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Chemical Engineering and Processing 34 (I995) 289-298

Flow-induced vibrations in heat exchanger tube bundles

H. Gelbe, M. Jahr, K. Schr6der

Institut fiir Prozess- und Anlagentechnik,

Teck,'nische Universitiit Berlin, StraJ3e des I7. Juni I35,

10623 Berlin, Germany

Dedicated to Prof. Dr. Dietmar Werner on the occasion of his 60th birthday

Abstract

A review is given of the most important parameters which have to be evaluated for designing tea1 heat exchangers to withstand flow-induced vibrations. After a short description of the mechanism of excitation, stability diagrams for fluid elastic instability are discussed. The influence of non-uniform velocities in multispan exchangers and a sectional calculation of stability relations is explained by an example using a fluid-dynamic computer program. Some recommendations for structural data and design details are offered in conclusion.

Synopse

Rohre in Rohrbfindeln, die quer angestr6mt werden, fiihren schon bei kleinen Fluidgeschwindigkeiten st/indige Schwingbewegungen aus. Nach Art der auf das Rohr wirkenden Str6mungskr/ifte unterscheidet man drei Gruppen, die in Abb. 1 aufgelistet sind. Die Turbutenzerregung verursacht zeitlich und 6r- tlich regellose Schwankungen, so dal3 die Amplituden relativ klein bleiben. Diese Grundschwingungen k6nnen zu Langzeitsch~iden der Rohre in den Umlenkblechen durch Materialabtrag ftihren, so dab bei Flfissigkeits- und Zweiphasenstr6mungen in kritischen Apparaten u. U. der Grenzwert f~r die maximal zul~issige Amplitude die kritische Geschwindigkeit bestimmt. Periodische Anregungen werden durch in der Str6- mung auftretende Druckschwankungen hervorgerufen, die auf einen engen Frequenzbereich beschr~inkt sind. Die wichtigste ist die yore Einzelzylinder bekannte Wir- belerregung. Die Strouhalzahlen nach G1. (1) sind yon der Rohranordnung und von der Rohrteilung ab- h~ingig. Abbildung 2 zeigt beispielhaft Strouhalzahlen f~r die versetzte Dreiecksteilung nach Weaver et al. [9]. Diese nehmen mit abnehmbarer Teilung zu. Bei ~= 1,25 betr/igt die Strouhalzahl 3,6. Damit ist die kritische Anstr6mgeschwindigkeit um den Faktor 18 kleiner als beim Einzelrohr. Die eingebrachte kinetische Energie ist zu klein, umbei Gasen eine bemerkbare Resonanzamplitude zn erzeugen. Auch bei Zweiphasen- str6mungen tritt keine Wirbelerregung auf. Dagegen

mug bei Fltissigkeitsstr6mungen mit Wirbelerregung gerechnet werden und/ihnlich wie bei der Turbulenzer- regung ist zu priifen, ob der Grenzwert ffir die maximal zul/issige Amplitude iibe~schritten wird. Fluidelastische Instabilit/it entsteht aus selbsterregten Koppelschwingungen. Abbildung 3 zeigt den typischen Amplitudenverlauf bei zunehmender Anstr6mgeschwin- digkeit eines Bfindels. Whirling entsteht durch schwing- wegproportionale Kr~ifte, die die Amplituden am kri- tischen Punkt zwar steiler ansteigen lassen, es stellt sich aber Gleichgewicht zwischen aufgenommener und dissipierter Energie ein. Bei Galloping dagegen ist der Anstieg abrupt, verursacht durch schwinggeschwin- digkeitsproportionale Krfifte, die der Dfimpfung entge- genwirken und diese additiv zu Null oder negativ wer- den lassen.

Modellans~itzen fiir die

erregenden Kr~ifte, die von Chen [1] beschrieben werden. Der filteste Ansatz, G1. (4), stammt yon Connors [16]. Verwendet man andere Kraftans/itze, unter Ein- beziehung von geschwindigkeitsabMngigen Anteilen, so erh~ilt man ffir Fluide mit geringen Dichten die gleiche Abh/ingigkeit wie in G1. (4), ftir Fluide mit grogen Dichten (Flfissigkeiten) dagegen Exponenten P des Massend~impfungsparameters, die ldeiner als 0,5 sind. Die Prfifung und Anpassung der aus den Modell- ans~itzen gefundenen Abh/ingigkeiten erfolgt in Stabili- t/itsdiagrammen. Ein solches Diagramm ftir ein Bfindel mit versetzter Dreiecksteilung zeigt beispielhaft Abb. 3. Zur sicheren Auslegung ist man gezwungen, die untere

Es

gibt

eine Vielzahl yon

290

H. Gelbe et al. ; Chemical Enghwering and Processing 34 (1995) 289-298

Begrenzung zu benutzen, die f~r gr613ere Werte des Massend/impfungsparameters durch die Connors- Gleichung gut beschrieben wird. Im Fltissigkeitsbereich ist die Stabilit~.tsgrenze mit der f/.ir Wirbelerregung

(gestrichelt gezeichnet) identisch. Andere Autoren, z.B. Pettigrew und Taylor [15], zeigen keinen Sprung oder, z.B. Troidl [19], h6here Grenzwerte. Stabilit~itsdiagramme gestatten die Bestimmung von kritischen Spaltgeschwindigkeieten unter der Annahme idealer Verh/iltnisse, das heiBt fiir homogene Biindel mit konstantem Querschnitt (Gleichverteilung der Rohre, keine Gassen oder Randspalten) sowie fiir kon- stante Anstr6m- und Spaltgeschwindigkeiten in y- und z-Richtung. In realen W~rmetibertragern wird die Str6mung durch Einbauten gest6rt, so dab sich ungleichf6rmige Rohrumstr6mungen einstellen, z.B. hinter dem Eintrittsstutzen, hinter Prall- und Umlenkblechen und infolge von Biindelgassen und Randspalten sowie dadurch bedingter By-pass-Str6mungen. Connors [22] hat seine StabilitS.tsgleichung (4) auf ungleichm/iBige Umstr6mung erweitert und erMlt GI. (7). Gleichung (10) definiert die '/iquivalente' kritische Geschwin- digkeit, wie sie einem Stabilit/itsdiagramm fiir gleich- f6rmige Durchstr6mung entnommen werden kann. Bei der Auslegung realer W~irmeiibertrager ist off eine abschnittsweise Berechnung pro Str6mungsseg- ment zweckmfil3ig, Goyder [23]. Abbildung 5 verdeut- licht dies ftir mehrfach gestiitzte Biindel, wobei mit variablen oder mit '/iquivalenten' konstanten Geschwindigkeiten pro Abschnitt gerechnet werden kann. Ein Vorteil dieser Vorgehensweise ist es u.a., dab auch weitere yon der Rohrlfinge abhfingige Gr61?en:

Massenbelegung, Dichte--z.B. in Kondensatoren--, D/impfungen und damit auch Stabilit~.tskonstanten [s. G1. (11)] beriicksichtigt werden k6nnen, wobei man die variablen Parameter zweckmfil3ig pro Abschnitt n kon- stant annimmt. Durch das differentielle Energieverhfilt- nis AS~,,, werden die BeitrS.ge, die die einzelnen Abschnitte zur InstabilitS.t beitragen, gewichtet. In realen WSxmeiibertragern kennt man nur die auf den jeweiligen Str6mungsquerschnitt bezogenen Mittel-

werte ti's

stromanteile. Moderne Fluid-Dynamik-Programme bieten heute die M6glichkeit, Geschwindigkeitsverteil- ungen in Rohrb{indeln zu berechnen und Regeln fiir die Wahl von geeigneten konstanten Geschwindig- keiten zu entwicklen, die in der Praxis eine einfache Dimensionierung ohne Rechnereinsatz erlauben. Bei der Schwingungsberechnung mit Fluid-Dynamik-Pro- grammen mul3 man zur Bestimmung des kritischen Volumenstroms I)'k den Volumenstrom 12 solange variieren, bis f/Jr ein kritisches Rohr bzw. ftir einen

Rohrspalt s die in GI. (13) definierte StabilitS.tskenn-

zahl K~ = I

Volumenstrom und der Geschwindigkeitsverteilung, der

und hier meist auch nicht die reinen Quer-

wird. Der Z/ihler in G1. (13) h~ingt vom

Nenner von den Strukturdaten und dem K-Wert aus dem Stabilit~.tsdiagramm ab. Rechnet man ab- schnittsweise, so erMlt man fth" jeden Abschnitt die differentielle Stabilitfitskennzahl AKs,,, und Ks*.nach Gl. (16). Durch die quadratische Mittelung dominieren die Abschnitte mit den gr613ten Werten yon AKs,,,. Abbildung 6 zeigt berechnete Geschwindigkeitsver- teilungen fiir den gemessenen kritischen Volumen- strom in einem Versuchswfirmetibertrager mit 2 Um- lenkungen, Urbas et al. [24]. Es wurde eine abschnitts- weise Berechnung der zXK~-Werte durchgeftihrt, einmal mit konstanten Geschwindigkeiten ~V's.,,und zum an- deren mit berechneten Geschwindigkeiten. Das Ergeb- nis entMlt die Tabelle in Abb. 7. Die kritische Rohrreihe 2 wird mit K* = 0,90 bewertet, bei Gtiltigkeit der Rechenvorsehrift Mtte man 1,0 erwartet. Ein Grund ftir die Abweichung k6nnte in der richtigen Bezugsgr6Be fiir die Gesehwindigkeit liegen, Die beiden Spaltgeschwindigkeiten ftir ein Rohr in 2. Reihe sind unterschiedlich und die Anstr6mgesehwindigkeit aus dem Spalt der davorliegenden Reihe ist gr613er. Ver- suchsweise wurde ftir die 2, Reihe nur mit der Spalt- geschwindigkeit der davorliegenden Reihe, d.h. mit der Anstr6mgeschwindigkeit, gerechnet. Das Ergebnis ist K~= 1,07, d.h. der Mittelwert aus den beiden Grenzffillen zeigt eine gute Obereinstimmung von Modellrechnung und Experiment. Ftir ideale Lagerbedingungen lassen sieh Eigen- formen und -frequenzen yon Einzelrohren in Luft analytisch berechnen. W~ihrend die berechneten Fre- quenzen mit den in B{indeln auftretenden recht gut iibereinstimmen, k6nnen die AmplitudenverlS.ufe wegen nicht bekannter Lagerdfimpfungen und unter- schiedlicher Lastenverteilungen in einzelnen Abschnit- ten st~irker variieren. Bei Rohren mit unterschiedlichen Stiitzl/ingen (Fensterrohre) ist in allen Abschnitten mit einem einheitlichen Wertf, zu reehnen, Leyh [29] konn- te zeigen, dab selbst in Versuehen mit sehr kleinen Lagerspielen von 0,15 mm in den Sttitzblechen der erste Schwingmode--auch in den Abschnitten mit den ge- ringsten Stiitzweiten-- dominierte. Bei den D/impfungen sind drei Anteile zu unterschei- den: Materialdfimpfung, viskose D'ampfung und Struk- turd/impfung. Die Strukturd/hnpfung liefert in realen Apparaten den gr6Bten Anteil und wird verursacht durch mechanisehe und viskose Reibung der Rohre in den Bohrungen der Sttitzbleehe sowie durch St6Be in den Blechen. Jahr [32] konnte zeigen, dab die Material- d/impfung fiir fest eingeschweiBte Rohre unabhfingig von der Amplitude ist, dab jedoch bei axial be- weglichen, durch Gummiringe fixierten Lagern eine starke Amplitudenabh~ingigkeit auftrat. Die Struktur- dS.mpfung zeigte sich sowohl vonder Lagerbreite und Lagertoleranz als auch von den Amplituden abh{ingig. Sie nimmt aul3erdem zu, wenn die Sttitzbleehe nicht in

H.

GeIbe eta/. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 34 (I995) 289-298

291

den Schwingungsknoten (fiquidistante StftzstelIen) angebracht werden. Aus GI. (22) lassen sich die folgenden konstruktiven Mal3nahmen entnehmen: Die Rohreinspannlfinge L hat den sffirksten Einflul3 auf die Stabilit/itsgrenze, gefolgt vom mittleren Rohrdurchmesser D m mit einem Expo- nenten 1,5. Die Wanddicke s geht wie der Elastizi- t~itsmodul E mit der Wurzel ein. Der Einflul3 der Masse

ist ffr P -~ 0,5 vernachl/issigbar. Durch Erh6hung der

D~impfung Ai l~il3t sich Ws,k erh6hen, wobei breitere Lager, kleinere Lagerspiele, ungleiche Stftzabstfinde oder zus~itzliche D/impferelemente, die den Str6mungs- querschnitt m6glichst wenig versperren sollen, helfen k6nnen. Gassen im Bfndel sind zu vermeiden oder durch Dichtstreifen bzw. Verdr~ingungsk6rper zu versperren. Bei Rohrbfndeln mit gleichen Stftzlfingen ist der Eintrittsbereich unter dem Stutzen der kritische. Daher ist die Gfte der Eintrittsverteilung entscheidend ffr den Grenzvolumenstrom. Hilfe sind Jalousie-Verteilerbleche (keine Praltbleche!) in Verbindung mit einem entsprechend gr61?eren freien Raum fiber dem Bfindel oder die Anbringung gr61?erer oder mehrerer Stutzen am Eintritt. Der Abstand zwischen Stutzenaustritt und erstem Rohr sollte nicht kleiner als zweimal Rohrdurchmesser sein, Jahr und Gelbe [26]. Der Einflul? von Prallblechen wurde von Leyh [29] unter- sucht. Als Ergebnis ist festzuhalten, dal3 Prallbleche nicht geeignet sind, die Schwingungsanffilligkeit zu

m

verbessern, sondern in den meisten F~illen diese entscheidend verschlechtern.

1. Introduction

Tube bundles subjected to a cross-flow vibrate even at low fluid velocities. These flow-induced vibrations are caused by time-dependent forces, which can be determined by measuring the pressure fluctuation at the tube surface. In order to design real heat-exchanger tube bundles capable of withstanding critical vibrations, it is necessary to obtain information about a number of influencing parameters.

2. Excitation mechanism in tube bundles

Three groups of mechanism have been advanced by Chen [1], Pa'/doussis [2], and Weaver and Fitzpatrick [3]. They are depicted in Fig. 1. Turbulent excitations exist even at low upstream velocities. They are sometimes superimposed by period- ical forces, e.g. by vortex excitation. The resulting vibrations provide the basis for fluid elastic instability arising from self-excited forces.

~b:lc Shed~cl

FPe:~ncySpectrum wlfhasmaLl.

r

[ /

AcousticResonanc]e

TL~b.l.en[B~fefing 'Mtha br~:l Fr~qua~Spectrum

~e~g

I

~1J

Ru~astlc

5att~ncj

k

Fig. 1. Vibration excitation mechanisms in tube bundles.

2.1.

Turbulence excitation

The high flow turbulence in a tube bundle is the cause of this form of excitation [4]. Since the fluctua- tions are irregular in space and time, their amplitudes are relatively small. Nevertheless they may be the origin of long-term damage arising from material abrasion, so that the maximum allowable amplitude may determine the critical velocity for liquid and two-phase flow. Semi-empirical models have been devised to calculate these amplitudes [5,6].

2.2. Periodical excitation

Periodical pressure fluctuations limited to a narrow frequency range, as known from single-tube vortex excitations, are the reason for the second mechanism. This phenomenon may excite vibration in liquid flow or acoustic resonance in gas flow. The Strouhal number [Eq. (1)] depends on the tube array and on the pitch ratio of the bundle:

Sr =fw' D

Woo

(1)

Undisturbed K~irmfin vortex streets can only develop when large pitch ratios are involved; with small pitch ratios, i.e. 1.1 < ~ < 2.0, which are of greater interest from a technical point of view, vortex formation is impeded by neighbouring tubes. Strouhal numbers de- pend on the position of the tube in the bundle and on the existing flow conditions (turbulence, Reynolds num- ber, acoustic resonance). The existence of two Strouhal numbers has been demonstrated in square-in-line arrays with large pitch ratios [7], and different Strouhal num- bers were measured in the first and second row of rotated square arrays with r > 1.31 by Weaver et al. [8]. Normally, with small pitch ratios, only the second and third rows are endangered by vortex shedding. Beyond the third row the periodicities are negligible compared to broad-band turbulence. Strouhal numbers for the normal triangular array [9] are depicted in Fig. 2. They increase with decreasing pitch ratio.

292

H. Gelbe et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processhlg 34 (1995) 289-298

7 , , , . , i t . , , , 6 -- Sr
7
,
,
,
.
,
i
t
.
,
,
,
6
--
Sr = 111.73(>1)
---Zukauskas & Katinas [15]
+
Present Results
5
+
o [31
* [151
,, [251
[51
~ [161
.Q
o
[10]
o
[24]
E
4
z
/ \~,
By Weaver
et al. [91
£
2
\',,
I
Sr
=
J~
1
,
"%
u
0
?
1
I
I
I
I
r
T
[
]
)
f
)
f
t
)
r
I
i
[
I
I
I
I
1.(
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

m

• 2+

d,

2 +

cx" x =&(t)

+/,'4(2, 2, x, y)

(3)

Acceleration forces are taken into account by adding

fluid mass [1], leading to a reduction in the natural frequencies.

Whirling or soft self-excitation [12] occurs when pre- vailing amplitude-proportional forces act against the stiffness. They are affected by the motion of the tube and of neighbouring tubes leading to evading motions. The effect of hydrodynamic coupling increases with higher static pressure in a gas as well as in liquid flow [13]. However the influence of damping becomes domi- nant for liquids [1]. At the start of whirling, an equi- 3.5 librium exists between the absorbed and dissipated energy.

In contrast, the amplitude caused by galloping, also

called hard self-excitation [12], increases abruptly. Since the forces are proportional to the vibration velocity, they act against damping and make the resultant forces zero or negative [2,14]. The motion of a tube excited by

galloping is independent of the motion of neighbouring tubes. Usually whirling and galloping are superimposed and fluid elastic vibrations commencing with whirling change to galloping at a certain point. From experi- ence, whirling dominates in a gas flow through dis- placed tube bundles and galloping often dominates in liquid flow through in-line tube bundles. Thus, for a particular design, it is important (a) to know the critical velocity for fluid elastic instability and avoid it, (b) to demonstrate the admissibility of the amplitudes reached by turbulent buffeting (for liquid and two-phase flow), (c) to calculate and check the critical velocity and the matching amplitude at the start of vortex excitation (but only for liquids) and (d) to demonstrate the possi- ble involvement of acoustic resonance (but only for gases).

Pitch Ratio z

Fig. 2. Strouhal numbers for normal triangular arrays.

Measurements with pressure receivers or hot wires [9,10] have confirmed the validity of the upper curve derived by Zukauskas and Katinas [11]. Since the Strouhal number is 3.6 for z-- 1.25, it follows that the critical upstream velocity calculated with fw =./'1 is 18- times smaller than for a single tube. Thus the kinetic energy in gas flow is too small to cause an observable resonance amplitude. Vortex excitation also does not appear in two-phase flow. Only in liquid flow has it been observed. In that case it has to be checked whether the threshold value for the maximum ampli- tude is exceeded.

2.3. Fluid elastic instability

A typical response for increasing free-stream velocity in a bundle is shown in Fig. 3. At low velocities,

vibrations result from turbulence and superimposed vortex excitation. Additional forces, i.e. g3 and g4, occur at the critical velocity at which fluid elastic instability commences. These forces are proportional to the ampli- tudes x and y, to the respective vibration velocities 2

and ):,, and to the respective accelerations 2 and/;:

(2)

m "jJ+d v .f'+Cy .y=g,(t)+g3(y,S,,y,x

)

-"Yqx

~b~ent [~.¢fet~qg

ftuide{astic instaNily

3. Estimating the critical velocity for fluid elastic instability

A number of models and theories have been pro-

posed, as described by Chen [1] and Pettigrew and Taylor [15]. The first was advanced by Connors [16]. He assumed an equilibrium between the exciting force, the force coefficients depending on the amplitudes x and y, and the damping force. From this he derived the fol- lowing stability criterion for whirling:

.,<

g.O

D

crif~t

FLow

VeLocity

Fig. 3. Typical amplitude response.

WS.k

w~.=f.

D

K.

_I/@'A

'4 P "D-

(4)

which includes the dimensionless critical velocity w~=,

the mass damping parameter (m. A)/(p.

factor K which is often called the stability constant.

D 2) and

the

Through

the

use

of

other

force

models

for

the

functions & and g4, including the force coefficient

H. Gelbe et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 34 (1995) 289-298

293

Oimensiontess Eritiza{ Vetocity w~

100 I i L ' ' • ~ & h~AVER(~81) o v VK~RT1I.~1974) ~ l
100
I
i
L
'
'
~
& h~AVER(~81)
o
v
VK~RT1I.~1974)
~
l
~-
~R
t~80t
* HBJCR&VII:~4T(1S8¢1
fl0
-i~,,m-na~e,ta~m~
I
°/
.
Fop'r=1,375:
-
,
by Troidt
l
Vudex Shedd,-,.-
St=0,(:8
1
,
,,,
I
I
]
i
0,1
1
10
I00
Mass
Damping
ParameleP
pD AA m 2

Fig. 4. Stabilitymap obtainedby Chen [1] using the Connors equa- tion.

depend on the vibration velocity (galloping) [17], the same dependence as expressed in Eq. (4) for fluids with a low density has been obtained. However for fluids with a high density, the exponent of the mass damping parameter in Eq. (4) becomes smaller than 0.5. For high fluid densities, correlations are often used which make it possible to consider the damping sepa- rately:

=

K.

• AP

(5)

The stability constant K is a function of the model, the bundle geometry, the pitch ratio and the dimensionless velocity. A list summarizing the published values of K, c~ and /? can be found in the papers of Chen [1] and Andjeli6 [12]. Fitting the experimental data and verification of the models may be achieved by means of stability :maps, in which values for we are plotted against the mass damp- ing parameter. Chen [1] has published maps for four standard bundle arrays. The two staggered arrays demonstrate a dependence on pitch [18]. As an exam- ple, a map for a bundle with a normal triangular array is shown in Fig. 4. The measured values are valid for = 1.375 and were converted using the equation:

we (r = 1.375) =

w¢(O

2.105" (z -

0.9)

(6)

The structural data m, A and f may be del:ermined either in air or in a non-turbulent fluid. Chen has remarked that the validity of Eq. (6) has only been demonstrated for gases. From Fig. 4 it will be seen that variation in the measurement values is quite extensive and can be ex- plained by structural influences, unknown boundary conditions, non-consistent use or inexact values in the structural data, or incomplete documentation. For a practical design, it is necessary to use the low limit which is well described by the Connors equation for higher mass damping parameters. Chen [1] has verified that a discontinuity occurs in the stability curve on

changing from a compressible to an incompressible medium. It can be seen from Fig. 4 that the lower stability threshold in the liquid range is identical with that for vortex excitation (dotted line). Other authors, e.g. Pettigrew and Taylor [15], have neglected this dis- continuity or have measured higher thresholds, e.g. Troidl [19]. It is assumed that the extensive scattering of

measurement values in the liquid region results from the overlapping limits for vortex excitation and fluid elastic instability. Thus, for a safe design, the lowest curve should be used. Turbulence excitation and fluid elastic instability in two-phase flows have been investi- gated by Jatzlau [20] and Chen [21]. Critical velocities determined from stability maps are only valid for ideal conditions, i.e. homogeneous bun- dles with a constant overall cross-section, with no side- passages and with constant upstream and gap velocities in any cross-section. Such conditions can only be achieved in wind tunnels. The use of data obtained from a stability map in the design of a real heat exchanger will be described in the following sections.

4.

Consideration

of a non-uniform

velocity

distribution

In real heat exchangers, the flow through the bundle and around the tubes is distributed behind the inlet nozzles, by impingement plates, banes and by-pass gaps. This leads to axial and radial stream components which cause a non-uniform flow field around the tubes. Conners [22] improved his stability equation (4) for non-uniform flow fields, but maintained the assumption of whirling. The extended Connors equation is then:

w* =f

~)S'kD=

K'

~-7'Ai•

~L

j

0

m(z)'@[(z)dz

/ ~z~ p (z)'

d 0

Vs

(z)'

@}

(z)

dz

1/2

(7)

In this equation, ~)S,kis the critical gap velocity of the bundle normal to the tube, @i(z) the ith vibration mode, Ss(Z) the relative velocity function and L the tube length. If the tube mass and fluid density are constant, it follows from Eq. (7) that:

~)S.k=

f,.D

K

.

A/A-~'m

,JD2.p

with the energy ratio:

Si~

I L

(z) • @7°(.)dz-

0L@[ (z) dz

and where the product

(8)

(9)

294

H.

Gelbe et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processhlg 34 (1995) 289-298

rl=

9(z)

O(z)

 

"

/

r'-I"

!

 

"------"ki_ImL

 

k

'

'

1

,

l

1

1

0

l~

%

t~,

t~=t~,

~

l~

l~

I

i

2

3

4

,_ All

_,

Fig. 5. Sectional calculation undertaken in stages.

(10)

is the 'equivalent' critical velocity ~?S,k,which should be

the same as that obtained from the stability map for uniform flow, due to Eq. (4). When designing a real heat exchanger, it is recom- mended that every section n be calculated separately [23]. This is shown in Fig. 5 for a multispan bundle. The calculation may be based on variable or on 'equiv- alent' constant velocities per section. The advantage of this method is that additional parameters which are dependent on z, e.g. mass per unit length, density, damping and stability constants, can be considered. For this purpose, it is useful to assume mean values within a given section n:

~?'S,k"~," = ff'S,k= WS,k

w*=

/,,~,

K'2

:'7D2j

(11)

where P is the exponent of the mass damping parame-

ter

in

the

stability equation.

The

differential energy

ratio:

 

~

~s(Z)'*}(z)dz

ASi.,, _

=

l~ foL¢~(z) dz

~.

V~,.

i

z.

@2 (z) dz

-~

g= RJ~,.

f~@~(z)dz

I

Jg.

~

(z) dz

f?O~(z)dz

(12)

defines the proportion of instability in every section. The quantity qs,,, is the 'equivalent' constant velocity

ratio for section n, knowledge of which is necessary for

a safe apparatus design, at least for sections with the

longest span length. Normally in real heat exchangers

only the mean value RJs,,,, determined from the volume

stream divided by an assumed cross-section, is known. However, with modern fluid-dynamic programs, it is possible to calculate velocity fields in tube bundles. On the basis of these calculations and using the equations

given above, it should be possible to derive rules for suggesting 'equivalent' constant velocities which make simple designs possible without the help of computers. Using Eq. (8) or (11), it is possible to calculate the maximum gap velocity. However, the designer needs to know the critical volume stream for a given heat ex- changer. Using fluid-dynamic programs, the volume stream has to be varied until for a critical gap relative to a critical tube the stability relation K~ defined in Eq. (13) becomes equal to 1.0. It follows from Eqs. (4) and (8) that the potential risk of instability relative to the stability constant K can be expressed as:

K* =

'~'s'~

=

f(fO

Ws.k

f(O, p, Ai,f, m, K)

(13)

The numerator in Eq. (13) depends on the inlet volume stream I:" and the velocity distribution, while the de- nominator depends on the structural data and the K value extracted from the stability map. The stability threshold value is K* = 1. In that case I~'= ~;'k and ~¢'s= *¢'s.k. In the simplest case, if all parameters are constant

over z, Eq.

(8) can be used with:

 

N

S,=

Z

AS,-.,,

 

I1

x

1

(14)

When calculating section per section, one obtains a differential stability relationship for each section:

axe,,, =

with

WS,ka,

K* = ~,~,=, AK~.,~

(1:)

(16)

Because of the square root value, sections with the highest AK*, values dominate. The velocity distribution calculated for the measured critical volume stream in an experimental heat ex- changer with two baffles is shown in Fig. 6 [24]. Also shown with dotted lines are the assumed constant ve- locities. In this figure, the first three rows behind the nozzle are window tubes and are therefore not sup- ported between sections 4 and 5. Sections 1 and 2 are not on-stream. Sectional calculations of the AKs*.values have been made, based first on the assumption of constant veloc- ities ~:'s,, for the ratio between the volume stream and the free cross-section of the bundle (in Section 3 the free cross-section below the nozzle). Secondly, calculated

H. Gelbe et aI. / Chemical Engineering and ProcessO*g 34 (I995) 289-298

295

gap velocity in m/s

IO0

50

0

.

',,,',

I,,

--

-50

 

t

i

-100

-150

n=

1

2

3

4

5

1. row

2, row

3, row

Fig. 6. Calculated gap velocities and mode shape.

Fig. 7. Stability relationships for a real heat exchanger.

Gap

K~ for assumed constant velocities

 

K~ for calculated gap velocities

104-I05

0.58

1.14

1.28

0.23

0.68

0.72

205-206

0.58

1.04

1.19

0.19

0.88

0.90

305-306

0.58

0.95

1.11

0.17

1.13

1.14

with K* = x/zXK.2 + AK~,~+s and K = 2.48.

velocities have been used. The results are shown in Fig. 7 [25]. The constant velocity model predicts values which are too high because:

1. The assumed velocity behind the nozzle in section 3

was too high (AK*,s = 0.53 instead of 0.23,

0.19 and

0.17, respectively); however, this has no major effect due to the dominating influence of the ~K~,4+ 5 values. 2. For the first three tubes in the window, the full volume flow was assumed to be a cross-flow. In fact, for the first row the potential risk of instability is

least because of the greater axial flow (0.68 instead of 1.14) while the highest is found in the third row (1.13 in comparison to 0.95).

For critical row 2, the value K* is 0.90 instead of 1.0 as would have been expected. There is an important rea- son for this deviation: for non-uniform flow around a tube, the question arises which is the right datum value for the velocity. Thus, the two gap velocities for a tube in a row can differ. Additionally, the upstream velocity of a tube in the gap of the preceding row can be higher than that in the same row. This was the case for the second row in the sections 3, 4 + 5. For this reason, a mean value should be established to allow the force on the tube to be modelled exactly. Stability relations for the second row were calculated using the gap velocity of the row before, i.e. with the upstream velocity. The result was K* = 1.07. Thus, it may be concluded that the model approximately fits with the measurements.

Further validations of the extended Connors equation have been described by Jahr and Gelbe [25, 26]. The higher values of K* (third row) relative to the second row are surprising. This can be explained by the

fact, that the calculation model ignores by-pass streams in the holes of the tube support plate. These lower the velocity maximum in the third row and hence will reduce the K* value in practice.

5. Influence of structure and design

5.1. Structure data

For the determination of critical velocities from sta- bility diagrams, a good knowledge of the following structure data is required: vibration frequency ~.); damping (A;); and mass per unit length (m). Amongst other things, they depend on the design details of the heat exchanger, particularly on the support conditions of the tubes and on the number and design of the baffles. The frequency and mass per unit length may be calculated with a reasonable degree of exactness. How- ever, a good estimation of the damping values is not possible and they have to be determined after construc- tion of the apparatus. Another problem is, that depend- ing on the stability equation used, the structure data mentioned above are needed for different boundary

conditions, i.e. (i) in the absence of the influence of

a fluid (vacuum), (ii) in a static fluid for (a) a single

tube (without interactions) and (b) a tube bundle (cou- pled vibration modes), and (iii) with fluid-coupled forces, all under realistic support conditions. Because boundary condition (i) is the easiest to realise, Chen [1]

referred his stability diagrams to this state. State (ii)(a)

is also often used as a boundary condition (e.g. Petti-

grew and Taylor [15]), while conditions (ii)(b) and (iii) are seldom used. Chen [27] demonstrated that

it is permissible to choose one or other of boundary

conditions (i) or (ii)(a) if this is also done for all three parameters.

5. I.i.

Frequency

and vibration mode

If a very small deformation is assumed, the following equation can be derived from the partial differential equation for the free vibration of a homogeneous rod

[28]:

22

x/-~

= 27cL2"

(17)

In this equation, the2i quantities are the eigenvalues for the vibration modes @i and depend on the boundary conditions. Tractive forces (e.g. for fixed supports) increase the natural frequency, while pressure forces (e.g. due to heat extension) lower it.

296

H. Gelbe et al. / Chemical Engineerhlgand Processhlg34 (I995) 289-298

For ideal support conditions, it is possible to calcu- late the natural modes and frequencies of single tubes in air analytically. Although the calculated frequencies fit very well with the measured values, the calculated amplitude curves differ as a result of unknown support damping and different loads in the bundle section [29]. The natural frequency for fluids of higher density de- creases due to the additional fluid mass to be moved. The influence of density and viscosity has been de- scribed by Stockmeier [30]. The same value off. has to be used in all sections for tubes with different span length full on stream. Leyh [29] showed that, even in experiments with a very small baffle clearance of 0.15 mm, the first mode dominated for sections with the shortest span length. The first mode usually leads to the lowest critical velocity. How- ever, if other modes are excited due to the flow field, a higher mode can become critical. This may happen if more than one inlet nozzle is used or if the bundle is only partially subjected to cross-flow. Baffle clearances are also very important. The first mode is the only one with the lowest frequency when the clearances are sufficiently small and the supports are active. Whether tubes may vibrate in the mode of an inactive support with a corresponding low frequency, which could reach the instability area before the sup- port becomes active with increasing velocity and ampli- tude, needs to be demonstrated. A report about vibrations in a condensor due to inactive supports with clearances in the area of technical use between 0.4- 0.6mm has been published by Yeh and Chen [31]. Long-term damage occurred caused by increased ampli- tudes at relatively low velocities.

5.1.2.

Damping

Damping may be defined by the logarithmic decre- ment:

A = 2n(

(18)

or by the damping ratio:

d

(19)

~ = 2,v/-~ Three different types of damping need to guished:

be distin-

1. Material damping, which occurs mainly in the sup- ports and is not significant.

2. Viscosity or fluid

damping, which cannot be neglected

for fluids with higher density and viscosity.

3. Structural damping, which is the main type in real heat exchangers. It is caused by mechanical and viscous friction of the tubes in the baffles and also by impact forces.

Damping generally depends on amplitude and hence on the vibrational mode. Impact forces due to larger sup-

port clearances can cause non-linear behaviour and hysteresis phenomena. Jahr [32] demonstrated that ma- terial damping for welding fixed tubes does not depend on the amplitude. In contrast, axial fi'eely supported tubes, which are only supported by O-rings, have a high amplitude dependence. Structural damping varies with the width and the clearance tolerance of the support. It increases if the baffles are not fixed in the vibration node points (no equidistant supports, see Jendrzejczyk [33] and Chen [1]). Values for structural damping have been given by Pettigrew et al. [34]. For gaseous media, A = 0.044 has been recommended as a safe value, whereas for liquids A = 0.062 if f> 100 Hz; for lower frequencies, higher values are recommended. However, the damping can also be up to five-times higher and can differ by a factor of ca. 2 within the same bundle.

5.1.3.

Mass pet" unit length

The mass damping parameter and the frequency are usually calculated using the mass per unit length of the tube plus the fluid mass inside. The effect of the hydro- dynamic mass on a single tube in infinitely expanded media has also to be considered:

1

m,~ = -~ zrpD 2

(20)

For air and light gases, this effect can be neglected. The additional mass increases for tubes near to the walls

[1] has

and for tubes vibrating in a bundle.

defined a coefficient C,, for the effective additional mass:

Chen

c.

m, = --~ npD"

,

(21)

and has suggested limiting values as a function of the pitch ratio. For low amplitude values, C, usually is assumed to be unity.

5.2.

h~uence

of design

If the moment of inertia, which depends on the diameter D and the wall thickness s of the tube, is introduced into Eqs. (17) and (4), an expression for the critical velocity for fluid elastic instability can be ob- tained:

WS,k"" K('c) • 2~ "

D2

L2

• E 0'5' s 0'5'

Af

mO,5_i,

(22)

The following design suggestions can be derived from this equation. The span length L has .the greatest influ- ence on the stability of the bundle and the longest span length is the most important (window tubes). In critical heat exchangers, window tubes must be avoided. The influence of the mean diameter Dm of the tubes is of next importance. Tubes with small diameters (conden- sors) cause more vibrational problems. The wall thick-

H. Gelbe et al. / Chemical Engineering and Processing 34 (1995) 289-298

297

hess s and the modulus of elasticity E have an influence which is proportional to their square root. The influence of the mass m can be neglected for P~-0.5. If the damping A,. is increased, the critical velocity can be higher. To achieve this effect, broader supports, lower support clearances, non-equidistant span lengths or ad- ditional dampeners, which should have no influence on the flow field, are useful. For normal triangular arrays and rotated square arrays, Soper [18] discovered that the critical velocity WS,kincreases with increasing pitch ratio ~. Gaps within

the bundle must be avoided or closed by using seal strips or displacement bodies. On the one hand by-pass streams reduce the velocity in the bundle, while on the other hand the fluid velocity in the gaps can become so high that adjacent tubes begin vibrating, especia]ily when the flow is forced back into the bundle at obstacles. For tubes with equidistant span lengths, the inflow area behind the nozzle is critical. The critical volume stream can be increased in proportion to the ratio of the

nozzle to the free bundle cross-section. Hence the limit-

ing volume stream depends on how well flow is dis- tributed before entrance into the bundle. This can be achieved by using flow distributors behind the nozzle or by using several or bigger inlet nozzles. The distance between the nozzle outlet and the first tube row should

not be smaller than two tube diameters [26]. The influence of impingement plates has been investi-

gated

by Leyh [29]. In contrast to flow distributors,

plates

are not capable of improving the vibration resis-

tance. In fact, the critical velocities were lower in most of the cases studied. If it is not possible to avoid plates,

their diameter should be bigger than the diameter of the inlet nozzle. The distance between the impingement plate and the shell should be of a size sufficient Lo avoid high radial velocity components from the edge of the plate acting on the tubes.

6. Conclusions

An overview is given of the parameters which affect the vibrational excitation in a tube bundle heat ex- changer as well as rules for avoiding their negative influence on the critical velocity. The applicability of stability maps with real apparatus has been inw,~stigated in detail, as well as the influence of the velocity field and the structural data. It has been demonstrated that a conservative safe design is possible, but that some important problems (e.g. damping values) still require research.

Nomenclature

c

spring constant, kg s-2

Cp

force coefficient, -

d

velocity-proportional damping, kg s-t

D

diameter of tube, m

E

modulus of elasticity, kgm -I s-2

S

natural frequency of tubes, s-1

fw

vortex shedding frequency, s-

gl

4

external forces, kg m s-2

I

moment of inertia, m 4

K

stability constant, -

K*

stability relation, -

L

span length, m

177

mass per unit length, kg m -1

n

number of a span section, -

N

number of all span sections, -

P

exponent of mass damping parameter, -

S

tube wall thickness, m

Si

energy fraction, -

ASi,,,

differential energy fraction, -

Sr

Strouhal number, -

t

time, s

9

volume stream, m 3 s-~

ek

critical volume stream, m3s-

W~

free inflow velocity, m s-1

WS

gap velocity, m s-1

WS,k

critical gap velocity, m s-

}VS,k

maximum critical gap velocity, m s-~

WS,k

equivalent critical gap velocity, m s-1

W

dimensionless critical velocity, -

X, y

amplitudes, m

2,2

vibrational velocities, m s-

2,2

vibrational accelerations, m s-2

Z

coordinate along the tube, m

CA

exponent in stability equation, -

P

damping exponent in stability equation, -

(

damping ratio, -

21

eigenvalues, -

Ai

logarithmic decrease in damping, -

P

density, kg m -3

"C

pitch ratio, - normalized amplitude function, -

~s

normalized velocity distribution function, -

Indices

i

number of mode

k

critical values

n

section of a bundle

S

gap

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