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Archa Verbi

Yearbook for the Study of Medieval Theology

Subsidia

5

Archa Verbi Yearbook for the Study of Medieval Theology Subsidia 5

Ludger Honnefelder · Hannes Möhle Andreas Speer · Theo Kobusch Susana Bullido del Barrio (Eds)

Johannes Duns Scotus 1308–2008

Die philosophischen Perspektiven seines Werkes/ Investigations into his Philosophy

Proceedings of »The Quadruple Congress« on John Duns Scotus Part 3

Franciscan

Institute

Publications

into his Philosophy Proceedings of »The Quadruple Congress« on John Duns Scotus Part 3 Franciscan Institute
into his Philosophy Proceedings of »The Quadruple Congress« on John Duns Scotus Part 3 Franciscan Institute

Archa Verbi Annuarium Societatis Internationalis pro Studiis Theologiae Medii Aevi promovendis

Annuaire de la Société Internationale pour l‘Étude de la Théologie Médiévale Annuario della Società Internazionale per lo Studio della Teologia Medievale Anuario de la Sociedad Internacional para los Estudios de la Teología Medieval Jahrbuch der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Theologische Mediävistik Yearbook of the International Society for the Study of Medieval Theology

Subsidia

curator

Riccardo Quinto

Pavel Blažek Ursula Vones­Liebenstein directorium Societatis

Volker Leppin

praeses Societatis

Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Bibliothek:

Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detailliert bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar.

Library of Congress Control Number: 2010937691

Cover illustration:

Johannes Duns Scotus, Ordinatio, Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria, Ms. 2237, f.1r (15th century)

© 2010 Aschendorff Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Münster / Franciscan Institute Publications, St. Bonaventure, NY

Das Werk ist urheberrechtlich geschützt. Die dadurch begründeten Rechte, insbesondere die der Übersetzung, des Nachdrucks, der Entnahme von Abbildungen, der Funksendung, der Wiedergabe auf fotomechanischem oder ähnlichem Wege und der Speicherung in Datenverarbeitungsanlagen bleiben, auch bei nur auszugsweiser Verwertung, vorbehalten. Die Vergütungs­ ansprüche des § 54 Abs. 2 UrhG werden durch die Verwertungsgesellschaft Wort wahrgenommen. Gesamtherstellung: Druckzentrum Aschendorff, Münster, 2010 Gedruckt auf säurefreiem, alterungsbeständigem Papier ISSN 1865­2964

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Aschendorff Verlag Münster ISBN 978­3­402­10215­2

Franciscan Institute Publications ISBN 10: 1­57659­216­2

ISBN 13: 978­1­57659­216­8

Inhalt

Benedictus Papa XVI, Epistula Apostolica

Vorwort

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17

Ludger Honnefelder

 

Johannes Duns Scotus: Realität und Subjekt. Neue Wege philosophischen

 

Denkens

 

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19

 

Metaphysik

 

Metaphysics

Andreas Speer Metaphysica secundum statum viatoris. Anmerkungen zum epistemologischen Ausgangspunkt der scotischen Metaphysik

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Hannes Möhle Metaphysik und Erkenntniskritik. Prima scientia est scibilis primi

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69

Rega Wood First Entity as the Subject of Metaphysics

 

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87

Jan A. Aertsen Scotus’s Conception of Transcendentality: Tradition and Innovation

 

107

Theo Kobusch

 

Der neue Weg der Metaphysik: Heinrich von Gent, Meister Eckhart, Duns

 

Scotus

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125

Marilyn McCord Adams Bodies in Their Places: Multiple Location according to John Duns Scotus

139

Robert Andrews Haecceity in the Metaphysics of John Duns Scotus

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151

Axel Schmidt Duns Scotus und Niels Bohr über Individualität und Unbestimmtheit

 

163

Gerhard Leibold / Hans Kraml Text- und Überlieferungsprobleme der Reportata Parisiensia des Johannes

Duns

Scotus

 

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187

6

Inhalt

Epistemologie

Epistemology

Ge´rard Sondag Duns Scot sur les raisons se´minales

 

199

Dominique Demange On the Noetical Semantics of Duns Scotus

 

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209

Michal Chabada Epistemologisch-Ontologische Verankerung von objektiven Begriffen nach

Johannes Duns Scotus

 

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227

Gabriele Galluzzo Genus and differentia in

Scotus’s Questions on the Metaphysics

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247

Simo Knuuttila Predicatio identica in Scotus’s Theological Metaphysics

 

265

Roberto Hofmeister Pich

 

Scotus on Contingent Propositions »Known through Themselves« ( per se

 

notae)

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277

Cesar Ribas Cezar Induktion und Kausalität bei Duns Scotus

 

307

Francesco Fiorentino The Theory of the Scientific Knowledge according to Duns Scotus

 

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327

Oleg Bychkov »Aesthetic« Epistemology: Parallels between the Perception of Musical Harmony

and the Cognition of Truth in Duns Scotus

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345

 

Wille und Freiheit

 

Will and Freedom

Peter King Scotus’s Rejection of Anselm: The Two-Wills Theory

 

359

Mary Beth Ingham De Vita Beata: John Duns Scotus, Moral Perfection and the Rational Will

379

Timothy Noone

 

Nature

and Will: Nature Revisited

 

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391

Tobias Hoffmann Duns Scotus’s Action Theory in the Context of His Angelology

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403

Inhalt

7

Jörn Müller

Der Wille und seine Tugenden. Johannes Duns Scotus und das Ende der

aristotelischen Tugendethik

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421

Dominik Perler Duns Scotus über Schmerz und Traurigkeit

 

443

Mark Henninger Henry of Harclay on the Contingency of the Will’s Fruition

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463

Jan P. Beckmann Selbstreferenzialität und Kontingenz. Johannes Duns Scotus und Wilhelm von Ockham über die Eigenart des freien Willens

479

Hans Joachim Werner

 

»Aliquod malum est in entibus« – Duns Scotus über den Begriff des

 

Bösen

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501

 

Indices

 

Personenregister

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523

Stellenregister

 

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531

Archa Verbi. Subsidia 5

151–161

Haecceity in the Metaphysics of John Duns Scotus

by Robert Andrews

The St. Bonaventure edition of John Duns Scotus’ Metaphysics commentary 1 introduces a revisionist spelling of Scotus’ most famous philosophical coinage:

haecitas,‹ instead of the traditional ›haecceitas.‹ The importance to be accorded this occurrence is considerable, since the term is found only a handful of times in Scotus and, according to the Vatican editors, 2 the Metaphysics commentary is the earliest work in which the term occurs. Even if the St. Bonaventure editors are correct in holding that the Metaphysics commentary was composed at various times, 3 its mention there in Book VII is likely the very first time the word was used. The editors of the Metaphysics commentary were certainly justified paleograph- ically in their choice; the spelling they prefer (›hecitas‹) is in the majority of manuscripts, while only two of the collated manuscripts have the spelling variant ›heceitas.‹ A principle of the editors has been to standardize Latin to reflect classical spelling; and so they changed ›hecitas‹ to ›haecitas‹ This is in contrast to general modern consensus, which takes the spelling ›haecceitas,‹ reflected in its English translation ›haecceity.‹ In order to adjudicate this issue, I propose to review the antecedents of the term, and examine its earliest occurrences. In doing so, I hope to suggest why its coinage represented a paradigm shift away from Aristotelian metascience.

Scotus is generally credited with originating the term ›haecceitas,‹ as in the ety- mologies given in the Oxford English Dictionary 4 and the Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources. 5 However, this attribution has also been questioned, for instance by Ivo Tonna 6 and Johannes Kraus. 7 Kraus found the attribution to Scotus by P. Minges to be inconclusive, because Minges referred to the term’s appearance in

1 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Met. VII, q. 13, n. 61 (OPh. 4), 239; VII, q. 13, n. 176 (OPh. 4), 287.

2 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Lect. II (ed. Vat. 19), 45*.

3 Stephen Dumont and Timothy Noone have used precisely this issue to investigate the relative chronology of Scotus’ works, and they place the Lectura and Ordinatio before the Metaphysics commentary; Dumont, »The Question on Individuation,« 193–227; Noone, »Scotus’ Critique,« 391–406.

4 Oxford English Dictionary VI, 1005.

5 Dictionary of Medieval Latin, fasc. IV, 1128.

6 Tonna, »The Problem of Individuation,« 268, n. 34.

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Robert Andrews

the Expositio librorum Metaphysicorum and the Super librorum Posteriorum, neither of which is authentically Scotus. Furthermore, Kraus examined the Munich manu- script of the Quaestiones super libros Metaphysicorum and found that it has instead of ›haecceitas‹ the reading ›entitas.‹ Kraus, therefore, was unwilling to conclude that the term ›haecceitas‹ was by Scotus. Examination of the manuscripts for the edition of the authentic Quaestiones super libros Metaphysicorum shows that there is indeed considerable variation among the manuscripts – individual manuscripts have ›entitas,‹ ›hereitas,‹ ›habilitas‹ – indicat- ing that the scribes did not always know how to read this new term; but the majority of manuscripts (six) have the reading ›hecitas,‹ while two of the collated manuscripts have the variant ›heceitas.‹ Other appearances of the word are to be found in Scotus’ Reportatio Parisiensis (six times), 8 in the Collationes (four times), 9 and, contrary to Minges, in the Ordinatio, in an ›Extra‹ (once). 10 Abstract nouns such as ›haecceitas‹ are a very medieval phenomenon. While the construction of an abstract noun is a grammatical procedure, it often has

8

Iohannes Duns Scotus, Rep. II, d. 12, q. 5: »Utrum substantia materialis per se sit indivi- dua« (ed. Viv. 23). Here are the six occurrences: n. 1 (ed. Viv. 23), 25b: »Oppositum, quod convenit alicui ex sua ratione, sibi convenit in quolibet, in quo ipsum est; igitur si substantia materialis ex se esset ›haec,‹ in quocumque esset, in eodem esset illa haecceitas« (ed. 1517, f. 37 va : hecceitas); n. 8 (ed. Viv. 23), 29a: »Item, si non potest intelligi inclusum esse nisi hoc, igitur neque includens. Si enim non potest intelligi rationale sub oppositio rationalis, igitur nec homo, includens rationale, sed non potest intelligi haecceitas, (ed. 1517, f. 38 rb : hec- ceitas) ut universale, igitur nec natura speciei includens, cum ipsa haecceitas (ed. 1517, f. 38 rb : hecceitas) de se sit ›haec‹; igitur impossibile est intelligere naturam specificam, ut universale«; n. 12 (n. 13 deest) (ed. Viv. 23), 31b: »Aliud exemplum, forma est principium formale operandi et producendi simile, et aliud principium non est hoc, quia haecceitas (ed. 1517, f. 38 vb : ecceitas) generantis et geniti sunt primo diversa, non illud in quo sunt similia; sed calor est principium operandi, in quo ignis generans assimilatur genito«; n. 12 (n. 13 deest) (ed. Viv. 23), 32a: »Et cum dicitur, quidquid est in hoc numero, est unum numero, verum est praedicatione denominativa vel essentiali. Sed haec unitas minor de se est ›haec‹ numero, non essentialiter, sed tantum denominative; sed haecceitas (ed. 1517, f. 38 vb :

ecceitas) est numero haec essentialiter«; n. 14 (ed. Viv. 23), 32a: »Ad primum principale, dico quod ratio Philosophi est contra ideas Platonis, quia substantia prima est de se haec, ideo idea non est prima substantia. Sed loquendo de natura extra animam, ipsa est propria illi, cujus est, sed non de se, sed per aliquid posterius se contrahens ipsum, ut per haec- ceitatem, (ed. 1517, f. 38 vb : ecceitatem) ideo satis est ratio Philosophi contra Platonem, quia idea per nihil contrahens est propria.«

9

Iohannes Duns Scotus, Coll. 25, n. 3 (ed. Viv. 5), 242a; Coll. 34, n. 12 (ed. Viv. 5), 287a; cited by Dumont, »The Question on Individuation,« 219.

10

Iohannes Duns Scotus, Ord. I, d. 17, p. 2, q. 1 (= d. 17, q. 4) »De modo augmenti caritatis« n. 214 (ed. Vat. 5), 245 (adnotatio Duns Scoti): »Argumentum quintum oportet solvere in substantia, contra quam concludit. Tunc minor est falsa, ratione illius partis in ›quid,‹ quia ›quid‹ abstrahit ab omni condicione individuali, ita a magis sicut ab haecceitate.« The edition of Scotus by Salvatore Bartolucio, Ordinatio I, d. 17, q. 4 (Venice 1680), f. 544a, instead of »sicut ab haecceitate« reads: »sicut ab hac caecitate« (»just as from this blindness«)!

Haecceity in the Metaphysics

153

ontological implications. When should it be permitted? In classical Latin, there are relatively few constructions with ›-itas.‹ Take ›civitas‹: 11 from the word ›civis‹ (»citizen«), it can be teased out as »citizen-ness,« or »the condition of being a citizen«; as such in Latin it has the sense of »the body politic,« »the state,« »citizens united in a community.« But where is, and what sort of creature is, a »state«? Is it an entity apart from its citizens? The use of an abstract term leaves open the possibility that that to which it refers may or may not exist as a separate entity – the inclination to assert that it does so exist is the tendency of Platonism. 12 Many abstract terms of philosophical import make their appearance first in the Middle Ages. Such philosophically laden terms as ›entity‹ (›entitas,‹ ›being-ness‹) or ›reality‹ (›realitas,‹ ›thing-ness‹) would not be possible without the medieval scholastic heritage. One witnesses an early theologian such as Boethius († 525) struggling to explain the Trinity without access to the word ›identity‹ (›idemptitas,‹ later ›identitas,‹ ›same-ness‹). 13 Other less familiar, but still current, abstract terms arise within medieval philosophy: ›totality,‹ ›simultaneity,‹ ›quiddity,‹ ›rationali- ty.‹ 14 Such coinages are not always obviously licit. Take the term ›nothingness‹ (another medieval coinage, ›nihileitas,‹ although most familiar in English as a translation of Sartre’s ›neant‹): does ›nothing‹ describe the sort of entity from which a common nature may be abstracted? And if so, what ontological status has nothingness? The introduction of such a term entails the presupposition of an ontology. Similarly, the concept of haecceitas is cognitively dissonant from the world-view from within which it arose. Preceding Scotus, the most common theory of individuation – the theory of the ontological status of the entity responsible for individuation, in Jorge Gracia’s phrasing 15 – is that the individuating principle is matter. According to most interpretations of Aristotle, a genus, a category of certain types of things, is subdivided by shared dierences, dierentia, into more restricted types, species; the species may be further divided into sub-species (species subalterna); what determines the ultimate species (species specialissima) is a final dierentia (ultima dierentia). Individuals under that species are distinguished from one another by their matter, according to the prevalent medieval theory. Thus, consequently, angels each have their own species, for they have no matter to otherwise distinguish them. 16

11 For civitas, see Neue, Formenlehre, I, 268.

12 For a discussion of abstraction, see Weinberg, Abstraction, Relation, 6–12.

13 In De trinitate; cf. Andrews, »Boethius on Relation,« 286–287.

14 »Rationalitas« does appear as early as Tertullian († 220), (Anim. 38), but thus is arguably part of scholastic tradition.

15 Gracia, »Individuality and the Individuating Entity,« 230.

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Now according to Scotus, what distinguishes an individual from others of its species is not matter, but an individual dierentia. This individuating dierence, applied to the most specific species, results in a unique individual. Scotus at various times called this dierentia an ›entitas positiva‹ or ›forma individualis‹; in the Metaphysics commentary it is called ›haecceitas.‹ A reason why Scotus’ theory met resistance is not merely that it violates the traditional account; it also threatens the basis of Aristotle’s conception of a science. According to the Philosopher, the subject of a science is a universal. 17 And a universal, according to Aristotle, is not an independently existing entity; a universal may only be abstracted from individuals by a mind which sees a communality among them. Thus excluded from a science is that which makes an individual unique – that which is not shared, but individual. For Aristotle, there is no science of individuals. Scotus upheld Aristotle’s theory of science, and did not himself admit that an individual can have a scientific definition. 18 But Scotus’ notion of the individual is the first to introduce the possibility that a science can extend unto individuals, because an individual has the elements required for a scientific definition: a species, and a distinguishing dierentia – which is haecceitas. There can be a science not only of man, but also of Anna O. It is largely for his theory of the individual that Scotus is taken to be anticipatory of the modern point of view. 19

Scotus’ radical break with tradition was not without its antecedents and antici- pations. An important influence percolating within the shared medieval heritage was in Boethius’ Commentarium in librum Aristotelis Peri hermeneias,‹ where Boethius deliberately coins a term to express what is unique to the individual Plato : ›Plato- nitas‹ (›Plato-ness‹). 20 More proximate to Scotus, Richard of St. Victor speaks of ›Danielitas‹ as the abstract of the individual ›Daniel.‹ 21 Richard’s discussion was

17 Cf. Aristoteles, Anal. post. I, 31, 87b37–9.

18 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Ord. II, d. 3, p. 1, qq. 5–6, n. 192 (ed. Vat. 7), 486.

19 It is not clear that this notion has full acceptance today; thus Alfred Jarry could jokingly propose the science of pataphysics – a science of events which are unique and non-repeating.

20 Boethius, In Perihermeneias II, c. 7, ed. Meiser, 137: »Nam si nomen fingere liceret, illam singularem quandam qualitatem et incommunicabilem alicui alii subsistentiae suo ficto nomine nuncuparem, ut clarior fieret forma propositi. Age enim incommunicabilis Platonis illa proprietas Platonitas appelletur. Eo enim modo qualitatem hanc Platonitatem ficto vocabulo nuncupare possimus, quomodo hominis qualitatem dicimus humanitatem. Haec ergo Platonitas solius unius est hominis et hoc non cuiuslibet, sed solius Platonis, humanitas vero et Platonis et ceterorum quicumque hoc vocabulo continentur.«

21 Richardus a S. Victore, De Trinitate II, c. 12 (TPMA 6), 119; (PL 196), 908: »Dicatur itaque a Daniele Danielitas, sicut ab homine humanitas. Danielitas itaque intelligatur illa sub- stantialitas, vel, si magis placet, illa subsistentia ex qua Daniel esse habet illa substantia quae ipse est et quam participare non potest aliqua alia. Humanitas itaque, sicut corpo- ralitas, est multis communis. Danielitas vero omnino incommunicabilis.«

Haecceity in the Metaphysics

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familiar to Matthew of Aquasparta 22 and Thomas Sutton, 23 and was cited by Scotus in his treatment of individuation. These abstractions from individual names may have prompted Scotus’ creation of a more general term for an individuating principle. Roger Bacon, Henry of Ghent, Thomas of York, Roger Marston, and Peter of Auvergne 24 have been suggested as forerunners of Scotus’ view of individuation. Bacon, in particular, provided suggestive use of the abstract term ›alietas‹ in his discussion of individuation. 25 Peter of John Olivi is another underestimated influence on Scotus’ theories, 26 and Richard Rufus of Cornwall has been sug- gested as the immediate inspiration for Scotus. 27 However, no use of ›haecceitas‹ before Scotus has ever been noted. Scotus was a committed user of abstract terms; and where none previously existed, he didn’t hesitate to coin one. In the commentary on the Metaphysics he used the terms ›perseitas‹ (›per se-ness‹), 28 ubitas‹ (›whereness‹), 29 coloreitas‹ (›color- ness‹), 30 and ›pedalitas‹ (›footedness‹). 31 Other abstract terms point to an indivi- duating principle: in the Reportatio, Scotus quoted Henry of Ghent to the eect that the abstract of the character of a thing (›quo est‹) is ›aliquitas‹ (›whatness‹). 32 In the commentary on the Metaphysics, he wrote, »God causes the entity (entitatem) of anything; any other agent [causes] the suchness (talitas) of an entity.« 33 These terms confirm the stylistic tendencies and the attitude towards abstraction which led Scotus to the construction of ›haecceitas.‹

22 Matthaeus ab Aquasparta, Quaestiones disputate (BFS 1), 288.

23 Thomas Sutton, Quodlibet I q. 21, ed. Schmaus and Gonza´lez-Haba, 148–49.

24 Sousa Ribeiro, Escola Franciscana, 60.

25 Roger Bacon, Quaestiones V, ed. Steele, 229–230: »Quia suppositum est quod materia est causa individuationis, ideo quaeritur utrum ipsa sola causet individuationem. Quod ma- teria tantum videtur, quia dicit in littera ›generans non generat aliud a se nisi propter materiam,‹ quare materia sucit ad alietatem; set ›quod‹ est causa alietatis et individua- tionis, quia duo secundum numerum sunt divisa; quare etc.« Cf. Ioannes Duns Scotus, Rep. I, d. 4, q. 1, n. 4 (ed. Viv. 22), 122b: »In tertia cum dicitur ›Socrates est in humanitate alius,‹ alietas notat ibi suum determinabile esse commune utrique dierentiae extremorum, et distingui et dividi in ipsis extremis.«

26 Petrus Ioannis Olivi. Quodlibeta III, f. 21 ra : »Constat autem quod duo individua habent duas essentias individuales, quarum una est alia essentia ab alia.«

27 Wood, »Individual Forms,« 251–272.

28 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Met. IV, q. 4, n. 8 (OPh. 3), 378.

29 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Met. V, qq. 5–6, n. 102 (OPh. 3), 470.

30 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Met. VII, q. 19, n. 51 (OPh. 3), 372; also in Lect. I, d. 3, p. 1, qq. 1–2, n. 118 (ed. Vat. 16), 269.

31 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Met. VII, q. 17, n. 22 (OPh. 3), 333.

32 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Rep. II, d. 1, q. 6, n. 5 (ed. Viv. 22), 550b.

33 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Met. I, q. 1, n. 47 (OPh. 3), 33.

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Further information about the term may be gleaned from its earliest reception; from other authors who were familiar with Scotus, but also from the scribes and typesetters who transmitted the texts. Among the scribes of the Quaestiones sub-

tilissimae super libros Metaphysicorum, the majority (six) write ›hecitas‹; while two write ›heceitas.‹ 34 The spelling ›haecceitas‹ doesn’t appear until Renaissance editions. 35 An early marginal annotator of Scotus’s Metaphysics commentary writes ›heceitas.‹ 36

A scribe of Scotus’ De anima commentary adds to »

»vel hecceitate37 An edition of Antonius Andreas’ Metaphysics commentary has ›hecheitas.‹ 38 Another appearance of the word during Scotus’s lifetime may be found in a Determinatio of John Quidort of Paris, 39 written about 1305. 40 Quidort’s use of the term does not point to Scotus, for he uses it in describing a theory of the triduo which is not Scotus’s, and he equates it with ›forma corporeitatis,‹ which is not faithful to Scotus’ conception of the principle of individuation. 41 Quidort spells the word ›ecceitas,‹ and the same spelling is used in half of the occurrences in the first edition of Scotus’s Reportata Parisiensia 42 – suggesting that the idea there was that the root of the term is ›ecce‹ (›behold‹). 43

in singularitate« this variant:

34 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Met. VII, q. 13, n. 176 (OPh. 3), 278.

35 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Met. VII, q. 13, n. 9 (ed. Wad. 2), 701; (ed. Viv. 7), 410a; n. 26 (ed. Wad. 2), 708b; (ed. Viv. 7), 426a.

36 Anonymus, Adnotatio in Scoti Met. VII, q. 18 (ms. Reims Civit. 895, f. 192 v ) in imo fol.:

»Nota: Universale secundo modo sumptum, scilicet pro denominato ab universalitate etc. quod est natura absolute sumpta vel considerata, est indeterminatum (indeterminata ms.) contradictorie vel privative, quia ex se non est determinatum ad haecceitatem (heceitatem ms.) vel singularitatem, natum tamen determinari a producente. Et ultra hoc: ›natum est‹ tale ›universale‹ recipere determinationem (indeterminationem ms.) universalis actu ›praedicabilis de pluribus‹ per ipsum intellectum agentem.« Cf. Aristoteles, De interp. 7, 17a39–40: »Dico autem universale quod in pluribus natum est praedicari, singulare vero non, ut ›homo‹ quidem universale, ›Plato‹ vero eorum quae sunt singularia«; Auctoritates Aristotelis, 305 (10):

»Universale est quod aptum natum est praedicari de pluribus, et singulare quod non.«

37 Regularized to ›haecceitate‹ in the edition; Ioannes Duns Scotus, An. q. 22, n. 27 (OPh. 5), 235; Oxford Bodleian ms. Digby 44, f. 192 v .

38 Antonius Andreas, Met. V, q. 5 (Venice 1513), 24 rb : »Et hec est materia que est dierentia seu proprietas individualis, que est causa propria hecheitatis et individuationis, quae potest dici hecheitas.«

39 Ioannes Parisiensis (Quidort), De modo existendi, ed. Pattin, 191: »Licet autem sit alius panis ante et post, tamen est eadem paneitas. Quod patet, quia doctores solemnes dicunt, quod licet in corpore Christi vivi et mortuo sit alia et alia ecceitas seu forma corporeitatis, est tamen idem corpus in numero propter identitatem suppositi.«

40 Pattin, »Jean de Paris,« 189.

41 Quidort attributes the idea to ›doctores solemnes,‹ a term which (even in the plural) usually refers to Henry of Ghent, but the theory he reports is not Henry’s, either. At most we can conclude is that the term was in current use in Paris in the early 1300’s.

42 Cf. above, note 8.

43 In the French this etymology is even more obvious: »Ecce´ite´, n. f., est un emprunt (1599) au latin scolastique ecceitas (du latin classique ecce, ›voici‹). Il a conserve´ le sens du latin, ›princip qui

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157

Ironically, Scotus’ term gained even wider currency because of attacks by William of Ockham 44 and his followers, who considered its coining symptomatic of a needless proliferation of conceptual entities. A pseudo-Ockhamistic work fabricated a list of such superfluous terms: »haecceitas vel haectitas, sorteitas, marti- neitas, quandalitas, ubieitas, enimitas, velitas, sieitas, aditas, initas, abeitas, quamobremitas, usquequaqueitas, albedineitas, animeitas, licetitas45 Analysis of this peculiar list indi- cates that abstract terms were not constructed according to consistent rules:

Abstract term

Construction

Translation

haecceitas

haecce + -itas

thisness

haectitas

haec + -titas

thisness

sorteitas

Sortes + -itas

Socrates-ness

martineitas

Martin + -eitas

Martin-ness

quandalitas

quando + -alitas

whenness

ubieitas

ubi + -eitas

whereness

enimitas

enim + -itas

for-ness

velitas

vel + -itas

sieitas

si + -eitas

or-ness if-ness

aditas

ad + -itas

to-ness

initas

in + -itas

in-ness

abeitas

ab + -eitas

from-ness

quamobremitas

quamobrem + -itas

why-ness

usquequaqueitas

usquequaque + -itas

constantly-ness

albedineitas 46

albedine + -itas

(from) whiteness

animeitas

animae + -itas

(of ) soul-ness

licetitas

licet + -itas

although-ness

We see that abstract terms were formed most often in the classical manner with the sux ›-itas,‹ although sometimes with ›-eitas‹ or otherwise. Which word did Scotus write? From the preceding list, we see that abstract terms were formed most often in the classical manner with the sux ›-itas,‹ although sometimes with

fait qu’une essence est rendue individuelle.‹ Mot d’emploi didatique, ecce´ite´ a e´te´ repris (1945) en philosophie pour traduire l’allemand Dasein (employe´ par Heidegger ) au sens de ›caracte`re de ce qui se trouve concre`tement et particulie`rement situe´ dans l’espace‹; mais les spe´cialistes utilisent plutoˆt dasein en franc¸ais.« Dictionnaire historique de la langue franc¸aise, I 646A.

44 Cf. Guilelmus de Ockham, Summa logicae III–4, c. 6 (OPh. 1), 772: »Similiter ista est distinguenda ›haecceitas Sortis est aliquid.‹ Unus sensus est quod haecceitas, quae est res distincta ab aliis, est aliquid; alius sensus est iste ›Sortes, qui est hic vel haec creatura vel hoc ens, est aliquid.‹« Some of Ockham’s scribes write variously ›haecentitas,‹ ›haectitas,‹ or ›humanitas.‹

45 Guilelmus de Ockham, Elementarium logicae VII, c. 5 (OPh. 7), 231.

46 Discussed by Marmo, »Ontology and Semantics,« 166.

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-eitas‹ or otherwise. Did Scotus intend the root of his construction to be the pronoun ›haec‹? Certain passages in Scotus suggest this, because they closely connect ›haec‹ with ›haecceitas,‹ as in the Reportata Parisiensia: »Haecceity is in itself ›this‹« (»ipsa haecceitas de se sit ›haec‹ «). 47 Virtually all dictionaries of modern languages – as the OED in English 48 – provide this etymology for ›haecceity.‹ If so, then the construction ›haeceitas‹ (haec + -eitas) is not according to classical principles; the proper construction, as used by the St. Bonaventure University editors, should be ›haecitas.‹ However, another etymology may be considered, that the immediate root of the term is not ›haec,‹ but the emphatic form of the pronoun ›haecce.‹ The enclitic -ce added to demonstratives provides emphasis, and has the force of ostension: »this here (pointing).« In this light, the construction ›haecceitas‹ is not an ill-formed barbarism, but is completely consonant with the classical construction of an abstract, from ›haecce.‹ 49 If such is the case, the St. Bonaventure editors need not have introduced the hypercorrect ›haecitas‹; and the etymological entries for most modern dictionaries need to be revised. 50 Additionally, it is well to remember this etymology in discussing haecceitas; it has an implicit force of ostension, and wants to point to the thisness of an object immediately present.

The spelling ›haecceitas‹ was preferred among Scotistic commentators and Re- naissance editors, although there was far from uniform agreement. 51 The term

47 Iohannes Duns Scotus, Rep. II, d. 12, q. 5, n. 8 (ed. Viv. 22), 29a.

48 The Oxford English Dictionary VI, 1005.

49 Petrus Fonseca, Met. V, c. 6, q. 5, sect. 1, v. 2, col. 381D, prefers the spelling haeccitas. I thank Professor Richard Cross for this reference. The word’s etymology and construction was discussed by the Cistercian Caramuel Lobkowitz, Grammatica p. I, Methodica, c. No- men, 22: »An ne ex propriis diducuntur Abstracta? maxime, nec hoc sine Ciceronis exemplo: Quoniam a Lentulo dixit Lentulitatem, tametsi non eo sensu, quo a nobis Petreitas, Joanneitas, & Haeceitas dicuntur. Hanc ob rem debemus observare Abstracta propria sumi posse politice` & scholastice`; priore modo mores significans, unde qui Lentuli mores aut Platonis doctrinam imitaretur exacte dici posset, ebibisse Lentuliatem & Platonitatem.

[Vide Philippum du Trieu, Dialect. tract. I. part. 1. cap. 1. art. 5. pag. 10.] Utimur istis etiam vocibus Ecceitas, Hæceitas (non Hæcceitas; unde enim illud secundum c?) quae significant Individuationem ut sic: Ecceitas enim diducitur ab Ecce, & Hæceitas ab Hic.« Against these can be adduced the authority Petrus Helias, Summa super Priscianum, c. De figura, 675: »Illud quoque addit quod ce per adiectionem sillabicam additur articularibus pronominibus ut

Hec autem vox ›hocce‹ constat ex illo pronomine quod est

›hoc‹ et ex ista sillaba ce per adiectionem sillabicam.« I thank Claus Asbjørn Andersen for the reference.

50 One dictionary which gets it right is Klein, Etymological Dictionary, I 694: »ML. haecceitas, fr. L. haecce (res), ›this (thing),‹ with better spelling haece, fem. of hice (hicce), intensive form of hic (fem. haec, neut. hoc), ›this.‹«

51 Cf. Paulus Soncinatis, Quaestiones Metaphysicales VII, q. 32, f. 83 vb : »Utrum substantia sit individua per entitatem positivam vocatam hecceitatem«; f. 83 vb : »heccheitas«; Lychetus, Commentarius in Scoti XI, ed. Viv., 128b; 129b; 151a: »haecceitas.«

›hicce huiusce‹ et

Haecceity in the Metaphysics

159

continued to undergo grammatical transformations in the philosophical litera- ture. Gerard of Harderwijk used it as a present participle: »materia dico formam individuante et hecisante52 The Scotist Augustinus of Ferrara made out of it a perfect participle: »sicut hic homo haecceizatus ut hic homo non potest communicare pluribus individuis53 The concept of haecceity was important to Leibniz, 54 and was revived by the approbation of Charles Sanders Peirce. 55 It retains currency in modern philosophical discussions of individuation. 56 It is important to know how the originator of the neologism regarded its spelling. The traditional orthography ›haecceitas‹ was rejected by the St. Bona- venture University editors, I myself among them, perhaps on legitimate paleo- graphical grounds; but also because it was regarded it as a barbarism violating classical rules for the construction of an abstract term. Now I suggest that the root of the word is ›haecce‹ (and not ›haec‹), resulting in the perfectly acceptable construction ›haecce‹+›-itas‹; Scotus himself likely chose this spelling in order to suggest the ostensive connotation of ›haecceitas.‹ 57

52 Gerardus Harderwickensis, Commentarium in Sententias summ. 3 (Colonia 1488) 128A: »In genere substantie inveniuntur secundum veritatem individua composita ex materia et forma, materia dico formam individuante et hecisante, siquidem ipsa secundum se est hec.«

53 Augustinus de Ferraria, Praed. q. 13, ed. Andrews, 76.

54 Cf. Leibniz, Philosophische Schriften, 9, n. 385.

55 Cf. Peirce, Collected Papers, e. g. III, 434; 460.

56 See the bibliography in Park, Haecceitas.

57 Versions of this paper were earlier presented at the session »Scotus on Knowledge,« meeting of the International Duns Scotus Society, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, May 4, 2002; the Department of Philosophy, The University of Wisconsin, Madison, March 5, 2001; the Department of Philosophy, The University of Wisconsin, Parkside, February 29, 2001; Södertörns högskolan, Södertörn, Sweden, November 21, 2000. I would like to thank the facilitators of those presentations, as well as those conference participants who oered advice for the improvement of this paper.

160

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