Sie sind auf Seite 1von 3

fesvebisa da mikrobebis urTierTqmedebani

asociaciebi fesvi – mikrobi SeiZleba Zalian rTuli iyos da moicavdes


maspinZeli fesvis mikrobul invaziebs. meores mxriv, mikroorganizmi SeiZleba
rCebodes niadagSi, rogorc Tavisuflad mcxovrebi. nebismier SemTxvevaSi es
asociaciebi SeiZleba mcenarisaTvis sasargeblo an saziano iyos. fesvebsa da
mikrobebs Soris urTierTdamokidebulebebi mravali welia mikrobiologebis
interesebis sagania, magram azotmafiqsirebeli organizmebis garda, sxva
urTierTdamokidebulebebma mcenareTa fiziologebis yuradReba SedarebiT axlaxan
miipyro. interesis gaRviZebas bevrad Seuwyo xeli im faqtis gagebam, rom bevri
mikroorganizmi SeiZleba mniSvnelovan rols asrulebdes mcenareebis mier
mineraluri nivTierebebis STanTqmaSi.

Bbaqteriebi

mcenareTa fesvebi, Cveulebriv, Seicavs baqteriebis did populaciebs, romelTac


izidavs mzardi fesvTa sistemis mowodebuli, energiiT mdidari sakvebi nivTierebebis
didi maragi. fesvebis uSualo, uaxloesi garemo – rizosfero – yvelaze mimzidvelia
baqteriebisaTvis, amitomac maTi raodenoba aq SeiZleba 50%-iT aRematebodes niadagis
garemomcvel ZiriTad masaSi mikrobebis raodenobas. fesvebis samarago sakvebi
nivTierebebi – ZiriTadad aminomJavebi da xsnadi amidebia, aRmdgeneli Saqrebi da sxva
dabalmolekuluri nivTierebebi. es nivTierebebi SeiZleba gadmoedinos ujredebidan
(arametaboluri procesi) anda aqtiurad sekretirdes apoplastSi, saidanac
Tavisuflad difundirdeba garemomcvel rizosferoSi.
fesvur gamonayofebs Soris Warbobs mucinebi – polisaqaridebi, romlebic
goljis vezikulebiT sekretirdeba mzardi wveros axlos ujredebSi. mucinebis
sekrecia, rogorc Cans, Semofarglulia fesvis SaliTis, axalgazrda epidermuli
ujredebiTa da fesvis bususebiT, romlebSic meoreuli ujreduli kedeli jer ar
Camoyalibebula. fesvis ufro bazalur raionebSi mucinebis sekrecia, albaT
SezRudulia meoreuli ujreduli kedliT.
arasterilur niadagSi mucinebi swrafad gamoiyeneba niadagis baqteriebis mier,
romlebic maT rTaven sakuTar metabolur produqtebSi, mag, kapsulis
mukopolisaqaridebSi. garda amisa, mucinebi ukavSirdeba niadagis koloidur
mineralebsa da organul nivTierebebs. fesvuri gamonayofebis, cocxali da mkvdari
baqteriebisa da niadagis koloiduri nawilakebis narevs erTad mucigeli ewodeba.
ramdenad Zlier gavlenas axdens baqteriebi mcenareTa kvebaze? eWvgareSea, rom
baqteriebi mWidro kavSirSia mcenareTa azotiT kvebasTan. mcenareTaTvis azotis
pirvelad wyaros warmoadgens 2 saxis azotmafiqsirebeli baqteriebi: invaziuri da
Tavisufladmcxovrebi. amas garda, niadagis baqteriebis sxva saxe amoniumis azots
nitratad gardaqmnis.
niadagebis umetesobaSi fosforis xsnadoba SezRudulia da bunebriv ekosistemeb-
Si igi xSirad warmoadgens malimitirebel elements. arsebobs mtkicebulebebi, rom
niadagis baqteriebs SeuZlia fosforis wyalSi uxsnadi naerTebi xsnadad gardaqmnas.
Tumca, naklebsavaraudod gveCveneba, rom es procesi fosforis mTavar wyaros
uzrunvelyofs mcenareebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT, qvemoT aRwerili eqstensiuri
sokovani asociaciebis sinaTleze. miuxedavad amisa, baqteriebs SeuZliaT gazardon
sakvebi nivTierebebis STanTqma sxva gzebiT. erTi gzaa – fesvebis zrdasa da
morfologiaze gavlena. erT-erTi yvelaze STambeWdavi magaliTia – "proteoiduli"
fesvebis warmoqmna. gverdiTi fesvebis lokalizebuli gaZlierebuli warmoqmnis es
movlena pirvelad aRmoCenili iyo Proteaceae – ojaxSi, romelic moicavs tropikul
xeebsa da buCqebs (aq Sedis gvari – Macadamea – cnobili macadamia Txilis wyaro).
proteoiduli fesvebi napovnia ramdenime sxva ojaxSic. maTi induqcia dakavSirebulia
baqteriebis lokalur agregaciasTan mucigelSi. lateraluri fesvebis didi ricxvis
wyalobiT aiTviseba niadagis didi moculoba, romelic Seicavs Zneladmosapovebel
elementebs, rogoric fosforia. amas garda, proteoiduli fesvebi, Cveulebriv,
formirdeba niadagis zedapirTan axlos, sadac maT SeuZlia Camorecxili nivTi-
erebebis (подстилка, помет) SeTviseba. proteoiduli fesvebis warmoqmnis meqanizmi
cnobili ar aris, magram is SeiZleba dakavSirebuli iyos baqteriebis mier indolil-
ZmarmJavas warmoqmnasTan.

mikoriza

SesaZloa, yvelaze farTod gavrcelebuli da kvebiTi TvalsazrisiT yvelaze


mniSvnelovani asociaciebi mcenareebsa da mikroorganizmebs Soris aris fesvebsa da
niadagis mravalferovan sokoebs Soris damyarebuli asociaciebi (marschner, 1986).
sokoebiT inficirebul fesvs mikoriza ewodeba. (sityva-sityviT – sokovani fesvebi).
mikoriza aris mutualizmis forma, rodesac orive partniori sargeblobas iRebs
mWidro asociaciisagan. mikorizis mniSvneloba aisaxeba dakvirvebaSi, rom Seswavlili
mcenareebis 80%-ze meti, faqtiurad, ekonomikurad mniSvnelovani mcenareTa saxeobebi,
mikorizebs warmoqmnian.
cnobilia mikorizebis 2 mTavari forma: eqtotrofuli da endotrofuli (sur. 5.12).
eqtotrofuli forma, romelsac eqtomikorazasac uwodeben, Semoifargleba ramdenime
ojaxiT, romlebic moicavs ZiriTadad zomieri zonebis xeebsa da buCqebs – fiWvebs,
wifels. eqtomikorizebi, Cveulebriv, intensiurad datotvilia da dafarulia sokos
hifebis mWidrod naqsovi mantiiT (sur. 5.12, a,b). sokoebi aseve aRweven fesvis qerqis
ujredSoris da apoplastur sivrceSi da warmoqmnian ujredSoris bades, romelsac
hartigis bade (qseli) ewodeba (sur. 5.12 c). endotrofuli mikoriza anu endomikoriza
gvxvdeba faqtiurad yvela farulTeslovani ojaxis zogierT saxeobebSi da
SiSvelTeslovanTa umravlesobaSi (garda Pinaceae – ojaxisa). eqtomikorizisagan
gansxvavebiT, endomikorizebis hifebi intensiurad viTardeba maspinZelis fesvebis
kortikaluri (qerqis) ujredebis SigniT (sur. 5.12 d). yvelaze tipiuri endomikorizebi,
romlebic gamovlenilia mcenareTa umravlesobaSi mTel msoflioSi, miekuTvneba
vezikularul arbuskulur (xismagvar) mikorizebs (VAM). misi hifebi izrdeba fesvis
qerqis ujredebis SigniT da Soris, sadac isini warmoqmnian intensiurad datotvil
xismagvar struqturebs – e.w. arbuskulebs (rac niSnavs juja xes) (sur. 5.12 e).
arbiskulis TiToeuli gantoteba Semovlebulia maspinZlis ujredis plazmuri
membraniT. amgvarad, Tumca hifebi ganWolaven maspinZlis ujredis kedels, isini
faqtiurad ar Cainergebian protoplastSi. arbuskulebi emsaxureba hifebsa da
ujredebs Soris kontaqtis zedapiris 2-3-jer gazrdas. amave dros isini gavlenas
axdenen maspinZlis ujredebze, romelTa citoplazmis moculoba SeiZleba 20-25%-iT
gaizardos. zogjer VAM warmoqmnis msxvil elipsoidur vezikulebs maspinZel
ujredebs Soris an maT SigniT. arbuskulebisa da vezikulebis arseboba
uzrunvelyofs sakvebi nivTierebebis gacvlis did zedapirs maspinZel-mcenaresa da
Canergil sokoebs Soris. Tumca, VAM ar warmoqmnis fesvis garSemo mkafio garsebs,
maTi hifebi, eqtomikorizebis hifebis msgavsad, efeqturad adideben rizosferos
garemomcvel niadagSi zrdis xarjze.
ra SeiZleba iTqvas mikorizebis fiziologiuri rolis Sesaxeb? rodesac XIX s-Si
germanelma botanikosma frankma igi pirvelad aRmoaCina wiflis aRmonacenebze
eqsperimentirebisas, mivida im daskvnamde, rom mikorizuli inokulacia astimulirebda
maT zrdas. Tumca am daskvnam dasawyisSi sayovelTao aRiareba ver moipova, es
Sedegebi safuZvlianad iqna damtkicebuli Tanamedrove gamokvlevebiT. aSS-Si,
avstraliasa da yofil ssrk-Si Catarebuli mravalricxovani gamokvlevebSi fiWvisa
da sxva xeebis aRmonacenebze gamovlenil iqna mikorizebiT inficirebuli xeebis
aRmonacenebis mSrali masis 30-150 %-iT gazrda arainficirebulTan SedarebiT.
msgavsi Sedegebi iqna miRebuli iseTi sasoflo-sameurneo mcenareebis Seswavlisas,
rogoricaa simindi (sur. 5.13). mag, erT-erT eqsperimentSi VAM inficirebuli lavandis
mSrali masa gaizarda arainficirebulTan SedarebiT 8,5-jer (Arecon et.al., 1976).
sokos moqmedebiT fesvebis zrdis stimulaciis mTavari Sedegia – sakvebi
nivTierebebis, gansakuTrebiT, fosforis STanTqmis gazrda. 1937 wlis klasikur
eqsperimentebSi hetCma (Hatch) aCvena, rom Sesabamisi sokoebiT inficirebuli fiWvis
aRmonacenebi STanTqaven 2-3-jer met azots, kaliumsa da fosfors (Jackson, Mason, 1984).
amasTan erTad SeniSnul iqna, rom mikoriziT inducirebuli zrda yvelaze metad
gamoxatulia sakvebi elementebis mxriv deficituri niadagebisaTvis. VAM infeqcia,
mag., SeiZleba efeqturad acilebuli iqnas fosforis advilad SesaTvisebeli
formebiT mcenaris momaragebiT. mcenareebi, romelTac Warbad miewodeba fosforis
naerTebi da mikoriza ar gaaCniaT, iseve kargad izrdebian, rogorc mikorizuli
sokoTi inokulirebuli.
mikorizis sasargeblo roli, gansakuTrebiT fosforis STanTqmis TvalsazrisiT,
rogorc Cans, dakavSirebulia sakvebi nivTierebebis amowurvis zonasTan, romelic
fesvs SemosazRvravs (sur. 5.14). es zona gansazRvravs niadagis sazRvrebs, saidanac
fesvebs SeuZliaT sakvebi elementebis advilad mopoveba. damatebiTi sakvebi
nivTierebebi SeiZleba misawvdomi gaxdes mxolod fesvebis gafarToebiT niadagis
axal sferoebSi anda gamofitul ubnebSi niadagis sxva ubnebidan sakvebi
nivTierebebis difundirebiT. gamofitvis zonebis zomebi sxvadasxva elementebisaTvis
gansxvavebulia, rac damokidebulia niadagis xsnarSi elementis xsnadobaze da
mobilurobaze. mag, gamofitvis zona azotisaTvis gavrcobilia mniSvnelovan sferoSi,
fesvebis mier dakavebuli zonis miRma, vinaidan nitrati advilad xsnadia da
maRalmobiluri. meores mxriv, fosfori naklebad xsnadia da niadagSi SedarebiT
mciredmoZravi, da aqedan gamomdinare, misi gamofitvis zona SedarebiT mcirea.
mikorizuli sokoebi exmareba fosforis STanTqmaSi maTi miceliumis gavrcobiT am
elementis amowurvis zonis miRma (sur. 5.14). aSkaraa, rom mikorizuli mcenareebi
amjobineben naxSirbadis maragis xarjvas mikorizis zrdis SenarCunebaze, da ara
Tavad fesvTa sistemis zrdis intensifikaciaze.
mikorizebis SeswavlasTan erTad mcenareebis sakvebi elementebiT uzrunvelyofaSi
maTi mniSvnelovani roli sul ufro aSkara xdeba. bevri mikoriza specifikuria
maspinZlis mimarT. mcenaris axal garemoSi gadanergvis mcdelobebi SeiZleba
warumatebeli iyos, Tu masSi ar aris Sesabamisi mikorizuli sokoebi. niadagis
nayofierebis problemis gadawyvetisaTvis, soflis meurneobasa da metyeveobaSi,
aucilebelia mxedvelobaSi iqnas miRebuli maTi mikorizuli Semadgenloba.