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rozeta gujejiani,

beJan xorava

qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azris istoriidan


("erTobili saqarTvelosaTvis")

"wmidao mTavarangelozo mxerisao... adiden mefeni


bagratonianni... erTobili saqarTvelo da erTobili svanni"
(XIII-XIV saukuneebis xatis warwera svaneTSi)

aRorZinebadi qarTuli saxelmwifo mravali problemis winaSe


dgas. problemaTagan zogierTi xelovnurad aris Seqmnili da
mimarTulia qarTveli eris sasicocxlo interesebisa da qarTuli
saxelmwifos Semdgomi ganviTarebis winaaRmdeg. erTi aseTi gamowvevaa
qarTuli eTnosis daSla-danawevrebis mcdeloba, romelic
inspirirebulia ruseTis imperiis mier.
jer kidev carizmis dros, ruseTis xelisuflebis dakveTiT,
eTnosTa aRwerebSi qarTvelTa erTi nawili calkeul "eTnosebad"
warmoCindeboda; imperiis samsaxurSi myofi mecnierebi "qarTvelTagan"
TiTqosda "asimilirebul" svanebsa da megrelebs slavur grafikas
misadagebul "anbanebs" uqmnidnen (p. uslari, a. greni...) da maT
mentalobaSi antiqarTuli, prorusuli orientaciis ideologiis
danergvas cdilobdnen; muslim aWarlebs, mesxebsa da afxazebs ki
saqarTvelodan erekebodnen da maT adgilas araqarTvelTa kompaqtur
dasaxlebebs qmnidnen (b. xorava, 2004; t. futkaraZe, 2006).
qarTuli sazogadoeba mraval aseT Semotevas igeriebda XIX
saukunis meore naxevridan da XX saukunis 40-ian wlebamde icavda
da inarCunebda udides erovnul monapovars _ qarTuli enis,
rogorc yvela mxaris qarTvelis dedaenis, statuss.
bolSevikuri saokupacio reJimis pirobebSi sabWoTa
xelisuflebis aqtiuri zemoqmedebis Sedegad dairRva qarTvelTa
sami istoriul-eTnografiuli Temis _ megrelebis, lazebisa da
svanebis _ kulturul-istoriuli memkvidreobiTobis ufleba did
qarTul samwignobro kulturaze: am mxareebis mcxovrebTa
dialeqtebi - saSinao kiloebi (zanuri da svanuri) mkveTrad
gamijnes megrel/lazebisa da svanebis mSobliuri qarTuli enisagan
da isini damoukidebel enebad gamoacxades.
aTeisturi da okupanti saxelmwifos mxridan istoriuli
samarTlianobis uxeSi darRveva grZeldeboda mTeli ssrk-is arsebobis
manZilze. am politizebul "samecniero" Teorias unergavdnen
qarTvelebs; aseTive saxiT gadioda informacia sazRvargareT.
bunebrivia, ruseTis imperiis ideologiuri memkvidre sabWoTa ruseTi
agrZelebda imperiul xazs da aqtiurad cdilobda erTiani qarTuli
cnobierebis daSla-danawevrebas.
sabWoTa ruseTis samoxeleo aparatis strategiuli
mimarTulebebi naTladaa asaxuli 1920-1921 wlebSi saqarTveloSi
ruseTis sruluflebiani warmomadgenlobis samxedro ataSis
p. sitinis mier moskovSi gagzavnil moxsenebebSi. moviyvanT ramdenime
citatas misi moxsenebebidan: "meore RonisZieba, romelic
daasustebs qarTul Sovinizms teritoriulad da materialuradac,
es aris saqarTvelosgan afxazeTis gamoyofa... afxazeTis
kvaldakval saWiroa yuradReba gamaxvildes samegreloze, romelic
gansxvavdeba saqarTvelosgan rogorc enobrivad, aseve
nacionalobiT da romelsac mudam umZimda qarTvelTa
mflobeloba/mmarTveloba... teritoria vrcelia strategiuli
mimarTulebiTac, isic, aseve, SesaZloa, daeqvemdebaros pirdapir
rsfsr-is gavlenas" (n. gelava, 1993-1994, gv. 270-272) da a. S.
saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg, XX saukunis
bolo aTwleulidan aRdga ocdaxuTsaukunovani tradicia da
megrul/lazur da svanur metyvelebebs enaTmecnierTa jgufma aRudgina
istoriuli saxeli _ qarTveluri kilo/dialeqti. bunebrivia,
qarTvelis (svanis, megrelis...) dedaena qarTulia da tradiciis
aRdgena sixarulis momtania qarTvelebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki
svanebisa da megrelebisaTvis.
aqve aRvniSnavT, rom saqarTvelos realuri istoriisa da
qarTuli tradiciuli cnobierebis am mniSvnelovani elementis dacvas
mudam cdilobda qarTuli samecniero da sazogadoebrivi elita
(ilia WavWavaZe, iakob gogebaSvili...). msgavsi motivebi XIX-XX
saukuneebis istorias laitmotivad gasdevs: "vin moifiqrebda, Tu am
gonivrul wess, RvTisgan dalocvils, mowinaaRmdegeni
gamouCndebodnen Cvens qveyanaSi, saqarTveloSi. magram
moulodneli axTa, SeuZlebeli acxadda. acxadda mxolod CvenSi
da sxvagan arsaT, arc somexTa Soris, arc TaTarTa Soris da arc
sxva kavkasielebSi ar aRmoCenila imisTana Wkva-mokle da
ukuRmarTi adamiani, romelsac eTqvas, skolebSi swavleba Temur
kilokavebze unda iyos da ara dedaenazeo" ("iveria", 1902).
imperiuli ideologiis realizebis yovel morig mcdelobas mkveTrad
upirispirdeboda qarTuli sazogadoebrivi da samecniero azri.
gansakuTebiT aqtiurobdnen svaneTsa da samegreloSia (T. gvancelaZe,
m. naWyebia, m. tabiZe, 2007; r. gujejiani, 2008).
qveynisaTvis umZimes periodSi, 1941 wels, didma mecnierma da
sazogado moRvawem giorgi Citaiam gamoaqveyna werili "sicocxlis
xis motivi lazur ornamentSi" (g, Citaia, 1941). naSromi
mravalmxriv aris sayuradRebo da igi msoflios eTnologiuri
literaturis oqros fondSia Sesuli, magram am SemTxvevaSi
aqtualuria werilis sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobac. cnobilia: es is
avbediTi wlebia, rodesac faqtiurad, fizikuradaa ganadgurebuli
qarTuli samecniero da sazogadoebrivi elitis mravali
warmomadgeneli, mizanmimarTulad erTaderT da saxelmZRvanelo
samecniero Teoriebad amoqmedebulia sabWouri dogmebi, romelTa
umetesoba dResac ki ar aris bolomde daZleuli1; am dros giorgi
Citaia aqveynebs naSroms, romelic, imperiuli ideologiis ("dayavi
da ibatone") da sabWouri miTiTebebis sruli ignorirebiT
asabuTebs erTiani qarTuli msoflmxedvelobis arsebobas mTel
qarTvel erSi dasabamidanve da qarTuli elementebis
sicocxlisunarianobis uTvalsaCinoes nimuSad lazur da svanur
masalas warmoaCens (g. Citaia, 1941).
ruseTi amJamad ufro aqtiurad cdilobs imperiuli zraxvebis
realizdebas: dResac okupirebulia qarTuli miwebis nawili.
paralelurad ki grZeldeba erTiani eTnikuri _ qarTuli _
cnobierebis winaaRmdeg momarTuli samecniero diversiebi. msoflioSi
gavrcelebul Tanamedrove eTnolingvistur rukaTa udides nawilSic
rusi eTnologebisa da lingvistebis mier araadekvaturadaa
warmodgenili qarTuli sinamdvile _ isini qarTvelTa udides
nawils kvlav araqarTul eTnikur jgufebad miiCneven. magaliTad,
aseTia, cnobili rusi mecnieris i. koriakovis mer warmodgenili
eTnolingvisturi kvalifikaciebi. misi daskvniT, qarTuli eTnosi
danawevrebulia ramdenime eTnosad: qarTvelad, megrelad, lazad,
zemo svanad, qvemo svanad (t. futkaraZe, 2009).
bunebrivia, rodesac okupanti asea gaaqtiurebuli da
saqarTvelo uamravi problemis winaSe dgas, meti sifrTxile
gvmarTebs mecnierebis im dargebis warmomadgenlebs, romelTa
kvlevis sfero scildeba viwro, specifikur areals da
sazogadoebriv datvirTvasac iZens. axla mainc, Tumca ki didi
dagvianebiT, aucilebelia qarTvelologiis realurad gaTavisufleba
sabWouri dogmebisgan. xolo mibruneba im avbediTi sabWouri
ideologiisaken, rac, samwuxarod, SeiniSneba mecnierTa erTi nawilis
mxridan, bunebrivia, aCens azrs, rom aq vlindeba okupanti
saxelmwifos mxridan momdinare socialuri dakveTebis kvali.
farTo sazogadoebis gakvirvebas da masSi erTgvari daucvelobis
SegrZnebas iwvevs qarTuli saxelmwifos aRmSeneblobisa da
saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis _ svanebis, megrelebisa da lazebis _
kulturul-istoriuli memkvidreobiTobis aRdgenisaken mimarTuli,
mecnierulad dasabuTebuli lingvisturi da socio-lingvisturi
gamokvlevebisTvis xelovnurad Seqmnili dabrkolebebi. qarTvelTaTvis
odiTganve erTi dedaenis _ qarTulis _ arsebobis damadasturebeli
samecniero kvlevebis arseboba ratomRac enaTmecnierTa nawilis
agresias iwvevs, maTTvis kategoriulad miuRebelia gansxvavebuli
samecniero Teoriebi da azrebi; magaliTad, aseTi gaxlavT krebulSi
_ "qarTveluri enebi da dialeqtebi (erTi "samecniero
polemikis" gamo) _ gamoqveynebuli zogierTi statia. arada,
sruliad garkveulia da Cveulebrivia, rom ama Tu im sakiTxs an
samecniero problemas yoveli epoqa axleburad gadaiazrebs da
warmoaCens. Tavisufal sazogadoebaSi uxerxulic kia da
SeuZlebeli romelime samecniero Teoriis dogmad qceva, misi
statikuri saxiT SenarCuneba da yovelgvari siaxlis mimarT
daundobeli brZolis gaCaReba. miT umetes, rodesac es "axali"
Zalian Zvelia _ saistorio tradiciiT ganmtkicebuli da maradiul
RirebulebaTagania. anu igi ar aris alternatiuli Teoria, aramed
farnavazis xanidan momdinare realobaa da tradiciuli qarTuli
mentalobis umniSvnelovanesi komponentTagania.
amave krebulis SemdgenelTa monawileobiT krebulis gamocemamde
garkveuli xniT adre SemuSavda da gavrcelda "kiTxvari qarTvelur
enebze molaparakeTaTvis". kiTxvaris gacnobam (mas avsebinebdnen
megrelebsa da svanebs) farTo sazogadoebas uamravi kiTxva da
protestis grZnoba gauCina: saxelmwifoebrivad moazrovne da
qarTvelTa eTnikur istoriaSi Caxeduli adamianisaTvis sakiTxis
amgvarad dasma, rogorc es kiTxvarSia warmoCenili, ukve sagangaSo
da Tavzardamcemia: masSi erT sibrtyezea warmodgenili saxelmwifo
ena - qarTuli da qarTveluri "enebi" (svanuri, lazur/megruli).
anu "kiTxvari" eWvqveS ayenebs saxelmwifo (qarTuli) enis
statuss _ saxelmwifo, saliteraturo, samecniero, saeklesio enis
(qarTulis) paralelur saqarTvelos mosaxleobisTvis damoukidebel
"enebad" SemoTavazebulia qarTveluri kiloebi (maTi azriT, enebi) _
megrul-lazuri da svanuri. ra mizans emsaxureba es kiTxvari?
ratom ubiZgeben misi Semdgenlebi mosaxleobas dedaenisagan
gaucxoebisaken, Cveni erovnuli identobis ngrevisaken?! ratom
cdiloben eTnikuri cnobierebis daSlas?! ratom agrZeleben
carizmisa da sabWoTa ideologebis strategiul xazsa da
mimarTulebas ("gaTiSe da ibatone")?!.
gansaxilvelad warmogidgenT kiTxvarSi dasmul ramdenime kiTxvas:
#31. "ra enaze elaparakebiT saqarTveloSi mcxovreb sxva
erovnebis/eTnikuri jgufis warmomadgenlebs?" pasuxis grafaSi
CamoTvlilia: "qarTuli, megrul-lazuri, svanuri, sxva." e.i. ukve
esoden kategoriuli formiT "gamoyves" ra Cveni deda enis _
qarTulisagan calkeul enebad Cveni saSinao kilo-kavebi (svanuri,
megrul-lazuri), axla ukve erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebul "sxva
erovnebis/eTnikuri jgufis" warmomadgenlebadac migviCneven?! ufro
qvemoT ki am enebs "damwerlobebsac" "uqmnian", swored amiskenaa
mimarTuli kiTxva:
"saWirod TvliT Tu ara, rom presa gamodiodes megrul-
lazur, svanur enebze?" da a.S. ar vTvliT, batonebo! verc
dageTanxmebiT da arc mogiwonebT Cveni cnobierebis daSlis da
mSobliuri qarTuli kulturisagan gamoTiSvis mcdelobas.
mkiTxvelTa yuradRebas, aseve, mivapyrobT SekiTxvaTa im nawils,
romelic ganaTlebas exeba:
"#77. ra enaze gindaT, rom ganaTleba miiRon Tqvenma
Svilebma? Tu saWiroa, ratom?" pasuxis grafa: "qarTuli, megrul-
lazuri, svanuri da sxva".
kiTxvebi uaRresad maprovocirebelia. sakiTxis amgvarad dasma
(igi scdeba viwro samecniero daniSnulebas da sazogadoebriv xasiaTs
iRebs) biZgia dezintegraciuli procesebisaken. bunebrivia,
kiTxvarma qarTuli sazogadoebis udidesi aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia da
gansakuTrebuli ukmayofilebiT mas svaneTsa da samegreloSi Sexvdnen.
kiTxvarisa da msgavsi destruqciuli Sinaarsis proeqtebis
gamarTlebas eZRvneba zemoxsenebul krebulSi warmodgenil statiaTa
nawili, romelTa mTeli suliskveTeba arakolegialurobisa da
gansxvavebuli azrisadmi kategoriuli Seuwynareblobis erTgvari
"klasikuri" nimuSicaa. amave dros, am publikaciebiT, nacvlad imisa,
rom patieba gvTxovon svanebsa da megrelebs kiTxvariT miyenebuli
SeuracxyofisaTvis, kvlavac qarTuli enisagan gamocalkevebul da
udamwerlobo "enebad" warmogvidgenen Cvens kiloebs, romelTac
TiTqosda raime gansakuTrebuli dacva sWirdebodes. gansjisTvis
sayuradReboa kiTxvaris profesor g. kvaracxeliaseuli
Sefaseba:
"rac Seexeba kiTxvars, Rrmad var darwmunebuli, rom misi ase
Sedgena da darigeba Secdoma iyo. amasac Cvenda uneburad, SeuZlia
sxvis wisqvilze wylis dasxma. Tu ar vcdebi, kiTxvari im proeqtis
farglebSia Seqmnili, romelmac enobrivi situacia unda Seiswavlos
saqarTveloSi. roca am proeqts vecnobodiT, mis kuratorad
dasaxelebuli iyo j. hiuiti, visi miznebi da interesebi aravisTvis
damaluli ar aris, amave dros, proeqtis warmomdgenma (prof. i.
gipertma - r.g., b.x.) ilaparaka qarTuli saliteraturo enis gavlenis
Sesaxeb svanurze, romelic "daCagrulad" moixsenia. gasagebia, yovel
seriozul kvlevas dafinanseba esaWiroeba, magram am fasad? amgvari
"dasabuTebebi", romlebic xSirad gvxvdeba ucxouri grantebis
mosapoveblad, arc eTikuria da arc usafrTxo, Tavi rom davaneboT
imas, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba isini realobas" (qarTveluri enebi da
dialeqtebi, 2007, gv. 13).
prof. g. kvaracxelias azrs gavagrZelebT da proeqtis
xelmZRvanelebs (iost giperts, manana TandaSvils) da maT
Tanamoazreebs mokrZalebiT SevaxsenebT:
"svanuri" da "megruli", anu qarTuli kultura, swored Tqvengan
da Tqveni ideologiuri "winaprebis" _ ruseTis imperiis msaxuri
mecnierebisagan idevneba da iCagreba, vinaidan Tqven arRvevT Cvens
uflebebs, rodesac gvwyvetT ocdaxuTsaukunovani qarTuli
kulturisagan _ mSobliuri qarTuli saliteraturo enisgan. an ra
samecniero baza gagaCniaT amgvari daskvnebisaTvis? romel istoriul,
eTnologiur an sociolingvistur gamokvlevas eyrdnobiT, rodesac
esoden Tavxeduri uapelacioobiT acxadebT qarTuli enis svanur da
megrul dialeqtebs "gadaSenebis piras myof enebad"? xom
sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom svaneTsa da samegreloSi arasodes
gagvCenia Cveni dialeqtebis "enebad" gadaqcevis survili, radgan
svanebs da megrelebs, anu qarTvelebs, mudam gvqonda dedaena da
damwerloba _ qarTuli da rogorc moswrebulad SeniSnavs prof.
mariam CxartiSvili: "realurad artefaqtebSi Cven yvelgan
saqarTvelos dasavleTSi Tu aRmosavleTSi gveZleva mxolod
qarTuli kultura, mxolod da mxolod qarTi – identobis
kvali" (m. CxartiSvili, 2006, gv.213).
bunebrivia, svanuri, megruli da lazuri kiloebi maRali
aqtivobiT unda Seiswavlebodes, magram ara deda-qarTulisagan
mowyvetiT da calke enebad warmoCinebiT, aramed maTi istoriuli
statusiT _ qarTuli enis dialeqtebis saxiT, radgan svanebisa da
megrelebisaTvis deda enad odiTganve mxolod da mxolod erTi _
qarTuli ena iTvleboda, svanur-megrul-lazuri, kiloebi ki
qarTuli enis SemadgenlobaSi moiazreboda da ara mis
paralelurad.
qarTuli enis svanuri da zanuri dialeqtebi da ara "enebi"
maradiulad iarsebebs, iseve rogorc qarTuli enis sxva kiloebi.
svanuri, megruli da lazuri dialeqtebi uSreti salaroa/wyaroa
qarTuli saliteraturo enis Semdgomi gamdidrebisa da
ganviTarebisaTvis, saliteraturo qarTulSi ukve gamqrali
ZvelqarTuli sityvebisa da fuZeebis swored svanursa da
megrul/lazurSi moZiebisa da Tanamedrove saliteraturo enaSi
damkvidrebisaTvis.
"kiTxvari qarTvelur enebze molaparakeTaTvis"
antisaxelmwifoebrivi xasiaTisaa, arRvevs qarTvelTa didi nawilis
uflebebs _ Seuracxyofs svanebs, megrelebsa da lazebs, radgan
acalkevebs maT dedaenisagan _ qarTuli enisagan da amiT wyvets
mravalsaukunovan qarTul samwignobro kulturas.
kiTxvaris Semdgeneli mecnierebi srul upativcemlobas
amJRavneben qarTuli saxelmwifosa da saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis _
qarTvelTa eTnografiuli Temebis/jgufebis (svanebis, megrelebisa
da lazebisadmi) mimarT, eWqveS ayeneben ra maT kulturul-
istoriul memkvidreobiTobas da qarTul identobas.
sazogadoebis gakvirvebas da dabneulobas iwvevs is faqtic, rom
batoni i. giperti dRemde gelaTis mecnierebaTa akademiis sapatio
doqtorad iTvleba. gelaTis akademia ki, cnobilia, saqarTvelos
sapatriarqos mier dafuZnebuli organizaciaa da misi wevrebi Tu
sapatio doqtorebi, bunebrivia, pativs unda miagebdnen saqarTvelos
eklesiis wmida sinodis gadawyvetilebebs (ix. sinodi, 2005) da
iTvaliswinebdnen sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis,
uwmidesisa da unetaresis ilia II-is qadagebebsa da epistoleebs,
romlebSic patriarqi brZanebs: "Cven yvelam kargad unda
gaviazroT da sxvebsac davumtkicoT, rom qarTuli ena aris erTi,
megruli da svanuri dialeqtebi ki misgan gamomdinare
ganStoebebia. gansakuTrebiT unda movufrTxildeT Cvens siamayes
_ uZveles da mSvenier qarTul enas" (sapatriarqos uwyebani,
2007).
amave dros, gaocebas iwvevs kiTxvaris Semdgenel mecnierTa
kvalifikacia, maT mier gamovlenili saqarTvelos istoriisa da
kulturis, qarTvelTa eTnikuri istoriisa da qarTuli
sazogadoebrivi azris sruli ucodinaroba da gauTvaliswinebloba.
aseT problematur sakiTxebze msjelobisas gaazrebuli da Sejerebuli
unda iyos qarTuli humanitaruli mecnierebis yvela monapovari,
radgan kompleqsuri kvlevebis gareSe warmoudgenelia realuri
Sedegis miReba, dausabuTebeli da tendenciuri daskvnebi ki mxolod
ukmayofilebasa da protests hbadebs sazogadoebaSi.
zemoT xsenebuli "kiTxvari" da msgavsi proeqtebi
destruqciuli potencialis matarebelia. sruliad bunebrivia, rom
Tuki msgavsi antiqarTuli da antisaxelmwifoebrivi Sinaarsis mqone
kiTxvarebi kvlav gvrceldeba, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi
xelisuflebisagan moviTxovT Cveni kulturul-istoriuli
memkvidreobiTobis uflebis dacvas da istoriuli samarTlianobis
aRdgenas.
sagangaSoa isic, rom qarTuli enis istoria kvlav (Tavisufali
da demokratiuli saqarTvelos arsebobis pirobebSic ki) iwereba
Cveni dedaenisagan zanurisa da svanuris CamocilebiT. yvela qarTveli
da saqarTvelos eTnikuri istoriisa da kulturis mcodne
dameTanxmeba, vizualuradac metad damTrgunveli efeqti aqvs, Tundac
mixeil qurdianis mier moyvanil "qarTvelur enaTa genealogiur xes",
romliTac "TvalsaCinod" ixateba svanurisa da zanuris sadRac Zv. w.
V-IV aTaswleulidan ukve deda-qarTulisagan gamoyofa da
"damoukideblad" arseboba. amave periodidan ki oden "qarTuli enis
istoriazea" saubari (m. qurdiani, 2008, gv. 9). savalaloa, rom
avtors sruliadac ar axsendeba qarTuli enis istoriis
TanaSemoqmedi svanebi da zanebi (megrel/lazebi), romlebic
"qarTuli enisa da damwerlobisagan" dacilebis mixedviT lamis
baskebis paralelurad arian warmodgenilni naSromSi.
qarTveli erisa da RvTiT boZebuli qarTuli enis istoria
saTaves uZvelesi droidan iRebs da im droidanve yvela qarTuli
istoriul-eTnografiuli Temi Tanabrad qmnida qarTul kulturas.
sul amaod hgonia zog mecniers, rom svanur/zanuri elementis,
ukve rogorc "enis" arqaul xanaSi gadasroliTa da Semdgom
qarTuli enis am ZirZveli qarTuli jgufebisgan gancalkevebiT
ganviTarebas, mas vinme daujerebs.
sabednierod, swored svaneTsa da samegreloSi iqmneboda
qarTuli saRvTismetyvelo da saero mwerlobis mravali Sedevri Tu
xelovnebis sxva nimuSi (a. jafariZe, 2009; g. gasviani, 2004; v.
silogava, 2006) da yvelaze xSiradac swored am mxareebis Svilebi
idgnen qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenisa da aRmSeneblobis
saTaveebTan. magaliTad, ori udidesi saxelmwifo moRvawis
dasaxelebac kmara _ quji erisTavisa da ioane maruSianisa. da Tuki
es udidesi masStabebis moRvaweebi, ar Tvlidnen qarTul enas
TavianT dedaenad, rogorme miaRwevdnen zanur-svanuri kiloebisaTvis
enis statusis miniWebas da arc qveynis erTianobis Semoqmedebad da
mebairaxtreebad mogvevlinebodnen. gavixsenoT didi erisTavTerisTavis
qujis mimarTva farnavazisadmi: "Sen xar Svili TavTa maT
qarTlisaTa, da Sen gmarTebs ufleba Cemi... Sen xar ufali Cveni
da me var mona Seni" (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv. 22).
gansacvifrebelia is faqtic, rom m. qurdianis naSromi sruliad
saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqs, uwmidessa da unetaress ilia II-s
eZRvneba. patriarqis qadagebebSi ki xazgasmiTaa aRniSnuli
sakiTxisadmi amgvari midgomis aramarTlzomiereba: "meore didi Zala,
didi saunje _ es aris qarTuli ena. ena aris is saSualeba,
riTac adamiani, upirveles yovlisa, esaubreba ufals, warmoTqvams
locvebs. ena aris udidesi Zala da Cven mudam vicavT da
kvlavac davicavT mas. mravali uZvelesi xelnaweri Seqmnilia
qarTul enaze. maTma nawilma Cvenamdec moaRwia. dRes ki Cvens
Soris arian iseTi adamianebi, romlebic cdiloben, qarTul enas
megruli da svanuri dialeqtebi CamoaSoron da isini
damoukidebel enebad gamoacxadon" (sapatriarqos uwyebani, 2007).
gviWirs SevafasoT mecnieris qmedeba. imeds vitovebT, rom es
ar aris mizanmimarTuli cinizmi saqarTvelos sapatriarqosa da
aseve, qarTvelTa didi nawilis – svanebisa da megrelebis mimarT.
sruliad bunebrivia da sasurveli, rom saqarTvelos Tavs
datexilma bolodroindelma tragikulma movlenebma, ruseT-
saqarTvelos 2008 wlis agvistos omma mainc adekvaturad
gagvaazrebinos Cveni warsuli da iqneb dadges caristuli da
sabWouri ideologiuri memkvidreobisagan qarTvelologiis
gaTavisuflebis dro, raTa aRdges istoriuli samarTlianoba da
sabWoTa reJimis pirobebSi iZulebiT gawyvetili jaWvi warsulTan.
dRes, rodesac, qveynis xelaxali gaTavisuflebidan moyolebuli,
ruseTis agresias uamravi qarTveli ewireba, msgavsi "kiTxvarebis",
proeqtebisa da statiebis avtorebo, keTili inebeT da nu daiviwyebT
svaneTisa da samegrelos mosaxleobis mier gamovlenil gmirobas,
gaixseneT is adamianebi, qveynis erTianobisa da TavisuflebisTvis rom
dades Tavi; gaiReT mowyaleba da CaTvaleT isini da maTi
winaprebi qarTuli eTnosis Semadgenel nawilad da qarTuli
kulturis umTavresi elementis _ qarTuli enis Semqmnelebad da
patronebad.
samwuxarod, saerTaSoriso cnobarebsa da enciklopediebSi
ZiriTadad warmodgenilia qarTvelTa enobrivi mikuTvnebulobis
mxolod sabWouri kvalifikaciebi. Sedegad ki svanebsa da megrelebs,
"4/3 qarTveluri enis" safuZvelze, ukve calke eTnikur jgufebad
gangvixilaven ara mxolod rusebi, aramed evropeli mecnierebic,
eyrdnobian ra sabWoTa periodis lingvistTa naSromebs. magaliTad,
aseTia msoflio globaluri qselis ZiriTadi eTnologiuri
enciklopediis informacia: saqarTveloSi mcxovreb eTnosTa Soris
azerbaijanlebis, asirielebis, berZnebis, somxebis gverdiT, qarTuli
eTnosisagan gancalkevebiT dasaxelebulni arian lazebi, megrelebi
da svanebi. aseTivea i. gipertis lingvsturi rukac2 (t. futkaraZe,
2008, gv. 52-57).
bunebrivad Cndeba kiTxva, ra faqtobriv masalas eyrdnoba es
rukebi? pasuxi calsaxaa: rukaTa Semdgenlebi aqtiurad sargebloben
qarTveli enaTmecnierebis im naSromebiTac, romlebSic arasworad
aris gamoyenebuli terminebi: "eTnosi", "eTnikuri", "ena", "dialeqti".
magaliTad, prof. g. gogolaSvili wers: qarTul enobriv sivrceSi
miRebulia "eTnikur-teritoriuli principiT dialeqtebis dayofis
wesi" (qarTveluri enebi da dialeqtebi, 2007, gv. 102, 107). agreTve,
prof. k. gabunia uamravjer uSvebs msgavs Secdomas da megrelebs,
svanebsa da lazebs "eTnikur jgufebs" uwodebs: "megruli da
lazuri erTmaneTis mimarT dialeqtebia da ara enebi, rac
praqtikulad dasturdeba kidec am eTnikur jgufTa komunikaciis
procesSi" (saenaTmecniero krebuli, 2004, gv. 172), "mexuTe
saukunidan moyolebuli saliteraturo qarTuli ena am statusis
matarebelia ara mxolod sakuTriv qarTulenovani
mosaxleobisaTvis, aramed zanuri da svanurenovani eTnikuri
jgufebisaTvis" (saenaTmecniero krebuli, 2004, gv. 173) da a.S.
araerTi msgavsi magaliTis moyvana SeiZleba. rasakvirvelia,
gveuxerxuleba, profesorebs avuxsnaT terminebis _ "eTnikuris" da
"eTnosis" mniSvneloba, saerTod ki sasurveli da aucilebelia
mecnierebis gzaze damdgari adamiani ukeT icnobdes martiv
samecniero terminologias, Tundac imitom, rom ucodinrobiT mtris
wisqvilze ar daasxas wyali.
warmodgenil mcdar kvalifikaciaTa avtorebi valdebulni
arian asaxon simarTle; garda amisa, sasurveli da aucilebelia,
gagvifrTxildnen Cvenc, saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs _ svanebs da
megrelebs, pativi scen Cvens erovnul Rirsebas (qarTvelobas) da
nu migviCneveen "eTnikur jgufebad" da kavkasiis enobriv rukebze
nu warmogvaCenen qarTuli eTnosisagan gansxvavebul eTnosebad da
CamonaTvalSi azerbaijanlebis, somxebis, osebis paralelurad nu
gangvaTavseben, vinaidan Cven mxolod da mxolod qarTvelebi
viyaviT da varT.
faqtiurad, aseTi yalbi informaciebiTaa gajerebuli msoflio
sakomunikacio sivrce, ris gamoc saqarTvelosTvis erT-erT aqtualur
problemad rCeba qarTuli enobrivi situaciis kvlevis is meTodi,
romelsac kvlavac iyenebs qarTvel da araqarTvel enaTmecnierTa
nawili. am mimarTulebiT aucileblad gasaTvaliswinebelia
"evropuli qartia regionaluri da umciresobaTa enebis Sesaxeb"
da "CarCo konvencia erovnul umciresobaTa dacvis Sesaxeb".
qartia konkretul saxelmwifos aniWebs uflebas, TviTon gansazRvros
mis teritoriaze vis mianiWos umciresobis enis statusi
(t. futkaraZe, 2005) da aq gadamwyveti roli mecnierebs unda
hqondeT, romelTa Sejerebuli poziciiT gamoikveTeba
qarTvelTaTvis erTaderTi enis arseboba da yvela sxva
qarTveluri enobrivi erTeuli ganixileba mxolod dialeqtebad,
ise rogorc amas miiCnevdnen Cveni winaprebi uZvelesi droidan
moyolebuli.
meTodologiuri kuTxiT sainteresoa isic, rom, magaliTad,
Cinuri enis aTi ganStoeba, romelze molaparakeTac erTmaneTis
absoluturad ar esmiT, Tuki ar floben saliteraturo/standartul
Cinurs, miCneulia erTi enis dialeqtebad; msgavsi situaciaa yvela
arabul qveyanaSic; mosaxleobis nawili ar flobs literaturul
arabul enas, araferi esmis mezobeli regionis arabisa, magram maTi
metyvelebebi erTi saerTo enis _ arabuli enis _ dialeqtebad
iTvleba da ara damoukidebel enebad.
asevea evropaSic:
germanulis sxvadasxva dialeqtTa warmomadgenlebi erTmaneTs
standartuli _ saliteraturo germanuliT mimarTaven, weren da
kiTxuloben germanulad (m. tabiZe, 2005, gv. 121) da. a. S. am dros
ki mizanmimarTulad xdeba qarTvelebis daSla sxvadasxva "enis"
mflobel "eTnosebad".
ara gvgonia, germaneli, italieli, Cineli, arabi Tu espaneli
enaTmecnierebi ufro zereled flobdnen zogadi enaTmecnierebis
safuZvlebs, vidre qarTvel enaTmecnierTa erTi nawili. amitom
Cndeba kiTxva _ qarTvel enaTmecnierTa es nawili, realurad erTi
enis dialeqtur saxesaxvaobebs _ zepir sametyvelo erTeulebs,
romlebzec mcirericxovani Temebi laparakoben, ratom miiCnevs calke
enebad, maSin, rodesac CinelebiTvis, arabebiTvis Tu germanelebisTvis
bevrad gansxvavebuli metyvelebebi (romlebzec milionobiT kaci
metyvelebs), erTi enis Semadgenel dialeqtebs warmoadgenen?! cxadia,
saqarTveloSi sakiTxi politizebulia da igi qarTuli
saxelmwifoebrivi aRmSeneblobis winaaRmdegaa mimarTuli.
enaTmecnierebma Cvenze ukeT ician, rom terminebi _ dialeqti
da ena _ pirobiTi cnebebia, radganac dialeqtsa da umwerlobo enas
Soris zRvaris gavleba Wirs: sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom ar
arsebobs sayovelTaod gaziarebuli enisa da kilos gammijnavi
kriteriumebi.
srulebiTac ar aris gasakviri, rom Cveni qveynis istoriis
naklebad mcodne ucxoelebi xSirad uSveben Secdomebs qarTvelTa
eTnikuri istoriis Txrobisas; dasanania qarTvelTa ugulisyuroba
msgavsi Secdomebisa Tu mizanmimarTuli mecnieruli diversiebisadmi.
warmodgenil problemebs aqtiurad aSuqebdnen istorikosebi da
eTnologebi. qarTuli saistorio skolis warmomadgenlebi did
winaaRmdegobas uwevdnen qarTvelTa warsulisa Tu Tanamedroveobis
gayalbebul warmoCinebas. magaliTad, igive giorgi Citaia, Tavis
droze, mkveTrad akritikebda r. blaixStaineris monografias:
"prof. r. blaixStaineri specialistad iTvleba
kavkasiismcodneobis dargSi... magram am naSromSi... mniSvnelovani
xasiaTis defeqtebic SeimCneva. erTi rigi defeqtebisa principuli
xasiaTisaa: avtori qarTvelebisagan gamoTiSul calke xalxebad asaxavs
megrelebs, lazebsa da svanebs. sinamdvileSi ki mTavari qarTveli
tomebi, romlebmac monawileoba miiRes qarTveli eris CamoyalibebaSi
iyvnen qarTebi, megrel-Wanebi da svanebi" (g. Citaia, 2001, gv. 244-
245).
msgavsi Secdomebi dResac xSirad meordeba ucxoel avtorTa
SromebSi. am bolo wlebSi profesorebma giuli alasaniam da Tamaz
beraZem gamoavlines is umravi xarvezi da faqtobrivi Secdoma, rom
araferi vTqvaT qarTvelTa eTnogenezisa da eTnikuri istoriis
tendenciur Txrobaze, rasac uSvebs roland grigor siuni naSromSi
"qarTveli eris Camoyalibeba" (g. alasania, 2007, gv. 387-481) da nil
asCersoni wignSi "Savi zRva" (g. alasania, T. beraZe, 1999, gv. 109-
113). n. asCersonis azriT, erTiani kolxuri/qarTuli nacia arasdros
arsebula, ris damadastureblad mohyavs antikuri wyaroebis
tendenciurad gagebuli monacemebi dioskuriis bazarze 70-ze met
enaze laparakis Sesaxeb. n. asCersoni aRSfoTebulia qarTveli
samecniero da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis im poziciiT, romlis
mixedviTac, lazur/megruli da svanuri qarTuli enis dialeqtebad
aRiqmeba da ara "enebad" (g. alasania, T. beraZe, 1999, gv. 503-534).
gasaocaria, magram sakiTxs zustad aseTive tendenciurobiT
udgeba ukve ara ucxoeli, romelsac, bunebrivia, naklebad moeTxoveba
saqarTvelos istoriisa da qarTuli wyaroebis codna, aramed
qarTveli mecnieri n. doborjginiZe (n. doborjginiZe, 2007, gv. 253-
266). isic, r. blaixStaineris, n. asCersonis msgavsad, antikuri xanis
or ucxoel avtorze dayrdnobiT, Tvlis, rom iberielebi, kolxebi
da svanebi sxvadasxva "xalxebi" iyvnen, romelTaganac iberebs hqondaT
samwerlobo ena da iberielebisgan gansxvavebuli, magram udamwerlobo
"enebi" gaaCndaT kolxebs da svanebs. daskvniT nawilSic n.
doborjginiZe megrelebsa da svanebs uZvelesi droidanve sakuTari
"enebis" mqone "xalxebad" miiCnevs, radgan, misi argumentiT, "es aris
imdroindeli ganaTlebuli msoflios warmodgena im xalxebze,
romelTac sakuTari ena aqvT" (iqve, gv. 264). n. doborjginiZis
statia, cxadia, mkafiod avlens am mkvlevris kvalifikaciasac (igi
sruliad ugulebelyofs qarTul wyaroebs, qarTvelTa eTnogenezisa
da eTnikur istoriis ZiriTad sakvanZo momentebs da zogadad
saqarTvelos istorias), "SesaSur" moqalaqeobriv msoflaRqmasac da
"Tavazian" damokidebulebasac megrelebisa da svanebis mimarT. n.
doborjginiZes am mxriv hyavs "didi ideologiuri winapari".
SedarebisTvis mogvyavs i. b. stalinis citata naSromidan "marqsizmi
da nacionaluri sakiTxi":
"ra vuyoT megrelebs, afxazebs, aWarlebs, svanebs, lekebs da
sxva, romlebic sxvadasxva enaze laparakoben, magram TavianTi
literatura ara aqvT? ra erebs mivakuTvnoT isini? romel
nacionalur kavSirs mivakuTvnoT aWarlebi, romlebic qarTul
enaze laparakoben, magram Turquli kulturiT cxovroben da
islamis rjuls aRiareben. axla qobuleTelebi? axla inguSebi?"
(i. stalini, 1947, gv. 378).
sabednierod, qarTuli istoriografiis ZiriTadi daskvnebi sxva
saxisaa. qarTuli samecniero skolis warmomadgenlebs, Zveli
msoflios cnobil mkvlevrebs, romlebic, marTlac, zedmiwevniT da
gamowvlilviT icnoben da aanalizeben berZnul, laTinur da
aRmosavlur wyaroebs (iv. javaxiSvili, s. yauxCiSvili, p. ingoroyva, g.
meliqiSvili, T. yauxCiSvili, gr. giorgaZe, o. lorTqifaniZe, m.
lorTqifaniZe, d. musxeliSvili, i. gagoSiZe, m. inaZe, n. xazaraZe, g.
qavTaraZe, v. vaSakiZe...) eWvqveS arasdros dauyenebiaT megrelebisa
da svanebis qarTveloba3.
umdidresi faqtobrivi masaliT cnobilia, rom svanebi, megrelebi,
Wanebi//lazebi qarTuli istoriul-eTnografiuli Temebis
warmomadgenlebi arian da odiTganve qarTul kulturul-politikur
sivrceSi moiazrebian. erTiania TviT qristianobamdel arqeologiur
da anTropologiur (fizikuri anTropologia4) monacemTa baza da
igi faravs ara marto Tanamedrove saqarTvelos teritorias, aramed
bevrad farTod da Sorsaa ganfenili. erTiania mTeli Cveni
politikuri da kulturuli warsuli da TviT qveynis samefo-
samTavroebad daSlis periodSic ki svaneTsa da samegreloSi
mxolod qarTuli kultura iqmneboda da viTardeboda (T. beraZe,
b. xorava, 2008).
mravlismetyvelia eTnografiuli masalac. qarTuli miTologiisa
da arqauli qarTuli msoflmxedvelobrivi motivebis yvelaze
saintereso Strixebi da pasaJebi swored svanur da megrul masalaSia
Semonaxuli. svanuri da megrul//Wanuri (lazuri) folklori
qarTuli folkloris ganuyofeli nawilia (leqsikoni, 1974). swored
svanur folklorSia gansakuTrebiT mkafiod Semonaxuli amiranis
miTis uZvelesi, arqauli Sreebi (e. virsalaZe, 1964). eTnomusikologTa
daskvniT ki, svanuri da megruli musikaluri folklori "qarTul
musikalur fuZe-enas mxolod musikaluri dialeqtebis doneze
gamoeyofian" (n. maisuraZe, 1989, gv. 52)5. erTiania dasaxlebisa da
gansaxlebis tipi, struqtura, sulieri, socialuri da materialuri
yofis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi aRmosavleT, dasavleT da samxreT-
dasavleT saqarTveloSi. eTnografiuli yofis Taviseburebebis
gansakuTrebul msgavsebas ki swored erTmaneTisagan yvelaze
dacilebuli mxareebi avlenen, magaliTad, svaneTi da imerxevi.
dRevandel ukiduresad dinamiur samyaroSi, rodesac sxva uamravi
politikuri, ekomomikuri da socialuri xasiaTis dilema dgas
qarTuli saxelmwifos winaSe, rasakvirvelia, aris sakiTxebi da maT
Soris samecniero Teoriebic, romlebic epoqaluri cvalebadobis
fonze ganxilva-gadasinjvas moiTxovs. maradiuli faseuloba mxolod
"mamuli, ena da sarwmunoebaa" da am maRali gadmosaxedidan sxva
yvelaferi SedarebiT naklebmniSvnelovnad da aqtualobas
moklebulad moCans . 6
bunebrivia, sakiTxi - megrul-lazuri da svanuri dialeqtebia
Tu enebi, unda darCes viwro mecnierul-lingvisturi davis sagnad,
romlis produqcias sul aTeulobiT maRalkvalificiuri mecnieri Tu
gaecnoba. magram oficialuri saxelmwifo midgomiT isini unda
CaiTvalos dialeqtebad, rogorc swamdaT Cvens winaprebs
farnavazidan dRemde, rac mecnieruladacaa dasabuTebuli qarTuli
humanitaruli mecnierebis mier. qarTvelTa enobrivi erTianobis
darRveva da qarTvelTa didi nawilis gansxvavebuli enebis mqone
erTeulebad aRqma pirdapiri nabijia eTnikuri parciaciisa da
separaciis xelovnurad waxalisebisaken _ saqarTvelos
saxelmwifos mTlianobis darRvevisaken da, amasTanave, ukiduresad
Seuracxmyofelia megrelis//Wanis(lazisa) da svanisaTvis maTi miCneva
udamwerlobo enebis mflobelebad maSin, rodesac realurad saubaria
mxolod dialeqtebze. did qarTul kulturas, istorias da
mSobliur qarTul saliteraturo enas ki Tanabrad qmnida yvela
qarTuli Temis warmomadgeneli uxsovari droidan dRemde (T.
beraZe, b. xorava, 2008).
udavo faqtia, qarTuli enis istoria ar unda iwerebodes
svanuri da zanuri metyvelebebisagan damoukideblad, vinaidan es
erTi didi da RvTiT boZebuli mTlianobaa.
damowmebuli literatura

m. abduSeliSvili, 2004 - m. abduSeliSvili, qarTveli xalxis


anTropologiuri Taviseburebebi, kreb. daskvniTi sityva, Tb., 2004.
g. alasania 2007 - g. alasania, saistorio krebuli, Tb., 2007.
g. alasania, T. beraZe, 1999 - g. alasania, T. beraZe, 1995 wlis
saukeTeso Sotlandiuri wigni saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebze,
mnaTobi, #9-10, Tb., 1999.
S. aslaniSvili, 1954 - S. aslaniSvili, narkvevebi qarTuli
xalxuri simRerebis Sesaxeb, I, Tb., 1954.
T. beraZe, 2008 - T. beraZe, qarTuli identobis ZiriTadi
etapebi, eTnologiuri krebuli, I, Tb., 2008.
T. beraZe, b. xorava, 2008 - T. beraZe, b. xorava, qarTuli
saliteraturo ena da qarTuli kultura _ saqarTvelos yvela
eTnografiuli mxaris Semoqmedebis nayofi, qarTveluri memkvidreoba,
XII, quTaisi, 2008.
l. biTaZe, 2007 - l. biTaZe, anTropologiuri monacemebi
afxazTa eTnogenezisis sakiTxisaTvis, kreb. afxazeTi, narkvevebi
saqarTvelos istoriidan, Tb., 2007.
g. gasviani, 2004 - g. gasviani, svaneTis saRvTo xelnawerebi,
kreb. logosi, II, Tb., 2004.
n. gelava, 1993-1994 - n. gelava, avtonomiebad dayofiTa da
iaraRis ZaliT... ramdenime dokumenti saqarTvelos uaxlesi
istoriidan; saistorio moambe, #65-66, Tb., 1993-1994.
T.. gvancelaZe, m. naWyebia, m. tabiZe, 2007 - T. gvancelaZe, m.
naWyebia, m. tabiZe, stiqiuri plebiscitebi sociolingvistur sakiTxTa
Sesaxeb XIX saukunis II naxevarsa da XX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi,
kavkasiologiuri krebuli, Tb., 2007.
r. gujejiani, e. Wkuaseli, 2008 - r. gujejiani, e. Wkuaseli,
svneTis sazogadoeba rusifikatoruli politikis winaaRmdeg XIX-
saukunis bolos da XX saukunis I aTwleulSi da zogierTi
paraleli TanamedroveobasTan; svaneTi - qarTuli kulturis savane,
Tb., 2008.
n. doborjginiZe, 2007 - n. doborjginiZe, religiuri
istoriografiis uZvelesi wyaroebi samwerlobo da arasamwerlobo
qarTveluri enebis Sesaxeb; qarTuli saliteraturo enis sakiTxebi:
istoria da Tanamedrove mdgomareoba. I krebuli, Tb., 2007.
e. virsalaZe, 1964 - e. virsalaZe, qarTuli samonadireo eposi
(daRupuli monadiris cikli), Tb., 1964.
r TofCiSvili 2008-I. - r. TofCiSvili, saqarTvelos eTnologia
(saxelmZRvanelo universitetis humanitaruli specialobis
studentebisaTvis), Tb., 2008.
r. TofCiSvili 2008-II - r. TofCiSvili, qarTvelTa eTnogenezisa
da eTnikuri istoriis problemebi, Tb., 2008.
leqsikoni, 1974 - qarTuli folkloris leqsikoni, I (a-l);
qarTuli folklori, IV, Tb., 1974.
n. maisuraZe 1989 - n. maisuraZe, qarTuli xalxuri musika da
misi istoriul-eTnografiuli aspeqtebi, Tb., 1989.
saenaTmecniero krebuli, 2004 - saenaTmecniero krebuli, Tb.,
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sapatriarqos uwyebani, 2007 - sapatriarqos uwyebani, #16, 17-23
maisi.
v. silogava, 2006 - v. silogava, svanebis gadawerili an
mogebuli Zveli qarTuli xelnawerebi da sabuTebis damweri svani
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Ñâîä ñòàòèñòè÷åñêèõ äàííûõ î íàñåëåíèè Çàêàâêàçñêîãî êðàÿ, èçâëå÷åííûõ èç
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ROZETA GUJEJIANI, BEZHAN KHORAVA

FROM THE HISTORY OF THE GEORGIAN SOCIAL THOUGHT (‘FOR UNIFIED


GEORGIA’)

Some foreign or Georgian authors discuss Svaneti extracted from Georgia and the
Svan vernacular as the language of people at the brink of extinction. In fact, we, the
Svans, have always been the essential part of the Georgian ethnos and labeling us as
separate ethnos can be qualified as an effort aimed at the disintegration of the Georgian
ethnos.
At present we see the revival of the attack against the Georgian national
consciousness. The assault began in the 19th century with the three strategic directions of
the Russification politics:
1. Presenting different Georgian territorial communities (Kartlians, Kakhetians,
Svanetians, Megrelians, ….) as separate ethnic groups and encouraging their further
separation;
2. “Liberation” of Svanetians, Megrelians etc from the Georgian oppression and
declaring local Georgian dialects as “national languages”;
3. Adjusting Svan and Megrelian dialects to the Russian alphabet and its
establishment in schools and churches.
The Georgian society of that period opposed the Russian plans. The late half of the
19 century and the beginning of the 20th century press media are replete with the
th
articles reflecting the tireless struggle of the Svans for gaining the rights of learning in the
Georgian language. At the vanguard of the strife are the nobilities of the Lechkhumi
Mazra assembly, namely, D.Kipiani, K.Gelovani, L.Dadeshkeliani…and the clergy of
Svaneti ( B.Nizharadze, I.Margiani, G.Pirveli, E.Gabliani, I.Gujejiani, G.Gujejiani…).
What had not been realized by the Tsarist Russia was accomplished by the Soviet
government under the conditions of occupation and political pressure and making into
operation of the strong repressive machine. As a result of which Megrelian (Laz) and
Svan dialects were declared as separate “languages”. Unfortunately, this tendency is still
alive seeks for its prolongation.
I think it is time to say no to the Soviet ideology legacy (“Divide and rule!”) and
reject “the scientific theory” of the existence of so-called 4/3 Kartvelian languages
established by the alien political pressure and replace it with the one based on the
authentic scientific ideas and regain the historic reality when Megrelian (Laz) and Svan
dialects had been regarded as parts of the Georgian language i.e. dialects.
As is known Svans are one of the creators of the ancient written Georgian culture.
Svans and Megrelians together with other Georgians worked for the development of the
Georgian Christian culture. Ancient written records have survived more than 60 names of
the famous people from the different Svanetian communities: public men, bibliophiles,
scribes, ktitors, and compilers of religious annals. Svanetian (Georgian) arts and
goldsmith schools enjoyed universal acclaim. The history has survived the names of
nobilities and religious people of Svaneti who worked for the Georgian Church not only
within Georgia but also in the Georgian overseas monastery centers.