps a borrowing of, Latin -arius (see -ary). Generally used with native
Germanic words. In words of Latin origin, verbs derived from past participle stems
of Latin ones (including most verbs in -ate) usually take the Latin ending -or, as
do Latin verbs that passed through French (such as governor); but there are
many exceptions (eraser, laborer, promoter, deserter; sailor, bachelor), some of
which were conformed from Latin to English in late Middle English. The use of
-or and -ee in legal language (such as lessor/lessee) to distinguish actors and
recipients of action has given the -or ending a tinge of professionalism, and this
makes it useful in doubling words that have a professional and a non-professional
sense (such as advisor/adviser, conductor/conducter, incubator/incubater,
elevator/elevater).
administrator
-er (2) comparative suffix, from Old English -ra (masc.), -re (fem., neuter), from
Proto-Germanic *-izon (cognates: Gothic -iza, Old Saxon -iro, Old Norse -ri, Old
High German -iro, German -er), from PIE *-yos-, comparative adjective suffix.
Originally also with umlaut change in stem, but this was mostly lost in Old English
by historical times and has now vanished (except in better and elder). For
most comparatives of one or two syllables, use of -er seems to be fading as the
oral element in our society relies on more before adjectives to express the
comparative; thus prettier is more pretty, cooler is more cool [Barnhart].
-ess fem. suffix, from French -esse, from Late Latin -issa, from Greek -issa
(cognate with Old English fem. agent suffix -icge); rare in classical Greek but
more common later, in diakonissa "deaconess" and other Church terms picked up
by Latin.
actress,
-fold multiplicative word-forming element attached to numerals, from Old
English -feald, Northumbrian -fald, from Proto-Germanic *-falthaz (cognates: Old
Saxon -fald, Old Frisian -fald, Old Norse -faldr, Dutch -voud, German -falt, Gothic
fals), comb. form of *falthan, from PIE *polt-, extended form of root *pel- (3) "to
fold" (cognates: Greek -paltos, -plos; Latin -plus; see fold (v.)). Native words with
it have been crowded out by Latinate double, triple, etc., but it persists in
manifold, hundredfold, etc.

-fold = -falt(ig) -fold = -fach -fold = sonstige


Suffixe
mannigfaltig manifold hundertfach hundredfold

-hood word-forming element meaning "state or condition of being," from Old


English -had "condition, quality, position" (as in cildhad "childhood," preosthad
"priesthood," werhad "manhood"), cognate with German -heit/-keit, Dutch -heid,
Old Frisian and Old Saxon -hed, all from Proto-Germanic *haidus "manner,
quality," literally "bright appearance," from PIE (s)kai- (1) "bright, shining"
(Cognates: Sanskrit ketu "brightness, appearance"). Originally a free-standing
word (see hade); in Modern English it survives only in this suffix.

-hood = -heit/-keit -hood = -schaft -hood = sonstige


Suffixe
Kindheit childhood Bruderschaft Erwachsensein
Mnnlichkeit manhood brotherhood adulthood
Priesterschaft
priesthood

-ia word-forming element in names of countries, diseases, and flowers, from


Latin and Greek -ia, noun ending, in Greek especially used in forming abstract
nouns (typically of feminine gender). The classical suffix in its usual evolution (via
French -ie) comes to Modern English as -y (as in familia/family, also -logy,
-graphy). Compare -cy. In paraphernalia, Mammalia, regalia, etc. it represents
Latin or Greek -a, plural suffix of nouns in -ium (Latin) or -ion (Greek), with
formative or euphonic -i-.
-ic Middle English -ik, -ick, word-forming element making adjectives, "having to
do with, having the nature of, being, made of, caused by, similar to," from French
-ique and directly from Latin -icus or cognate Greek -ikos "in the manner of;
pertaining to." From PIE adjective suffix *-(i)ko, which also yielded Slavic -isku,
adjectival suffix indicating origin, the source of the -sky (Russian -skii) in many
surnames. In chemistry, indicating a higher valence than names in -ous. Variant
forms in -ick (critick, ethick) survived in English dictionaries until early 19c.
alcoholic, algebraic
-ical compound adjectival word-forming element, usually interchangeable with
-ic but sometimes with specialized sense (such as historic/historical,
politic/political), Middle English, from Late Latin -icalis, from Latin -icus + -alis
(see -al (1)). Probably it was needed because the forms in -ic often took on a
noun sense (for example physic). Forms in -ical tend to be attested earlier in
English than their twins in -ic.
-ine (1) also -in, adjectival word-forming element, Middle English, from Old
French -in/-ine, or directly from Latin suffix -inus/-ina/-inum "of, like," forming
adjectives and derived nouns, as in divinus, feminus, caninus; from PIE adjectival
suffix *-no- (see -en (2)). The Latin suffix is cognate with Greek -inos/-ine/-inon,
and in some modern scientific words the element is from Greek. Added to names,
it meant "of or pertaining to, of the nature of" (Florentinus), and so it also was
commonly used in forming Roman proper names, originally appellatives
(Augustinus, Constantinus, Justinus, etc.) and its descendants in Romanic
languages continued active in name-forming. The Latin fem. form, -ina, was used
in forming abstracts (doctrina, medicina). Relics of the attempt to continue a
distinction between Latin -ina and -inus account for the English hesitation in
spelling between -in and -ine.
-ine (2) word-forming element in chemistry, often interchangeable with -in (2),
though modern use distinguishes them; early 19c., from French -ine, the suffix
commonly used to form words for derived substances, hence its extended use in
chemistry. It was applied unsystematically at first (as in aniline), but now has
more restricted use. The French suffix is from Latin -ina, fem. form of -inus,
suffix used to form adjectives from nouns, and thus is identical with -ine (1).
adenine, adrenaline,
-ion word-forming element attached to verbs, making nouns of state, condition,
or action, from French -ion or directly from Latin -ionem (nominative -io, genitive
-ionis), common suffix forming abstract nouns from verbs.
-ism word-forming element making nouns implying a practice, system,
doctrine, etc., from French -isme or directly from Latin -isma, -ismus (source also
of Italian, Spanish -ismo, Dutch, German -ismus), from Greek -ismos, noun ending
signifying the practice or teaching of a thing, from the stem of verbs in -izein, a
verb-forming element denoting the doing of the noun or adjective to which it is
attached. For distinction of use, see -ity. The related Greek suffix -isma(t)- affects
some forms.
alcoholism
-ist word-forming element meaning "one who does or makes," also used to
indicate adherence to a certain doctrine or custom, from French -iste and directly
from Latin -ista (source also of Spanish, Portuguese, Italian -ista), from Greek
agent-noun ending -istes, which is from -is-, ending of the stem of verbs in -izein,
+ agential suffix -tes. Variant -ister (as in chorister, barrister) is from Old French
-istre, on false analogy of ministre. Variant -ista is from Spanish, popularized in
American English 1970s by names of Latin-American revolutionary movements.
activist, alarmist,
-ity word-forming element making abstract nouns from adjectives and meaning
"condition or quality of being ______," from Middle English -ite, from Old French
-ete (Modern French -it) and directly from Latin -itatem (nominative -itas), suffix
denoting state or condition, composed of -i- (from the stem or else a connective)
+ the common abstract suffix -tas (see -ty (2)). Roughly, the word in -ity
usually means the quality of being what the adjective describes, or concretely an
instance of the quality, or collectively all the instances; & the word in -ism means
the disposition, or collectively all those who feel it. [Fowler]
-ive word-forming element making adjectives from verbs, meaning "pertaining
to, tending to; doing, serving to do," in some cases from Old French -if, but
usually directly from Latin adjectival suffix -ivus (source also of Italian and
Spanish -ivo). In some words borrowed from French at an early date it has been
reduced to -y (as in hasty, tardy).
acquisitive, addictive,
-ize word-forming element used to make verbs, Middle English -isen, from Old
French -iser, from Late Latin -izare, from Greek -izein, a verb-forming element
denoting the doing of the noun or adjective to which it is attached. English
picked up the French form, but partially reverted to the correct Greek -z- spelling
from late 16c. In Britain, despite the opposition to it (at least formerly) of OED,
Encyclopaedia Britannica, the "Times of London," and Fowler, -ise remains
dominant. Fowler thinks this is to avoid the difficulty of remembering the short
list of common words not from Greek which must be spelled with an -s- (such as
advertise, devise, surprise).
-ly (1) suffix forming adjectives from nouns and meaning "having qualities of,
appropriate to, fitting;" irregularly descended from Old English -lic, from Proto-
Germanic *-liko- (Old Frisian -lik, Dutch -lijk, Old High German -lih, German -lich,
Old Norse -ligr), related to *likom- "appearance, form" (Old English lich "corpse,
body;" see lich, which is a cognate; see also like (adj.), with which it is identical).
-ly (2) adverbial suffix, Middle English, from Old English -lice, from Proto-
Germanic *-liko- (cognates: Old Frisian -like, Old Saxon -liko, Dutch -lijk, Old High
German -licho, German -lich, Old Norse -liga, Gothic -leiko); see -ly (1). Cognate
with lich, and identical with like (adj.). Weekley notes as "curious" that Germanic
uses a word essentially meaning "body" for the adverbial formation, while
Romanic uses one meaning "mind" (as in French constamment from Latin
constanti mente). The modern English form emerged in late Middle English,
probably from influence of Old Norse -liga.
actively, alarmingly
-ment suffix forming nouns, originally from French and representing Latin
-mentum, which was added to verb stems sometimes to represent the result or
product of the action. French inserts an -e- between the verbal root and the suffix
(as in commenc-e-ment from commenc-er; with verbs in ir, -i- is inserted instead
(as in sent-i-ment from sentir). Used with English verb stems from 16c. (for
example merriment, which also illustrates the habit of turning -y to -i- before this
suffix).

acknowledgeacknowledg agree agreement


ement
adjust adjustment
adore adornment
advance
advancement
advertise
advertisement

-ness word-forming element denoting action, quality, or state, attached to an


adjective or past participle to form an abstract noun, from Old English -nes(s),
from Proto-Germanic *in-assu- (cognates: Old Saxon -nissi, Middle Dutch -nisse,
Dutch -nis, Old High German -nissa, German -nis, Gothic -inassus), from *-in-,
noun stem, + *-assu-, abstract noun suffix, probably from the same root as Latin
-tudo (see -tude).

-ness = -nis -ness = -heit/-keit


Wildnis Blindheit blindness
wilderness Lebendigkeitaliveness

-oid word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a ______," from
Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form," related to idein "to see,"
eidenai "to know;" literally "to see," from PIE *weid-es-, from root *weid- "to see,
to know" (see vision). The -o- is connective or a stem vowel from the previous
element.
adenoid,
-ory adjective and noun suffix, "having to do with, characterized by, tending to,
place for," from Middle English -orie, from Old North French -ory, -orie (Old French
-oir, -oire), from Latin -orius, -oria, -orium. Latin adjectives in -orius, according
to "An Etymological Dictionary of the French Language," tended to "indicate a
quality proper to the action accomplished by the agent; as oratorius from orator;
laudatorius from laudator. The neuter of these adjectives was early employed as
a substantive, and usually denoted the place of residence of the agent or the
instrument that he uses; as praetorium from praetor; dormitorium from dormitor;
auditorium, dolatorium. "These newer words, already frequent under the
Empire, became exceedingly numerous at a later time, especially in ecclesiastical
and scholastic Latin; as purgatorium, refectorium, laboratorium, observatorium,
&c." [transl. G.W. Kitchin, Oxford, 1878]
advisory,
-ose (1) word-forming element used to make adjectives from nouns, with the
meaning "full of, abounding in, having qualities of," from Latin -osus (see -ous).
-ose (2) standard ending in chemical names of sugars, originally simply a noun-
forming suffix, taken up by French chemists mid-19c.; it has no etymological
connection with sugar. It appears around the same time in two chemical names,
cellulose, which would owe it to the French suffix, and glucose, where it would be
a natural result from the Greek original. Flood favors origin from glucose.
-ous word-forming element making adjectives from nouns, meaning "having,
full of, having to do with, doing, inclined to," from Old French -ous, -eux, from
Latin -osus (compare -ose (1)). In chemistry, "having a lower valence than forms
expressed in -ic."
-rel also -erel, diminutive or deprecatory word-forming element, in some cases
from Old French -erel (Modern French -ereau) or -erelle, but mostly used with
native stems.
-some (1) word-forming element used in making adjectives from nouns or
adjectives (and sometimes verbs) and meaning "tending to; causing; to a
considerable degree," from Old English -sum, identical with som (see some).
Cognate with Old Frisian -sum, German -sam, Old Norse -samr; also related to
same.
adventuresome,
-some (2) suffix added to numerals meaning "a group of (that number)," as in
twosome, from pronoun use of Old English sum "some" (see some). Originally a
separate word used with the genitive plural (as in sixa sum "six-some"); the
inflection disappeared in Middle English and the pronoun was absorbed. Use of
some with a number meaning "approximately" also was in Old English.
-some (3) word-forming element meaning "the body," Modern Latin, from
Greek soma "the body" (see somato-).
-ship word-forming element meaning "quality, condition; act, power, skill;
office, position; relation between," Middle English -schipe, from Old English
-sciepe, Anglian -scip "state, condition of being," from Proto-Germanic *-skapaz
(cognates: Old Norse -skapr, Danish -skab, Old Frisian -skip, Dutch -schap,
German -schaft), from *skap- "to create, ordain, appoint," from PIE root *(s)kep-,
forming words meaning "to cut, scrape, hack" (see shape (v.)).

-ship = -schaft -ship = -heit/-keit -ship = sonstige


Suffixe
Verwandschaft
kinship

-th (1) word-forming element making ordinal numbers (fourth, tenth, etc.), Old
English -a, from Proto-Germanic *-tha- (cognates: Gothic -da, -ta, Old High
German -do, -to, Old Norse -di, -ti), from PIE *-to-, also *-eto-, *-oto-, suffix
forming adjectives "marking the accomplishment of the notion of the base"
[Watkins]. Cognate with Sanskrit thah, Greek -tos, Latin -tus; Sanskrit ta-,
Lithuanian and Old Church Slavonic to, Greek to "the," Latin talis "such;" Greek
telikos "so old," Old Church Slavonic toli "so," toliku "so much," Russian toliko
"only;" also see -ed.
-th (2) suffix forming nouns of action, state, or quality from verbs or adjectives
(such as depth, strength, truth), from Old English -u, -, from Proto-Germanic *-
itho (cognates: Old Norse -, Old High German -ida, Gothic -ia), abstract noun
suffix, from PIE *-ita (cognates: Sanskrit -tati-; Greek -tet-; Latin -tati-, as in
libertatem "liberty" from liber "free"). Sometimes in English reduced to -t,
especially after -h- (as in height).

-th/-t = -e andere Beispiele -th/-t = sonstige


Suffixe
Fule filth (=Dreck) bear berth (Ge)burt birth
Lnge length (=Schlafkoje) Dieb(stahl) theft
Hhe height dear dearth (Dieb)stahl stealth (=List)
(=Mangel)
Strnge Jugend youth
die death
strength (=Strke) Ziel tilth
Lat. fides faith (=Bodenbestellung)
Tiefe depth
grow growth
Wrme
merry mirth
warmth (=Frhsinn)
Weite width rue (=bereuen) ruth (=Mitleid)
(*Heile) slow sloth
health (=Faulheit)
wroth (=zornig) wrath
(=Zorn)

-tude syllable formed when the word-forming element -ude, making abstract
nouns from adjectives and participles, is fixed to a base or to another suffix
ending in -t or -te; from French -ude, from Latin -udo (stem -udin-). The equivalent
of native -ness.
-ty (1) suffix representing "ten" in cardinal numbers that are multiples of 10
(sixty, seventy, etc.), from Old English -tig, from a Germanic root (cognates: Old
Saxon, Dutch -tig, Old Frisian -tich, Old Norse -tigr, Old High German -zug,
German -zig) that existed as a distinct word in Gothic (tigjus) and Old Norse (tigir)
meaning "tens, decades." Compare tithe (n.). English, like many other
Germanic languages, retains traces of a base-12 number system. The most
obvious instance is eleven and twelve which ought to be the first two numbers of
the "teens" series. Their Old English forms, enleofan and twel(eo)f(an), are more
transparent: "leave one" and "leave two." Old English also had hund
endleofantig for "110" and hund twelftig for "120." One hundred was hund
teantig. The -tig formation ran through 12 cycles, and could have bequeathed us
numbers *eleventy ("110") and *twelfty ("120") had it endured, but already
during the Anglo-Saxon period it was being obscured. Old Norse used hundra
for "120" and usend for "1,200." Tvauhundra was "240" and riuhundra was
"360." Older Germanic legal texts distinguished a "common hundred" (100) from
a "great hundred" (120). This duodecimal system is "perhaps due to contact with
Babylonia" [Lass, "Old English"].
-ty (2) suffix used in forming abstract nouns from adjectives (such as safety,
surety), Middle English -tie, -te, from Old French -te (Modern French -t), from
Latin -tatem (nominative -tas, genitive -tatis), cognate with Greek -tes, Sanskrit
-tati-. Also see -ity.
-ure suffix forming abstract nouns of action, from Old French -ure, from Latin
-ura, an ending of fem. nouns denoting employment or result.
admixture,
-y (1) noun suffix, in army, city, country, etc., from Old French -e, Latin -atus,
-atum, past participle suffix of verbs of the first conjugation.
-y (2) adjective suffix, "full of or characterized by," from Old English -ig, from
Proto-Germanic *-iga- (source also of Dutch, Danish, German -ig, Gothic -egs),
from PIE -(i)ko-, adjectival suffix, cognate with elements in Greek -ikos, Latin -icus
(see -ic). Originally added to nouns in Old English; used from 13c. with verbs, and
by 15c. even with other adjectives (for example crispy).

-y = -ig -y = sonstiges
lftig aery
blutig bloody

-y (3) suffix in pet proper names (such as Johnny, Kitty), first recorded in
Scottish c. 1400; according to OED it became frequent in English 15c.-16c.
Extension to surnames seems to date from c. 1940. Use with common nouns
seems to have begun in Scottish with laddie (1546) and become popular in
English due to Burns' poems, but the same formation appears to be represented
much earlier in baby and puppy.
-y (4) suffix indicating state, condition, or quality; also activity or the result of it
(as in victory, history, etc.), via Anglo-French and Old French , from Latin -ia,
Greek -ia, from PIE *-a-, suffix forming abstract or collective nouns. It is
etymologically identical with -ia and the second element in -cy, -ery, -logy, etc.

Hindernis hindrance Probe rehearsal Siedlung settlement


-er -schaft -ship -heit -hood
Fischer fisher Verwandschaft Bruderschaft
Wchter watcher kinship brotherhood
Nachbarschaft
neighborhood
-nis -ness -voll -full -heit -dom
Wildnis dankbar thankfull Freiheit
wilderness freedom
Weisheit wisdom