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1

goCa kuWuxiZe

sami epoqis anbani?

***
ivane javaxiSvilma naSromSi `qarTuli paleografia~ SeniSna, rom
qarTuli anbanis rigSi gamoiyofa ori jgufi: pirvelSi asoebis
Tanamimdevroba ZiriTadad berZnul-semuri anbanisas Seesabameba,
meoreSi Tavmoyrilia `qarTulis niSandobliv bgeraTa
gamomxatveli~ specifikuri asoebi. miuxedavad imisa, rom `qarTuli
anbanis berZnul-semurTan SedarebiT danarTi asoebi garkveuli
sistemiT da erTgvari enaTmecnieruli dakvirvebis mixedviT arian
dalagebulni~ (`daculia erTgvar bgeraTa jgufobrivi dayofa-
dalageba~...), meore jgufSi mainc `aRreulobaa~ SesamCnevi, _
`bgeraTa bunebisdagvarad rom yofiliyvnen asoebi moTavsebulni, R,
y, x, da h unda erT jgufad da erTmaneTis midevnulobiT
yofiliyvnen dalagebuli. qarTul anbanSi ki jer ukanaenismieri R da
y zis, Semdeg ki sisina da SiSina winaenismier bgeraTa mTeli eqvsi
niSnisagan Semdgari rigi misdevs S, C, c, Z, W, merme isev ukanaenismieri
x da Ã-ia moTavsebuli, Semdeg j da sul boloSi h~, mkvlevaris
aRniSvniT, `aseTi Seusabamoba da aRreuloba, albaT, imis Sedegi
unda iyos, rom danarTi asoebi erT dros da erTbaSad ar unda
iyvnen mimatebuli, aramed TandaTanobiT da sxvadasxva dros~. iv.
javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, berZnulma anbanma finikielebisagan
SeTvisebul asoebs, `TandaTanobiT boloSi berZnulisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli~ `asoebi daurTo~ da `raki qarTul anbanSiac
qarTulis niSandobliv bgeraTa gamomxatveli asoebi mxolod
boloSia moTavsebuli, berZnul-semurTan saerTo asoebs Semdgom, es
ueWvelia saukeTeso damamtkicebelia imisi, rom qarTul anbans
Tavisi TandaTani ganviTarebis saxe da kvali saucxood, SeiZleba
iTqvas, ucvlelad aqvs Senaxuli~ (javaxiSvili 1996: 197-198; _
xazgasma yvelgan Cvenia, _ g. k.).
2

pavle ingoroyva varaudobda, rom farnavaz mefis dros `Catarda


Sevseba qarTuli anbanisa, darTva Zveli anbanis boloSi calke
sagangebo niSnebisa specifikuri qarTuli bgerebisaTvis (rac
arqaul periodSi, Cans, niSanTa SeerTebuli dawerilobiT
gadmoicemoda)~ (ingoroyva 1978: 250); igi asomTavrulis geneziss
arqaul berZnul anbanTan akavSirebda.
aso-niSnebi Semdeg rom iyos asomTavrulSi damatebuli, es ara,
magram is azri umetes SemTxvevaSi ar aris sadavo, rom marTlac ori
ZiriTadi nawili, ori jgufi, gamoiyofa qarTul asomTavrul
anbanSi, pirveli es aris `ucxouri~ da meore ki _ `qarTuli
jgufi~, miuxedavad imisa, uSualod finikiur asoTa mixedviTaa
pirveli jgufis asoebi dalagebuli, Tu mxolod _ berZnulisa, am
etapze yalibdeba debuleba, romelic zogadad orive Sexedulebis
momxreTaTvis aris misaRebi da am sityvebiT SeiZleba formulirdes:
_ qarTuli anbanis pirvel jgufSi, ZiriTadad, semur-berZnul
asoTa Sesabamisi araspecifikuri asoebia Tavmoyrili, meoreSi ki,
umeteswilad, _ specifikurebi.
Cvens yuradRebas Semdegi garemoeba iqcevs: asomTavruli anbanis
aso-niSani Jani ara `qarTul~, aramed `semur-berZnul~ rigSia
moTavsebuli, im specifikuri asoebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlebic
anbanis meore nawilSia warmodgenili, Jans pirvel nawilSi aqvs
adgili damkvidrebuli, meore jgufis aso-niSanTagan gansxvavebuli
principiT aris igi adgilmiCenili. es garemoeba badebs
STabeWdilebas, rom J aso-niSans sruliad sxva adamianebma
miuCines adgili da sul sxvebi iyvnen isini, vinc danarCeni
`qarTuli asoebi~, am anbanis specifikuri jgufi Seqmnes.
sxvadasxva dros Cans es ori faqti momxdari, _ erTdroulad, erTi
da imave adamianTa mier rom iyos mTeli qarTuli anbani Seqmnili,
Jani, rogorc arasemuri da araberZnuli, meore nawilSi iqneboda
moTavsebuli, erTsa da imave swavlulebs rom SeeqmnaT anbanis orive
nawili, semur-berZnul anbanTan Seusabamo Jansac `qarTul jgufSi~
vixilavdiT, magram am SemTxvevaSi asoTa ganlagebis absoluturad
3

gansxvavebuli principi moCans Cven winaSe da semur-berZnulTa


Sesabamis asoTa Soris vxedavT Jans, rac zemowarmodgenili varaudis
gamoTqmis safuZvels badebs, _ iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom J im dros
aris gaCenili, roca sxva `qarTuli aso-niSnebi~ jer ar iyo
aRmocenebuli, roca jer ar arsebobda `qarTuli jgufi~1; ase
amrigad, Cven winaSe warmodgeba kiTxva: _ xom ar aris safiqrebeli,
rom qarTuli asomTavrulis zemoxsenebuli ori jgufi
erTdroulad araa Seqmnili da mizezi qarTuli anbanis meore,
specifikuri, jgufis arsebobisa is aris, rom specifikur aso-
bgerebs pirveli anbanis Semdeg Seuqmnes Sesabamisi grafemebi? _ da
am kiTxvaze vpasuxobT, rom savaraudod marTlac ase unda iyos, anu,
vfiqrobT, rom, SesaZloa, mxardasaWeri aRmoCndes mosazreba,
romlis mixedviTac, asoTa nawili Semdgom droSia damatebuli
asomTavrulze. iv. javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, rogorc vnaxeT,
`TandaTani ganviTarebis saxe da kvali~ etyoba am anbans, amas
garda, xsenebul naSromSi mkvlevari wers, rom aso-niSani hae axali
grafikuli moxazulobiT Semdeg unda iyos damatebuli anbanze, rom
gansazRvrul epoqaSi `axali asos gamogonebis aucileblobis
procesi~ damdgara, rom es «maSin unda momxdariyo, rodesac ukve
sisina da SiSina bgeraTa gamomxatvel asoTa jgufi da magari
xorxismieri ori bgeris niSnisagan Semdgari jgufi, TviT `j~-anic ki,
ukve mimatebuli iyo da anbani mTlad damTavrebulad iTvleboda»,
rom, berZnulis msgavsad, `qarTul anbanSiac qarTulis niSandobliv
bgeraTa gamomxatveli asoebi mxolod boloSia moTavsebuli~; Cven
vxedavT, rom mkvlevari aq sruliad cxadad warmoaCens azrs, romlis
Tanaxmad, asomTavrul anbanze Semdeg aris aso-niSnebi damatebuli
(javaxiSvili 1996: 199); Tu rodis romeli asoebi unda damateboda
asomTavruls, amis warmoCenas qvemoT SevecdebiT, amjerad im
garemoebaze gadagvaqvs umTavresi yuradReba, rom asomTavruli
anbani erT jerze Seqmnilad ar miaCnia iv. javaxiSvils, rom, mis
Tanaxmad, `TandaTanobiT da sxvadasxva dros~ Cans masSi asoebi
gaCenili da, roca mxardaWeraze vwerT, cxadia, erT-erT
4

upirvelesad iv. javaxiSvils vgulisxmobT; cxadia isic, rom, iv.


javaxiSvilis garda, mxardasaWerad migvaCnia p. ingoroyva, romelic,
rogorc vnaxeT, igive azrs aviTarebs da ufro gamokveTilad da
formulirebulad ayalibebs mas da miiCnevs, rom jer kidev
farnavazamde arsebobda asomTavruli anbani da rom specifikuri
aso-niSnebi mogvianebiT daerTo am anbans. Cven vfiqrobT, rom swori
Cans es azri, rom mSobliuri enis aso-bgeraTa Sesabamisad miCneul
ucxour aso-niSanTa mixedviT Seqmnes Tavdapirveli asomTavrulis
avtorebma es anbani, rom specifikuri asoebisaTvis grafemebi ar
moifiqres maSin, rom jer kidev ar hqondaT sabolood dadgenili,
romeli unda miCneuliyo bgerad da romeli ki _ aso-bgerad da rom
maT mier Seqmnil Tavdapirvel anbanSi finikiur-berZnulis
Sesabamisi esa Tu is grafema gamoxatavda ama Tu im specifikur
bgerasa Tu aso-bgeras (semur-berZnul grafemebze miwerili
specialuri niSnebiT, an, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, iqneb, marTlac _
ligaturiT; am sakiTxs qvemoTac SevexebiT), vfiqrobT, rom,
SesaZloa, Tavdapirveli asomTavrulis Seqmnis Semdeg, mogvianebiT,
erTi didi reforma gatarda anbanisa, rom maSindelma romeliRac
didma swavlulma (an swavlulTa jgufma) calke grafemebi, aso-
niSnebi, Seqmna specifikuri asoebisTvis da aman ki ufro
srulyofili gaxada anbani da gaadvilda misiT wera da kiTxva;
radgan ukve arsebul, _ ucxouri anbanis Tanamimdevrobis
Sesabamisad dalagebul aso-niSnebs ricxviTi mniSvnelobebic
hqonda, am `ucxour rigSi~ axal specifikur asoTa Setana sirTules
gamoiwvevda, ukve arsebul teqstebSi dawerili ricxvebis
mniSvnelobaTa gagebas gaarTulebda da Cans, rom am sirTulisagan
Tavis aridebis survilic unda iyos mizezi imisa, rom specifikuri
asoebi boloSia moqceuli (am aso-niSnebs mxolod aseulebisa da
aTaseulebis aRniSvna evaleba da maTi iq moTavseba Zalian ar
Secvlida mTeli anbanis ricxviT struqturas), safiqrebelia, rom
droTa ganmavlobaSi nel-nela zustdeboda, Tu romelia
specifikurTa Soris aso-bgera da romeli _ mxolod bgera, albaT
5

Sesworebebic xdeboda (is, rac aso-bgerad iyo miCneuli, Semdeg


bgeris `statuss~ Rebulobda da piriqiT), am dazusteba-gadarCevis
Sedegad imdroindeli taZris swavlulTa wreebSi, Cans, nel-nela
ikribeboda iseTi bgerebi, romlebsac sityvaTmawarmoebeli funqcia
hqonda, e. i. aso-bgerebi iyo da safiqrebelia, rom istoriis erT
etapze ukve calke grafemebi Seqmnes maTTvis da erT jgufad
daamates isini Tavdapirvel asomTavruls (aq gamokveTilad unda
iTqvas: Cven vfiqrobT, rom ar unda warmovidginoT ise, TiTqos
sxvadasxva dros, nel-nela, amatebdnen xolme ama Tu im aso-niSans
anbanSi, amgvar cvlas, anbanis SuaSi axali asos Setanas, sxva asoTa
ricxviTi mniSvnelobebis Secvla mohyveboda da amas ki xSirad ar
dauSvebdnen, moxazulobebi, albaT, gadakeTdeboda ama Tu im anbanis
gavleniT, an damoukideblad, magram ricxviTi mniSvnelobebi
mxolod _ iSviaT SemTxvevaSi; asoebi saTiTaod ki ara, _
jgufurad daemateboda anbans da es ki ricxviTi sistemis xSir cvlas
ar gamoiwvevda).
Cveni azriT, arsebobs safuZveli im mosazrebis gasaziareblad,
rom qarTuli anbanis ori jgufi ara erTdroulad, aramed sxvadasxva
dros aris aRmocenebuli, rom meore rigis aso-niSnebi Tavdapirveli
anbanis Seqmnis Semdegaa AgaCenili da rom, sanam specifikuri aso-
bgerebisaTvis Sesabamisi grafemebi Seiqmneboda, maT funqcias
reformamdeli anbanis calkeuli aso-niSnebi asrulebda; ase
gagrZeldeboda manam, sanam damatebiT grafemebs Seqmnidnen.

***
rodis unda iyos aRmocenebuli Tavdapirveli asomTavruli
anbani, ra fonetikuri cvlilebebi eqneba mis Semadgenel aso-niSnebs
gancdili?
am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT Cvens yuradRebas iqcevs qarTuli
anbanis merve aso-niSani, _ e. w. e merve (À), romelic imave ricxviTi
mniSvnelobis mqone finikiur -s (aso-niSnis saxelwodebaa heTi, mas
ori fonetikuri mniSvneloba hqonda: h-sac Ggamoxatavda da x-sac; _
6

Sifmani 1963: 23-24) da berZnul etas (H _ grZeli e/ ɛː) Seesabameba.


cnobilia, rom berZnuli eta, Tavis mxriv, xsenebuli arqauli
finikiuri heT ( ) aso-niSnisgan qveda da zeda horizontaluri
xazebis mocilebiT aris miRebuli ( > H H). am finikiuri asos mixedviT
Seqmnili berZnuli H niSani Tavidan Tanxmovan h-s gamoxatavda da,
rogorc miCneulia, daaxloebiT Zv. wR-is VII-VI ss-dan SeiZina grZeli
e-s mniSvneloba (ivane javaxiSvili, viqtor gardthauzenis naSromze
dayrdnobiT, Zv. wR-is 700 welze saubrobs; _ javaxiSvili 1996: 198).2
qarTul anbanSi me-8 aso-niSani es aris (À), romelic XIX saukuniseul
reformamde arsebobda masSi. eÁ bgerebis gamomxatvel am niSans,
ivane javaxiSvilisa da ramaz patariZis azriT, istoriis adreul
etapze aseve h-s fonetikuri mniSvneloba unda hqonoda (javaxiSvili
1996: 199; patariZe 1980: 189). finikiuri -sa da berZnuli HH-s
ricxviTi mniSvnelobaa 8 da, miuxedavad imisa, finikiuridan
momdinareobs asomTavruli niSani , Tu _ berZnulidan, SegviZlia
gaviziaroT xsenebul mkvlevarTa mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmad,
fonetikurad maTi Sesabamisi yofila erT dros igi. es rom marTlac
asea, odesRac marTlac h bgeras rom gamoxatavda grafema , cxadad
dasturdeba im werilobiTi monacemebidan, romlebSic, rogorc es
iv. javaxiSvils aqvs naCvenebi, 8 ricxvis aRmniSvnelad aso-niSani /
(h) ixmareba (`anisis qarTlisa kaTalikosis etÂfanes~ warwera da
sxva; _ javaxiSvili 1996: 152), iv. javaxiSvilis TqmiT, aseT
warwerebSi «`h~ 8-s udris, xolo `À~ 8000-is aRmniSvnelia xolme»
(javaxiSvili 1996: 152); mkvlevari miiCnevs, rom «Tavdapirvelad
merve asos `À~ qarTulad `h~ mniSvneloba hqonda» da SemdegSi ki
«gamourkveveli mizezebis gamo, gamoTqma Seecvala da `eÁ~-is
gadmosacemad iqna dawesebuli» (javaxiSvili 1996: 199).
rogorc vxedavT, 8-is aRmniSvneli odesRac marTlac h bgera
yofila. Cven vfiqrobT, rom istoriis erT-erT periodSi berZnuli
anbanis mixedviT SeusworebiaT qarTuli asomTavruli,
grafemisTvis fonetikuri mniSvneloba SeucvliaT, Cans, berZnulis
msgavsad, xmovnis JReradobisa gauxdiaT igi (berZnuli grZeli e/ɛː-s
7

Sesabamisobad miuCneviaT eÁ bgerebi) da, ase amrigad, grafema ,


romelic h-s gamoxatavda, eÁ bgerebis gamomxatveli gamxdara da h-s
gamosaxatavad ki axali moxazuloba (/) SeuqmniaT. Cans, rom
calkeuli wreebis metyvelebaSi 8-is aRsaniSnavad h-s moxseniebis
tradicia sakmao xans iyo SemorCenili, rom Semdeg, miuxedavad
imisa, rom, xmovani eÁ gaxda am ricxvis gamomxatveli, Zveleburad
mainc h-Ti ixseniebdnen 8-s (aso-bgera h 8-is `sinonimad~ rCeboda
maTTvis) da werisas ki im axal / grafemas xmarobdnen, romelsac sxva
ricxvis gamoxatvis funqcia hqonda miniWebuli, anu, angariSs ar
uwevdnen imas, rom 9 000 iyo xsenebuli axali grafemis mniSvneloba
da ara _ 8; iv. javaxiSvili, rogorc vnaxeT, brZanebs, rom aseT
warwerebSi `À 8000-is aRmniSvnelia xolme~, _ Cans, Zvel Cvevas,
romelic 8-is gamosaxatavad h-s warmoTqmas gulisxmobda, axali wesi
gauCenia am Cvevis mimdevrebSi da maT eÁ aso-bgerisa da amjerad ukve
mis gamomxatvelad dadgenili grafema -saTvis ricxviTi
mniSvnelobac axali miuciaT, aTaseulis aRniSvnis funqcia
daukisrebiaT misTvis da eÁ xmovnis aRmniSvnelad gadakeTebuli
grafema 8 000-is aRmniSvneladac qceula maT warwerebSi; rac Seexeba
-s Semcvlelad SemoRebul / (hae)E aso-niSans, r. patariZe wers, rom
misi «grafikuli arsi auxsnelia. paleografiuli TvalsazrisiT,
aso `hae~ unda SemuSavebuliyo semuri anbanis me-8 `heT~ aso-niSnis
grafikis safuZvelze. magram es ase ar aris: `hae~ aso-niSans
grafikulad semur aso-niSanTan araferi aqvs saerTo. ase vfiqrob:
aso `hae~ xelovnuri grafikuli niSania. am aso-niSanSi
ganxorcielebulia qarTuli asomTavrulis zogadi grafikuli
stili. igi mTel rig qarTul aso-niSnebs Camohgavs, gansakuTrebiT
ki aso `lass~. [...] cxadi xdeba, rom aso `hae Tavdapirveli aso-niSani
ar aris qarTuli anbanisa. igi Seqmnilia im dros, roca ukve aRar iyo
an daviwyebuli iyo qarTuli asomTavruli damwerlobis anbanuri
sistemis codna.» (patariZe 1980: 261). is faqti, rom aso-niSani hae
xelovnuri grafikuli niSnis STabeWdilebas tovebs, Cans, imiT unda
aixsnas, rom marTlac mogvianebiT aris igi Seqmnili (ramaz patariZis
8

paleografiuli dakvirveba gasaocrad zustia). Cven qvemoT


davubrundebiT am sakiTxs da vecdebiT davazustoT, Tu
konkretulad rodis unda iyos es aso-niSani SemoRebuli, saerTod
rodis Seaswores asomTavruli berZnuli anbanis mixedviT, ris
Sesaxebac zemoT aRvniSneT.
amrigad, vxedavT, rom marTlac h-s gamomxatveli yofila.
ramdenadac xsenebul aso-niSans finikiurSi h da x, xolo berZnulSi
mxolod h Seesabameboda fonetikurad, es faqtic migvaniSnebs, rom
asomTavrulis genezisi, SesaZloa, am anbanebTan iyos dakavSirebuli
da maTi da asomTavrulis savaraudo naTesaobis kvalis Zieba
savsebiT gamarTlebulia.
Tu davuSvebT, rom asomTavrulis me-8 aso-niSani finikiuridanaa
Semosuli, misi savaraudo transformaciis sqema daaxloebiT aseT
3
saxes Rebulobs: >H> > (am SemTxvevaSi safiqrebeli xdeba, rom
H da, SesaZloa, grafemasac uarsebia istoriis adreuli etapis
asomTavrulSi),4 Tu miviCnevT, rom berZnulidan Semovida finikiuri
warmoSobis es aso-niSani, savaraudo sqema aseTi saxiT warmodgeba: H
> > (am SemTxvevaSi SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom dasawyisSi, ara -s,
aramed mxolod H-s moxazuloba hqonda asomTavrul anbanSi
arsebul aso-niSans).
aq saWiroa, erT sakiTxze gavamaxviloT yuradReba: SegviZlia
davuSvaT, rom finikiuridan warmoiSva asomTavruli anbani, magram
is faqti mainc udavo iqneba, rom misi saboloo saxis formirebaze
berZnul anbans mouxdenia zegavlena; mkvlevarebi im garemoebaze
amaxvileben yuradRebas, rom qarTuli anbani, iseve, rogorc
berZnuli, semuri anbanebisagan gansxvavebiT, xmovnebsac gamoxatavs,
Tamaz gamyreliZes Tavis cnobil gamokvlevaSi (gamyreliZe 1990)
warmoCenili aqvs, rom berZnuli anbanis mixedviT aris asomTavrulis
anbanuri ricxobrivi sistema, mTeli misi struqtura awyobili,
ramaz patariZes miaCnia, rom, finikiuris garda, uSualod
berZnulidanaa Semosuli araerTi aso-niSani (patariZe 1980: 214-223),
SesaZloa, semuri asoebis mixedviT iyos asomTavrulis araerTi
9

niSnis grafika Seqmnili, magram xmovnebi, ricxviTi sistema,


asomTavrulis mTliani paradigmatika (gamyreliZe 1990) aSkarad
migvaniSnebs, rom misi Seqmnis dros berZnul anbans gadamwyveti
mniSvneloba hqonia miniWebuli, rom masTan aris es anbani
SesabamisobaSi moyvanili da es ki asomTavrulis Seqmnis qveda
qronologiuri zRvaris savaraudo gansazRvris saSualebas gviqmnis;
Cveni azriT, asomTavrulis Seqmnis dros ukve Secvlili rom
hqonoda berZnul H grafemas fonetikuri mniSvneloba,
asomTavrulSi arqauli mniSvnelobiT ar Semovidoda igi, berZnulma
H-m, rogorc iTqva, xmovnis mniSvneloba Zv. wR-is daaxloebiT
VII_VI ss-dan SeiZina da swored aqedan gamomdinare migvaCnia, rom
asomTavrulis genezisis qveda qronologiuri zRvari
daaxloebiT am, an ufro adreul, periodze modis, VII-VI ss-is
Semdeg rom iyos Seqmnili asomTavruli, maSin misi me-8 grafema h-s
gamomxatveli ar iqneboda, safiqrebelia, rom xmovnis mniSvnelobas
miscemdnen mas.5
finikiuri (h / x)-sa da arqauli berZnuli H (h)-s fonetikuri
Sesabamisobis mqone aso-niSan -s arsebobis faqti asomTavrulis
geneziss Zalze adreul periodTan gvakavSirebinebs, vfiqrobT,
marTalni unda iyon is mkvlevarebi, vinc warmarTul epoqaSi
aRmocenebulad miiCneven am anbans da, ase amrigad, warmodgenili
naSromis am punqtis dasawyisSi dasmul kiTxvebze, romlebic
Tavdapirvel anbanSi momxdar fonetikur cvlilebebsa da am anbanis
qronologias Seexeba, gviyalibdeba savaraudo pasuxebi, romelTa
Tanaxmad, asomTavrulis genezisi Zv. wR-is VII-VI ss-Tan, an ufro
adreul periodamde, midis da rom h fonema Zveli unda iyos, rom misi
aRmniSvneli grafema iyo; iv. javaxiSvili, rogorc vnaxeT (me-4
SeniS.), mniSvnelovan bgeras uwodebs h-s, am aso-bgeris gareSe
SeuZlebelia ama Tu im qarTveluri sityvis arqauli formis
rekonstruqcia da aqedan gamomdinarec vvaraudobT, rom
Tavdapirvel asomTavrulSi marTlac iqneboda aso-bgera h da misi
amsaxveli grafema ; safiqrebelia, rom reformamde, h-s garda, x-sa
10

da à aso-bgerebsac es grafema gamoxatavda (specialuri niSnebis


darTviT; am sakiTxis Sesaxeb ix. me-6 SeniSvnaSi), h-sTan fonetikurad
monaTesave am ori aso-bgeris asaxva mis funqciaSi iqneboda Semavali
(saerTod, adreul etapze, albaT, erTi fonema iyo am sami aso-bgeris
winapari da Semdeg daiyo igi calkeul aso-bgerebad, rasac, Cans, jer
grafemaze specialuri niSnebis darTva, Semdeg ki axali grafemebis
Seqmna mohyva; iv. javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, `is mSvinvieri bgera~,
romelsac gamoxatavda, Tanamedrove h-sgan `gansxvavdeboda da
erTgvar saerTo xorxismier bgeras warmoadgenda~; _ javaxiSvili
1996: 199)6.

***
amrigad, Tavdapirveli asomTavruli anbanis savaraudo wevrebad
24 aso-niSans moviazrebT, esenia: a, b, g, d, e, v, z, À7, T, i, k, l, m, n, Á, o,
p, J8, r, s, t, Â, f, q9; specifikur jgufSi, rogorc viciT, Semdegi aso-
niSnebi Sedis: R, y, S, C, c, Z, w, W, x, Ã, j, h, Ä. aq davsvamT morig
kiTxvas: _ rodis unda iyos damatebuli specifikuri asoebi
Tavdapirvel asomTavrulze? erTi reforma dasWirdeboda maT
damatebas, Tu sxvac iqneboda saWiro?
garda imisa, rom gvaqvs cnoba, romlis Tanaxmad, farnavaz (armaz)
mefem `Seqmna mwignobroba qarTuli~, arsebobs Teimuraz
batoniSvilis uwyeba, romelic eyrdnoba anton II kaTolikosis wignSi
(`matiane SemecnebaTa~) Semonaxul cnobas: `ara uwignoni iyvnen
qarTvelni uwinaresTa JamTaca Sina, vidre farnavazamde swerdnen
igini uxucesTa werilTa. ese igi qurumTa maT.~ `farnavazman
werilTa maTTagan ganhyo mxedrobisaTÂs TÂsisa mxolod ÃeliT
werili ganyofili asoni da ara sxuÁT raÁTame~ (SaraZe 1972: 122-127).
Teimuraz batoniSvilis am cnobaze Cven adrec visaubreT (kuWuxiZe
2001) da amjerad mxolod mokled vityviT: vfiqrobT, aq imis Sesaxeb
aris saubari, rom qarTul warmarTul taZarSi orgvari damwerloba
gamoiyeneboda, _ erTi iseTi, romelic xeliT, xolo meore _ `sxuÁT
raÁTame~ sawerad gamoiyeneboda, Cveni azriT, `ÃeliT werilSi~ is
11

anbani igulisxmeba, romliTac pergamentze werdnen, `sxuÁT raÁTame~


saweri ki is asoebi unda iyos, romlebsac saWreTliTa da sxva
specialuri iaraRiT tvifravdnen; farnavazs taZridan saero
xmarebisaTvis `mxolod ÃeliT werili asoni~ gamoutania, e. i.,
rogorc Cven vfiqrobT, mefis mier taZridan gamotanili anbani, anu
asomTavruli, mxolod pergamentze (tyavze, aseve _ cvilis
dafaze...) sawerad ixmareboda da stelaze, an taZris kedelze, am
anbanis asoTa amotvifrva ar SeiZleboda; aseT warweras
(`zedawerils~10) gansakuTrebuli religiuri datvirTva aqvs (misiT
RvTaebisadmi mimarTva xdeba, saukunod Sesanaxi sityvebi, imqveynad
myofTa mosaxseneblebi gamoisaxeba, epitafiis saSualebiT
gardacvlilis suli mogvmarTavs suleTidan da sxv.) da Cans,
saamisod asomTavruli anbanis gamoyeneba ar iyo adgilobrivi
taZris mier nebadarTuli; vfiqrobT, amiT unda aixsnas is faqti, rom
asomTavruliT Sesrulebuli warwerebi ar Semogvenaxa, Tumc, Tu
daTariReba sworia, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom gvaqvs levan WilaSvilis
mier mopovebuli gvianantikuri (I-III ss) xanis warwerebi da
vivaraudoT, rom, radgan es sakulto teqstebi ar iyo, dauSves da
Seasrules warwerebi: `mb ese Wuri me davrge~, `azatisi ars, numca vin
xrevs~ (WilaSvili 2004) (SesaZloa, warmarTobis romeliRac
periodsa Tu gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi gamonaklisebs uSvebdnen
da am anbaniT warweraTa amotvifrvis uflebas iZleodnen qurumebi);
arc isaa SeuZlebeli, rom stelebze da calkeul, ZiriTadad,
sakulto daniSnulebis sagnebze winadadebebisa Tu sityvebis wera
ikrZaleboda, magram calkeul asoebs ki tvifravdnen, SesaZloa,
swored amaze metyvelebdes armazis nekropolSi 1940 w-s aRmoCenili
fiala, romelzec bercum pitiaxSis momxsenebeli berZnuli warweraa
Sesrulebuli da romelzec gamosaxulia niSnebi, rac aSkarad b, q da
p qarTul asoebs hgavs; p. ingoroyva am niSnebSi qarTul asoebsa da
bercum qarTlisa pitiaxSis inicialebs xedavda; 1940 w-s aRmoCenil
stelaze arameulad daweril saxel zevaxTan erTad amotvifrul
niSnebSi ki igi kiTxulobda W-s da s-s, rac, misi azriT, warmoadgens
12

qaragmas saxelisa Wevaxos (igivea, rac _ zevax; ingoroyva 1978: 487-


501).
rogorc vxedavT, Cven mxars vuWerT azrs, romlis Tanaxmadac,
asomTavrulis genezisi qristianobamdel xanasTan kavSirdeba da,
vfiqrobT, im kiTxvis savaraudo pasuxic gveZleva, Tu ratom ar
iZebneba advilad warmarTuli xanis asomTavruli warwerebi.
saerTod, Cans, es anbani ZiriTadad taZarSi gamoiyeneboda da farTo
moxmareba ar hqonda, farnavazma iqneb imitom gamoitana taZridan
igi, rom arameuli yvelam ar icoda, arameuli asoebiT dawerili
qarTuli sityvebiT, an im meTodis gamoyenebiT, rac teqstis
CamwerisaTvis erT enaze karnaxs da Camweris mier meore enaze Caweras
da Semdeg adresatisTvis mis Targmnas gulisxmobs11, Zneli iyo
saxelmwifo moxeleebTan urTierToba da qarTuli anbanis
gamoyeneba gaxda saWiro.
Tu aso W aris amotvifruli gvianantikuri xanis stelaze, Tu
aRmoCnda, rom istoriis romeliRac etapze specifikuri asoebi
miemata anbans, maSin safiqrebeli xdeba, rom gvianantikur xanaSi ukve
gatarebuli yofila erTi didi reforma, rom daaxloebiT am dros
daumatebiaT axali asoebi manamde ukve arsebuli anbanisTvis.
SesaZloa, farnavaz mefis dros gatarda es didi reforma, rogorc
p. ingoroyva miiCnevda, araa SeuZlebeli, rom, sanam farTo
moxmarebisa gaxdeboda da, albaT, erTgvarad Caketilic iyo taZris
wiaRSi, arqauli anbaniT kiTxulobdnen qurumebi teqstebs da iqidan
gamotanis dros daumates mas axali aso-niSnebi, arc isaa
gamoricxuli, rom farnavazamdec SemoeRoT axali asoebi qarTuli
warmarTuli taZris qurumebs (farnavazis Semdeg rom gatarebuliyo
specifikur asoTa dammatebeli reforma, am faqtze mimaniSnebeli
araviTari monacemi ar gagvaCnia).
amrigad, pirveli reformis TariRad, daaxloebiT, farnavazis
mefobis xanaa savaraudo.
13

specifikuri jgufis yvela aso erTdroulad ar Cans anbanze


damatebuli, Cveni azriT, hae da hoe calke reformisas, _
qristianul xanaSi SeqmnilTa STabeWdilebas tovebs.
hae qristianul xanaSi mas Semdeg unda iyos Seqmnili, rac, rogorc
iTqva, grafema -s, Cans, fonetikuri mniSvneloba Seecvala da eÁ-is
aRmniSvneli gaxda. cnobilia, rom arqauli anbanis rigis
damamTavreblad jvaria xolme gamoyenebuli (jvari amTavrebda
finikiur anbans da aso-niSneb _ fsisa /ψ/ da omegas /ω/ damatebamde
jvriT iyo daboloebuli berZnuli anbani); jvrebis formaTa
gamomsaxvel aso-niSanTa Sesaxeb Semdeg visaubrebT, axla ki
yuradRebas im faqtze gavamaxvilebT, rom jvris formis mqone
grafema jani anbanis bolo nawilSia moTavsebuli da mas hae da hoe
mosdevs, _ iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom hae da hoe qristianul xanaSia
asomTavrulze mimatebuli da warmarTul anbans jani asrulebda,
safiqrebelia, rom qristianobis saxelmwifo doneze Semosvlis
Semdeg kidev erTi reforma gatarebula anbanisa, rom am dros dadga
sakiTxi, Tu sabolood rogori moxazuloba daedginaT zogierTi
grafemisaTvis, SeecvalaT Tu ara romelime maTganis ganlageba,
romeli asoTi unda yofiliyo damTavrebuli qristianuli qarTuli
anbani, Cans, im dros daudgeniaT, rom berZnuli anbanis Sesabamisad
gaewyoT qarTuli asomTavruli, safiqrebelia, rom am dros
gadawyvites, berZnuli omegas Sesabamisi aso-niSani hoe SemoeRoT
qarTuli qristianuli anbanis damamTavreblad (am sakiTxsac
davubrundebiT Semdeg) da, rogorc Cven vfiqrobT, swored am dros
gadawyda, rom berZnul anbanTan miaxloebis mizniT grafema -is
fonetikuri mniSvnelobac SeecvalaT da xmovnis aRmniSvnelad
eqciaT igi; zemoT iTqva, rom, Cans, metyvelebaSi me-8 asos
aRsaniSnavad h-s moxseniebis tradicia sakmao xans yofila
SemorCenili, rom Semdeg, miuxedavad imisa, rom 8-is aRmniSvneli À
xmovani gaxda, am ricxvis gamosaxatavad zogan Zveli Cveulebis gamo
mainc h-s ambobdnen da werisas ki axal / (h) grafemas xmarobdnen.
grafemas adreul epoqaSi rom Secvloda fonetikuri
14

mniSvneloba, im dros, roca anisis kaTolikosisa da msgavsi


warwerebi iqmneboda, aRar emaxsovrebodaT, rom h aso-bgera
gamoxatavda 8 ricxvs da amgvari warwerebi aRar Seiqmneboda,
safiqrebelia, rom qristianul xanaSi Seucvales grafema -s
fonetikuri mniSvneloba, rom h-s nacvlad À-s gamomxatveli
gaxades igi, magram xalxSi, zogan, 8-is aRsaniSnavad, miuxedavad
imisa, rom werisas / grafemas xmarobdnen, mainc h aso-bgeras
warmoTqvamdnen da es ki aSkarad migvaniSnebs, rom bevri dro ar iyo
gasuli mas Semdeg, rac aso-niSanTan dakavSirebuli cvlilebebi
moxda. mizezi imisa, rom bolo nawilSi moaqcies hae, is unda iyos,
rom aso-niSanTa ricxviTi mniSvnelobebis cvlilebas moeridnen
anbanis reformatorebi, _ rogorc Cans, axalSeqmnili / bolo
nawilSi, hoe aso-niSnis win, moaTavses, 9 000-is mniSvneloba mianiWes
da amiT is Sedegi miiRes, rom wina aso-niSnebs ar Seecvala ricxviTi
mniSvnelobebi da adre daweril teqstebSi ricxvebis sworad
amokiTxva ar gaZnelda. boloswina adgilas imitom moaTavsebdnen
haes, rom sul bolo adgili hoesaTvis eqnebodaT gankuTvnili.
cxadia, SeeZloT, e aso-niSanze ioti mieweraT da eÁ bgerebis
gamoxatva calke grafema -sTvis ar daekisrebinaT (e-ze Á-s miweriT
xSirad xdeboda Semdgom xanebSi eÁ bgerebis gamoxatva), magram
safiqrebelia, rom istoriis erT periodSi berZnul anbanTan
mimsgavsebis survili Zlieri yofila da amitom SemouRiaT am
bgerebisaTvis calke grafema, ramac xelovnuri saxec misca -s
(garkveulwilad mxolod ricxviTi mniSvnelobis gamomxatvel aso-
niSansac /episemons/ daemsgavsa igi). asomTavrulis me-8 grafemis
fonetikuri mniSvneloba SeucvliaT, amas garda, SeuqmniaT axali
aso-niSani hae da im dros, rogorc Cans, anbanis damamTavrebeli sxva
axali aso-niSanic gaCenila, rac aseve berZnuli anbanis gavleniT
unda iyos gamowveuli, _ Cans, rom swored im dros SemoiRes aso-
niSani hoe.
r. patariZe anbanis boloSi mdebare Ä (hoe)-sTan dakavSirebiT
imaves wers, rasac haes Sesaxeb: «qarTuli asomTavruli `hoe~ [...] aso
15

niSnis grafikuli arsi, msgavsad asomTavruli `hae~ aso-niSnisa,


auxsnelia. rogorc Cans, es aso-niSani iseTive xelovnuri grafikuli
erTeulia, rogoric `hae~, [...] adreul qristianul ZeglebSi `hoe~
aso-niSans xmovani `o~ _ bgerisa da Tanxmovani `h~ bgeris
mniSvneloba aqvs, ufro mogvianebiT ki es aso-niSani `hoe~
Sorisdebulis mniSvnelobiT ikiTxeba~. [...] `hoe~ aso-niSani, qarTuli
enis fonetikis TvalsazrisiT, sruliad zedmetia da ra viTarebam
ganapiroba misi SemoReba, auxsnelia~» (patariZe 1980: 262).
vfiqrobT, pasuxi kiTxvaze, Tu ra unda iyos mizezi hoes
SemoRebisa da ra mizniT Cans es aso-niSani warmarTobisdroindel
asomTavrul anbanSi damatebuli, is aris, rom anbanis reformatorTa
survili yofila, berZnuliviT RmerTis saxelze mimaniSnebeli
gaexadaT asomTavruli anbani (SesaZloa, swored es iyos erT-erTi
mTavari mizezi, rom am dros kidev erTi reforma gaatares), amjerad
swored xsenebul sakiTxze visaubrebT mokled:
hoes leqsikuri mniSvnelobaa: `oh~, es aso-niSani gvxvdeba, aseve,
sxva Sorisdebulis _ Äsanna/osanna/Äsana/osana-s win (`dideba!~
`vaSa!~ `gvixseni!~; _ sarjvelaZe 2000: 287). am SorisdebuliT
RmerTisadmi mimarTva xdeba, zogierT SemTxvevaSi igi h bgerasTan
erTad gamoiTqmis rogorc grZeli o (`hooÁ, RmerTo!~).O
qarTul enaSi grZeli o ar gvaqvs, am enis buneba ar iTxovs, rom
grZeli da mokle xmovnebi gamoiyos mis anbanSi, miuxedavad amisa,
qarTuli anbanis boloSi aris aso-niSani, romelic SeiZleba, grZel
o-d gamoiTqvas. vfiqrobT, ar aris saeWvo, rom mizezi amisa is unda
iyos, rom xsenebuli aso-niSani marTlac xelovnuradaa Seqmnili,
rac, rogorc ukve iTqva, imitom unda iyos gakeTebuli, rom qarTuli
anbanis dasawyisi da dasasruli berZnuli anbanis dasawyisisa da
dasasrulis msgavseba, berZnuli alfasa da omegas Sesabamisoba
gamxdariyo. berZnuli anbani iwyeba alfadan da Tavdeba omegaTi. am
asoebiT simbolurad bibliiseuli dasawyisi da dasasruli, anu _
yovlis momcveloba, RmerTi gamoixateba. ufali `pirveliTa da
ukanaskneliT~ (`pirveli da ukunisamde~) ixsenieba esaia
16

winaswarmetyvelis wignSi (es. 41: 4; 44: 6; 48: 12). berZnuli alfa da


omegaTi es sityvebi apokalipsisSi (gamocxadeba) warmodga (apok. 1: 8).
RmerTis saxeli (wmida tetragramatoni) zogjer gamoiTqmoda
rogorc Yahoo da translirdeboda berZnuli asoebiT IAΩ
(marTlmadidebluri enciklopedia:
http://www.pravenc.ru/text/114190.html). gamocxadebaSi berZnul alfasa da
omegas simboluri mniSvneloba mieniWa, RmerTis sakraluri saxelis
simbolur gamoxatulebad iqca es sityvaTSeTanxmeba. aSkarad Cans,
rom istoriis erT-erT etapze (da, cxadia, es qristianul xanaSi
moxdeboda) saWirod miuCneviaT, qarTul anbanSic yofiliyo
RmerTze miniSneba da `grZeli o-s~ gamomxatveli aso-niSanic amitom
SeuqmniaT. radganac grZeli o aso-bgera ar arsebobs qarTulSi da
mas sruliad usafuZvlod ver gamoigonebdnen da, radgan gvaqvs
Sorisdebuli hoÁ, romliTac RmerTsac mimarTavs adamiani, Cans, es
Sorisdebuli, h bgeris Semdeg gangrZobilad gamoTqmuli o, erTgvar
`aso-bgerad~ aqcies, grafema Seuqmnes, sxva asoTa dasasruls
moaTavses da aman ki is Sedegi mogvca, rom RmerTis
tetragramatonze mimaniSnebeli gaxda, amavdroulad, RmerTisadmi
mimarTviT, misdami SeRaRadebiT dasrulda qarTuli anbani,
berZnul alfasa da omegas Seesabama asomTavrulis ani da hoe.
hoe (qarTuli `grZeli o~) aso-bgera ar aris da fonetikis
TvalsazrisiT marTlac zedmetia (rogorc es r. patariZes aqvs
aRniSnuli), Sorisdebuli, sityva, aris aso-bgerad qceuli, marTlac
xelovnuri Cans igi da, Cveni azriT, haesTan erTad, qristianobis
adreul xanaSia igi anbanis bolos damatebuli12 (aqve vityviT, rom
hoes, anu qarTuli `grZeli o-s~ asomTavruli grafika _ iseT
STabeWdilebas tovebs, rom, vfiqrobT, berZnuli o grafemis /o
mikronis / gaormagebiT unda iyos igi miRebuli, rom ori
berZnuli o-s SeerTeba gamoxatavs asomTavrulis `grZel o-s~, _ o
> ), `specifikur jgufSi~ hae da hoe yvelaze ufro `axalgazrda~
asoebi Cans (rogorc cnobilia, anbanSi yvelaze gvian gaCenili aris
ricxviTi mniSvnelobis armqone u, romelic o da  asoebis
17

SeerTebiTaa miRebuli), Cveni SexedulebiT, sarwmunoa azri, rom


warmarTul xanaSi Seqmnil asomTavruls farnavazis, an misi epoqis
axlo periodSi, specifikur aso-niSanTa jgufi daemata da Semdeg ki
qristianuli reforma gatarda da hae da hoe aso-niSnebi swored
am dros daerTo anbans boloSi.
qristianuli xanis reformasTan dakavSirebiT gvinda, kidev
ramdensame sakiTxs SevexoT:
yuradRebas iqcevs is faqti, rom qarTul anbanSi `specifikuri
jgufi~ RaniT iwyeba da rom es Rani qans mosdevs uSualod,13 rac,
Cveni azriT, erT saintereso garemoebaze migvaniSnebs: q da R
asoebiT iwyeba sityvebi qriste da RmerTi da es faqti SeumCneveli
ar darCebodaT asomTavruli anbanis qristianuli xanis
reformatorebs da masSi aucileblad winaswarmetyveluri Zalis
qmedebas dainaxavdnen, _ miCneuli iqneboda, rom am ori aso-niSnis
erTmaneTis gverdze moTavsebis faqtSi jer kidev warmarTul
xanaSi winaswarmetyvelurad gacxadda qriste RmerTis saxeli,
rom suliwmidis ZaliT moTavsda isini erTi-meoris miyolebiT, Tu
qristianuli xanis reformis dros sakamaTo iyo, daetovebinaT Tu
ara warmarTuli xanis anbanSi asoTa amgvari ganlageba, aseTi
egzegetikis Semdeg saeWvod aRar iqneboda miCneuli, rom, araTu
saWiro, aucilebelic iyo am Tanamimdevrobis datoveba.
am sakiTxebze saubrisas gansakuTrebul yuradRebas imsaxurebs
jvris formebis mqone is ori aso-niSani, romelTa Sesaxebac zemoT
daviwyeT saubari: jvris moxazulobisaa qani (m), romliTac
macxovris saxeli iwyeba14 da jvris moxazuloba aqvs aso jans (]). r.
patariZis Tanaxmad, aso-niSani jani iseve, rogorc qani, finikiuri
Tav grafemis safuZvelzea Seqmnili, misi aRniSvniT, «qarTuli
asomTavruli `jani~-i Seqmnilia finikiuri anbanis ukanaskneli aso-
niSnis grafikis safuZvelze», rogorc igi wers, `cxadia, ra
mimarTebaa finikiur da qarTul aso-niSnebs Soris: moqmedebaSia ara
fonetikuri, aramed anbanur-akrofoniuli principi~ (patariZe 1980:
260); qanis genezisTan dakavSirebiT ukve iTqva (me-14 SeniS.), rom,
18

Cveni azriT, finikiurTan erTad, misi saboloo maformirebeli


berZnuli grafema unda iyos, rac Seexeba jans, vfiqrobT, rom am
SemTxvevaSi im semur-berZnul princips dayrdnobian
reformatorebi, rac jvris gamosaxulebiT dasrulebas gulisxmobs
anbanisa da isev jvari gamouyenebiaT damamTavreblad, vfiqrobT
aseve, rom jans TavSekruli jvris gamosaxuleba specialurad _
im iqsiseburi jvrisagan gansasxvavebelad eqneba micemuli,
romelic, rogorc Cans, Tavdapirvelad qans hqonda (is faqti, rom
asomTavrul jans TavSekruli jvris gamosaxuleba /]/ aqvs, imaze
migvaniSnebs, rom berZnuli χ-sgan formirebuli qani adre aseve
iqsiseburi iyo da jans misgan gamosarCevad daamates zeda xazi15)
da safiqrebelia, rom akrofoniis principi marTlac aris am aso-
niSnis Seqmnisas gamoyenebuli, rom, e. i., j bgeras imitom gamosaxavs
asomTavruli anbanis es grafema, rom misiT qarTuli sityva jvari
iwyeba16, rogorc iTqva, Cans, finikiur-berZnuli anbanidanaa
gadmoRebuli aso-niSani qani, janis Seqmnis dros ki, e. i. pirveli
reformis xanaSi, ase gvgonia, rom, bevri aRarc ufiqriaT
warmarTobisdroindel reformatorebs da pirdapir qanis
jvriseburi moxazuloba gadmouRiaT odnavi saxecvlilebiT (zeda
xazis damatebiT), jvriT dasrulebis principi rom iyo berZnul
anbanSi daculi, es, cxadia, icodnen da, albaT, isic ecodinebodaT,
finikiuri anbani rom amave principiT sruldeboda da am principis
mixedviT SeuqmniaT aso-niSani janic.
ramdenadac jvris formis mqone berZnuli χ (xi) da qarTuli qani _
orive macxovris saxelis simboluri gamoxatulebaa (χ asoTi iwyeba
uflis berZnuli saxeli _ Χριστός, qaniT _ qriste), qristianul
xanaSi es aso-niSnebi aseve winaswarmetyveluri Zalis mier
Seqmnilebad iqneboda aRqmuli, _ ramdenadac jvris saxe jer kidev
warmarTobis dros mieca im aso-niSans, romelzec SemdgomSi
jvarcmuli RmerTis saxeli unda dawyebuliyo, es faqti
winaswarmetyveluri Zalis qmedebad iqneboda aRqmuli qristianul
xanaSi.
19

rogorc iTqva, Cveni azriT, aso-niSani jani (]) marTlac


ideograma-akrofonia da sityva jvars unda aRniSnavdes17 (es sityva
warmarT qarTvelTa Soris religiuri mniSvnelobiTac iyo cnobili
da, albaT, geometriuli figuris aRsaniSnavadac gamoiyeneboda),
miuxedavad imisa, rom warmarTul xanaSi Cans Seqmnili grafema jani,
qristianobis dros, rogorc iTqva, masSiac qristianul profetul
Sinaarss amoikiTxavdnen da Cven vvaraudobT, rom, qanisagan
gansxvavebiT, romliTac macxovris saxeli iwyeba, wmida andria
mociqulis jvars (X) dainaxavdnen am aso-niSanSi; andria mociquli
qarTvelTa pirvel mqadageblad miiCneva da qarTlSi mis qadagebaze
winaswarmetyvelur miniSnebad iqneboda aRqmuli es aso-niSani;
safiqrebelia, rom qarTuli anbanis qristianuli Sinaarsis mkafiod
warmoCenas Seecdebodnen maSin, ueWvelia, ise daxvewdnen anbans, rom
qristianuli simboloebi ukeT warmoCeniliyo masSi da, Cveni azriT,
iqsis formis mqone qans Cveulebrivi jvris saxiT (m) swored
qristianuli reformis dros Secvlidnen asomTavrulis qristiani
reformatorebi; saboloo gadawyetilebis miRebamde, albaT, imazec
imsjelebdnen, saerTod, daetovebinaT Tu ara warmarTuli genezisis
jvrebi qristianul simboloebad, rogori forma miecaT maTTvis
datovebis SemTxvevaSi, raTa warmarTul jvrebs ar mgvaneboda isini,
Cans, bolos mainc RvTis qmedeba dainaxes am asoTa gamomxatveli
jvrebis arsebobis faqtSi da datoves isini (janis grafika iseTia,
rom qristianul saxismetyvelebas sxvagvari axsnis saSualebasac
aZlevs, _ roca qristiani saxismetyvelis TvalTaxedviT SevxedavT,
davinaxavT, rom, andria mociqulze miniSnebis garda, sxva Sinaarsic
ikiTxeba am aso-niSanSi, _ elene maWavarianma ieso qristes
inicialebi dainaxa masSi, _ miiCnia, rom inisa da qanis diagonaluri
gadakveTiTaa es grafema miRebuli; _ maWavariani 2008: 13).
amrigad, vfiqrobT, rom janis da qanis grafikaSi aseve
winaswarmetyveluri Zalis qmedeba iqneboda danaxuli da
qristianuli reformisas gadawydeboda, rom jvris gamosaxulebebi
20

darCeniliyo am niSnebSi, Tumc, qanis gamosaxuleba, vfiqrobT,


SeucvliaT da Cveulebrivi jvris forma miuciaT misTvis.
qristianuli egzegetikis gaTvaliswinebisa da boloSi hoes
damatebis Semdeg qristianuli SinaarsiT ametyvelebulis saxiT
warmodgeba Cven winaSe asomTavruli anbani: vxedavT anbans,
romelSic erTmaneTis gverdze moTavsebuli q da R qriste RmerTze
axdens miniSnebas, Semdeg es anbani Segvaxsenebs, rom qarTvelTa
qveyanaSi pirvelad andria mociqulma Semoitana RvTis sityva, aniT
dawyebisa da hoeTi damTavrebis faqti ki yovlis sawyissa da
sasrulze, anu yovlis Semoqmed RmerTze migvaniSnebs;
SemTxveviTobiT avxsniT am movlenas Tu RvTis nebas davinaxavT
masSi, im faqtis winaSe mainc davrCebiT, rom asomTavrul anbanSi q da
R isea ganlagebuli, j-s iseTi forma aqvs, rom qristian
egzegetikosebs qriste RmerTsa da andria mociqulze profetul
miniSnebaTa amokiTxvis saSualeba eZlevaT18.
janis Sesaxeb saubrisas erTsac davZenT: rogorc iTqva,
warmarTobisdroindel asomTavruls aso-niSani jani asruldebda19,
aniT iwyeboda da janiT sruldeboda anbani, aq yuradRebas
gavamaxvilebT qarTul werilobiT wyaroSi dadasturebul terminze
_ anjani, romelic, e. w. saidumlo anbanis aRsaniSnavad
gamoiyeneboda (saidumloeba grafemaTa Secvlili fonetikur-
ricxviTi mniSvnelobebiT wera-kiTxvas gulisxmobs, mxolod am
mniSvnelobaTa mcodne igebs nawers), iv. javaxiSvili brZanebs:
«Zvelad ras uwodebdnen CvenSi saidumlo anbans, jer ar viciT,
magram XVII s-Si `a n j a n i s a n b a n i~-s saxeliT yofila cnobili. es
termini f. gorgijaniZesa aqvs naxmari, romelsac Tavis TxzulebaTa
krebulSi saidumlo anbanze aqvs saubari~» (javaxiSvili 1996: 136;
miTiTebulia janaSvili 1896: XII). SesaZloa, haes da hoes damatebamde,
e. i. qristianul reformamde, manam, sanam janiT sruldeboda,
anjans uwodebdnen asomTavrul anbans, rom es iyo misi aRmniSvneli
paraleluri termini da Semdeg ki, roca ori axali aso-niSani gaCnda
anbanis bolos, es saxeli mainc ar gaqra, oRond amis Semdeg mxolod
21

saidumlo anbanis aRsaniSnavad ixmareboda igi, ar aris


SeuZlebeli, rom Zveli, warmarTuli anbanis saxeli Searqves am
saidumlo, umetesobisaTvis gaugebarsa da bindiT mocul
damwerlobas, rom warmarTuli xanidan modis es termini20.
amrigad, Cveni azriT, anbanis erTi, SedarebiT mcire, reforma
qristianul xanaSic gatarebula da igi, ZiriTadad, ori asos
damatebasTan da zogierTi aso-niSnis grafikuli moxazulobis
dazusteba-dadgenasTan unda iyos dakavSirebuli.
aq gavixsenebT somxur saistorio tradicias, romlis Tanaxmad,
qarTuli anbani mesrop maStocma Seqmna. roca qristianuli reforma
tardeboda da, rogorc iTqva, albaT, msjelobdnen, asoTa rogori
grafika daedginaT sabolood, roca, Cans, dRis wesrigSi idga
sakiTxi, daeaxlovebinaT Tu ara berZnulisTvis qarTuli anbani,
ramdenad iyo saWiro, 8-is aRmniSvnelad TviTonac xmovani da axali
asoebi SemoeRoT, rogori unda yofiliyo am axal asoTa moxazuloba,
rogor SeeqmnaT qarTulisaTvis arabunebrivi grZeli xmovnebi,
roca, albaT, surdaT, rac SesaZlo iyo, meti qristianuli Sinaarsi
CaedoT TavianT `warmarTul~ anbanSi, im dros, Cans, saWirod
miiCnies, pativiscema gamoexataT im adamianis mimarT, vinc momavali
erovnuli qristianuli mwerlobisaTvis somxur asoTaA grafemebi
Seqmna21 da xsenebuli sakiTxebis Sesaxeb gamarTul diskusiaSi
monawileobisaTvis miewviaT igi (korneli kekeliZes miaCnda, rom
asomTavrulis avtorTa erTgvari mrCevlis rols asrulebda mesrop
maStoci). qarTlisa da somxeTis eklesiebs qristianobis adreul
periodSi Zalze megobruli urTierToba hqondaT da SeuZlebelic ki
aris, ase ar momxdariyo (im diskusiaSi monawileobis misaRebad,
maStocis garda, bizantieli moRvaweebic iqnebodnen miwveulni).
Zneli saTqmelia, konkretulad ra roli unda hqondes Sesrulebuli
maStocs asomTavrulis saboloo saxiT formirebaSi, SeiZleboda
gvefiqra, rom qanisaTvis iqsiseburi jvris Cveulebrivi jvriT
Secvlis idea ekuTvnodes mas, magram somxur anbanSi jvris
gamomsaxveli grafema ar arsebobs da sruliad gansxvavebuli
22

moxazulobebi rom moefiqrebina maStocs, amisi arc uarmyofeli da


arc damadasturebeli argumenti ar gagvaCnia; rogorc vnaxeT, r.
patariZe wers, rom haes Seqmnisas zogadqarTuli principia
gamoyenebuli, araa SeuZlebeli, rom am principis gamoyenebis momxre
iyo maStoci da arc isaa gamoricxuli, rom hoes grafikis idea iyos
dakavSirebuli masTan: _ rom mis gverdiT mdgom qarTuli enis
mcodne romelsame adamians qarTul `grZel o~-d Sorisdebulis
gamoyeneba mouvida azrad da maStocma ki mis gamosaxatavad
berZnuli o mikronis gaormagebis idea SesTavaza qarTvelebs, an
avtori sxva iyo da man ki moiwona es idea da mxari dauWira mas, anda,
SesaZloa, erToblivi msjelobisas daibada grafemisa Tu misi
romelime komponentis gaormagebiT grZeli xmovnis gamoxatvis idea,
romelic, qarTuli asomTavruli hoes garda, sxva anbanTa
grafemebzec SeiZleboda gavrcelebuliyo; didi moRvawe gaxldaT
mesrop maStoci, SesaZloa, qristianuli reformis drosA
asomTavrulis romelime grafemis formirebaSi miiRo raime saxis
monawileoba, angariSgasawevi da misaRebi azri gamoTqva diskusiisas,
riTac qristianuli mwerlobis gansaviTareblad saWiro anbanis
momzadeba-mowesrigebaSi, misTvis qristianuli saxis micemaSi
(`warmarTuli~ anbanis `gaqristianulebaSi~) daexmara mezobeli
qveynis eklesias da Semdeg ki es faqti ise iqna warmoCenili, TiTqos,
saerTod, anbani Seeqmnas mas am qveynis xalxisTvis.
amrigad, qronologiis sakiTxebze saubris bolos daskvnis saxiT
vityviT, rom qristianobis periodSi qarTuli anbanis is calke
reforma unda iyos gatarebuli, romelic grafemisaTvis
fonetikuri mniSvnelobis Secvlis, warmarTobis dros Seqmnil
grafemaTa moxazulobis datoveba-ardatovebis, am moxazulobaTa
dadgenisa da anbanis boloSi ori asos damatebis sakiTxebTan Cans
dakavSirebuli.
asomTavrul anbanSi ori didi reformis kvali ikiTxeba, _
warmarTobisdroindelisa da qristianuli xanisa; Tu miviCnevT,
rom es anbani Zv. wR-is VII-VI ss-is axlo, an, iqneb, gacilebiT ufro
23

adreul periodSi, aRmocenda, rasac farnavaz mefis cxovrebis


axlo xanaSi pirveli, qristianulSi ki _ meore reforma mohyva,
maSin sami epoqis anbani SegviZlia vuwodoT asomTavrul anbans.

SeniSvnebi:

1. arsebobs mosazreba, rom aso-bgera J, SesaZloa, qarTuli


enisaTvis ucxod miaCnda asomTavrulis Semqmnels da imitom moaqcia
igi araqarTul jgufSi (patariZe 1980: 209). Tund, miviCnioT, rom sxva
enidan Semosuli egonaT, Cven mainc ara gvgonia, rom amis gamo iyos igi
araqarTul rigSi moTavsebuli, _ J asoTi qarTulSi damkvidrebuli
sityvebi gamoiTqmis da araqarTuli warmoSobisa romc hgonebodaT,
radgan semur-berZnul asoebs ar Seesabameba, ara pirvel, aramed
meore jgufSi moaTavsebdnen am asos; amasTan, Zneli dasajebelia,
araqarTuli genezisisa hgonebodaT Jani, _ Zvel qarTul teqstebSi
gvaqvs leqsema: Jami da masTan dakavSirebuli sityvebi: Jameba, Jamis-
mwirveloba, Jamis-rekaÁ, Jamis-wirva, Jamni, Jamoba, agreTve: LJera
(`JRera~), Jivili, Jrunva (`zrunva~, `wuxili~), Joli (`Jolo~), JoJaraki
(`xari~), JRavili da sxv. (sarjvelaZe 2001: 175), Jami somxuridan
miRebuladaa miCneuli, magram, cxadia, ver vityviT, rom CamoTvlil
leqsemaTagan yvela Semosulad miaCndaT da fiqrobdnen, rom J aso-
bgera maT gamosaTqmelad Semovida sxva enidan, giorgi klimovs
leqsemebisaTvis JRr-ob-a, JRr-eb-a (qarT.), JRir-af-a (`Wknoba~, _
megr.) aRdgenili aqvs *JRr- Ziri da qarTul-zanuri erTianobis
xanasTan akavSirebs mas (klimovi 249; fenrixi... 374), _ zanur-qarTuli
erTianobis xanaSi arsebobda J, lazur-megrulsa da svanurSi gvaqvs igi
da, yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, Zneli dasajerebelia, rom
qarTulisaTvis arabunebrivi egona anbanis Seqmnels es aso-bgera da
`ucxour jgufSi~ amitom aris moTavsebuli misi amsaxveli niSani.
2. berZnuli eta Tanamedrove berZnulSi ukve i-s gamoxatavs da itas
saxeliTac ixsenieba.
3. xsenebuli aso-niSnis horizontalur xazs daxrili da klaknili
forma mogvianebiT eqneba miRebuli.
24

4. iv. javaxiSvilsa da r. patariZes miaCniaT, rom finikiuridan aris


Semosuli aso-niSani; iv. javaxiSvili ar akonkretebs, romeli periodis
grafema unda Semosuliyo asomTavrulSi, magram, misi aRniSvniT,
«daujerebelia, rom Tavdapirvels qarTvelTa mier SemoRebul anbans,
maSin, rodesac jer kidev danarTi asoebi ar iyo, aseTi mniSvnelovani
bgeris, rogoricaa `h~, gansakuTrebuli niSani ar hqonoda, amisTvis
swored amave bgeris gamosaxatavad miRebuli `heT~-i ar
gamoeyenebinaT~» (javaxiSvili 1996: 199), r. patariZis Tanaxmad,
asomTavrulis me-8 aso-niSani saSualo finikiuri heT grafemis ( )
safuZvelzea Seqmnili (patariZe 1980: 189).
5. aq warmodgenili TariRi axlosaa asomTavrulis genezisis iv.
javaxiSviliseul TariRTan, _ pat. mecnieri, erTi mxriv, ramdenime
finikiur da arameul, meore mxriv, qarTul asoTa Soris, msgavsebas
poulobda, igi aso-niSan banze msjelobisas aRniSnavda, rom «qarTul
Tavdapirvel anbans TavSekruli `b~-is SeTviseba SeeZlo an
finikielTagan uSualod, an arameelTagan, q. w. VII s.-mde», mis
Tanaxmad, Zv. wR-is VII s-mde finikielebsa da qarTvelur tomebs
(Tubalebs, mosoxebs) mWidro ekonomikuri urTierTobebi hqondaT
erTmaneTTan da yovelive aqedan gamomdinare varaudobda, rom
daaxloebiT am xanaSi unda iyos Seqmnili asomTavruli anbani
(javaxiSvili 1996: 229).
6. aq saWiroa, sagangebod SevexoT x da à grafemebis warmoSobasTan
dakavSirebul sakiTxebs: iv. javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, grafema [
zemoxsenebuli finikiuri -sagan zeda da gverdiTi xazebis mocilebiT
unda iyos gamoyvanili ( > [), { ki [-s moxazulobidan miRebulad
miaCnda (misi aRniSvniT, [-sagan gansxvavebiT, {-s `qveda gaswvrivi xazic
aqvs CamoSorebuli da aswvrivi xazis meore, qveda naxevaric SuaSi
mouqceviaT~; javaxiSvili 1996: 225-226). ramdenadac, rogorc iTqva,
Cveni azriT, ricxviT mniSvnelobaTa ucvlelobis dacvis mizniT aso-
niSnebis cal-calke Setanas moeridebodnen da ramdenadac vfiqrobT,
rom meore jgufis asoebi erTad iqneba darTuli asomTavrulze,
migvaCnia, rom xanic da xaric Tanadroulad aris Seqmnili da xari
xanisgan araa miRebuli da ufro is gvgonia, rom asomTavrulis / /
25

niSnidan unda iyos orive gamosuli; SesaZloa, H grafemac arsebobda


asomTavrulSi, magram, Cans, reformis dros ukve Camoyalibebuli iyo
formis grafema da masze zeda marjvena Sveuli xazis darTvam
mogvca aso-niSani xani, _ > (qveda fexi mogvianebiT unda iyos am
grafemaze damatebuli, _ [), grafemaze zeda erTi Sveuli xazis
damatebam da misi qveda Sveuli xazis SuaSi gadatanam ki mogvca
forma { (safiqrebelia, rom daaxloebiT am xazebis msgavsi iyo is
niSnebi, romlebsac axali grafemebis Seqmnamde urTavdnen aso-niSans
(aqedan Cans, rom am konkretul SemTxvevaSi ara ligatura, aramed
specialuri niSnebi gamoxatavda specifikur bgerebs da is, rom
Semdeg asoebis Semadgenel nawilebad gardaqmnila es niSnebi; aqve unda
iTqvas: Cven ar migvaCnia, rom yvela specifikuri aso-niSani asea
aRmocenebuli); [ da { grafemebis Seqmnis Semdeg -s, cxadia, mxolod h
aso-bgeris gamoxatvis funqcia darCeboda. grafema xaris Sesaxeb
zemoTqmuls gvinda davamatoT: {-is formis gamoyvanisas, Cveni azriT,
yuradReba imazec gaumaxvilebiaT reformatorebs, rom ideogramac
yofiliyo es aso-niSani, ase vfiqrobT imitom, rom cxovel xaris
ideograma aSkarad Cans masSi (vera bardaveliZesa da ramaz patariZes
miaCniaT, rom xaris rqebia gamoxatuli {-Si), { grafema -dan unda iyos
miRebuli, oRond, Cans, ise mouxazavT es niSani, rom xaris rqebs
damgvaneboda igi (am sakiTxebze ix. me-17 Sen.); aq erTsac davZenT: {-is
msgavsi niSani sxvaganac gvxvdeba da sifrTxilea saWiro, raTa
erTisagan meoris warmomavlobis Sesaxeb usafuZvlo varaudebi ar
warmoiqmnas, mag., asomTavruli xaris identuria samxreTaarabuli
grafema, romelic h-s niSnavs ({), risi mTavari mizezic is unda iyos, rom
orives erTi winapari hyavda da evoluciis msgavsi gza aqvs gavlili.
7. cxadia, igulisxmeba ara eÁ-is, aramed h, x da ჴ mniSvnelobebis
mqone grafema .
8. miuxedavad imisa, rom semur-berZnuli Sesabamisobebi ara aqvs,
Cans, am aso-bgerisTvis Tavidanve SeuqmniaT grafema, risi mizezic,
SesaZloa, is iyos, rom gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisad miaCndaT is
sityva, romelSic aso Jani figurirebs da ar undodaT, rom sxva asosa
da masze miwerili niSnis meSveobiT gamoexataT igi, ar aris
26

gamoricxuli, rom aseTi sityvaa Jami da masTan dakavSirebuli


leqsemebi: Jamiswirva, Jamisreka da sxva, romlebsac, iqneb,
warmarTobis drosac hqonda gansakuTrebuli religiuri
datvirTva; es sakiTxi eTnologTa mier saWiroebs sagangebo Seswavlas.
9. aq unda iTqvas: Tu dadasturda, rom Tavdapirveli asomTavruli
im dros aris Seqmnili, roca qarTul-zanuri jerac ar iyo
erTmaneTisagan bolomde gamoyofili, maSin SeiZleba, ara mxolod
qarTuli, aramed, qarTvelur-qarTulic vuwodoT reformamdel
anbans; reformis Semdeg qarTul enaze gadaitandnen aqcents da masSi
arsebul aso-bgerebTan miasadagebdnen grafemebs, romelTagan zogi
specialuri niSnebis darTviT, iqneb, im sxva fonemebsac gamoxatavda,
rac qarTulma ar Semoinaxa.
10. iv. javaxiSvilis Tanaxmad, «qvaze Tu sxva magar nivTierebaze
gamoyvanil sityvasa Tu azrs, rasac exla warwera ewodeba, Zvel dros
`z e d a w e r i l i~ erqva», Tumc «ukve Zveladve amave mniSvnelobiT `w a
r w e r a~-sa da `w a r w e r i l s a~-c xmarobdnen» (javaxiSvili 1996: 38).
11. am wess aloglotografia ewodeba (ix. gamyreliZe 2011: 54-55).
12. roca gavixsenebT, rom -s berZnuli grZeli ɛː-s mibaZviT eÁ
xmovnis mniSvneloba aqvs micemuli, Seiqmneba STabeWdileba, rom
grZeli xmovnebis SemoRebis survili gaCenila am drois qarTvel
moRvaweTa Soris.
13. Tu ratom iwyeba specifikuri jgufi RaniT, es saubris calke
Temaa, magram mokled mainc vityviT: r. patariZe yuradRebas im faqtze
amaxvilebs, rom warmarT qarTvelTa Soris cnobili iyo yovlis
Semoqmedi morige RmerTi, v. bardaveliZis naSromze dayrdnobiT
(bardaveliZe 1957: 15) dasabuTebulad warmoaCens, rom
zepirsityvierebaSi RmerTTan dakavSirebiT xSirad ixsenieba `RvTis
kari~, mkvlevari `qarTuli rigis~ pirveli aso Ranis gamosaxulebaSi (q)
swored RvTis karis ideogramas xedavs (patariZe 1980: 228-233) da,
aqedan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, ar aris gasakviri, rom specifikur
asoTa damateba qarTvelTa warmarT winaprebs swored RaniT, anu
`RvTis kariT~ dauwyiaT.
27

14. r. patariZis Tanaxmad, grafema qanis safuZveli aris aseve jvris


gamosaxulebis mqone finikiuri aso-niSani Tav (tāw); rogorc iTqva,
Cveni azriT, asomTavrulis SemqnelT ueWvelad gaTvaliswinebuli
eqnebaT finikiuri anbani, magram sabolood yovelive mainc berZnulTan
Cans SesabamisobaSi moyvanili, ramdenadac arqauli berZnuli qanis
fonetikuri mniSvneloba berZnul χ-sTanaa axlos da ara _ t bgeris
aRmniSvnel xsenebul finikiur aso-niSanTan (arqauli berZnuli χ /xi/-
is fonetikuri mniSvnelobaa kʰ /q/, igive, rac _ qarTuli qanisa; cxadia,
arqauli berZnulis gavleniTaa qarTulSi damkvidrebuli forma _
qriste...), ramdenadac berZnul da qarTul aso-niSanTa ricxviTi
mniSvnelobebic emTxveva erTmaneTs (600) da berZnuli χ (xi) berZnuli Φ
(fi)-is Semdeg aris moTavsebuli (rogorc q /qani / f /fari/-is Semdeg),
vfiqrobT, ara aris saeWvo, rom qanis fonetikuri mniSvneloba da
adgili uSualod berZnuli χ-is mixedviT daudgeniaT asomTavrulis
Semqmnelebs da rom, finikiurTan erTad, berZnuli anbanis gavlenis
kvalic aSkarad Cans am aso-niSnis formirebaSi.
15. janze msjelobisas iv. javaxiSvili ar gamoricxavs, rom am
grafemis «warmomavlobisaTvis meqanikuri Teoriac ki iyos
gamoyenebuli da am asosaTvis iribad gadaWrili jvaris moxazuloba
yofiliyo aRebuli» da iqve wers: «magram saidan gaCnda `j~-s zeviTi
gaswvrivi xazi, am TvalsazrisiT gaugebari iqneboda», misi TqmiT,
«jer, hipoTezis garda, arafris Tqma ar SeiZleba da momavali, imedia,
mkvlevars ufro mets masalebs miscems» (javaxiSvili 1996: 226); ver
vityviT, rom sakiTxi ukve sabolood aris Seswavlili, magram
vfiqrobT, dasaSvebia varaudi, romelic janis zeda xazis Sesaxeb aq
warmovadgineT.
16. akrofoniis iseTi faqtia am SemTxvevaSi Cven winaSe, roca fonema
ki araa imisi ganmapirobebeli, Tu rogori iyos akrofoni, ideograma,
aramed piriqiT, _ ukve arsebuli ideograma gansazRvravs, romeli
fonema gaxdes misi aRmniSvneli; roca winaswar aris gadawyvetili, rom
jvris gamosaxulebiT dasruldes anbani, Tavidanve cxadi xdeba, rom im
sityvis pirveli aso-bgera unda gamoixatos misiT, romelic jvars
niSnavs; qarTul anbanSi fonema j ki ar aris grafemis aRmocenebis
28

mizezi, aramed piriqiT, _ grafemam ganapiroba, rom j aso-bgera


gamxdariyo misi fonemuri Sesabamisoba.
17. grafemaTa Seqmnis akrofoniuli principi, qanisa da janis garda,
sxva SemTxvevebSic Cans gamoyenebuli: rogorc zemoT iTqva, vera
bardaveliZe da ramaz patariZe miiCneven, rom Ãari ({) cxovel xaris
rqebs gamoxatavs (bardaveliZe 1957: 202) da Cven veTanxmebiT am azrs,
iTqva isic, rom, Cveni azriT, asomTavrulis reformis dros unda iyos
es aso-niSani miRebuli da rom misi grafika ise SeuqmniaT, rom xaris
ideogramac gamoxatuliyo masSi, zemoTqmuls davamatebT, rom, Cveni
SexedulebiT, marTalia, Sumeruli genezisis, magram ukve
gaqarTulebuli sityva Ãaris mixedviT unda hqondes am asos saxeli
darqmeuli (Sead. patariZe 1980: 117; 257-260); akrofoniuli principis
kvali, SesaZloa, sxva asoebze dakvirvebis Sedegadac gamoCndes.
18. yovelive zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare SeiZleba iTqvas, rom,
SesaZloa, enaTmecnierulze naklebad, magram, religiur safuZvelze
damyarebuli sistemurobis niSnebi sakmaod naTlad ikiTxeba
asomTavrulis specifikur nawilSi.
19. r. patariZe wers, rom `qarTuli anbanis dasasrulis mauwyebelia~
aso-niSani jani (patariZe 1980: 260), rogorc vnaxeT, mis Tanaxmad, hae
«Tavdapirveli aso-niSani ar aris qarTuli anbanisa« da «igi Seqmnilia
im dros, roca ukve aRar iyo an daviwyebuli iyo qarTuli asomTavruli
damwerlobis anbanuri sistemis codna.», hoes Sesaxeb dasZens, rom isic
«xelovnuri grafikuli erTeulia» da «ra viTarebam ganapiroba misi
SemoReba, auxsnelia~»; miuxedavad imisa, rom qristianobis dros, an
warmarTul xanaSi gatarebuli reformis Sesaxeb arafers ambobs, am
citatebidan aSkarad Cans, rom, mkvlevaris azriT, hae da hoe
mogvianebiT daumatebiaT asomTavrulisTvis da adre janiT
sruldeboda es anbani; aqve vityviT: pat. mecnieri savsebiT sworad
amCnevs, rom qani aseve dasasrulis mauwyebelia, wers, rom am «aso-
niSnis jvaris formas qarTul anbanSi Tavisi gamarTleba aqvs: qarTuli
anbanis `semur-berZnul~ anu `ucxour~ anbanur nawils qarTul anbanSi
dasasrulis mauwyebeli niSani _ jvari amTavrebs» (patariZe 1980: 217);
Cven viziarebT im azrs, rom dasrulebaze mianiSnebs qanic, oRond
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migvaCnia, rom am aso-niSniT dasrulebuli Tavdapirveli


asomTavrulis Sres amJRavnebs anbanSi qanis arsebobis faqti,
vfiqrobT, rom odindel reformaTa kvali moCans rogorc qanis, ise
janis saxiT, rom Zvel asomTavrul anbanebs asrulebdnen da am
faqtze migvaniSneben jvris formis mqone aso-niSnebi, Cven sxvadasxva
dros Seqmnili ori anbanis gaerTianebis Sedegad miRebul im erT
mTlianobad gvesaxeba asomTavruli anbani, romlisTvisac Semdeg,
sagangebo qristianuli reformisas, hae da hoe (`qarTuli omega~)
daumatebiaT boloSi.
20. Tavdapirvel anbans, romelic, Cveni azriT, jvris gamosaxulebis
mqone qaniT sruldeboda, Tu pirobiT termins vixmarT, `anqanis
anbanic~ SegviZlia vuwodoT, qristianul xanaSi reformirebulisTvis
ki, aseve pirobiTi terminis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, `anisa da hoes~, an
`anhoes anbanis~ saxelis gamoyenebac aris SesaZlebeli.
21. aqve unda iTqvas, rom, zogi wyaros Tanaxmad, yvela somxuri aso-
niSani ar Seuqmnia mesrop maStocs.

damowmebani:

bardaveliZe 1957: Бардавелидзе, В. В. Древнейшие религиозные верования, Тбилиси:


1957.
gamyreliZe 1990: gamyreliZe, T. weris anbanuri sistema da Zveli qarTuli
damwerloba, Tbilisi: 1990.
gamyreliZe 2011: gamyreliZe, T. Zveli qarTuli fsomTavruli damwerloba,
Tbilisi: 2011.
ingoroyva 1978: ingoroyva, p. Txzulebani, IV, Tbilisi: 1978.
klimovi 1964: Климов, Г. Этимологический словарь картвелских языков, Москва:
1964.
kuWuxiZe 2001: kuWuxiZe, g. `Teimuraz bagrationis erTi cnoba da qarTuli
anbanis warmoSobis sakiTxi~. kreb. literaturuli meditaciebis samyaroSi,
Tbilisi: 2001.
marTlmadidebluri enciklopedia: Православная Энциклопедия, I, Москва: 2000.
http://www.pravenc.ru/
maWavariani 1977: maWavariani, e. qarTuli damwerloba, Tbilisi: 2008.
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nave 2011: nave, i. arameuli damwerlobis ganviTareba, inglisuridan


Targmna, winasityvaoba da komentarebi daurTo el. giunaSvilma. Tbilisi:
2011.
patariZe 1980: patariZe, r. qarTuli asomTavruli, Tbilisi: 1980.
fenrixi... 2000: fenrixi, h. sarjvelaZe, z. qarTvelur enaTa etimologiuri
leqsikoni, Tbilisi: 2000.
SaraZe 1972: SaraZe, g. Teimuraz bagrationi, cxovreba, Tbilisi: 1972.
Sifmani 1963: Шифман, И. Финикийский язык, Москва: 1963.
WilaSvili 2004: WilaSvili, l. nekresis uZvelesi qarTuli warwerebi da
qarTuli damwerlobis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi: 2000.
javaxiSvili 1996: javaxiSvili, iv. Txzulebani Tormet tomad, IX, Tbilisi:
1996.
janaSvili 1896: janaSvili, m. farsadan gorgijaniZe da misni Sromani,
tfilisi: 1896.

Gocha Kuchukhidze

Asomtavruli - Alphabet of Three Epochs


(Тhe point of view)

Summary

The paper deals with the issues relating to the chronology of Georgian Asomtavruli
alphabet.
There exists character in Asomtavruli alphabet, its numeric meaning is 8, and phonetic
– the vowel . This letter corresponds to (Ḥet) in the Phoenician and H (Eta) in Greek
alphabet.
The phonetic meaning of the mentioned Phoenician and Greek letters was consonant
h; Greek grapheme H changed phonetic meaning approximately in VII-VI centuries BC
and became designator of a long sonant e (ɛː).
The research into the history of Asomtavruli alphabet evidences that numeric and
phonetic meanings of its letters have been finally set up according to the Greek alphabet.
As it becomes clear from Georgian written sources that initially the Asomtavruli
grapheme (ɛj) had phonetic meaning of a consonant h and not a vowel. Based on this
31

fact, a supposition is expressed that the lower chronological boundary of the genesis of
Asomtavruli could be around the 7th - 6th centuries BC. If this alphabet had been created
later, the grapheme (ɛj) would have initially had the meaning of a vowel.
According to Leonti Mroveli’s The Life of Kings (X c.), Georgian script
(“Mtsignobroba Kartuli”) was created by the first ruler of the Kingdom of Iberia who
ruled circa 4th-3rd centuries BC. There is also another written source “Matiane
Shemetsnebata” (this manuscript is lost and the data about it are preserved by a Georgian
scholar Teimuraz Bagrationi (1782-1846) ) which states that the Asomtavruli alphabet
was first used in the Georgian pagan temple. King Pharnavaz brought it out of the temple
for public use. It is supposed that the reformation of the alphabet might have happened in
the reign of King Pharnavaz which is evidenced from adding of those Georgian specific
letters to it that are collected in the end of this alphabet.
It is suggested that in the Early Christian period the second alphabet reform was
carried out and it was just at that time that the character (hoe; it is pronounced
approximately as a long o; in our assumption the shape of Georgian Asomtavruli
grapheme is a result of doubling of Greek Omicron) must have been added to the
Georgian alphabet in the end. Long vowels are absent in Georgian language and from the
phonetic viewpoint the introduction of the grapheme hoe was not necessary. In our
opinion, this character was added in Georgian alphabet like in Greek to reflect symbolic
name of Jesus Christ as the Alpha and Omega meaning “the First and the Last”.

literaturuli Ziebani, XL
SoTa rusTavelis saxelobis qarTuli literaturis instituti,
2019-2020; gv. 9-29.
Literary Researches, XL,
Shota Rustaveli Institute of Georgian Literature, 2019-2020; pp. 9-29.